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Introduction: Science, Technology & Society
What is STS, and why should people want to study and learn it?
Why should students, teachers, researchers and other
professionals have interest in the subject? Primarily, we need some
background and understanding of the significance of science and
technology in the living past and their importance in the modern
Goals of STS
Challenges &
Opportunities of
STS Education
Meaning of
Technology and
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to
Purposes of
Science and
➡ learn and understand the goals of STS (Science, Technology
& Society) education,
➡ explain the challenges and opportunities of STS education,
Limitations of
Science &
➡ understand the meaning of science and technology (as a
process and as a product) and society,
➡ explain the purposes of science and technology and the
effect of technology in the quality of our life.
Technology &
the Quality of
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Lecture Notes
STS deals with the interactions between science and technology and social, cultural, political,
and economic contexts that shape and are shaped by them. It concerns the study of
contemporary controversies, historical transformations, policy dilemmas, and broad
philosophical questions. And the key goals of STS are the following;
• engaging students in examining a variety of real world issues and grounding scientific
knowledge in such realities.
Rather than learning about the facts and
theories of weather patterns, you can
explore them in the context of issues such
as global warming. You can also debate
the environmental, social, economic and
political consequences of relevant
legislation, such as the Kyoto Protocol (The
Kyoto Protocol mandated that
industrialized nations cut their greenhouse
gas emissions at a time when the threat of
global warming was growing rapidly). This
Extreme weather events like bushfires, cyclones,
droughts and floods are becoming more frequent and
is thought to provide a richer, more
more intense as a result of global warming.
meaningful and relevant canvas against
which scientific theories and phenomena
relating to weather patterns can be explored. In today’s world, other real world issues
might include the impact on society of genetic engineering, animal testing. deforestation
practices, and nuclear testing.
• enabling the students to formulate a critical understanding of the interface between
science, technology and society; and
This means to say that the adoption of the
STS concept in an educational reform
enables the development of resources for
critical thinking towards a complex and
fast-changing societies which are deeply
influenced by science and technology. STS
examines the ways in which science and
technology issues are emerging and
affecting societies.
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As a citizen, you will have the enormous
responsibility of making decisions that will
impact yourself as well as society. Many of
these decisions will require an
understanding of the interaction of
science and technology and its interface
with society.
• developing the students’ capacities and confidence to make informed decisions and to
take responsible action to address issues arising from the impact of science in their daily
The STS education can develop your
ability to formulate sound ethical and
moral decisions about issues arising from
the impact of science in your daily lives.
According to Lewis & Gagel, STS
education integrates sciences and value
education. Meaning, an informed and
responsible citizenry that understands the
positive benefits and power of science and
technology must also be aware of the
moral and ethical dimensions of science
and technology. And as a response to the
complex social and moral issues in our
society in an intellectual and informed
manner, you are required to be educated
scientifically and morally.
Focus Question #1: What have science and technology done for you lately?
Challenges and Opportunities of STS Education
Values and Beliefs: The goals of STS may challenge the value and beliefs of students and
teachers-as well as conventional, culturally entrenched views on scientific and
technological development. However, the students can gain opportunities to engage with,
and deeply examine the impact of scientific development on their lives from a critical and
informed perspective. Moreover, this will help the students to develop their analytical and
problem solving capacities, as well as their ability to make informed choices in their
everyday lives.
In teaching and learning STS, our moral
and religious beliefs can be challenged;
hence, arguments about STS issues may
arise during the discussion. For example,
some of us believed that only God can
create humans while others might say that
science and technology can develop fetus
through medical procedures such as InVitro Fertilization (IVF) and artificial
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insemination. At this instance, a debate
may occur among us and each of us will
defend our stand about the existence of
human beings; hence, your critical
thinking can be developed or improved.
Also, you can make a choice if which is to
believe and learn to respect the beliefs of
Knowledge and Understanding: The interdisciplinary nature of STS requires teachers and
students to research and gather information from a variety of sources. At the same time,
teachers need to develop a sound understanding of issues in various disciplinesphilosophy, history, geography, social studies, politics, economics, environment and
science. This is so that students’ knowledge base can be appropriately scaffolded to
enable them to effectively engage in discussions, debates, and decision-making processes.
