Uploaded by Nicole Ariola


Bicol University
Polangui Campus
Trisha Mae L. Ponferrada
10 Morals Principles of Health Ethics
• As a health care professional, specifically as a nurse, we always consider
these 10 Moral Principles in our profession
⮚ Golden Rule
⮚ The Principle of Totality
⮚ Epikia
⮚ One who acts trough as agent is herself responsible
⮚ No one is obliged to betray herself
⮚ The end does not justify the means
⮚ Defects of natures may be corrected
⮚ If one is willing to cooperate in the act, no justice is done to him
⮚ A little more or a little less does not change the substance of an act.
⮚ No one is held to impossible
Principles of Totality and its Integrity
1. Integrity focuses on maintaining the basic human capacity to function well.
2. We can apply the following aspects to principle of totality:
a) Surgery
⮚ A medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques
on a person to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury,
to help improve bodily function, appearance, or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
⮚ A surgical procedure, whether it is a minor or major surgery.
⮚ As nurses, we do assist in surgery.
⮚ Registered Nurse (RN) has ethical and moral responsibility to represent the patient's
interests, show humility, respect and protect patient autonomy and preserve patient
dignity. (International Council for Nurses, 2013)
Principles of Totality and its Integrity
b) Mutilation
⮚ Refers to the procedure that diminishes or destroys the functional integrity of the human body.
Ex. Tonsillectomy, Ribs Resection, Sex Transplant, etc.
2 Types of Mutilation:
⮚ Major Mutilation - Refers to the procedure that destroys the
functional integrity of the human body so that it becomes
incapacitated of its natural functions.
It may also be done by means of surgical procedures.
Ex. A woman who submits herself for hysterectomy, a
surgery to remove the uterus for the purpose of avoiding
⮚ Minor Mutilation - Refers to the procedure that diminishes
but does not destroy the functional integrity of the human
Ex. Tonsillectomy, Circumcision, Tooth Extraction, etc
Functional Integrity
⮚ The degree of completeness
necessary for the performance of
functions to the human body.
⮚ The mutilation does not constitute
any destruction of functional
⮚ The whole body must function well.
⮚ You must preserve the human body.
3 conditions on surgical removal of a
healthy organ can be morally allowed:
1. That the preservation or functioning of a particular organ provokes a serious
damage or constitutes a threat to the whole body.
Ex: If you have a cyst or lump in your breast, in order to know if it is cancerous,
biopsy must be done.
2. That the damage cannot be avoided or at least notably diminished, except by
the amputation or mutilation in question and that its efficacy is well assured.
3. That it can reasonably foreseen that the negative effect will be compensated by
the positive effect, exclusion of a damage to the whole body, mitigation of the
pain, etc.
Principles of Totality and its Integrity
c) Sterilization
⮚ Refers to any technique that renders one sterile or unable to exercise the power to
reproduce during the sexual intercourse.
⮚ It permits coitus but hinders conception.
Types of Sterilization:
1. Voluntary or Direct Sterilization
⮚ Person wills and request that the procedure be done on himself or herself.
⮚ Either as an end or as a means.
Ex: The willful act of submitting to vasectomy or ligation
2. Involuntary or Indirect Sterilization
⮚ It is done by the order of a public authority or a state.
⮚ Not willfully employed as an end or as a means.
Ex: Surgical removal of ovaries because it is affected by cancer cells.
Principles of Totality and its Integrity
3. Therapeutic Sterilization
⮚ The removal or a portion of a reproductive organ to save one's life or to promote bodily
Ex: Biopsy shows that it is cancerous and to save your life, therapeutic sterilization will be
4. Contraceptive Sterilization
⮚ Intentional prevention of conception through sterilization.
Ex: Serious illness, genetic abnormality, severe financial burden, childbearing puts one's health in
5. Eugenic and Social Sterilization
⮚ Intentional prevention of conception through sterilization.
Ex: Serious illness, genetic abnormality, severe financial burden, childbearing puts one's health in
6. Punitive Sterilization
⮚ Is a form of penalty or punishment usually ascribed to sex related crimes particularly rape.
Ethico-Moral Responsibility of Nurses in Surgery
⮚ Ethico-moral responsibility of nurses refers to the ethical and moral obligations that
nurses have in their professional practice to ensure the well-being, safety, and
dignity of their patients. These responsibilities are rooted in ethical principles and
codes of conduct that guide nurses in their interactions with patients, families,
colleagues, and the healthcare system as a whole. Ethico-moral responsibility
encompasses a range of values and behaviors that nurses are expected to uphold
in their roles as caregivers and advocates.
Here are some of the key ethico-moral
responsibilities of nurses in surgery:
Informed Consent:
⮚ It is the duty of nurses to make sure that patients are aware of all the potential dangers, advantages,
and alternatives associated with the surgical treatment. They ought to aid in getting the patient's or
their guardian's informed permission. Making certain the patient has had all of their questions
addressed and is at ease with the choice to move forward is part of this.
Patient Advocacy:
⮚ In the operating room, where patients are frequently sedated and unable to speak for themselves,
nurses act as advocates for their patients. They are responsible for ensuring that the surgical team is
informed of and respects the patient's rights and requests.
