# Thomas Calculus 11th Edition

```4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:49 AM Page 1
Chapter
1
PRELIMINARIES
OVERVIEW This chapter reviews the basic ideas you need to start calculus. The topics include the real number system, Cartesian coordinates in the plane, straight lines, parabolas,
circles, functions, and trigonometry. We also discuss the use of graphing calculators and
computer graphing software.
1.1
Real Numbers and the Real Line
This section reviews real numbers, inequalities, intervals, and absolute values.
Real Numbers
Much of calculus is based on properties of the real number system. Real numbers are
numbers that can be expressed as decimals, such as
-
3
= - 0.75000 &Aacute;
4
1
= 0.33333 &Aacute;
3
22 = 1.4142 &Aacute;
The dots &Aacute; in each case indicate that the sequence of decimal digits goes on forever.
Every conceivable decimal expansion represents a real number, although some numbers
have two representations. For instance, the infinite decimals .999 &Aacute; and 1.000 &Aacute; represent the same real number 1. A similar statement holds for any number with an infinite tail
of 9’s.
The real numbers can be represented geometrically as points on a number line called
the real line.
–2
–1 – 3
4
0
1
3
1 兹2
2
3␲
4
The symbol denotes either the real number system or, equivalently, the real line.
The properties of the real number system fall into three categories: algebraic properties, order properties, and completeness. The algebraic properties say that the real numbers can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided (except by 0) to produce more real
numbers under the usual rules of arithmetic. You can never divide by 0.
1
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
The order properties of real numbers are given in Appendix 4. The following useful
rules can be derived from them, where the symbol Q means “implies.”
Rules for Inequalities
If a, b, and c are real numbers, then:
5.
a 6 b Q a + c 6 b + c
a 6 b Q a - c 6 b - c
a 6 b and c 7 0 Q ac 6 bc
a 6 b and c 6 0 Q bc 6 ac
Special case: a 6 b Q -b 6 - a
1
a 7 0 Q a 7 0
6.
If a and b are both positive or both negative, then a 6 b Q
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
1
6 a
b
Notice the rules for multiplying an inequality by a number. Multiplying by a positive number preserves the inequality; multiplying by a negative number reverses the inequality.
Also, reciprocation reverses the inequality for numbers of the same sign. For example,
2 6 5 but - 2 7 - 5 and 1&gt;2 7 1&gt;5.
The completeness property of the real number system is deeper and harder to define
precisely. However, the property is essential to the idea of a limit (Chapter 2). Roughly
speaking, it says that there are enough real numbers to “complete” the real number line, in
the sense that there are no “holes” or “gaps” in it. Many theorems of calculus would fail if
the real number system were not complete. The topic is best saved for a more advanced
course, but Appendix 4 hints about what is involved and how the real numbers are constructed.
We distinguish three special subsets of real numbers.
1.
2.
3.
The natural numbers, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, &Aacute;
The integers, namely 0, ; 1, ;2, ; 3, &Aacute;
The rational numbers, namely the numbers that can be expressed in the form of a
fraction m&gt;n, where m and n are integers and n Z 0. Examples are
1
,
3
-
-4
4
4
=
=
,
9
9
-9
200
,
13
and
57 =
57
.
1
The rational numbers are precisely the real numbers with decimal expansions that are
either
(a) terminating (ending in an infinite string of zeros), for example,
3
= 0.75000 &Aacute; = 0.75
4
or
(b) eventually repeating (ending with a block of digits that repeats over and over), for
example
23
= 2.090909 &Aacute; = 2.09
11
The bar indicates the
block of repeating
digits.
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1.1 Real Numbers and the Real Line
3
A terminating decimal expansion is a special type of repeating decimal since the ending
zeros repeat.
The set of rational numbers has all the algebraic and order properties of the real numbers but lacks the completeness property. For example, there is no rational number whose
square is 2; there is a “hole” in the rational line where 22 should be.
Real numbers that are not rational are called irrational numbers. They are characterized by having nonterminating and nonrepeating decimal expansions. Examples are
3
p, 22, 2
5, and log10 3. Since every decimal expansion represents a real number, it
should be clear that there are infinitely many irrational numbers. Both rational and irrational numbers are found arbitrarily close to any point on the real line.
Set notation is very useful for specifying a particular subset of real numbers. A set is a
collection of objects, and these objects are the elements of the set. If S is a set, the notation
a H S means that a is an element of S, and a x S means that a is not an element of S. If S
and T are sets, then S &acute; T is their union and consists of all elements belonging either to S
or T (or to both S and T). The intersection S &uml; T consists of all elements belonging to both
S and T. The empty set &curren; is the set that contains no elements. For example, the intersection of the rational numbers and the irrational numbers is the empty set.
Some sets can be described by listing their elements in braces. For instance, the set A
consisting of the natural numbers (or positive integers) less than 6 can be expressed as
A = 51, 2, 3, 4, 56.
The entire set of integers is written as
50, ;1, ; 2, ;3, &Aacute; 6.
Another way to describe a set is to enclose in braces a rule that generates all the elements of the set. For instance, the set
A = 5x ƒ x is an integer and 0 6 x 6 66
is the set of positive integers less than 6.
Intervals
A subset of the real line is called an interval if it contains at least two numbers and contains all the real numbers lying between any two of its elements. For example, the set of all
real numbers x such that x 7 6 is an interval, as is the set of all x such that -2 … x … 5.
The set of all nonzero real numbers is not an interval; since 0 is absent, the set fails to contain every real number between -1 and 1 (for example).
Geometrically, intervals correspond to rays and line segments on the real line, along
with the real line itself. Intervals of numbers corresponding to line segments are finite intervals; intervals corresponding to rays and the real line are infinite intervals.
