Chapter 7 Notes

Chapter 7 Notes
AP World History
I. The Silk Road
 A. Origins and Operations
 1. Overland route that linked China to
the Mediterranean world.
 2. Trade was fostered by the Chinese
need for horses and by the Parthian
state in northeastern Iran and its control
of the markets in Mesopotamia.
 3. China also imported alfalfa, grapes
and other products and exported silk,
pottery, and paper.
 B. The Sasanid Empire 224-600 C.E.
 1. Controlled areas of Iran and Mesopotamia.
 2. Came into contact with the Byzantine empire and
this alternated between war and peaceful trading
 3. Silk road brought new products to the empire.
 4. Zoroastrianism became the official religion while
Christianity became the official religion of the
Byzantine empire.
 5. Sasanids and Byzantines went to war because
they persecuted the others in their territories.
 6. Mani of Mesopotamia founded known as
Manichaeism which centered around the struggle
between good and evil.
 7. Mani was killed by a Sasanid Shah.
 8. During this period, religion had replaced
citizenship, language, and ethnicity as the paramount
factor in people’s identity.
 C. The Impact of the Silk Road
 1. Turkic nomads in Central Asia
benefited from the trade and became
interested in the religions of Christianity,
Manicheanism, Zoroastrianism,
Buddhism, and Islam.
 2. Central Asian military technologies,
particularly the stirrup, were exported
both east and west, with significant
consequences for the conduct of war.
II. The Indian Ocean Maritime
 A. Origins of Contact and Trade
 1. There is evidence of early trade
between ancient Mesopotamia and the
Indus Valley but this trade appears to
have been broken off because
Mesopotamia turned toward trade with
East Africa.
 2. 2000 years ago, Malay sailors from
Southeast Asia migrated to the islands of
 B. The Impact of Indian Ocean Trade
 1. The Greco-Egyptian text, The Periplus of the
Erythean Sea accounts a trading system must
have been established and was flourishing when
the account was written.
 2. The culture of the Indian Ocean ports were
often isolated from that of their hinterlands.
 3. Traders and sailors in the Indian Ocean
system often married local women in the ports
that they frequented and these women became
mediators between cultures.
III. Routes Across the Sahara
 A. Early Saharan Cultures
 1. Early rock painting indicate an early hunting
culture that was joined by cattle breeders.
 2. Later succeeded by horse traders and
charioteers who might have been Minoan or
Mycenaean refugees.
 3. Camel riders followed the charioteers and is
probably related to the development of the
trans-Saharan trade.
 4. The camel made it possible for people from
the Southern highlands of the Sahara to roam
the desert and to establish contacts with the
people of northern Sahara.
B. Trade Across the Sahara
 1. Two local trading systems were linked.
 2. Traders in the south had access to desert salt deposits
and exported salt in return for kola nuts and palm oil.
 3. Traders in the north exported agricultural products and
wild animals.
 4. Arabs invaded North Africa during the mid 7th century
c.e. and trade of Algeria and Morocco was cut off.
 5. The Berber people of these areas revolted against the
Arabs in the 700s and established independent city-states,
including Sijilmasa and Tahert.
 6. Berbers began to trade copper and manufactured
goods to the nomads of the Southern desert in return for
IV. Sub-Saharan Africa
 A. Challenging Geography
 1. Large area with many different
geographical zones and obstacles to
 2. Areas include the Sahel, tropical
savanna, tropical rain forest of lower
Niger and Zaire, savanna area south of
rainforest, steppe, desert, and temperate
highlands of South Africa.
 B. Development of Cultural Unity
 1. No great tradition developed.
 2. Sub Saharan Africa is a vast territory of
many small traditions.
 3. An estimated two thousand languages
spoken on the continent.
 4. No foreign power ever conquered Africa and
imposed a unified great tradition.
 5. People were broken up by the different
geological obstacles.
 C. African Cultural Characteristics
 1. Despite diversity there are common African
cultural elements called Africanity.
 2. Concept of kingship.
 3. Cultivation with the hoe and digging stick,
use of rhythm in African music, and the
functions of the dancing and mask wearing in
 4. One reason for this unity is that the people of
Sub-Saharan Africa are descended from the
people who occupied the southern Sahara during
its wet period and migrated south to the Sahel.
 D. The Advent of Iron and the Bantu
 1. The spread of iron and other technology in
Sub-Saharan Africa is the result of the
phenomenon known as the Bantu Migrations.
 2. Bantu speaking people were originally from
the area on the border of modern day Nigeria
and Cameroon, but spread out toward the east
and the south through a series of migrations.
V. Spread of Ideas
 A. Ideas and Material Evidence
 1. Hard to say why ideas spread in
preliterate societies.
 2. Why is eating pig restricted and
prohibited by religious belief in
Southeast Asia, ancient Egypt, and in
eastern Iran.
 3. Was the spread of coins a result of
their invention in Anatolia?
 B. The Spread of Buddhism
 1. Spread of Buddhism was facilitated both by
royal sponsorship and by the travels of ordinary
pilgrims and missionaries.
 2. Mauryan King Ashoka and King Kanishka of
the Kushans.
 3. Chinese monks Faxian and Xuanzang
transmitted Buddhism to China.
 4. Buddhist missionaries from India brought
Buddhism to the Middle East and Southeast
 C. Spread of Christianity
 1. Mediterranean states spread
Christianity to Armenia which was on the
Silk road and this spread Christianity to
other parts of the world.
 2. Christianity spreading to Ethiopia was
similiarly linked to a Mediterranean
Christian attempt to deprive Iran of