IB Paper 1 Arab Israeli Conflict.
Arab Nationalism
• Represented a revival of old traditions and loyalties
• Glories of Islamic civilization were renamed Glories
of Arab Civilization
• Language and literature becoming more important
• Concept of Arab Nationalism became widespread
throughout the “Arab World”
• Propaganda pushed in newly formed Arab nations
• Arabs trying to define political identity
• Questioned political status and desired to change it
• movement for the return of the Jewish people to
their homeland and creation of an Independent
• Origins started in the late 1800’s
– Zionist groups formed in Major nations like the US and
England advocating their government s to support a
Jewish homeland
• In the 1900 the Arab peninsula was
under the control of the Ottoman
• WWI 1914-1918 allows Arab tribes
to fight against the Turks
– Arabs fought on the side of the Allies
• Arabs-Hoped to be freed from Turkish
control and gain independence
– TE Lawrence went to speak to Arab
tribes to gain their support for WWI
• FR and GB planned on taking Arab
states as colonies
Balfour Declarations
• Nov 1917- a resolution named after British Foreign
sec calling for the establishment of a Jewish
homeland in Palestine
• Caused anger amongst Arab community- believed
Palestine would be a free Arab State
– Why declaration was made
• 1. hoped influence US Jewish business men in supporting war
• 2. Hoped Jewish Russian population continue to support
Russian involvement
• 3. Influence of British Zionist
British Mandate
• UK had control of Mesopotamia (Iraq) and its Oil
Field(could not release it)
• L of N created a Mandate in 1920 at San Remo
– FR-Syria and Lebanon
– UK- Iraq and Palestine
• No official Jewish
state is established
• NO Independent
British rule Palestine 1922-1939
• Tension grew Jews, Arabs, British
– 1939, 500 Jews killed, 3000 Arabs
– Jewish immigration increased in
– No Free Palestine or Jewish states
– Balfour Dec
• By the 1939 Creation of a single
state in Palestine proposed “White
Paper Recommendations”
– Both Jews and Arabs Rejected
WWII and the Holocaust
• By 1940 Jews made 30%
Palestinian populations
– Hitler's actions increased
• After WWII world found out
about the Holocaust death 6
million Jews
– Public sentiment swayed to the
need for Jewish Home
– Some Arabs leaders continued to
fight the British others even
supported Germany against the
– Jewish had upper hand in
Ending the British Mandate 1945-1948
After WWII Britain could not control Palestine
preparing to hand mandate to UN
– Jewish group became more militant(United Resistance)
attacked British troops
Attack on King David Hotel Jerusalem7/22/46
• headquarter for British actions
against Zionist
• Bomb was placed killing 92 (Irgunmilitant Jewish group)
• Zionist pay back for attacking their
extremist leaders
• Condemned by All
• Jewish Agency Leaders decided
to end armed struggle vs British
• British handed mandate to the
United Nations
• UN would take control Palestine
by 1947
UN create UNSCOP 1947
– Tour Palestine to make a
• Jewish- worked with UN
• Arabs-refused to cooperate
• UN needed 2/3 vote in General
• By 11/29/1947 UN voted to
– US , USSR most other nations
agreed, While Arabs and UK did
not agree
– Palestinians and Arabs very
upset at the amount of land Jews
received being a minority
– Jerusalem be international Zone
Creation of
• Partition left tensions
• Israel not a state & Arabs were Angry
• War was expected
– Arab League declare Jihad on Jews
attacking Jewish settlements
– Jewish Agency had upper hand many ex WWII vets in
their ranks
– Atrocities committed by both sides after partition
• May 14 1948 the State if Israel is Declared
– Chaim Weizmann pres- David Ben Guirion PM
– The US recognized Israel
– Arab nations Invade
First Arab –Israeli War 1948
• May 14 1948
• 1,000 Leb, 5,000 Syr,
5,000 Iraqi, 10,000
Egypt, and 4,000 Jordan
troops invaded
• Goal to crush new state
Israeli Defence Force (IDF)
• Ben Gurion -Israel needed to concentrate its soldiers.