The interdisciplinary nature of STS can
help you to overcome your
preconceptions by recognizing the source
of the preexisting understandings and by
introducing to you the subject matter from
a variety of perspectives that challenge
your existing beliefs. When you put aside
your pre-existing beliefs, you position
yourself to learn facts more readily and are
more open to adopting a range of
methodologies that promote
understanding. Thus, we, as teachers,
should spend more time exploring issues
that promote significant learning with you.
In addition, interdisciplinary instruction
helps you to develop your cognitive
abilities - brain-based skills and mental
processes that are needed to carry out
tasks. At this instance, you can learn to
appreciate the differences between
disciplines, on how to approach a problem
and their discipline specific rules
regarding feasible evidence. This will lead
you to a broader understanding of the
issue under investigation. Eventually, your
knowledge formation capacity will be
enhanced in engaging yourself in
conversations dealing with more complex
Moreover, interdisciplinary instruction
opens academic conversations to ideas
from a range of disciplines, so you should
be able to relate and contribute to the
dialogue. Thus, the likelihood of
connecting with the full array of the
students in the classroom is enhanced by
interdisciplinary learning.
Pedagogic Approach: Depending on teacher’s experience and comfort levels, a variety of
pedagogic approaches based on constructivism can be used to stimulate the STS
education in the classroom.
We, STS teachers, are often faced with the
challenge of transforming classroom
practices from task-oriented approaches
to those which focus on developing
students' understanding and transferring
agency for learning to students.
And to stimulate your ability in conceptual
reconstruction, we will try to provide you
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some clear pointers in (1) identifying your
views and ideas, (2) exploring your ideas
and robustness in explaining phenomena,
accounting of events and making
predictions, (3) providing stimuli that will
develop, modify or change your ideas and
views, and (4) supporting your attempts to
re-think and reconstruct your ideas and
The teaching method based on
constructivist views are very useful to your
learning. Hence, as teachers, we should
have a clear idea of what you have already
known and understood so that you can
engage in activities that help you construct
new meanings. Moreover, your
opportunities to talk about your ideas
concerning particular concepts or issues
are prominent in the learning process.
Teachers who employ constructivist
teaching try to help students to learn
meaningfully. They should encourage
students to accept the invitation to learn
and to take action on what they have
learnt, and to provide students with
opportunities to explore, discover and
create, as well as to propose explanations
and solutions.
Meaning of Science
1. Science is a process.
2. Science is a product.
(a) Concerned with discovering
relationships between observable
phenomena in terms of theories.
(a) Systematized, organized body of
knowledge based on facts or
(b) Systematized theoretical inquiries.
(b) A set of logical and empirical
methods which provide for the
systematic observation of empirical
(c) It seeks truth about nature.
(d) It is determined by observation,
hypothesis, measurement, analysis
and experimentation.
(e) It is the description and
explanation of the development of
(f) It is the study of the beginning and
the end of everything that exist.
(g) Conceptualization of new ideas,
from the abstract to the particular.
(h) Kind of human cultural activity.
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(c) Source of cognitive authority.
(d) Concerned with verifiable
(e) A product of the mind.
(f) It is the variety of knowledge,
people, skills, organizations,
facilities, techniques, physical
resources, methods and
technologies that taken together
and in relation with one another.
Science as a process refers to the practices
employed in science to uncover
knowledge and interpret the meaning of
those discoveries. It is a process of
investigation into the natural world and the
knowledge generated through that
process. Also, it is a process by which we
increase and refine understanding of
ourselves and of the universe through
continuous observation, experimentation,
application and verification.
In addition, science is a process because
the scientific method makes any
hypothesis (or theory) open to be proven
against. During the process, the accurate
ideas stay (as theories) while the false
ideas disappear from mainstream science
as historic steps towards the truth.
On the other
hand, science is
a product
because without
those historic
steps, a yet
more complex ideas couldn't have appear.
For example, Sir Isaac Newton cannot
formulate the laws of motion without the
ideas of Aristotle and Galileo Galilie. In
other words Newton didn't come up with
the equation out of nowhere, neither he
destroyed false ideas of Aristotle about
Meaning of Technology
On the same view, technology is defined
as both a process and a product.
1. Technology is a process.
(a) It is the application of science.
