UNIT 2/ÜNİTE 2 MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES MADDE VE ÖZELLİKLERİ Dr. İlhan CANDAN 9.10.2023 MATTER/MADDE Atom Molecule Matter • Particulate structures that have mass, inertia and occupy space are called matter. MATTER/MADDE • Mass is a measure of the amount of matter that makes up a particle or object. • It is a quantity that depends on the atoms that make up matter. • It is one of the common properties of substances. MATTER/MADDE • Mass • It is indicated by the letter m • (SI) Its unit in the international unit system is kilogram (kg). • It is measured with an equal-arm scale. The mass of 1 dm³ of pure water at 1 atm pressure and +4 °C temperature is defined as 1 kg. MATTER/MADDE • The standard kilogram value was adopted in 1889 as the mass of a cylinder made of an alloy of platinum and iridium. • The standard mass is kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures near Paris. MATTER/MADDE • Mass Units Mass Units Unit Symbol Unit Conversion MATTER/MADDE • Example: • Fill in the blanks by performing unit conversions between the mass units given below. • 0,4 kg = ......................mg • 3 t = .............................kg • 300 mg = .................... g • 200 g = .......................kg MATTER/MADDE • Example: • Complete the blanks in the table according to the example. MATTER/MADDE • Since liquids are weighed together with the container they are placed in, the mass of the empty container must first be measured. • The mass of the empty container is called the tare mass, and the total mass of the liquid and the container is called the gross mass. • The difference between the gross mass and the tare of the container gives the net mass of the liquid. MATTER/MADDE • Volume: • The place occupied by matter in space is called volume. • It is indicated by the symbol V. • The SI unit is the cubic meter (m³). MATTER/MADDE • Volume: • Volume is one of the common properties of substances. • Solids have a definite shape and volume. • Although liquid substances have a certain volume, they do not have a certain shape; they take the shape of the portion of the container they are placed in. • Gases take the volume and shape of the closed container they are in. Solid Liquid Gas MATTER/MADDE • Volume Units • The volume of a cube with side lengths of 1 meter is called unit volume. Unit Unit Symbol Unit conversion MATTER/MADDE • Volume Units in Liters • Liter is the unit of measurement generally used to measure the volume of liquids and gases. • The volume unit of liquids and gases such as water, vinegar, gasoline, natural gas, liquid detergent, LPG is liter. Unit conversion • 1dm³ =1 liter Unit Unit Symbol • 1cm³ = 1 milliliter MATTER/MADDE • Example • Fill in the blanks by performing unit conversions between the volume units given below. MATTER/MADDE Finding the Volume of Solids with Regular Geometric Shapes • The volume of solid objects with regular geometric shapes is calculated depending on the geometric shape of the object. • Volume of Prisms = Base Area x Height MATTER/MADDE Finding the Volume of Solids with Regular Geometric Shapes Cube rectangular prism Cylinder Sphere MATTER/MADDE Finding the Volume of a Solid Object That Doesn't Have a Regular Geometric Shape Liquids can be used to measure the volume of a solid object that does not have a regular geometric shape. Graduated cylinders or overflow containers are used for measurement. When a solid object is not dissolved in itself and is dropped into a liquid with a lower density than itself, when it sinks completely into the liquid, it causes the displacement of the liquid equal to its volume. MATTER/MADDE Finding the Volume of a Solid Object That Doesn't Have a Regular Geometric Shape MATTER/MADDE Finding the Volume of a Solid Object That Doesn't Have a Regular Geometric Shape MATTER/MADDE Finding the Volume of a Solid Object That Doesn't Have a Regular Geometric Shape Example: When a square prism-shaped metal piece with a base length of 2 cm is placed in 120 mL of water in a graduated container, the water level rises to 184 mL. Accordingly, what is the height of the metal piece in cm? MATTER/MADDE Volume of gases The weak interaction between gas molecules allows these molecules to move freely in all directions. Freely circulating gas molecules are placed in whatever container they are placed in. It takes the shape and volume of the container. Therefore, the volume of gases is expressed relative to the volume of the container they are in. Volume of gases • heat • pressure is easily affected by change. MATTER/MADDE Example: 5 kg of gas with a volume of 19 L is placed in the first container shown in the figure. Then, the gas in the 1st container is transferred to the 2nd container with a volume of 40 L. Accordingly, compare the volume and mass amounts of the gas in the 1st and 2nd containers. 1st container 2nd container