UNIVERSITY of the ASSUMPTION 1Q - Res2 Unisite Subdivision, Del Pilar, City of San Fernando 2000, Pampanga, Philippines SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL - GRADE 12 Page 1 of 7 Academic Track - Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Strand PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Res2) (First Semester, First Quarter Reviewer) • Used to solve a specific practical problem of an individual or group. RESEARCH • Systematized effort to gain new knowledge. • The systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles, or theories, resulting in prediction and possible control of events. • Purposive, systematic, and scientific process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, organizing, presenting, and interpreting data for the solution of a problem, for prediction, for invention, for the discovery of truth, or the expansion or verification of existing knowledge, all for the preservation and improvement for the quality of human life. • Seeks to acquire new knowledge, to problems, and to generate new information for better understanding of the concepts under study through a purposive, organized, and designed program of activities. • Gives birth to inventions. C. ACTION RESEARCH • Seeks transformative change through the simultaneous process of taking action and doing research. • First, there is a problem that is occurring, next you gather or analyze data, then you will come up a solution to solve the problem. THREE (3) TYPES OF RESEARCH ACCORDING TO... 1. LEVEL OF INVESTIGATION FOUR (4) SUBTYPES (B AND C HAS THE SAME LEVEL) A. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH • Describing what is existing in a phenomenon. B. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH • Trying to discover truth and new knowledge. C. EXPLANATORY RESEARCH • Explaining how does this dependent variable affect the independent variable, it also explains if there is a relationship between them. D. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Conducting test and experiment. 2. GOAL OR APPLICATION OF RESEARCH METHOD THREE (3) SUBTYPES 3. TYPES OF DATA THREE (3) SUBTYPES A. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Generates textual or non-numerical data. B. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH • Produces numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers. C. MIXED METHOD • Combination of qualitative and quantitative research within a single investigation. • Most trusted one. TWO (2) BASIC RESEARCH APPROACHES I. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Method of inquiry employed in different disciplines, traditionally in social sciences and in market research and further contexts. • Aims to gain deeper awareness of human behavior. SIX (6) CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 1. Data are in descriptions. 2. Research tools are observation, interview, documentary analysis, or shadowing. 3. Population is based on the design and small in number. 4. Presentation of data are actual responses taken individually. 5. Data analysis is transcribing, coding, and theming. 6. Has introduction, methodology, findings, and discussion or IMFAD format. A. BASIC RESEARCH • Goal to increase the existing body of knowledge. B. APPLIED RESEARCH Created by: Jopar Jose C. Ramos | STEM 12 - Our Lady of Fatima Professor: Ma’am Abigail Ann Q. Basilio UNIVERSITY of the ASSUMPTION 1Q - Res2 Unisite Subdivision, Del Pilar, City of San Fernando 2000, Pampanga, Philippines SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL - GRADE 12 Page 2 of 7 Academic Track - Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Strand FIVE (5) KINDS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS OF QUALITATIVE PRODUCT THE DESIGN REALIIZED RESEARCH In-depth Lessons Case study description learned Collective Phenomenology Meaning description Accurate Cultural reflection of Ethnography experiences perspectives and behaviors Biography, Information chronology, Historical from the past and issue paper Issues existing Taking on the Action research informed different action practices THREE (3) ADVANTAGES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 1. Provides depth and detailed data. 2. Allows open-ended process. 3. Attempts to avoid pre-judgements. THREE (3) DISADVANTAGES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 1. Small sample. 2. Not generalizable to the population at large. 3. Highly subjective. II. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH • Method of inquiry where relations are established through collection of numerical data which then are analyze to derive generalizations. SIX (6) CHARACTERISTICS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH 1. Data are in numerical 2. Research tools are structured research instrument (survey), experiments, observations are involved. 3. Population is at large sample size. 4. Presentation of data is illustrated in graphs, tables, and charts. 