(b) The practice, description, and
terminology of applied sciences.
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motion during the process, but he built a
new idea with a more accurate description
of nature and motion, leaving the Laws of
Motion as a product.
Another example
can be illustrated
in making a lye (a
needed in soapmaking), where
sodium hydroxide
is slowly poured into distilled water and
carefully stirred until fully dissolved. The
lye solution is left to cool, eventually, it is
ready to mixed with oils. In the process of
dissolving the sodium hydroxide, the
product is lye.
In photosynthesis-a process by which
plants use solar energy to produce sugar,
light energy is
converted to
chemical energy,
which is stored in
sugars. The
process involves
three basic
reactants (water,
carbon dioxide and light energy) and
produces three key products (glucose,
oxygen and water).
(c) The intelligent organization
and manipulation of materials for
useful purposes.
(d) The means employed to provide
for human needs and wants.
(e) Focused on inventing new or
better tools and materials or new
and better ways of doing things.
(f) A way of using findings of science
to produce new things for a
better way of living.
(g) Search for concrete solutions that
work and give wanted results.
(h) It is characteristically calculative
and imitative, tends to be
dangerously manipulative.
(i) Form of human cultural activity.
2. Technology as a product.
(a) A system of know-how, skills,
techniques and processes.
Technology as a process provides the
means to make and deliver products with
attainment of specified product features
by use, application and control of
methods, techniques, machines and
resources. In other words, it is
methodology adapted to produce the
product or providing the services. The
steps in technological process consist of
(1) identification of the problem, (2)
searching of information, (3) designing
and constructing, and (4) evaluation of
what have been constructed.
For example, in the construction of a
(b) It is like a language, rituals, values,
commerce and arts, it is an intrinsic
part of cultural system and it both
shapes and reflects the system
(c) It is the product of the scientific
(d) The complex combination
of knowledge, materials
and methods.
(e) Material products of human
making or fabrication.
(f) Total societal enterprise.
we cross from one side of a river to the
other side? The river is too deep to cross it
by feet and there is too much water stream
or cold temperature to cross by swimming.
the possible solution is to build a bridge;
then we should look for information about
the different kinds of bridge and find out if
which kind will fit the need of the
step, an engineer draws the design of the
bridge that is appropriate for the location
and purpose of the structure. Once
everything is planned, construction will
EVALUATION: After the construction of the
bridge, it will be tested according to its
capacity before we can fully use it, to
ensure the safety of the end-users.
San Juanico Bridge: The longest bridge in the
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However, technology as a product could
be a ready to use commodity or
something you can hand over to someone
else (even services are products because
you give them to others). It can be
hardware or software. Here are some
examples of technology as a product;
In communication we have the Social
Media Platforms, which allow people to
create personal pages, post profile images
and updates on their lives, and create a
friend list of people who can see your
updates. It also allows users to directly
connect with one another through groups,
networks, and location.
Different Social Media Platforms that allow us to
connect with our family and friends.
Nowadays, Vertical
Farming is very
popular in urban
areas where plants
are cultivated and
stacked upwards,
usually within
buildings, taking
less space than
traditional farming.
Because this
method takes up
Vertical farming takes
fewer resources
place the traditional
such as water and
land, it then
becomes a
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feasible solution for smart cities.
Singapore, for instance, is leading the
vertical farming trend in Southeast Asia,
with over 30 vertical farms by several
companies in the past year. In the
Philippines, the Urban Agriculture Act of
2013, which requires the Department of
Agriculture to explore urban agriculture,
including vertical farming, and transform
abandoned government lots into vertical
farming facilities, has already been filed.
Another example of
technology as a
product is the new
capabilities of
Global Positioning
System or GPS.
Instant car pools are
feasible since
people desiring a
ride can be
Smartphones can be used
instantly matched
in tracking people,
vehicles, parcel, etc.
with a vehicle in a
nearby area. Also,
GPS can be used as a valuable tool in
tracking criminals or terrorists by the law
enforcers, using devices they attach to
vehicles, or through tracking the
perpetrator's smartphone.
Focus Question #2: Based from what you have understood about the meaning of
science and technology, determine whether the following statements describe
science (as process or product) or technology (as process or product). Go to your
Google Classroom and click the link that will redirect you to go to Google Form to
answer this question.