A finite interval is said to be closed if it contains both of its endpoints, half-open if it
contains one endpoint but not the other, and open if it contains neither endpoint. The endpoints are also called boundary points; they make up the interval’s boundary. The remaining points of the interval are interior points and together comprise the interval’s interior. Infinite intervals are closed if they contain a finite endpoint, and open otherwise.
The entire real line is an infinite interval that is both open and closed.
Solving Inequalities
The process of finding the interval or intervals of numbers that satisfy an inequality in x is
called solving the inequality.
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
TABLE 1.1 Types of intervals
Finite:
Notation
Set description
Type
(a, b)
5x ƒ a 6 x 6 b6
Open
5x ƒ a … x … b6
Closed
5x ƒ a … x 6 b6
Half-open
5x ƒ a 6 x … b6
Half-open
5x ƒ x 7 a6
Open
[a, q d
5x ƒ x &Uacute; a6
Closed
s - q , bd
5x ƒ x 6 b6
Open
s - q , b]
5x ƒ x … b6
Closed
[a, b]
[a, b)
(a, b]
sa, q d
Infinite:
(set of all real
numbers)
s - q, q d
EXAMPLE 1
Picture
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
a
b
b
Both open
and closed
Solve the following inequalities and show their solution sets on the real
line.
(a) 2x - 1 6 x + 3
0
1
x
4
–3
7
0
x
1
(b)
0
(c)
6
&Uacute; 5
x - 1
2x - 1 6 x + 3
2x 6 x + 4
x 6 4
Subtract x from both sides.
The solution set is the open interval s - q , 4d (Figure 1.1a).
x
11
5
1
x
6 2x + 1
3
Solution
(a)
(a)
(b) -
(c)
FIGURE 1.1 Solution sets for the
inequalities in Example 1.
(b)
-
x
6 2x + 1
3
-x 6 6x + 3
0 6 7x + 3
-3 6 7x
-
3
6 x
7
Multiply both sides by 3.
Subtract 3 from both sides.
Divide by 7.
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1.1 Real Numbers and the Real Line
5
The solution set is the open interval s - 3&gt;7, q d (Figure 1.1b).
(c) The inequality 6&gt;sx - 1d &Uacute; 5 can hold only if x 7 1, because otherwise 6&gt;sx - 1d
is undefined or negative. Therefore, sx - 1d is positive and the inequality will be preserved if we multiply both sides by sx - 1d, and we have
6
&Uacute; 5
x - 1
6 &Uacute; 5x - 5
11 &Uacute; 5x
Multiply both sides by sx - 1d .
11
&Uacute; x.
5
Or x …
11
.
5
The solution set is the half-open interval (1, 11&gt;5] (Figure 1.1c).
Absolute Value
The absolute value of a number x, denoted by ƒ x ƒ , is defined by the formula
ƒxƒ = e
EXAMPLE 2
x,
- x,
x &Uacute; 0
x 6 0.
Finding Absolute Values
ƒ 3 ƒ = 3,
ƒ 0 ƒ = 0,
ƒ -5 ƒ = - s -5d = 5,
ƒ - ƒaƒƒ = ƒaƒ
Geometrically, the absolute value of x is the distance from x to 0 on the real number
line. Since distances are always positive or 0, we see that ƒ x ƒ &Uacute; 0 for every real number x,
and ƒ x ƒ = 0 if and only if x = 0. Also,
– 5 5
–5
3
ƒ x - y ƒ = the distance between x and y
0
3
4 1 1 4 3
1
4
FIGURE 1.2 Absolute values give
distances between points on the number
line.
on the real line (Figure 1.2).
Since the symbol 2a always denotes the nonnegative square root of a, an alternate
definition of ƒ x ƒ is
ƒ x ƒ = 2x 2 .
It is important to remember that 2a 2 = ƒ a ƒ . Do not write 2a 2 = a unless you already
know that a &Uacute; 0.
The absolute value has the following properties. (You are asked to prove these properties in the exercises.)
Absolute Value Properties
1.
ƒ -a ƒ = ƒ a ƒ
2.
ƒ ab ƒ = ƒ a ƒ ƒ b ƒ
3.
4.
ƒaƒ
a
` ` =
b
ƒbƒ
ƒa + bƒ … ƒaƒ + ƒbƒ
A number and its additive inverse or negative have
the same absolute value.
The absolute value of a product is the product of
the absolute values.
The absolute value of a quotient is the quotient
of the absolute values.
The triangle inequality. The absolute value of the
sum of two numbers is less than or equal to the
sum of their absolute values.
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Note that ƒ -a ƒ Z - ƒ a ƒ . For example, ƒ -3 ƒ = 3, whereas - ƒ 3 ƒ = - 3. If a and b
differ in sign, then ƒ a + b ƒ is less than ƒ a ƒ + ƒ b ƒ . In all other cases, ƒ a + b ƒ equals
ƒ a ƒ + ƒ b ƒ . Absolute value bars in expressions like ƒ -3 + 5 ƒ work like parentheses: We do
the arithmetic inside before taking the absolute value.
a
a
–a
x
EXAMPLE 3
0
Illustrating the Triangle Inequality
a
ƒ - 3 + 5 ƒ = ƒ 2 ƒ = 2 6 ƒ -3 ƒ + ƒ 5 ƒ = 8
ƒ3 + 5ƒ = ƒ8ƒ = ƒ3ƒ + ƒ5ƒ
-3
- 5 ƒ = ƒ - 8 ƒ = 8 = ƒ - 3 ƒ + ƒ -5 ƒ
ƒ
x
FIGURE 1.3 ƒ x ƒ 6 a means x lies
between -a and a.