5. Data treatment used is descriptive and inferential statistics. 6. Has introduction, methodology, results, and discussion or IMRAD format. Created by: Jopar Jose C. Ramos | STEM 12 - Our Lady of Fatima TWO (2) TYPES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH 1. EXPERIMENTAL TWO (2) KINDS OF EXPERIMENTAL A. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL • The researcher is creating, developing or producing. B. QUASI EXPERIMENTAL • Partial experiment, effects, experimental group and /or control group 2. NON-EXPERIMENTAL FOUR (4) KINDS OF NON-EXPERIMENTAL A. DESCRIPTIVE • Seeks describe what exists and discover new facts. • Example is a descriptive study of how parents feel about the additional 2-years of basic education. B. COMPARATIVE • States the differences or similarities between or among people, objects, etc. • Example is a comparative study of service quality between private and public hospitals. C. CORRELATIVE • Attempts to determine the extent of relationship between 2 or more variable using statistical data. • Example is the relationship between lecturer’s teaching style and student’s academic achievement. D. SURVEY • Describes attitude, views, preferences, and other behavioral patterns of a big number of people to arrive a certain conclusion. • Example is a survey on the preferred course of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) strand. FIVE (5) STRENGTHS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH 1. Best way of proving or disproving hypothesis. 2. Results are unbiased. 3. Objective answers are sought. 4. Large sample size. 5. Easy to generalize and compare to other studies. FOUR (4) WEAKNESS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH 1. Difficult for non-mathematicians. Professor: Ma’am Abigail Ann Q. Basilio UNIVERSITY of the ASSUMPTION 1Q - Res2 Unisite Subdivision, Del Pilar, City of San Fernando 2000, Pampanga, Philippines SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL - GRADE 12 Page 3 of 7 Academic Track - Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Strand 2. Results are limited in terms of narrative description. 3. For experiment, it is expensive and requires a lot of time. 4. Development of questions can lead to structural bias. SEVEN (7) FIELDS WHERE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH IS IMPORTANT 1. Medical 2. Market or business 3. Finance 4. Household census 5. Education 6. Information technology 7. Disaster management VARIABLE • Any type of category that can be measured. • Trait or quality or category capable of change. TWO (2) MAJOR TYPES OF VARIABLE 1. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE • Causes change. • Probable cause. • Controlled by the researcher. • Example is the amount of fertilizer. 2. DEPENDENT VARIABLE • Bears the effects. • Outcome variable. • Example is the plant growth. OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS OF VARIABLE BASED ON THE RESEARCH APPROACH 1. QUALITATIVE VARIABLE • Describes data that fits into categories. • Answers the question “what kind.” • Examples are nationality, breed of dog, and highest educational attainment 2. QUANTITATIVE VARIABLE • Describes data that is numerical. • Answers the question “how much” or “how many.” QUANTITATIVE VARIABLE MAY FURTHER CLASSIFIED INTO TWO (2) A. DISCRETE • Countable in a finite amount of time, cannot take Created by: Jopar Jose C. Ramos | STEM 12 - Our Lady of Fatima form of decimals • Examples are age in years, number of teeth, and number of children in the family. B. CONTINUOUS • Can take infinitely many values, takes forever to count, and infinitely divisible into whatever units. • Examples are height, weight, and temperature of the day. FOUR (4) LEVELS OF DATA MEASUREMENT 1. NOMINAL • Lowest level of measurement. • Unordered scales. • Categories may be assigned numbers, but numbers have no meaning. • Examples are sex, cause of death, and academic strand in senior high school. 2. ORDINAL • Ordered scales. • Indicates direction. • Implies ranking. • Example is level of satisfaction and agreement. 3. INTERVAL • No true zero. • Possess equal interval. • Examples are intelligent quotient or IQ and temperature in Celsius. 4. RATIO • Has an absolute zero, a point where none of the quality being measured exist. • Examples are height, weight, and pulse. FIVE (5) SUGGESTIONS WILL HELP IN CHOOSING A RESEARCH TOPIC 1. Research observations, interests, and experience. 2. Deduction from theories. 3. Related literature. 4. Clarification of contradictory findings. 5. Research agenda. THREE (3) STRATEGIES ON HOW TO START A TOPIC 1. FIRST STRATEGY A. Think of quantitative variables which are independent and dependent variable. Professor: Ma’am Abigail Ann Q. Basilio UNIVERSITY of the ASSUMPTION 1Q - Res2 Unisite Subdivision, Del Pilar, City of San Fernando 2000, Pampanga, Philippines SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL - GRADE 12 Page 4 of 7 Academic Track - Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Strand B. Relationship or differences. C. Search if there are Review of Related Literatures (RRLs) already. D. By knowing the connection of these variables, can you make an output about it? E. What statistical treatment to employ? 