⮚ All times, nurses must maintain patient confidentiality. They must refrain from sharing any patient or
medical information with unauthorized parties.
Respect for Autonomy:
⮚ Respecting a patient's autonomy entails accepting that they have the right to decide on their own
medical care, including whether or not to have surgery. The role of nurses is to assist patients in
making decisions that are consistent with their values and preferences.
Ethico-Moral Responsibility of Nurses in Surgey
Beneficence and Non-Maleficence
⮚ Nurses should act in the patient's best interests, making every effort to maximize benefits and
minimize harm. This include keeping track of the patient's vital signs, making sure the surgical site
is correctly identified, and preserving a clean environment to avoid infection.
Ethical Handling of Tissues and Organs:
⮚ Tissues and organs may be removed or transferred during several surgical operations. These
tissues must be handled by nurses with the highest regard and ethical concern, assuring
accurate tracking, documentation, and consent.
Cultural Sensitivity:
⮚ It is crucial to acknowledge and respect cultural and religious ideas and traditions. When it's
feasible, nurses should take into account the patients' varied cultural origins and preferences.
Pain Management:
⮚ To make sure that patients are comfortable and their pain is well-controlled before, during, and
after surgery, nurses should promote adequate pain management.
Ethico-Moral Responsibility of Nurses in Surgery
Team Collaboration:
⮚ Working cooperatively with the surgical team, which consists of surgeons, anesthesiologists, and
other medical experts, to guarantee seamless and secure patient care, is another aspect of
ethical duty.
Continuing Education:
⮚ To give their patients the best care possible, nurses have a moral imperative to stay current on
the most recent developments, procedures, and ethical issues in surgical nursing.
Reporting Ethical Concerns:
⮚ In order to protect patient safety and uphold ethical standards, nurses should report any
unethical behavior or practices they notice during surgery through the proper channels at their
healthcare facility.
End-of-Life Care:
⮚ Nurses should make sure that the patient's wishes, values, and cultural beliefs are honored
throughout the process when surgery is required as part of end-of-life care or organ donation.
Preservation of Bodily Function Integrity
⮚ Maintaining and safeguarding the regular operation of the body's numerous systems and
organs is referred to as "preserving bodily function integrity." It covers a wide range of elements
and activities that support general health and wellbeing.
⮚ A comprehensive strategy for preserving health and wellbeing. It includes a variety of
behavioral, mental, and physical elements that interact to promote the body's capacity for
optimal performance. It's crucial to speak with healthcare professionals for individualized
direction and counsel on preserving and enhancing the integrity of your bodily functions.
⮚ A balanced diet full of necessary nutrients is essential for good health in general. A balanced diet
gives the body the vitamins, minerals, and energy it needs to operate at its best.
⮚ Numerous body processes, such as circulation, digestion, and temperature regulation, depend on
being well hydrated.
⮚ Maintaining physical fitness on a regular basis improves flexibility, flexibility, and cardiovascular health.
Additionally, it helps with weight control and mental health.
⮚ For both physical and mental health, getting enough sleep is essential. It promotes cognitive function,
aids with stress management, and enables the body to rebuild and restore itself.
Stress Management:
⮚ The way your body functions can be negatively impacted by long-term stress. It's crucial for
maintaining health to learn efficient stress management practices, such as mindfulness, meditation, or
relaxation exercises.
Regular Check-Ups
⮚ Regular medical examinations and screenings can help identify and treat health issues early on,
before they worsen.
Preventive Healthcare
⮚ Preventive healthcare practices, such as immunizations, health exams, and lifestyle changes, can
lower the risk of illness and disease.
Avoiding Harmful Substances
⮚ Avoiding or limiting use of tobacco, alcohol, and recreational substances can assist safeguard the
⮚ Maintaining the integrity of bodily functions depends on following safety precautions including utilizing
seat belts, wearing helmets, and avoiding accidents.
Healthy Relationship
⮚ Creating and sustaining positive social connections and relationships is important for emotional wellbeing, which in turn affects how the body functions.
Mental Health Care
⮚ Integral to maintaining healthy body function is taking care of one's mental and emotional wellness. It is
crucial to seek assistance when necessary, engage in self-care, and manage any mental health concerns.
Chronic Disease Management
⮚ If someone has a chronic medical illness, maintaining the integrity of body functions depends on following
the recommended therapies and lifestyle adjustments.
Education and Awareness
⮚ Maintaining the integrity of body functions is largely dependent on staying informed about health-related
topics and making educated decisions about one's own health and wellbeing.
Ethical and Moral Consideration
⮚ The total integrity of physical function maintenance is enhanced by upholding moral and ethical standards
in healthcare decisions, such as respecting patient autonomy and confidentiality.
Social Connections:
⮚ Building and sustaining solid social ties and relationships can be beneficial for one's mental and emotional
health, which in turn can support the integrity of one's bodily functions.
Environmental Factors:
⮚ Environmental contaminants and toxins should be avoided as much as possible to safeguard body
processes and general health.
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