The inequality ƒ x ƒ 6 a says that the distance from x to 0 is less than the positive number a. This means that x must lie between -a and a, as we can see from Figure 1.3.
The following statements are all consequences of the definition of absolute value and
are often helpful when solving equations or inequalities involving absolute values.
Absolute Values and Intervals
If a is any positive number, then
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
ƒxƒ
ƒxƒ
ƒxƒ
ƒxƒ
ƒxƒ
=
6
7
…
&Uacute;
a
a
a
a
a
if and only if x = ; a
if and only if -a 6 x 6 a
if and only if x 7 a or x 6 - a
if and only if -a … x … a
if and only if x &Uacute; a or x … - a
The symbol 3 is often used by mathematicians to denote the “if and only if ” logical
relationship. It also means “implies and is implied by.”
EXAMPLE 4
Solving an Equation with Absolute Values
Solve the equation ƒ 2x - 3 ƒ = 7.
Solution
By Property 5, 2x - 3 = ; 7, so there are two possibilities:
2x - 3 = 7
2x = 10
x = 5
2x - 3 = - 7
2x = - 4
x = -2
Equivalent equations
without absolute values
Solve as usual.
The solutions of ƒ 2x - 3 ƒ = 7 are x = 5 and x = - 2.
EXAMPLE 5
Solving an Inequality Involving Absolute Values
2
Solve the inequality ` 5 - x ` 6 1.
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1.1 Real Numbers and the Real Line
Solution
7
We have
2
2
` 5 - x ` 6 1 3 -1 6 5 - x 6 1
Property 6
2
3 -6 6 - x 6 -4
Subtract 5.
1
33 7 x 7 2
1
Multiply by - .
2
3
1
1
6 x 6 .
3
2
Take reciprocals.
Notice how the various rules for inequalities were used here. Multiplying by a negative
number reverses the inequality. So does taking reciprocals in an inequality in which both
sides are positive. The original inequality holds if and only if s1&gt;3d 6 x 6 s1&gt;2d.
The solution set is the open interval (1&gt;3, 1&gt;2).
EXAMPLE 6 Solve the inequality and show the solution set on the real line:
(a) ƒ 2x - 3 ƒ … 1
x
1
2
(b) ƒ 2x - 3 ƒ &Uacute; 1
Solution
ƒ 2x - 3 ƒ
-1 … 2x - 3
2 … 2x
1 … x
(a)
(a)
x
1
2
(b)
FIGURE 1.4 The solution sets (a) [1, 2]
and (b) s - q , 1] &acute; [2, q d in Example 6.
…
…
…
…
1
1
4
2
Property 8
Divide by 2.
The solution set is the closed interval [1, 2] (Figure 1.4a).
(b)
ƒ 2x - 3 ƒ &Uacute; 1
2x - 3 &Uacute; 1
or
2x - 3 … - 1
x -
3
1
&Uacute;
2
2
or
x &Uacute; 2
or
x -
Property 9
3
1
… 2
2
Divide by 2.
x … 1
The solution set is s - q , 1] &acute; [2, q d (Figure 1.4b).
3
.
2
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1.1 Real Numbers and the Real Line
7
EXERCISES 1.1
Decimal Representations
1. Express 1&gt;9 as a repeating decimal, using a bar to indicate the repeating digits. What are the decimal representations of 2&gt;9? 3&gt;9?
8&gt;9? 9&gt;9?
2. Express 1&gt;11 as a repeating decimal, using a bar to indicate the
repeating digits. What are the decimal representations of 2&gt;11?
3&gt;11? 9&gt;11? 11&gt;11?
Inequalities
3. If 2 6 x 6 6 , which of the following statements about x are necessarily true, and which are not necessarily true?
a. 0 6 x 6 4
x
c. 1 6 6 3
2
6
e. 1 6 x 6 3
b. 0 6 x - 2 6 4
1
1
1
d.
6 x 6
6
2
g. - 6 6 - x 6 2
h. -6 6 - x 6 - 2
f. ƒ x - 4 ƒ 6 2
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
4. If - 1 6 y - 5 6 1 , which of the following statements about y
are necessarily true, and which are not necessarily true?
a. 4 6 y 6 6
b. - 6 6 y 6 - 4
c. y 7 4
d. y 6 6
y
f. 2 6 6 3
2
e. 0 6 y - 4 6 2
1
1
1
6 y 6
g.
6
4
Solve the inequalities in Exercises 35–42. Express the solution sets as
intervals or unions of intervals and show them on the real line. Use the
result 2a 2 = ƒ a ƒ as appropriate.
35. x 2 6 2
38.
h. ƒ y - 5 ƒ 6 1
1
1
6 x2 6
9
4
41. x 2 - x 6 0
In Exercises 5–12, solve the inequalities and show the solution sets on
the real line.
36. 4 … x 2
37. 4 6 x 2 6 9
39. sx - 1d2 6 4
40. sx + 3d2 6 2
42. x 2 - x - 2 &Uacute; 0
Theory and Examples
43. Do not fall into the trap ƒ -a ƒ = a . For what real numbers a is
this equation true? For what real numbers is it false?
5. - 2x 7 4
6. 8 - 3x &Uacute; 5
7. 5x - 3 … 7 - 3x
8. 3s2 - xd 7 2s3 + xd
7
1
9. 2x - &Uacute; 7x +
2
6
4
1
11. sx - 2d 6 sx - 6d
5
3
6 - x
3x - 4
6
10.