• All armed units were combined into one force, the
• Arab forces were under separate control
• IDF relied experience from WWII and Working with
the British
• Equipment was scarce and old Initial goal was
Troop Numbers in 1948
June 4:
July 17:
October 7 : 88,033
October 28:
December 2:
December 23:
December 30:
Arab Forces
• July: 40,000
• October: 55,000
• January: 60,000
Aerial Combat
• First few weeks, light Israeli planes were no match for
advanced Arab fighters
• Later, Israel Air Force acquired ex-Nazi planes
• IDF dominated the skies by fall 1948.
Ground Fighting
• IDF initially protect settlements until
reinforcements arrived
• Heaviest fighting between Jerusalem and Tel
Aviv, Jordan's Arab Legion and IDF
Israeli Operations
• Oct. 15: Operation Yaov: wedge between
Egyptian coastal forces and BeershebaHebron-Jerusalem, shatters Egyptian forces
• Oct. 24: Operation Hiram: captured Galilee,
pushed Lebanon back behind its own borders
• Dec. 22: Operation Horev drove back all
remaining Egyptian forces
• In 1949, Israel signed separate armistices with Egypt
on 24 February, Lebanon on 23 March, Jordan on 3
April, and Syria on 20 July.
• Only the Jordanians and the Egyptians made any real
gains. The Jordanians acquired East Jerusalem and the
West Bank. The Egyptians gained a strip of coast-line
called the Gaza Strip.
• 1949 the United Nations declared a cease-fire on the
‘Green Line’.
• Israel had expanded by another 25%!
• Both Jews and Arabs displaced, but Jews managed to
UN Resolution 194
• "refugees wishing
to return to their
homes and live in
peace with their
neighbors should
be permitted to
do so"
• United Nations
Truce Supervision
Organization to
monitor ceasefire
• Arguing point
Gaza Strip-Egyptian
place Palestinian
refugees back in
their homeland
Diaspora “The Displacement”
• Term used to describe the Palestinians living
outside historic Palestine’s boundaries
• Est. population of Palestine roughly 14
million were removed from palestine after
Israeli Independence
• Surrounding Arab Nations
3.7 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
Jordan: 2.7 million
Israel: 575,000
Syria: 500,000
Refugee situation
• 1948 85% of the Palestinian Arab population left
their homes
• Citizenship in many host nations was denied
• Many refugee camps were set up after each
major war
• Arabs and Their descendents still claim title to
land in Israeli
• United Nations Relief and Works Agency for
Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
– Created and runs many of the refugee camps
Suez Canal
• Canal has huge strategic importance
– Shortest oceanic link between Mediterranean Sea
– Used primarily for trading, heavily used by European Nations
• 1875 – Egyptian ruler forced to sell 44% of shares
UK took over Egypt, thus controlling all operations and
• 1954- Suez canal stayed under British and French
– But UK removed military forces 1954
1952 Gamal Abdul Nasser
• Naser was Arab Nationalist-Wanted
rid Arab World of Euro influence
Suez Crisis
• Nasser began to accept aid from the USSR
– Because of this did not get money for Aswan Dam
• Nasser Announces Nationalization of Suez
Canal(Egypt take control of the Canal)
– Partially to pay for the Aswan Dam
• British and French furious- fear losing control of
canal and all supplies (oil)
• French angry that Egypt supporting Algerian
independence fighters in N Africa
• Oct. 29, 1956 –Israeli attacked Egypt spurred by
the UK and FR
Suez Canal War/2nd Arab Israeli war 1956
• War lasted only a week
• UK and France attacked
by air strikes
• Israeli military victory
Israel captured most
Sinai Peninsula and
• FR & UK troops took
most canal zone
• Nov 6th cease fire
Results of the War
• UK and FR were denounced for their actions
– Their failure to take the entire canal pushed for
other colonies to demand independence
– Forced to return Canal to Egypt
Israel showed military supremacy over Arabs