1. The Law of Universal Gravitation states
that the force of gravity is directly
proportional to the product of masses
of two attracting bodies and inversely
proportional to the square of the
distance separating them
2. Scientists and philosophers from
ancient times have made observations
about gravity on Earth. In 628, Indian
astronomer Brahmagupta recognized
gravity as a force of attraction. In the
1600s, Galileo Galilei, Robert Hooke
and Johannes Kepler formulated laws
of gravity near the Earth.
For Q.1 & 2: The Law of Universal Gravitation was
formulated by Sir Isaac Newton
3. Measuring the width of a wooden block
using metric ruler.
4. The measured width of the wooden
block is 6.5 centimeters
5. A metric ruler or meter stick can be
used in measuring lengths with high
For Q.3, 4, & 5: Measurement is fundamental to the
sciences; to engineering, construction, and other
technical fields; and to almost all everyday
6. Weaving of hat from coconut fronds-the
leaf part of coconut palm.To weave the
hat, use between 17 and 20 leaflets,
means use 17, 18, 19 or 20 leaflets. Hats
weaved with 17 leaflets will give a
normal hat. below 17 will be smaller
and suitable for kids only. Above 20
leaflets will make the hat very large.
7. This hat is something that definitely
turns heads and also protects the
wearer from sunlight.
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For Q.6 & 7: Native hat made from coconut fronds
8. In textile manufacturing, the plant or
animal fibers are converted into yarn
and yarn into fabric. These are dyed or
9. The dyed or printed fabrics are then
fabricated into clothes while other
textile goods are used for decoration
(such as patches, ribbon, bows, flowers,
10.Cotton is the most important natural
fiber in the textile industry; and, cotton
fabric is one of the most commonly
used types of fabrics in the world. It is
chemically organic, which means that it
does not contain any synthetic
For Q.8, 9, &10: Cotton fabric is derived from the
fibers surrounding the seeds of cotton plants, which
emerge in a round, fluffy formation once the seeds
are mature.
Meaning of Society
1. Came from the Latin word “socius” that
means friendship, companionship or
2. It is a dynamic system
of collective, cohabitation of
groups of individuals with mutual
understanding, benefits and common
Society is
a dynamic
because it
is subject
may take place slowly and gradually or
suddenly and abruptly. Technology, social
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3. Made up of community of people.
a) Scientists
b) Technologists
c) Recipients (Users)
4. It provides us with a system and a
platform to work together for the
betterment of the world. With the
collective efforts of the society, we are
able to improve our living and social
institutions, population, and the
environment, alone or in some
combination, create social change. All
these areas can impact when and how
society changes. And they are all
interrelated: a change in one area can lead
to changes throughout. Say for example,
advances in medical technology allow
infertile women to bear children,
eventually it indirectly leads to increase in
Society is made
up of
individuals who
have agreed to
work together
for mutual
Through the joint
efforts of individuals , they can help the
groups to which they belong to, their
community, or they can help society as a
An example of how the people in a society
work together for a common goal can be
observed in the current situation of our
country where Covid-19 became
pandemic. In our condition right now,
everyone is encourage to follow the health
protocol (wearing of mask, frequent hand
washing and social distancing) specified by
the Department of Health in order to
reduce the chances of virus infection and
overwhelming of patients’ hospital
accommodation. For the past four months,
we’re doing this altogether and we are
trying to fight Covid-19…as one. Let us
continue the fight until a vaccine is
discovered by the experts. Meanwhile, stay
at home and stay safe and healthy!
Focus Question #3: As an individual, how do you leave a positive impact in your
Purposes of Science & Technology
1. To improve quality of human condition.
2. To provide solution to our practical
3. To establish relevant institutional
linkages and essential mechanisms.
4. To develop individual knowledge.
6. To give an information and explanation
of the natural world.
7. To develop new areas of knowledge.
8. To combat irrationality.
9. To maintain the availability of
natural resources.
5. To find order in the chaos of nature and
deliver personal and social liberation.
