Uploaded by Mr Erratic


Instructions: Translate the entire text, create a list of terms in both
English and Arabic, then submit the translation along with
terminology on blackboard.
Microeconomics: This branch of economics studies the behavior of individual consumers and
firms and the market forces that determine the prices of goods and services. It explores the
decisions made by individuals and firms in the allocation of scarce resources, and how those
decisions impact market outcomes. Microeconomics also studies market structures, such as
monopolies and oligopolies, and how they influence prices and output.
Macroeconomics: This branch of economics focuses on the economy as a whole, rather than the
behavior of individual actors. It studies issues such as economic growth, inflation, and
unemployment, and the factors that drive these macroeconomic variables. Macroeconomics also
examines the role of fiscal and monetary policy in achieving economic stability and growth.
In addition to these two main branches, there are several other areas of study within economics,
including international economics, development economics, environmental economics, behavioral
economics, and public economics. Each of these sub-fields contributes to a deeper understanding
of the economy and the forces that shape it.
Economic systems are the ways in which a society organizes the production, distribution, and
consumption of goods and services. There are several types of economic systems, including:
1. Primitivism: Primitivism is a social and economic movement that seeks to reject modern
industrial civilization and return to a more primitive or natural way of life. The goal of
primitivism is to reject the consumerist and materialist values of modern society and
instead prioritize simplicity, sustainability, and self-sufficiency.
2. Feudalism: Feudalism was a form of political and economic organization that dominated
Europe from the 9th to the 15th centuries. It was characterized by the granting of lands by
a lord (usually a monarch or noble) to vassals in exchange for their loyalty and military
3. Capitalism: Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership of the means
of production, with goods and services produced and exchanged through a market system.
Under capitalism, individuals and businesses are free to make their own economic
decisions, and the pursuit of profit is the primary motivation.
4. Socialism: Socialism is an economic system in which the means of production are owned
and controlled by the government or the community as a whole, rather than by individuals.
The goal of socialism is to reduce income inequality and provide equal access to goods
and services for all members of society.
5. Communism: Communism is a political and economic ideology that advocates for a
classless society and the abolition of private property. Under communism, the means of
production are owned and controlled by the community as a whole, with goods and
services distributed based on need rather than market exchange.
6. Mixed Economies: Mixed economies are systems that incorporate elements of both
capitalism and socialism. In a mixed economy, the government regulates certain aspects
of the economy, such as healthcare, education, and housing, while also allowing for private
enterprise in other sectors.
Each of these economic systems has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the type of system
that is in place in a given country is often shaped by its history, culture, and political landscape.