captured Gaza and most of Sinai
At the cease fire this land was returned
gained open access to t straights of Tiran
Gain US Support
– Beaten militarily but retained the canal an invading
forces left
– Nasser emerged as leader of the Arab Resistance to Israel
• 1967 Tension between
Arab states
Six Day War 1967
– Israel shot down Syrian
MIG jet uniting Arabs once
again against Israel
– USSR gave Arabs false info
– Nasser wanted all UN
forces out of Egypt
– Israel felt this to be a
threat and decided to
attack before Arab forces
Strike) First Target was
Egypt starting the 6 day
The Initial Strike Of the Six Day War
• 6/5/67 in I day Israel
destroyed air force of
Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and
– This plan had been set
years before by Yitzhak
– Israeli knew Arab forces
were equal prior to the
• Devastated Arab forces led
to a quick victory
Israeli Gains in the 6 Day War
• Attacked east against
– Attacked South defeated
Egypt taking Sinai
– Took Jerusalem and entire
West Bank
– Attacked North Hit Syria
took Golan Heights
– Cease fire called June 10
– Israel tripled its size
Long Term affects
• Arab leaders were
• King Hussein Egypt-Nasser
diminished power
• Disunity in Pan Arab
• More Palestinians were
• Confirmations of Israel as
major US Ally in the Mid
Yom Kippur War 1973
(Ramadan War or October War)
• 1970 Anwar Sadat took power in Egypt
• Goal in another war to make some type of
resolution over land disputes
– War would pus UN, USA, USSR to create a land
– Goal to regain the Sinai
The War
• Oct 6th 1973 Egypt and Syria attack Israel by
• Syria- sent land troops to Golan Heights
• Egypt land troops past the Suez in to Sinai
• Attack on the Jewish Holiday of Yom Kippur
• Arabs had initial success pushing Israeli back
• But Israeli forces stopped Arab attack and
regain Sinai and Golan Heights.
Diplomatic Talks during YK W
• USA feared Arab Nations would embargo oil
• USSR threatened to intervene on the side of
the Arabs
• Sec State Henry Kissinger (under Nixon)
– Settled an Armistice October 27 1973
victory but not
– Caused resignation
of Prime Minister
Golda Meir a year
• Egypt-Sadat came
out a hero standing
up to Israel
– Gained worlds
attention to issues
in the Middle east
– Arab nations gained
more power on the
negotiating table
– Little territorial
Need for a True Resolution
• Sadat started to move towards US and Euro
– Primary goal protect his nation(Egypt)
• 1977 Visited Israel to try to ease tensions goal
of peace
Camp David Accords
– 18 months of intense diplomatic efforts by Egypt,
Israel, and US
– US pres Jimmy Carter invited both leaders to
Camp David (US) peace talks
– Sept 5th 1978 Meeting between Carter, Begin (IS),
Sadat (EG) in Camp David 12 days of negotiations
• The Demands
– Israel- wanted to put settlements on territories
– Egypt-wanted return of Sinai and borders set
before 1967 UN resolutions 242, 336
The Outcome
• 1. “Create a framework for Peace in the
Middle East”
– deal with Gaza and West Bank
– Plan a solution to the Palestinian issue
• 2. Frame Work for a Peace Treaty between
Israel and Egypt
– Israel leave Sinai return it to Egypt
• For Israel peace with greatest southern Threat
– Egypt would recognize Israel as a state
– Formal Peace Treaty signed in March
Reaction to the Accords
• There were still many issues between Arabs and
• Israel continued to build settlements on
Palestinians land
• No clear answer towards a creation of a free
• Egypt and Sadat was seen to betraying Arabs
– Because of this in 1980 militants groups organized the
assassination of Sadat during a military
– Egypt removed from the Arab League
• The Accords only created peace between Israeli
and Egyptian Gov.
Palestinian Liberation Organization (P.L.O.)
• believed only Palestinian Arabs should have
nation in Palestine. Founded 1964
• P.L.O. leader Yasir Arafat led terrorist attacks vs.
Israel starting in 1960s.
