Recreational Sport
• Foundation of recreational sport
• Broad scope of programming recreational
sport activities and events
• Future trends affecting recreational sport
• Career opportunities
Delivery of Sport
and Leisure Services
Sport is a large part of American culture:
• Interests and participation from all sectors of society are
reaching unprecedented levels.
• Sport has grown into a multibillion dollar industry.
• In the United States, sports almost serve as a religion.
• Sports have become entertainment and spectator oriented.
• Sports are participant oriented, serving diverse populations
through a variety of programs and activities.
Looking at Sport Management
From a Recreational Perspective
• Sport management is the umbrella term for
administration and management of a large number
and variety of sports, fitness and wellness, and
recreation programs.
• Traditionally seen as a “business enterprise,”
especially professional sports marketing, sales,
public relations, promotions, sporting goods, media
relations, and fundraising.
• Recently, sport management has begun to
emphasize leadership and management of people
and resources in a variety of participatory or
recreational settings.
Leisure Sports Management Model
Adapted, by permission, from R.F. Mull, K.G. Bayless and L.M. Jamieson, 2005,
Recreational sport management, 4th ed. (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics), 15.
Recreational Sport Spectrum
Adapted, by permission, from R.F. Mull, K.G. Bayless and L.M. Jamieson, 2005,
Recreational sport management, 4th ed. (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics), 15.
Defining Recreational Sport
Recreational sport is involvement in sport
during one’s leisure time either as an active
participant or as a spectator at one of the
levels on the leisure sport hierarchy.
• Sport for all. Designed to give everyone an
active role regardless of interest, age, race,
gender, or athletic ability.
• Participant driven. Programmers place
significant interest and efforts on participant
wants and needs.
Five Programming Areas
of Recreational Sport Management
Instructional sports
Informal sports
Intramural sports
Extramural sports
Club sports
Components Defined
• Instructional sports. Teaching a recreational sport activity
emphasizing skills, rules, and strategies in a noncredit or
academic environment.
Examples: strength and conditioning training, jogging,
walking, cycling, swimming, golf, bowling, tennis, and
• Informal sports. Self-directed participation with an
individualized approach on fun and fitness.
Examples: backyard volleyball or softball at the family picnic,
pick-up basketball at the local park, an early-morning swim,
lunchtime run, and solitary workout
Components Defined (continued)
• Intramural sports. Leagues, tournaments, and
contests conducted within a particular setting.
Examples: individual sports, dual sports, team sports,
meet sports, and special events
• Extramural sports. Structured activities between
winners of various intramural sport programs.
Examples: Little League Baseball World Series or a
collegiate intramural flag football championship team
from one university playing against another collegiate
champion for “national championship” recognition
Components Defined (continued)
• Club sports. Activities organized because of a
common interest in a sport. These range from very
competitive clubs that travel and play in high-level
competitions to the recreational, social, and
instructional clubs that conduct activities such as basicskill instruction and “in-house” tournament play.
Example: youth club soccer, which is popular in the
public sector
Participants and Locations
• Participants. Recreational sport management is
intended for the enjoyment of all age groups: children,
youth, adolescents, adults, and senior citizens.
• Location. Participation occurs at indoor and outdoor
sport facilities.
– Indoor: bowling centers; handball, racquetball, and squash
courts; gymnasiums for volleyball, basketball, badminton, and
floor hockey; billiard rooms; roller- and ice-skating rinks;
aquatic centers; strength and conditioning weight rooms;
exercise rooms; and so on
– Outdoor: softball and baseball fields; golf courses; trap and
skeet ranges; soccer and flag football fields; tennis courts;
outdoor aquatic centers; white-water rivers; caves; lakes;
mountains; and so on
Variety of Sport Settings
Armed Forces MWR: military bases around the world
Boys and Girls Clubs and Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts
Cities and communities: municipal parks and recreation
Commercial facilities: racquet clubs, bowling, skating
Correctional institutions: city, county, state, and federal
Schools: elementary, secondary, and higher education
On-site industrial and corporate recreational sport
Private clubs: country clubs, fitness, and health clubs
Vacation resorts: hotels, motels, and cruise ships
Participation Trends
Ranked by preference
Series 1 recreational sport
• Exercise walking
• Camping
• Swimming
• Exercising with equipment
• Fishing (net)
• Bowling
• Bicycle riding
• Fishing (fresh water)
• Billiards
• Hiking
Ranked by preference
Series 2 recreational sport
• Working out at club
• Boating (motor or power)
• Target shooting
• In-line skating
• Mountain biking (on road)
• Scooter riding
• Darts (soft tip)
• Darts (metal tip)
• Skateboarding
• Mountain biking
(U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States for 2003)
• Provision of important sociocultural learning
• Enjoyment of the activity
• Social interaction
• Health and physical improvements
• Economic growth
• Environmental protection
• Social contribution
Important to develop participant interests,
knowledge, and skills to enable participation in
activities that can last a lifetime!
