IDEAL COLUMN 2 EI Smallest critical load to cause buckling is Pcr 2 L IDEAL COLUMN Pcr 2 EI Smallest critical stress to cause buckling is cr A AL2 IDEAL COLUMN 2 EI 2 Er2 Smallest critical stress to cause buckling is cr 2 A( KL) ( KL)2 IDEAL COLUMN 2E Smallest critical stress to cause buckling is cr ( KL / r )2 Where r = (I/A)1/2 is the “radius of gyration” and (L/r) is the “slenderness ratio”. The critical stress curve is hyperbolic and valid only when σcr is below the yield stress σY. σY cr 2E KL / r 2 COLUMNS HAVING VARIOUS END-CONDITIONS • K for various end conditions: cr 2E KL / r 2 EXAMPLE 1 The A-36 steel W200x46 member shown is to be used as a pin-connected column. Determine the largest axial load it can support before it either begins to buckle or the steel yields. E 200 GPa Y 250 MPa K 1 cr 2E KL / r 2 EXAMPLE 1 (continued) • Column properties from reference table, • Consider buckling about the “weak axis” (y–y axis). • When fully loaded, the average compressive stress in the column is • Since this stress exceeds the yield stress of 250 MPa, let’s investigate this a little further. cr 2E KL / r 2 EXAMPLE 1 (continued) • The critical stress can also be calculated using the formula cr 2E KL / r 2 • Notice the slenderness ratio is less than 89. • This indicates the column is “short” and it will yield before it has a chance to buckle. • Thus, the 320.5 MPa can never be achieved before the whole cross-section yields at 250 MPa. cr 2E KL / r 2 EXAMPLE 1 (continued) • The load at which the column yields is PY Y A • Notice this load is less than 250MPa EXAMPLE 2) The 3 in. x 1 in. A-992 steel member BC is used as a pin-connected brace. Determine the maximum load P that can be supported before the brace either begins to buckle or it yields. E 29,000 ksi Y 50 ksi Kx 1 K y 0.5 EXAMPLE 2 (continued)) • The compressive force in member BC as a function of P is M A 0 • The critical stress in the brace is cr 2E KL / r 2 EXAMPLE 2 (continued)) • The critical stress is controlled by buckling about the___axis • The critical stress is below the yield stress of ______. • The brace will buckle before it has a chance to yield, thus cr controls the design of the brace. • The maximum load P can now be determined from