• failure to achieve self-rule P.L.O. supporters living
in Israel began militant movement in1980sknown
as the intifada.
• A second intifada started in 2000.
Palestinian Extremist
Terror Tactics against
• 1970Hijacked 5 airlines 3
were blown up (with all
passengers off) associated
– Group Popular Front for the
Liberation of Palestine
– Wanted political Palestinian
prisoners released
• Munich 1972
– Terrorist Group Black
September infiltrated
Olympics killing 11 Israeli
PLO Recognition 1974
• The PLO was recognized at
the official representative
of the Palestinian People
1974 by Arab league
• Yasser Arafat went before
UN Grants PLO Observer
status in the UN.
– They can participate but can
not vote in General
Israel & the P.L.O.
reached an
• autonomy for Palestinian Authority (led by
Arafat) in return P.L.O. official recognition of
the state of Israel.
• little progress since then in creation of fully
independent Palestinian state.
• Jewish extremists don’t want to give up any
territories & Palestinian extremists will not
accept state of Israel at all.
Lebanon Invasion
• June 6, 1982
– Israeli forces fight their way
to Beirut
• Palestine Liberation
Organization (PLO) Leader
Yassir Arafat and his forces
• Israel claimed to have no
intention to control any part
of Lebanese territory
– Really wanted to wipe out
PLO and establish pro-Israeli
government in Lebanon
Lebanon Continued
• June 10, 1962 – Israel gains control of the BeirutDamuscus highway
• Cut off supply of good and humanitarian supplies to
West Beirut
• Israel demanded PLO to surrender and leave Lebanon
• Minimal amounts of food and supplies allowing into the
• Late August – PLO finally agrees to leave West Beirut
• Aug. 21 – Sept. 1
• 11,000 PLO guerillas leave for Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Jordan,
and Algeria
• Evacuation supervised by U.S. Marines and Coalition
• Basir Gemayel elected new Palestinian President
– Phalangist Party Leader
• Hated by Palestinians
• Assassinated in bomb blast 11 days after election
• Phalangist Party kills over 600 Palestinians in
• 8 years of war
• 75,000 Lebanese killed
• 140,000 wounded
• Est. cost to rebuild: $18 mil
First Gulf War
• Iraq virtually bankrupt, owing massive amounts
to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait
• Additional tensions with Kuwait existed since
1934, when Kuwait was granted independence by
the British
• Shortly after conflict began, several Western
hostages were denied exit visas
“ We hope your presence as guests here will not be for too long. Your
presence here, and in other places, is meant to prevent the scourge of
war.” -Saddam Hussein
First Gulf War Continued
• UN Resolution 660
– Condemned Iraq's’ actions
– Demanded removal of forces
• UN Resolution 665
– authorized a naval blockade to enforce the
economic sanctions
– Operation Desert Shield. In an assurance to
the Saudi’s against attack by Iraq,
– the U.S was asked to intervene, on a purely
defensive campaign.
• “Highway of
• Retreating Iraqi
personnel were
attacked on
Highway 80
by American air
craft and
ground forces
on the night of
February 26–27,
1991, resulting
in the
destruction of
some 2,0002,500 vehicles
and their
Second Gulf war
• Second Gulf War
Iraq War
• March 20th, 2003- 2012
• Why?
• US UK and Spain said Iraq had WMDs
• US said Saddam Hussein helped Al-Queda
• 9/11
– “War on Terrorism”
• Wanted to spread democracy
• Government was abusing human rights
• The UN prohibited Iraq from producing WMDs and to
submit to UN inspections
• Bush said they were making them, after the UN inspections
found nothing he said they must have stopped production
Soviet war in Afghanistan
December 1979- February 1989
Islamic people against the Soviet set-up communistic
– US supported
• Many other countries did not like what they were
“attempting” to do
• Many Soviets didn’t like it either
Why did US go into Afghanistan?
Find Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda(killed 2011)
Destroy al-Qaeda
Remove Taliban regime

IB Paper 1 Arab Israeli Conflict.