4
2
x + 5
12 + 3x
…
12. 2
4
Absolute Value
44. Solve the equation ƒ x - 1 ƒ = 1 - x .
45. A proof of the triangle inequality Give the reason justifying
each of the numbered steps in the following proof of the triangle
inequality.
ƒ a + b ƒ 2 = sa + bd2
= a 2 + 2ab + b 2
… a2 + 2 ƒ a ƒ ƒ b ƒ + b2
Solve the equations in Exercises 13–18.
2
13. ƒ y ƒ = 3
14. ƒ y - 3 ƒ = 7
15. ƒ 2t + 5 ƒ = 4
16. ƒ 1 - t ƒ = 1
9
17. ƒ 8 - 3s ƒ =
2
18. `
s
- 1` = 1
2
Solve the inequalities in Exercises 19–34, expressing the solution sets
as intervals or unions of intervals. Also, show each solution set on the
real line.
19. ƒ x ƒ 6 2
22. ƒ t + 2 ƒ 6 1
20. ƒ x ƒ … 2
23. ƒ 3y - 7 ƒ 6 4
21. ƒ t - 1 ƒ … 3
24. ƒ 2y + 5 ƒ 6 1
25. `
26. `
1
1
27. ` 3 - x ` 6
2
z
- 1` … 1
5
3
z - 1` … 2
2
2
28. ` x - 4 ` 6 3
29. ƒ 2s ƒ &Uacute; 4
1
30. ƒ s + 3 ƒ &Uacute;
2
31. ƒ 1 - x ƒ 7 1
32. ƒ 2 - 3x ƒ 7 5
33. `
34. `
3r
2
- 1` 7
5
5
(1)
r + 1
` &Uacute; 1
2
= ƒaƒ + 2ƒaƒ ƒbƒ + ƒbƒ
= s ƒ a ƒ + ƒ b ƒ d2
ƒa + bƒ … ƒaƒ + ƒbƒ
(2)
2
(3)
(4)
46. Prove that ƒ ab ƒ = ƒ a ƒ ƒ b ƒ for any numbers a and b.
47. If ƒ x ƒ … 3 and x 7 - 1&gt;2 , what can you say about x?
48. Graph the inequality ƒ x ƒ + ƒ y ƒ … 1 .
49. Let ƒsxd = 2x + 1 and let d 7 0 be any positive number. Prove
that ƒ x - 1 ƒ 6 d implies ƒ ƒsxd - ƒs1d ƒ 6 2d . Here the notation ƒ(a) means the value of the expression 2x + 1 when x = a.
This function notation is explained in Section 1.3.
50. Let ƒsxd = 2x + 3 and let P 7 0 be any positive number. Prove
P
that ƒ ƒsxd - ƒs0d ƒ 6 P whenever ƒ x - 0 ƒ 6 . Here the no2
tation ƒ(a) means the value of the expression 2x + 3 when
x = a. (See Section 1.3.)
51. For any number a, prove that ƒ -a ƒ = ƒ a ƒ .
52. Let a be any positive number. Prove that ƒ x ƒ 7 a if and only if
x 7 a or x 6 - a .
53. a. If b is any nonzero real number, prove that ƒ 1&gt;b ƒ = 1&gt; ƒ b ƒ .
ƒaƒ
a
for any numbers a and b Z 0 .
b. Prove that ` ` =
b
ƒbƒ
54. Using mathematical induction (see Appendix 1), prove that
n
n
ƒ a ƒ = ƒ a ƒ for any number a and positive integer n.
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1.2 Lines, Circles, and Parabolas
Lines, Circles, and Parabolas
1.2
This section reviews coordinates, lines, distance, circles, and parabolas in the plane. The
notion of increment is also discussed.
y
P(a, b)
b
Positive y-axis
3
2
Negative x-axis
–3
–2
–1
1
Origin
0
1
–1
Negative y-axis
2
a3
x
Positive x-axis
–2
–3
FIGURE 1.5 Cartesian coordinates in the
plane are based on two perpendicular axes
intersecting at the origin.
y
(1, 3)
3
Second
(, )
First
(, )
2
1
(–2, 1)
(2, 1)
(0, 0)
(1, 0)
–2
–1
0
1
2
x
(–2, –1)
Third
(, )
9
–1
Fourth
(, )
–2
(1, –2)
FIGURE 1.6 Points labeled in the xycoordinate or Cartesian plane. The points
on the axes all have coordinate pairs but
are usually labeled with single real
numbers, (so (1, 0) on the x-axis is labeled
as 1). Notice the coordinate sign patterns
Cartesian Coordinates in the Plane
In the previous section we identified the points on the line with real numbers by assigning
them coordinates. Points in the plane can be identified with ordered pairs of real numbers.
To begin, we draw two perpendicular coordinate lines that intersect at the 0-point of each
line. These lines are called coordinate axes in the plane. On the horizontal x-axis, numbers are denoted by x and increase to the right. On the vertical y-axis, numbers are denoted
by y and increase upward (Figure 1.5). Thus “upward” and “to the right” are positive directions, whereas “downward” and “to the left” are considered as negative. The origin O, also
labeled 0, of the coordinate system is the point in the plane where x and y are both zero.
If P is any point in the plane, it can be located by exactly one ordered pair of real numbers in the following way. Draw lines through P perpendicular to the two coordinate axes.
These lines intersect the axes at points with coordinates a and b (Figure 1.5). The ordered
pair (a, b) is assigned to the point P and is called its coordinate pair. The first number a is
the x-coordinate (or abscissa) of P; the second number b is the y-coordinate (or
ordinate) of P. The x-coordinate of every point on the y-axis is 0. The y-coordinate of
every point on the x-axis is 0. The origin is the point (0, 0).