Technology has advanced into many areas
of our lives, making information more
accessible, improving communication,
changing transportation, and more. Today
we can text or message our family
members and friends online to
communicate rather than just going and
knocking on their door. In addition, we
don’t need to memorize phone numbers
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anymore because cellphones, particularly
smartphones, can save hundreds of phone
numbers that are all a click away. Buying
and selling of goods, nowadays, were also
improved because of technology; instead
of going to shopping malls, supermarkets
or grocery stores, which is not as safe as
when there was no Covid-19 yet, we can
avail all the basic needs with less hassles
through online
buying. But of
course we must be
careful in choosing
online sellers to
avoid any any
Shopping online is convenient
and secure.
in our part.
Always read the reviews of those who
already purchased the same item before
trusting the seller and placing your order/s.
These are only few examples that shows
how technology improved and made our
lives easier. Though technology can make
our lives easier and convenient, we should
also remember that with each benefit
comes a potential cost or consequences.
In today’s world, the role of science and
technology is essential; it provides solution
to difficult problems, the problems that
have the potential to become major
bottlenecks to the overall growth of the
country. Some of these problems could be
related to health, education, availability of
healthy food and drinking water, and
Currently, the
Covid-19 pandemic
becomes a major
problem in the
health system of
our country and
Novel coronavirus caused
the world, as a
whole. It
happened in
times that our health system is not ready
from this kind of health problem; however,
researchers worldwide are working around
the clock to find a vaccine against the virus
causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Experts
estimate that a fast-tracked vaccine
development process could speed a
successful candidate to market in
approximately 12-18 months–if the process
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goes smoothly from conception to market
availability. Hence, the global scientific
community must continue to be part in the
development of scientific and
technological innovations not only to
successfully combat the COVID-19
pandemic, but also to contribute to
knowledge societies that exist in harmony
with nature and where individuals can lead
prosperous and fulfilling lives. Let us pray
and be hopeful that soon a vaccine can be
developed to cure the diseases due to
novel coronavirus (COVID-19).
Science can also combat irrationality-an
absurd action, behavior or thought; but
how? Have you heard or learned Aristotle’s
theory of motion? In his theory, Aristotle
stated that heavier objects fall faster than
lighter ones. Philosophically speaking, he’s
right that’s why his idea was accepted for
about 2000 years. However, Galileo Galilei
Aristotle’s theory
and he asserted
that light and heavy
objects when
from the same
height will reach
the ground at the
The “thought experiment”
same time. Galileo
of Galileo Galilei at the
had proven his
Leaning Tower of Pisa
statement when he
dropped objects of
different masses from the leaning tower of
Pisa (in Italy) and eventually, the objects
reached the ground at the same time.
Though Galileo did not actually dropped
the objects from the tower (what he did
was a “thought experiment”- experiment
done in the head, he was able to refute the
old thinking about the motion of falling
Focus Question #4: In your current situation, how did science and technology
improved the quality of your life condition?
Limitations of Science and Technology
Epistemological concerns. It cannot help us with questions about the God, the ultimate
Good, and Truth. It cannot deny nor confirm the existence of God, soul, heaven and other
We believe that everything in the universe
was created by God and He also made life
into existence. And the existence of life and
other things
could be a
proof that
God exists
because of His
creations. But
the questions
is, if there was
no life in a
planet, will this
mean that
God does not exist in that place? Some of
you might say yes while others might say
no; your answer depends on how strong or
weak your religious belief and we’ll respect
your opinion. Well, Science can explain
how plants make their own food, how
animals depend on plants to sustain life,
how our human body system function
when we’re alive; however these are not
enough evidences to conclude that science
can prove or disprove the existence of
God. But of course if we use our beliefs as
an excuse to draw conclusion scientifically,
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we run the grave risk of depriving ourselves
of what we might have come to truly learn.
Nowadays, we can track the whereabouts
of our friends and family members using
the modern technology of smartphones,
we can even travel from one place to
another with ease in a short span of time.
But these technology cannot be used to
travel in heaven, hell or purgatory for us to
be able to prove or deny that there is such
place in the afterlife. We can’t even send a
text or private message to our deceased
loved ones to find out if how they are
doing. Actually, none of our modern
technology can confirm whether the soul of
a deceased person goes to heaven or hell
or it’s just wandering around us. It’s our
faith that, maybe, matters if what to believe
or not to believe.
Metaphysical concerns. Immaterial and transcendental nature is beyond the grasp of
scientific inquiry. It cannot speak to issue of ultimate origin, meaning or morality.
