# hollow-prism 2 XII physics investigatory project (1)

```MADE BY -: Piyushh Bhutoria
CLASS -: XII
BOARD ROLL NO. -:
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that PIYUSHH BHUTORIA
of class XII-A has completed the physics
project entitled “TO FIND THE REFRACTIVE
INDEX OF DIFFERENT LIQUIDS USING
HOLLOW PRISM” under the guidance of
her physics teacher Mrs and lab assistant
Mr
The progress of the project has been
continuously reported and has been
acknowledged consistently.
(Physics Teacher)
ACKNOWLEDGEMEnT
I would like to owe the sense of
gratitude to our physics teacher Mrs.
for her consistent guidance, support
and encouragement without which this
project would not able to exist in
present shape.
I would also like to thank our Lab
assistant Mr., my parents for their
blessings and my friends for their help
in order to complete the project.
C
O
N
T
E
N
T
S
Aim
Apparatus Required
Theory
Procedure
Observation &amp; Calculation
Conclusion
Precautions
Bibliography
To find
refractive index of
different liquids using
hollow prism.
PRISM:
THEORY
A prism is a transparent optical
element
with
flat,
polished
surfaces
that refract light. Prisms can be made from any
material
that
is
transparent
including glass, plastic and fluorite.
A prism can be used to break light up into its
constituent spectral colors. Prisms can also be
used to reflect light, or to split light into
components with different polarizations.
REFRACTION:
The refractive index of the liquid
Is given by the formula:
Where:
= refractive index of the liquid
= the angle of minimum deviation
r = angle of refraction
i = angle of incidence
A = angle of prism
FLUIDS
REFRACTIVE
INDEX
Water
Glycerine
Ethyl Alcohol
Vegetable Oil
Acetone
HCl
1.33
1.47
1.36
1.45
1.36
1.34
PROCEDURE
 Fix a white sheet of paper on the
drawing board with help of
drawing pins.
 Keep the prism and mark the
outline of it as ABC.
 Drop a normal PQ on the side AB.
 Draw the angle of incidence in
accordance with the normal PQ
and place 2 pins so that they
appear to be in the straight line.
 Place the prism filled with given
sample of liquid ,on the marked
outline ABC.
 Now take the pins and place them
on the side AC so that all the 4
pins appears to be in same line.
 Remove the prism and draw the
line joining the points so obtained.
 Mark the diagram as shown in the
figure.
 Repeat this with different liquids
and different angle of incidence.
HCl
S.No.
i
e
d
A
1.
35
48
24
60
2.
40
52
30
60
3.
45
42
25
60
4.
50
36
26
60
5.
55
32
28
60
Ethyl alcohol
S.No.
i
e
d
A
1.
35
52
26
60
2.
40
44
25
60
3.
45
41
25
60
4.
50
36
26
60
5.
55
32
27
60
CALCULATIONS
CALCULATION
GRAPH HCL
ethyl alcohol
RESULT
THE REFRACTIVE INDEX OF
ETHYL ALCOHOL
 EXPERIMENTAL-1.36
 CALCULATED- 1.34
THE REFRACTIVE INDEX OF HCL
 EXPERIMENTAL- 1.34
 CALCULATED- 1.34
PRECAUTIONS
Angle of incidence should lie b/w 35-60
degree.
 Pins should be vertically fixed and
should lie in same line.
 Distance b/w two points should not
be less than 10mm.
 Same angle of prism should be used
for all observation.
 Arrow head should be marked to
represent emergent and incident
ray.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 wikipedia.org