Starting with an ordered pair (a, b), we can reverse the process and arrive at a corresponding point P in the plane. Often we identify P with the ordered pair and write P(a, b).
We sometimes also refer to “the point (a, b)” and it will be clear from the context when
(a, b) refers to a point in the plane and not to an open interval on the real line. Several
points labeled by their coordinates are shown in Figure 1.6.
This coordinate system is called the rectangular coordinate system or Cartesian
coordinate system (after the sixteenth century French mathematician Ren&eacute; Descartes).
The coordinate axes of this coordinate or Cartesian plane divide the plane into four regions
called quadrants, numbered counterclockwise as shown in Figure 1.6.
The graph of an equation or inequality in the variables x and y is the set of all points
P(x, y) in the plane whose coordinates satisfy the equation or inequality. When we plot
data in the coordinate plane or graph formulas whose variables have different units of
measure, we do not need to use the same scale on the two axes. If we plot time vs. thrust
for a rocket motor, for example, there is no reason to place the mark that shows 1 sec on
the time axis the same distance from the origin as the mark that shows 1 lb on the thrust
axis.
Usually when we graph functions whose variables do not represent physical measurements and when we draw figures in the coordinate plane to study their geometry and
trigonometry, we try to make the scales on the axes identical. A vertical unit of distance
then looks the same as a horizontal unit. As on a surveyor’s map or a scale drawing, line
segments that are supposed to have the same length will look as if they do and angles that
are supposed to be congruent will look congruent.
Computer displays and calculator displays are another matter. The vertical and horizontal scales on machine-generated graphs usually differ, and there are corresponding distortions in distances, slopes, and angles. Circles may look like ellipses, rectangles may
look like squares, right angles may appear to be acute or obtuse, and so on. We discuss
these displays and distortions in greater detail in Section 1.7.
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Increments and Straight Lines
y
C(5, 6)
6
When a particle moves from one point in the plane to another, the net changes in its coordinates are called increments. They are calculated by subtracting the coordinates of the
starting point from the coordinates of the ending point. If x changes from x1 to x2 , the increment in x is
B(2, 5)
5
4
y –5,
x 0
3
&cent;x = x2 - x1 .
2
EXAMPLE 1
In going from the point As4, - 3d to the point B(2, 5) the increments in the
x- and y-coordinates are
y 8
1
D(5, 1)
0
1
2
3
4
x
5
&cent;x = 2 - 4 = - 2,
–1
&cent;y = 5 - s -3d = 8.
From C(5, 6) to D(5, 1) the coordinate increments are
–2
&cent;x = 5 - 5 = 0,
–3
(2, –3)
A(4, – 3)
x –2
FIGURE 1.7 Coordinate increments may
be positive, negative, or zero (Example 1).
&cent;y = 1 - 6 = - 5.
See Figure 1.7.
Given two points P1sx1, y1 d and P2sx2, y2 d in the plane, we call the increments
&cent;x = x2 - x1 and &cent;y = y2 - y1 the run and the rise, respectively, between P1 and P2 .
Two such points always determine a unique straight line (usually called simply a line)
passing through them both. We call the line P1 P2 .
Any nonvertical line in the plane has the property that the ratio
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY*
y2 - y1
&cent;y
rise
= x2 - x1
m = run =
&cent;x
Ren&eacute; Descartes
(1596–1650)
has the same value for every choice of the two points P1sx1, y1 d and P2sx2, y2 d on the line
(Figure 1.8). This is because the ratios of corresponding sides for similar triangles are equal.
y
P2
L
DEFINITION
The constant
P2 (x2, y2)
y
(rise)
y2 - y1
&cent;y
rise
= x2 - x1
m = run =
&cent;x
y
is the slope of the nonvertical line P1 P2 .
P1 (x1, y1)
x
(run)
P1
x
0
Slope
Q(x2, y1)
Q
x
FIGURE 1.8 Triangles P1 QP2 and
P1 &iquest;Q&iquest;P2 &iquest; are similar, so the ratio of their
sides has the same value for any two points
on the line. This common value is the line’s
slope.
The slope tells us the direction (uphill, downhill) and steepness of a line. A line with
positive slope rises uphill to the right; one with negative slope falls downhill to the right
(Figure 1.9). The greater the absolute value of the slope, the more rapid the rise or fall. The
slope of a vertical line is undefined. Since the run &cent;x is zero for a vertical line, we cannot
evaluate the slope ratio m.
The direction and steepness of a line can also be measured with an angle. The angle
of inclination of a line that crosses the x-axis is the smallest counterclockwise angle from
the x-axis to the line (Figure 1.10). The inclination of a horizontal line is 0&deg;. The inclination of a vertical line is 90&deg;. If f (the Greek letter phi) is the inclination of a line, then
0 … f 6 180&deg;.
To learn more about the historical figures and the development of the major elements and topics of calculus, visit www.aw-bc.com/thomas.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 11
1.2 Lines, Circles, and Parabolas
y
The relationship between the slope m of a nonvertical line and the line’s angle of inclination f is shown in Figure 1.11:
L1
6
L2
m = tan f.
P4(3, 6)
P1(0, 5)
Straight lines have relatively simple equations. All points on the vertical line through
the point a on the x-axis have x-coordinates equal to a. Thus, x = a is an equation for the
vertical line. Similarly, y = b is an equation for the horizontal line meeting the y-axis at b.
(See Figure 1.12.)