Immaterial and transcendental describe
anything that has to do with the spiritual or
non-physical world, which is beyond the
realm of rationality and the material world
or ordinary and everyday experience; it is
mystical or supernatural. An example of this
is the ability to
with the dead,
which could be
initiated through
channeling or
claimed that
they can listen to
and relay
messages from
spirits or they can allow spirit to control
their body and speak through it directly or
by using automatic drawing or writing. The
validity of this practice can be studied but
no scientific explanation can justify that a
medium can communicate with the dead,
Another example of transcendental entity is
the concept of the soul that exist entirely
apart from the body when a person dies.
Most of us believed that at death, the soul
is separated from the body and exists in a
conscious or unconscious spiritual state.
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We, as Christians, also believed that on the
Judgement Day souls will be re-embodied
and will live eternally in the heavenly
kingdom. No one knows when it will
happen, however, let us do the right things
here on earth so that our soul will be
rewarded in the future. Whether this is true
or not, again, our religious belief, which
should be respected by everyone, matters.
And just like the previous example, the
existence of soul is beyond the grasp of
scientific inquiry and there is no scientific
studies, yet, that can prove the reality of this
Needs human intervention to carry out its functions properly.
It can predict forces of nature but cannot prevent the prevalence/occurrence.
Cannot guarantee an ultimate solution to any specific problem.
In this modern days, machines can be
operated and made functional by artificial
agents like robots, which perform task in
behalf of humans without immediate and
direct human control. However, there are
still other machines (technologies) that
become functional only if a person utilized
them. Like for example, in doing our
laundry using a washing machine; we need
to fill this with water, pour powdered
detergent and put the laundry in it because
the machine cannot do it by itself. Though
the washing can be performed by the
machine automatically, we still need to take
a hand to make it functional and perform its
task properly. Another
example, “Siri” or Speech
Interpretation and
Recognition Interface in
our smartphone
(particularly iPhone) can
send a message to our family members,
friends and colleagues upon dictation but
then again, without our effort to do so “Siri”
can’t compose the message if we will not
dictate it to her.
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Many years ago, the occurrence of natural
disaster such as earthquake, typhoon,
volcanic eruption and others were
predicted depending on the behavior of
some animals, based on astronomical
movement of heavenly bodies and other
mythical beliefs. People would say that
volcano is angry when it erupted or that the
gods were demanding for sacrifices. But
today, our capability to predict most natural
hazards and disseminate warnings based
on those predictions can be better
addressed because of the current scientific
and technological advancements; hence,
we are able to make preventive measures
and preparations ahead of time to reduce
the damage in our properties. Also, print
(newspaper) and broadcast media (radio,
and television) can help us to learn and
understand about the natural disasters and
disaster prevention. However, we cannot
stop these natural phenomena from
happening with the use of modern
technology, it can only be used for
prediction, data gathering and
interpretation and for preventive measures.
Lastly, science can not solve all of our
problems; however, our scientific
understanding can help us fight diseases,
hunger and poverty when applied properly
and when the concerned individual act on
that understanding, accordingly. For
instance, science has found that smoking
has many
bad effects
related to
health, social
level, which, eventually, can harm a person
in many aspects. Knowing that cigarettes
contains highly addictive chemical known
as nicotine, but it can do nothing to your
personal health unless you stop from
smoking or you did not start smoking at all.
Reading an article about the health risk of
smoking is easy but the hard part is to stop
from smoking. In this sense, science really
cannot solve the problem, only us can solve
the problem when we take the knowledge
provided by science and use it
appropriately. In fact, many of our
problems are caused by lack of action and
not lack of knowledge.
Technology and the Quality of Life
New technologies are improving the quality of life. These are seen in:
1. Medical research in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and medical devices helps us lead
healthier lives and offers new hope for the sick.
Medical research has high value to society
because it can provide important
information about disease trends and risk
factors, outcomes of treatment or public
health interventions, functional abilities,
patterns of care, and health care costs and
use. Eventually, medical research have led
to significant discoveries, the development
of new therapies, and a remarkable
improvement in health care and public
health. Like for instance, the discovery of
“Sputnik V”
from Russia is
the awaited
vaccine that
might cure
though there
are some
controversies on this, we are very hopeful
for the success of curing Covid19 using
“Sputnik V”. The development of this
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vaccine will bring new hope to the Covid19
patients (more importantly) and to their
family as well.
