Uploaded by Azamat Murzakhmetov

Chapter 8 - Randomness and Probability (ADM 2303)

```8.1 - Probability and Sample Spaces
Probability → numerical measure of chance. It is a fraction/proportion of one specific
outcome out of all possible outcomes.
𝑃(𝐴) =
𝑛𝑎
𝑛
| 𝑛𝑎 = 𝑓𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒; 𝑛 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑠
●
Probability must be between 0 and 1 because it is a proportion (part of a whole).
●
Experiment: a process which produces a single outcome whose result is not certain
(Toss of a die, a coin, shuffling a deck).
Counting Rules
1. mn rule → if an experiment is performed in two stages with m ways to accomplish
stage 1 and n ways to accomplish stage 2. The number of outcomes is m x n.
a. Example: Flipping two coins
2. Combination (sampling without replacement) → The number of distinct
combinations of n distinct objects that can be formed.
a. Taking r at a time
b. Order doesn’t matter (AB = BA, but only choose one)
𝑛
𝑛!
( 𝑟 ) = 𝑟!(𝑛−𝑟)!
3. Permutation (counting possible sequences) → the number of ways to arrange n
distinct objects, taking them r at a time.
a. Order matters (AB and BA are both unique possibilities)
𝑛
𝑟!
𝑃 = (𝑛−𝑟)!
𝑟
4. Classical or Theoretical Approach → If all outcomes are equally likely, the
probability is the ratio of the number of outcomes of an event divided by the total
number of outcomes.
a. Example: Rolling two dice and observing the total
8.3 - Approaches to Assigning Probabilities
Relative Frequency or Empirical Approach → The Law of Large Numbers (LLN) states
that as the number of experiments increases, the observed outcomes approach a specific
relative frequency (probability) number. *Data-driven approach
Subjective approach → Probability is defined by the degree of belief
Examples: - the probability of rain based on past observation and current conditions.
- Choosing a CEO out of 4 candidates; analyst comes up with a subjective
probability that one will be chosen.
Interpreting Probability:
● No matter which method is used to assign a probability, all will be interpreted in the
relative frequency approach.
●
●
Example: Lottery where 6 numbers are chosen out of 49, the classical approach will
say the probability is 6/49. We interpret this to be the long-run probability
Why? → as n gets larger, frequency becomes probability.
Probability and Events
Simple event → an outcome that is observed on a single repetition of an experiment.
Denoted as E with a subscript.
Sample space → collection of all possible outcomes
Event of interest → a collection of one or more simple events that interest us. (Ex: rolling
dice and hoping for odd numbers).
Probability Tree → a simple method of applying probability rules. Works for displaying
experiments in stages.
8.4 Probability Rules (Venn diagram)
Event Relationships →
●
𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 (Union: Either A or B or Both; *the entire Venn diagram)
Example: throwing two dice, event of interest where the first outcome is 1 and
second event of interest is where the second outcome is 5
A{(1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6)}
B{(1, 5), (2, 5), (3, 5), (4, 5), (5, 5), (6, 5)}
𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 {(1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 5), (3, 5), (4, 5), (5, 5), (6, 5)}
● 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 (A and B; *middle part of the Venn diagram)
● 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 | 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 0 (Union: either A or B) (Mutually exclusive)
●
𝐶
𝐴 (Not A) (Complement)
Probability Rules
1. Probability must be between 0 and 1. If 0, it will never occur. If 1, it will always occur.
0≤𝑃≤1
2. The probability of the set of all possible outcomes must be 1
𝑃(𝐴𝑙𝑙) = 1
3. Rule of Complement: the probability of event A not happening is 1 - the probability of
A happening.
4. Addition Rule: used to compute the probability of an event A or B or both. (Union A
and B)
𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) + 𝑃(𝐵) − 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)
8.5 Contingency Tables
Contingency Table and probability: Events in a r x c contingency table where the variables
are qualitative variables. We cross-classify each cell.
8.6 Conditional Probability and Independence
Conditional Probability → the probability of an event given that another event has occurred
is called conditional.
𝑃(𝐴| 𝐵) | 𝐴 𝑖𝑠 𝑤ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑤𝑒 𝑤𝑎𝑛𝑡, 𝐵 𝑎𝑙𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑦 𝑜𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 (Probability of A given B)
𝑃(𝐴∩𝐵)
= 𝑃(𝐵) , 𝑃(𝐵) &gt; 0
If 𝑃(𝐴| 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴); or 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) &times; 𝑃(𝐵) then A and B are independent
5. Multiplication Rule → joint occurrence of A and B
𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴|𝐵) &times; 𝑃(𝐵)
8.8 Probability Trees
Probability tree → a diagram of probabilities has branches (typically 3) for possibilities.
1. First Branch: marginal probability → 𝑃(𝐵)
2. Second Branch: conditional probability → 𝑃(𝐴|𝐵)
𝑃(𝐴∩𝐵)
3. Third Branch: joint probability →
𝑃(𝐵)
Rule: The probabilities of any set of branches starting at one node must add to 1
8.9 Baye’s Rule
Baye’s Rule → a way to formally incorporate new information
When we are given:
● Old events (previous) (𝐴1, 𝐴2.... 𝐴𝑘)
● New event 𝐵
● Prior probabilities 𝑃(𝐴1), 𝑃(𝐴2).... 𝑃(𝐴𝑘)
We want to:
● Revise → 𝑃(𝐴1|𝐵), 𝑃(𝐴2|𝐵).... 𝑃(𝐴𝑘|𝐵)
Note: 𝑃(𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐵 ∩ 𝐴1) + 𝑃(𝐵 ∩ 𝐴2) +.... 𝑃(𝐵 ∩ 𝐴𝑘)
= 𝑃(𝐴1)𝑃(𝐵|𝐴1) + 𝑃(𝐴2)𝑃(𝐵|𝐴2) +.... 𝑃(𝐴𝑘)𝑃(𝐵|𝐴𝑘)
Revised→
𝑃(𝐵∩𝐴𝑖)
𝑃(𝐴1)𝑃(𝐵|𝐴1) + 𝑃(𝐴2)𝑃(𝐵|𝐴2) ...𝑃(𝐴𝑘)𝑃(𝐵|𝐴𝑘)
Also Revised→
𝑃(𝐵∩𝐴𝑖)
𝑃(𝐵∩𝐴1)+𝑃(𝐵∩𝐴2)+....𝑃(𝐵∩𝐴𝑖)
Steps:
1. Define prior events
2. Determine probability of prior events (first branch)
3. Define a new event that could alter prior probabilities
4. Determine conditional probabilities (second branch)
5. Calculate joint probabilities (third branch)
6. Calculate revised probability
```