We can write an equation for a nonvertical straight line L if we know its slope m and
the coordinates of one point P1sx1, y1 d on it. If P(x, y) is any other point on L, then we can
use the two points P1 and P to compute the slope,
4
3
P2(4, 2)
2
1
0
–1
1
2
3
4
5
x
6
y - y1
m = x - x1
P3(0, –2)
FIGURE 1.9 The slope of L1 is
&cent;y
6 - s - 2d
8
m =
=
= .
3 - 0
3
&cent;x
That is, y increases 8 units every time x
increases 3 units. The slope of L2 is
&cent;y
-3
2 - 5
m =
=
.
=
4 - 0
4
&cent;x
That is, y decreases 3 units every time x
increases 4 units.
this
so that
y - y1 = msx - x1 d
y = y1 + msx - x1 d
is the point-slope equation of the line that passes through the point sx1, y1 d and
has slope m.
EXAMPLE 2
x
not this
y = y1 + msx - x1 d.
or
The equation
this
x
not this
FIGURE 1.10 Angles of inclination
are measured counterclockwise from the
x-axis.
Solution
Write an equation for the line through the point (2, 3) with slope -3&gt;2.
We substitute x1 = 2, y1 = 3, and m = - 3&gt;2 into the point-slope equation
and obtain
y = 3 -
3
Ax - 2B,
2
or
y = -
3
x + 6.
2
When x = 0, y = 6 so the line intersects the y-axis at y = 6.
EXAMPLE 3
y
A Line Through Two Points
Write an equation for the line through s -2, - 1d and (3, 4).
P2
L
Solution
The line’s slope is
y
P1
␾
x
m
11
m =
-5
-1 - 4
=
= 1.
-5
-2 - 3
We can use this slope with either of the two given points in the point-slope equation:
y
tan ␾
x
With sx1 , y1 d s2, 1d
x
FIGURE 1.11 The slope of a nonvertical
line is the tangent of its angle of
inclination.
With sx1 , y1 d s3, 4d
1 # sx
y = 4 + 1 # sx - 3d
y = 4 + x - 3
y = x + 1
y = -1 +
- s - 2dd
y = -1 + x + 2
y = x + 1
Same result
Either way, y = x + 1 is an equation for the line (Figure 1.13).
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12
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
The y-coordinate of the point where a nonvertical line intersects the y-axis is
called the y-intercept of the line. Similarly, the x-intercept of a nonhorizontal line is the
x-coordinate of the point where it crosses the x-axis (Figure 1.14). A line with slope m and
y-intercept b passes through the point (0, b), so it has equation
y
Along this line,
x2
6
5
3
or, more simply,
y = b + msx - 0d,
Along this line,
y3
4
y = mx + b.
(2, 3)
2
1
1
0
2
3
The equation
x
4
y = mx + b
FIGURE 1.12 The standard equations
for the vertical and horizontal lines
through (2, 3) are x = 2 and y = 3 .
is called the slope-intercept equation of the line with slope m and y-intercept b.
Lines with equations of the form y = mx have y-intercept 0 and so pass through the origin. Equations of lines are called linear equations.
The equation
sA and B not both 0d
Ax + By = C
y
4
is called the general linear equation in x and y because its graph always represents a line
and every line has an equation in this form (including lines with undefined slope).
(3, 4)
yx1
EXAMPLE 4
Finding the Slope and y-Intercept
Find the slope and y-intercept of the line 8x + 5y = 20.
–2
0
–1
(–2, –1)
1
2
3
x
Solution
FIGURE 1.13 The line in Example 3.
Solve the equation for y to put it in slope-intercept form:
8x + 5y = 20
5y = - 8x + 20
y = -
8
x + 4.
5
The slope is m = - 8&gt;5. The y-intercept is b = 4.
y
Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
Lines that are parallel have equal angles of inclination, so they have the same slope (if they
are not vertical). Conversely, lines with equal slopes have equal angles of inclination and
so are parallel.
If two nonvertical lines L1 and L2 are perpendicular, their slopes m1 and m2 satisfy
m1 m2 = - 1, so each slope is the negative reciprocal of the other:
b
L
0
a
x
FIGURE 1.14 Line L has x-intercept a
and y-intercept b.
1
m1 = - m2 ,
1
m2 = - m1 .
To see this, notice by inspecting similar triangles in Figure 1.15 that m1 = a&gt;h, and
m2 = - h&gt;a. Hence, m1 m2 = sa&gt;hds - h&gt;ad = - 1.
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13
1.2 Lines, Circles, and Parabolas
Distance and Circles in the Plane
y
L1
The distance between points in the plane is calculated with a formula that comes from the
Pythagorean theorem (Figure 1.16).
C
␾1
0
A
y
Slope m 2
␾2
D
a
This distance is

d
x
B
y2
FIGURE 1.15 &cent;ADC is similar to
&cent;CDB . Hence f1 is also the upper angle
in &cent;CDB . From the sides of &cent;CDB , we
read tan f1 = a&gt;h .
y1
Q(x2 , y2)
P(x1, y1)











␾1
h
Slope m1







L2
y2 y1
C(x2 , y1)
x2 x1
0
x2
x1
x
FIGURE 1.16 To calculate the distance
between Psx1 , y1 d and Qsx2 , y2 d , apply the
Pythagorean theorem to triangle PCQ.
Distance Formula for Points in the Plane
The distance between Psx1 , y1 d and Qsx2 , y2 d is
d = 2s &cent;xd2 + s &cent;yd2 = 2sx2 - x1 d2 + s y2 - y1 d2 .
EXAMPLE 5
Calculating Distance
(a) The distance between Ps - 1, 2d and Q(3, 4) is
2s3 - s -1dd2 + s4 - 2d2 = 2s4d2 + s2d2 = 220 = 24 # 5 = 225 .