In the health
of Covid19
patients with
severe or
infection, ventilators are indispensable.
These machines are used to pump oxygen
into the lungs of patients to maintain blood
oxygen saturation; these are used for
severe and critically ill patients
experiencing breathing difficulties;
however, not all severe patients need
ventilator. In other words, not every severe
patient can experience breathing difficulty
that can only be solved by ventilator. Some
patients just need to inhale oxygen, and an
oxygen system can simply do the job.
These technology [ventilator] allowed time
for the patient to recover in hopes that
breathing becomes normal again. It’s
important to understand that ventilators do
not cure COVID-19, but they help support
lung function while a patient’s body is
fighting the infection.
2. Sophisticated traffic management systems for land, sea, and air transportation enable
the smooth and timely movement of more people and goods.
Transport is a key sector in the Philippine
economy, linking population and economic
centers across the islands. The transport
system in most of the cities in the
Philippines is predominantly land-based.
Relative to this, the Metropolitan Manila
Development Authority (MMDA) tried to
improve traffic flow and reduce travel
times, making the best not only for the
movement of vehicles but also that of
persons, goods and services. Since Metro
Manila is the country’s main business, retail
and industry hub, it is important that MMDA
has a long term solution in managing the
transit of the people in the metro. And a
complete, centralized urban traffic
management, which includes centralized
stoplight system and CCTV system, was
implemented as the mobility solution for
Metro Manila. The above-mentioned
technology improved the urban traffic
control and management, improved
stoplight status data available in real time,
improved data on traffic-related incidents,
Traffic Management System in the Philippines
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and adapt vehicular traffic speed;
eventually, there was a reduction of
polluting elements in the streets, improved
road safety and a decrease in the holdup
In recent
years, there
has been
of roll-on rolloff (ro-ro) ferry
The roll-on-roll-off (ro-ro) ferry
which are
services in the Philippines
aimed at
providing an
alternative to traditional long-distance
inter-island shipping services. The ro-ro
system allows vehicles to drive onto and off
ro-ro ferries without loading or unloading
of cargo. This transport system can reduce
the sea transport costs because this
eliminates cargo-handling labor and
equipment, and reduces the amount of
time cargo is required to be in port.
In 2018, the Civil Aviation Authority of the
Philippines (CAAP) started to use the new
communications, navigation, surveillance/
air traffic management systems (CNS/ATM)
that brings air traffic and navigation levels
on a par with the international standards.
With this CNS/ATM systems, the air travel is
more definite, aircraft identification is more
established, and safety and security of
passengers are guaranteed. Moreover, the
systems also bring a better air traffic flow
and space management that optimizes
airport capacity and efficient use of
airspace, which eventually, minimizes
delays by helping aircraft operators meet
their departure and arrival schedule. In
other words, CNS/ATM technology
enhances safety, reliability and efficiency of
air traffic service in the Philippines.
So, with the above-mentioned
technological advancements in traffic
management and transportation, the
movement of people and goods from one
place to another is considerably fast.
However, in today’s situation, most of us
find some difficulties in going to our
destination [especially those in the work
force] because of a limited means of
transportation. Recently, our government
tried to control the number of land, air and
sea transportation in bringing people to a
Air Transportation in the Philippines
place in order to reduce the chances of
community transmission of Covid19. In
some ways, it helped to slow down the rate
of transmission of the virus but the
Philippine industry and economy were
greatly affected by this action of the
government. Anyway, let’s be hopeful that
everything will go back to the old normal
soon; meanwhile, let’s keep ourselves safe
and healthy by following the health
protocol imposed by the Department of
3. Agricultural research is producing safer, healthier, and tastier food products.
During the ancient civilization, humans
overcame hunger and diseases not only by
harvesting food from the cultivated land
but also by processing it with sophisticated
methods. Like for example, in the Ancient
Greece, their bread, olive oil and wine were
processed and transformed from
perishable, unpalatable, or hardly edible
raw materials into safe, flavorful, nutritious,
stable and enjoyable foods.