Individual Benefits
• Improves health, fitness, and self-esteem.
• Provides opportunity to “burn up” excess
energy and emotion not being released in
other areas of life.
• Creates a positive social environment.
• Develops emotional control and positive
expression of aggression.
• Fosters cooperation.
• Develops integrity.
Community Benefits
• Enhances community identity and promotes
community integration.
• Allows learning and sharing of community
• Deters antisocial behavior, including
vandalism, gang violence, and crime.
• Develops well-planned and -managed sport
facilities that can lead to economic benefits.
in Recreational Sport Management
• Funding and budgeting: income generation
for sport programs and facilities
• Legal aspects: laws as they apply to
recreational sport programs
• Sport facilities: facility construction growth as
participants demand larger and more
specialized facilities
in Recreational Sport Management
• Technology: selection of appropriate
technology to augment operations
• Personnel: need for marketing and computer
specialists, joining the traditional recreational
sports programming staff
• Programming areas:
– Females represent more than 60% of participants.
– Health club memberships have almost doubled.
– Extreme sports participation has skyrocketed.
Career Opportunities
• Increased opportunities range from face-toface leadership to top administrative
• 4 levels of personnel provide recreational
sport management:
Administrative staff
Program administrative staff
Program staff
Auxiliary staff
(Mull, Bayless, & Jamieson, 2005)
Staff Responsibilities
• Administrative staff. Provides overall direction of program
and its resources: staffing, budgeting, facilities, and
– Job titles: administrator, director, and executive director
– Master’s degree and minimum of 10 years experience
• Program administrative staff. Assists the administrator in
performing his or her duties.
– Job titles: associate director, program director, fitness
director, public relations director, operations director,
facility manager, and sports coordinator or director
– Bachelor’s or master’s degree in recreation and minimum
of 5 years of programming
Staff Responsibilities (continued)
• Program staff. Entry-level position; is responsible for
recruiting, hiring, training, and scheduling support staff.
– Job titles: assistant director, marketing assistant,
coordinator, building manager, personal trainer, pool
operator, leader, and activity specialist
– Bachelor’s degree
• Auxiliary staff. Part-time position; is paid an hourly wage or
is a volunteer and works face to face with participants.
– Job titles: official, exercise leader, equipment room
attendant, aquatics instructor, fitness consultant, lifeguard,
maintenance, and youth sport coach
– Usually do not have a degree, but may hold some type of
specialized sport credential (CPR, water safety instructor)
Job Outlook
Employment opportunities include:
Amateur Athletics Union (AAU)
Armed forces recreation
Association of Church Sport and Recreation Ministers (CSRM)
Boys and Girls Clubs
Collegiate and campus settings
Commercial sports
Correctional recreation
Employee recreational sports
Fitness clubs
Municipal parks and recreation
State games festivals
Youth sports programs
Professional Organizations
• Sponsor a wide range of continuing
education courses, institutes, workshops,
regional and national conferences, and
other in-service training.
• Serve as an important link in helping the
recreational sport manager stay abreast of
the rapidly changing recreational sport
management field and its implications for
program delivery.
Summary and Future Prediction
• The recreative aspect of sport in American
culture today is a well-established and wellrecognized contributor to human enjoyment
and vitality.
• The growth of recreational sport
management programs will come from the
– Continually changing times
– Continual awareness of opportunities
– Increasing interest in sport participation and fitness
by all age groups
Subject: Competition in Rec Sports
Should competition be emphasized or
deemphasized in recreational sports?
– Why or why not? Elaborate on your answer….
Subject: One Sentence
 How would you summarize recreational
sports programming in one sentence to a
parent who happened to stop you at the
door on your way out?