(b) The distance from the origin to P(x, y) is
y
2sx - 0d2 + s y - 0d2 = 2x 2 + y 2 .
P(x, y)
By definition, a circle of radius a is the set of all points P(x, y) whose distance from
some center C(h, k) equals a (Figure 1.17). From the distance formula, P lies on the circle
if and only if
a
2sx - hd2 + s y - kd2 = a,
C(h, k)
so
(x h) 2 ( y k) 2 a 2
0
x
(x - h) 2 + ( y - k) 2 = a 2.
(1)
FIGURE 1.17 A circle of radius a in the
xy-plane, with center at (h, k).
Equation (1) is the standard equation of a circle with center (h, k) and radius a. The circle
of radius a = 1 and centered at the origin is the unit circle with equation
x 2 + y 2 = 1.
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14
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
EXAMPLE 6
(a) The standard equation for the circle of radius 2 centered at (3, 4) is
sx - 3d2 + s y - 4d2 = 22 = 4 .
(b) The circle
sx - 1d2 + s y + 5d2 = 3
has h = 1, k = - 5, and a = 23. The center is the point sh, kd = s1, -5d and the
If an equation for a circle is not in standard form, we can find the circle’s center and
radius by first converting the equation to standard form. The algebraic technique for doing
so is completing the square (see Appendix 9).
EXAMPLE 7
Finding a Circle’s Center and Radius
Find the center and radius of the circle
x 2 + y 2 + 4x - 6y - 3 = 0.
We convert the equation to standard form by completing the squares in x and y:
Solution
2
y
Exterior: (x h) 2 (y k) 2 a 2
2
x + y + 4x - 6y - 3 = 0
sx 2 + 4x
Gather terms. Move the constant
to the right-hand side.
d + s y 2 - 6y
d = 3
2
2
-6
4
ax 2 + 4x + a b b + ay 2 - 6y + a b b =
2
2
On: (x h)2 (y k)2 a2
2
-6
4
3 + a b + a b
2
2
a
k
(h, k)
2
Add the square of half the
coefficient of x to each side of the
equation. Do the same for y. The
parenthetical expressions on the
left-hand side are now perfect
squares.
sx 2 + 4x + 4d + s y 2 - 6y + 9d = 3 + 4 + 9
Write each quadratic as a squared
linear expression.
sx + 2d2 + s y - 3d2 = 16
Interior: (x h) 2 ( y k) 2 a 2
0
h
The center is s -2, 3d and the radius is a = 4.
x
The points (x, y) satisfying the inequality
sx - hd2 + s y - kd2 6 a 2
FIGURE 1.18 The interior and exterior of
the circle sx - hd2 + s y - kd2 = a 2 .
make up the interior region of the circle with center (h, k) and radius a (Figure 1.18). The
circle’s exterior consists of the points (x, y) satisfying
sx - hd2 + s y - kd2 7 a 2 .
Parabolas
The geometric definition and properties of general parabolas are reviewed in Section 10.1.
Here we look at parabolas arising as the graphs of equations of the form
y = ax 2 + bx + c.
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15
1.2 Lines, Circles, and Parabolas
EXAMPLE 8
y
y
(2, 4)
x2
(–2, 4)
4
Consider the equation y = x 2 . Some points whose coordinates satisfy this equation are
3 9
s0, 0d, s1, 1d, a , b, s -1, 1d, s2, 4d, and s - 2, 4d. These points (and all others satisfying
2 4
the equation) make up a smooth curve called a parabola (Figure 1.19).
 3 , 9
 2 4
(–1, 1)
–2
–1
The graph of an equation of the form
(1, 1)
1
0
1
The Parabola y = x 2
y = ax 2
x
2
is a parabola whose axis (axis of symmetry) is the y-axis. The parabola’s vertex (point
where the parabola and axis cross) lies at the origin. The parabola opens upward if a 7 0
and downward if a 6 0. The larger the value of ƒ a ƒ , the narrower the parabola (Figure
1.20).
Generally, the graph of y = ax 2 + bx + c is a shifted and scaled version of the
parabola y = x 2 . We discuss shifting and scaling of graphs in more detail in Section 1.5.
FIGURE 1.19 The parabola
y = x 2 (Example 8).
The Graph of y ax 2 bx c, a 0
The graph of the equation y = ax 2 + bx + c, a Z 0, is a parabola. The parabola opens upward if a 7 0 and downward if a 6 0. The axis is the line
y
y 2x 2
symmetry
x = y
b
.
2a
(2)
x2
y
2
The vertex of the parabola is the point where the axis and parabola intersect. Its
x-coordinate is x = - b&gt;2a; its y-coordinate is found by substituting x = - b&gt;2a
in the parabola’s equation.
x2
10
1
–4 –3 –2
2
3
x
4
Vertex at
origin
Axis of
–1
2
y –x
6
y –x 2
Notice that if a = 0, then we have y = bx + c which is an equation for a line. The
axis, given by Equation (2), can be found by completing the square or by using a technique
we study in Section 4.1.
EXAMPLE 9
Graphing a Parabola
Graph the equation y = FIGURE 1.20 Besides determining the
direction in which the parabola y = ax 2
opens, the number a is a scaling factor.
The parabola widens as a approaches zero
and narrows as ƒ a ƒ becomes large.
Solution
1 2
x - x + 4.
2
Comparing the equation with y = ax 2 + bx + c we see that
1
a = - ,
2
b = - 1,
c = 4.
Since a 6 0, the parabola opens downward. From Equation (2) the axis is the vertical line
x = -
s -1d
b
= = - 1.