Today, our production-to-consumption
food system is complex, however, our food
is largely safe, tasty, abundant, nutritious,
diverse, convenient and cheaper and more
readily available and accessible than
before. Our food system includes
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A baker prepares bread at Panaderia PantojaPhilippine Bakeshop & Bread Supplier
agricultural harvesting, holding and storing
of raw materials, food manufacturing
(formulation, food processing and
packaging), transportation and distribution,
retailing, food service, and food
preparation in the home. Food science and
technology contributed greatly to the
success of modern food system in
resolving nutritional deficiencies and
enhancing food safety.
The modern food manufacturing enable to
maintain and improve the food quality and
enhance the food safety. Also, the sensitive
nutrients can be preserved, important
vitamins and minerals can be added while
toxins and ani-nutrients can be removed,
and foods can be designed to optimize
health and reduce the risk of disease.
Moreover, the waste and product loss can
be reduced, and distribution around the
world can be facilitated to allow seasonal
availability of plenty of foods. It should also
be noted that modern food manufacturing
also often improves the quality of life for
individuals with specific health conditions,
offering modified foods to meet their
needs; for example, sugar-free foods
sweetened with an alternative sweetener
for people with diabetes.
Artificial sweetener is a good alternative in place of
sugar to limit sugar intake
4. Automobile research is providing safer, cleaner, energy efficient, and more intelligent
Human mobility was revolutionized by the
the arrival of automobiles. Because of
increase in the number of automobiles, the
roads and streets were expanded so that
intercity travel can be accommodated. The
advancement in technology tremendously
improved the power, performance and
travel range of vehicles to the level that
they reshaped the city sprawl and the way
people live today.
Over the years, vehicles have transformed
to become advance technological
machines that extend mobility to leisure,
comfort, luxury, sports, and, for some, an
extension, expression of their image and
personality, and status symbol as well.
Some of us are already driving hybrid
vehicles or commuting in buses powered
by hydrogen or biofuels. We are still
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looking forward for additional advances in
transportation, not only because we want to
go in places that we dreamt of, but also to
reduce greenhouse gases, improve air
quality, and support economic
Biofuel benefits the environment because it burns more
cleanly and reduces the amount of carbon dioxide
(greenhouse gas emissions) produced by your car.
5. Information and telecommunications technologies have enabled instantaneous
communications around the globe.
Before the emergence of the Internet and
other data networks, the telephone (and
earlier the telegraph) was an application of
technology that allowed people to
communicate at a distance by voice (and
earlier by encoded electronic signals), and
telephone service was provided by the
public switched telephone network. But
today, there are other communication tools
that can be used to communicate with
other people; these tools include email,
cellphones, smartphones, computers, video
and web conferencing tools, social
networking, as well as online collaboration
and productivity platforms.
In today's interrelated world, information
and communication technology (ICT) is
extensively used by our country and it
affects our lives everyday. Recently, many
ICT gadgets are used in our life and
facilitate with mobility, thus, used anywhere
and anytime. These gadgets operate for
information, speed, and communication
and reduce the physical and mental human
work load. By that principles, modern day
gadgets truly helped mankind in daily life.
ICT has contributed a lot to change our
everyday life such as letter to e-mail, market
shopping to on-line shopping, classroom
learning to e-learning, etc. We can carry out
net banking, read newspapers online,
watch TV programs, and connects
ourselves to our family, friends, or relatives
while we are at long distance by using the
e-mail, messenger, call-conference, or
Moreover, there are many available social
networking sites like FACEBOOK, VIBER,
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TWITTER, and LINKEDIN which allows us to
communicate and stay connected with
family and friends across the globe
regularly. All these sites have helped to
narrow the physical distances between us.
Social Networking provides facilities such
as faster communication speed, effective
sharing of information, paperless
environment, etc.
We can communicate each other without
boundaries. It becomes quicker because
we can send an instant message in a
fraction of time with the low cost which
saves costs and man power for delivery.
And by the use of video conferencing
technique, we can get feel to
communicate with someone face to face
which is benefit for meeting or
communicate together.
Information and communication technology is an
‘umbrella’ term that includes any communication
device such as television, digital media, smart phones,
iPads, smart board, etc. ICT also includes the
hardware & software used to operate the technology.