2. SECOND STRATEGY A. Start with the question, “is _____ effective?”, “is it possible that...”, “can we make...”, or “is it applicable...” B. Note what quantifiable variables can be studied. C. Search if there are RRLs. D. What statistical treatment to employ? 3. THIRD STRATEGY A. Think of theories you have read or heard which you might want to prove through research. B. Note what quantifiable variables involved in this theory. C. Search if there are RRLs already. D. With this theory, once it is proven, can you make an output about it? E. What statistical treatment to employ? WORKING TITLE • Initial aim of a title is to capture the reader's attention and to highlight the research problem under investigation. FOUR (4) WORKING TITLE GUIDE 1. The whole title must be capitalized. 2. Terms such as “Analysis of,” “An Investigation of,” and “A Study of” should be avoided. 3. It must consist of 12 to 15 substantive words except the articles and conjunctions. 4. It mirrors the objective of the research and the locale of the study. FOUR (4) PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER I. INTRODUCTION • Gives the reader the beginning of the piece of thread so they can follow it. SIX (6) PARTS OF INTRODUCTION 1. BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM • Explain the root of the problem. • Pinpoint the issues. • Catch the reader’s interest. • Place the research problem on a setting. Created by: Jopar Jose C. Ramos | STEM 12 - Our Lady of Fatima 2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM • Must be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-oriented or SMART. • General and specific. • Declarative form. FOUR (4) TYPES OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS OR PROBLEMS A. FACTOR-ISOLATING • Isolate, categorize, describe, or name factors and situation. ONE (1) EXAMPLE: a. The profile of school managers in terms of: A. Age * Management experience * Educational attainment B. FACTOR-RELATING • Aim to establish relationship. • Example is the relationship exists between hours spend in a particular learning area and the academic performance of the students. C. SITUATION-RELATING • Experimental study or what will happen if? • Example is the significant difference on the level of effectivity of lemon and grape extract in repelling mosquito. D. SITUATION-PRODUCING • Actions, plans, or prescriptions to develop. • Example is policy to be formulated to manage the personnel in government agencies effectively. 3. HYPOTHESIS • Usually defined as the tentative intellectual guess or claim of the researcher. TWO (2) TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS A. NULL HYPOTHESIS • Stated negatively or accepted to be true or proven. • Example is there is no significant relationship between the presence of cadmium in the soil to the growth of the plant. B. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS • Stated positively. • Needs to be proven. Professor: Ma’am Abigail Ann Q. Basilio UNIVERSITY of the ASSUMPTION 1Q - Res2 Unisite Subdivision, Del Pilar, City of San Fernando 2000, Pampanga, Philippines SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL - GRADE 12 Page 5 of 7 Academic Track - Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Strand • Example is there is significant relationship between the presence of cadmium in the soil to the growth of the plant. 4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY • Contribution of the study to the body of knowledge. 5. SCOPE AND LIMITATION • Variables to be studied. • Focus of the study. • Time frame. • Better if you may mention your research design. 6. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE • Exploration of body of knowledge. • Describes the past and current state of information about the focus of the study. • Steps in doing RRL include choose your topic, identify databases and resources, search and refine, read and analyze, and write the review. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK • Blueprint that provides an outline of the plan. • Presented in a form of map diagram or flow chart. • Has narrative explanation. THREE (3) PURPOSE OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1. Clarify concepts and propose relationships among the concepts in a study. 2. To encourage theory development that is useful and practical. 3. Use in research to outline possible courses of action. Time span Respondents profile Research values Age 1. Gender 2. Educational attainment 3. Employment status Conduct survey Module in the using survey Bachelor of questionnaire Science in Tourism Use of mean Program of rating and Systems Plus percentage and College frequency Foundation distribution 2. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE-DEPENDENT VARIABLE MODEL • Used for experimental-based studies. EXAMPLE: 3. P MODEL OR PROPOSED PROGRAM MODEL • Used in research that proposes a program or any intervention measure. EXAMPLE: THREE (3) TYPES OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1. IPO OR INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT MODEL • Used when the researcher attempts to isolate the factor or major variable that cases the problem, subject, or phenomenon. EXAMPLE: INPUT Qualified trainers Adequate facilities and equipment PROCESS OUTPUT Effectiveness of Flight Attendant Training Created by: Jopar Jose C. Ramos | STEM 12 - Our Lady of Fatima II. METHODOLOGY • Specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information about a topic FIVE (5) PARTS OF METHODOLOGY 1. RESEARCH DESIGN • Serves as the blueprint of the overall strategy in finding answers for the research problems. 2. SAMPLING DESIGN • Selection of participants to include in the study. Professor: Ma’am Abigail Ann Q. Basilio UNIVERSITY of the ASSUMPTION 1Q - Res2 Unisite Subdivision, Del Pilar, City of San Fernando 2000, Pampanga, Philippines SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL - GRADE 12 Page 6 of 7 Academic Track - Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Strand POPULATION • Large collection of individuals or objects. SAMPLE • Portion or part of the population. PROBABILITY • Every member of the population has a chance to participate in the study. FIVE (5) TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING A. SIMPLE RANDOM • The same as lottery method. B. SYSTEMATIC • Selecting every nth member of the population in a list. C. STRATIFIED • Dividing the population into subgroups. D. CLUSTER • Groups are selected rather than individuals. E. MULTISTAGE • Combinations of different sampling methods. NON-PROBABILTY • Not each population member has a chance to participate in the study. FIVE (5) TYPES OF NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING A. QUOTA • Choosing necessary number of participants per group. B. PURPOSIVE • Selecting participants according to a given criteria. C. VOLUNTEER • Participants self-elect to become part of the study. • The 6 researcher-complete instrument are rating scale, interview guide, tally sheets, performance checklists, time and motion logs, and observation forms • The 6 subject-completed instrument are questionnaires, self-checklists, attitude scales, personality inventories, achievement or aptitude tests, and -projective or sociometric devices. 4. DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE • Technique used to obtain the information used in a dissertation to substantiate the claims made by a writer. - What data to collect and the appropriate instrument. - Construct your instrument and utilize or administer. - The time, date, and place where to collect. 5. DATA ANALYSIS • Process of systematically applying statistical and/or logical techniques to describe and illustrate, condense and recap, and evaluate data. - What? - How many? TRANSFORMING • Collect, gather, and observe numerical data. INTERPRETING • Analytical and logical reasoning, statistics patterns, relationships, similarities, and differences. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS • Uses the data to provide descriptions of the population, either through numerical calculations or graphs or tables. • Examples are frequencies, percentages, mean, median, mode, and range. E. SNOWBALL • Relies on referrals from initial subjects, done when characteristics are rare. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS • Makes inferences and predictions about a population based on a sample of data taken from the population in question. • Examples are Pearson R, chi-square, correlation coefficient, t-ratio, t-test, and analysis of variance or ANOVA. 3. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT • Tool used to obtain, measure, and analyze data from subjects around the research topic. STATISTICAL TOOLS • Involved in carrying out a study include planning, designing, collecting data, analyzing, drawing D. CONVENIENCE • Participants who are easy to reach. Created by: Jopar Jose C. Ramos | STEM 12 - Our Lady of Fatima Professor: Ma’am Abigail Ann Q. Basilio UNIVERSITY of the ASSUMPTION Unisite Subdivision, Del Pilar, City of San Fernando 2000, Pampanga, Philippines 1Q - Res2 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL - GRADE 12 Page 7 of 7 Academic Track - Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Strand meaningful interpretation and reporting of the research findings. FOCUS OF SAMPLE PROBLEMS Profile Level, extent, degree, etc. Significant relationship Significant difference TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS Frequency counts, percentages, ranking, summating, and coding scheme Weighted mean T-ratio, chi-square, and Pearson R Test-retest: paired t-test Analysis of variance or ANOVA, post-ANOVA Created by: Jopar Jose C. Ramos | STEM 12 - Our Lady of Fatima Professor: Ma’am Abigail Ann Q. Basilio