2a
2s - 1&gt;2d
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16
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Vertex is –1, 9
 2
Point symmetric
with y-intercept
y = -
Intercept at y 4
(0, 4)
Axis: x –1
(–2, 4)
–3 –2
When x = - 1, we have
y
3
1
y – x2 x 4
2
2
The vertex is s - 1, 9&gt;2d.
The x-intercepts are where y = 0:
-
1
0
9
1
s - 1d2 - s -1d + 4 = .
2
2
1
x
Intercepts at
x –4 and x 2
FIGURE 1.21 The parabola in Example 9.
1 2
x - x + 4 = 0
2
x 2 + 2x - 8 = 0
sx - 2dsx + 4d = 0
x = 2,
x = -4
We plot some points, sketch the axis, and use the direction of opening to complete the
graph in Figure 1.21.
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16
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
EXERCISES 1.2
Increments and Distance
18. Passes through s2, - 3d with slope 1&gt;2
In Exercises 1–4, a particle moves from A to B in the coordinate plane.
Find the increments &cent;x and &cent;y in the particle’s coordinates. Also find
the distance from A to B.
19. Passes through (3, 4) and s -2, 5d
1. As - 3, 2d,
Bs - 1, -2d
3. As - 3.2, - 2d, Bs -8.1, - 2d
2. As -1, - 2d,
Bs -3, 2d
4. As 22, 4d, Bs0, 1.5d
Describe the graphs of the equations in Exercises 5–8.
20. Passes through s -8, 0d and s -1, 3d
21. Has slope - 5&gt;4 and y-intercept 6
22. Has slope 1&gt;2 and y-intercept -3
23. Passes through s - 12, -9d and has slope 0
24. Passes through (1&gt;3, 4), and has no slope
25. Has y-intercept 4 and x-intercept -1
5. x 2 + y 2 = 1
6. x 2 + y 2 = 2
26. Has y-intercept -6 and x-intercept 2
7. x 2 + y 2 … 3
8. x 2 + y 2 = 0
27. Passes through s5, - 1d and is parallel to the line 2x + 5y = 15
Slopes, Lines, and Intercepts
28. Passes through A - 22, 2 B parallel to the line 22x + 5y = 23
Plot the points in Exercises 9–12 and find the slope (if any) of the line
they determine. Also find the common slope (if any) of the lines perpendicular to line AB.
30. Passes through (0, 1) and is perpendicular to the line
8x - 13y = 13
9. As - 1, 2d,
11. As2, 3d,
Bs - 2, -1d
Bs - 1, 3d
10. As - 2, 1d,
Bs2, -2d
12. As -2, 0d,
Bs -2, -2d
In Exercises 13–16, find an equation for (a) the vertical line and (b)
the horizontal line through the given point.
13. s - 1, 4&gt;3d
15. A 0, - 22 B
14.
A 22, - 1.3 B
16. s -p, 0d
In Exercises 17–30, write an equation for each line described.
17. Passes through s - 1, 1d with slope - 1
29. Passes through (4, 10) and is perpendicular to the line
6x - 3y = 5
In Exercises 31–34, find the line’s x- and y-intercepts and use this information to graph the line.
31. 3x + 4y = 12
32. x + 2y = - 4
33. 22x - 23y = 26
34. 1.5x - y = - 3
35. Is there anything special about the relationship between the lines
Ax + By = C1 and Bx - Ay = C2 sA Z 0, B Z 0d ? Give reasons for your answer.
36. Is there anything special about the relationship between the lines
Ax + By = C1 and Ax + By = C2 sA Z 0, B Z 0d ? Give reasons for your answer.
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17
1.2 Lines, Circles, and Parabolas
Increments and Motion
68. x 2 + y 2 - 4x + 2y 7 4,
37. A particle starts at As - 2, 3d and its coordinates change by increments &cent;x = 5, &cent;y = - 6 . Find its new position.
69. Write an inequality that describes the points that lie inside the circle with center s - 2, 1d and radius 26 .
38. A particle starts at A(6, 0) and its coordinates change by increments &cent;x = - 6, &cent;y = 0 . Find its new position.
70. Write an inequality that describes the points that lie outside the
circle with center s -4, 2d and radius 4.
39. The coordinates of a particle change by &cent;x = 5 and &cent;y = 6 as it
moves from A(x, y) to Bs3, - 3d . Find x and y.
71. Write a pair of inequalities that describe the points that lie inside
or on the circle with center (0, 0) and radius 22 , and on or to the
right of the vertical line through (1, 0).
40. A particle started at A(1, 0), circled the origin once counterclockwise,
and returned to A(1, 0). What were the net changes in its coordinates?
Circles
In Exercises 41–46, find an equation for the circle with the given
center C(h, k) and radius a. Then sketch the circle in the xy-plane. Include the circle’s center in your sketch. Also, label the circle’s x- and
y-intercepts, if any, with their coordinate pairs.
41. Cs0, 2d,
43. Cs - 1, 5d,
42. Cs -3, 0d,
a = 2
a = 210
45. C A - 23, - 2 B ,
44. Cs1, 1d,
a = 2
46. Cs3, 1&gt;2d,
a = 3
72. Write a pair of inequalities that describe the points that lie outside
the circle with center (0, 0) and radius 2, and inside the circle that
has center (1, 3) and passes through the origin.
Intersecting Lines, Circles, and Parabolas
In Exercises 73–80, graph the two equations and find the points in
which the graphs intersect.
x2 + y2 = 1
73. y = 2x,
a = 22
74. x + y = 1,
sx - 1d2 + y 2 = 1
a = 5
75. y - x = 1,
y = x2
76. x + y = 0,
y = - sx - 1d2
Graph the circles whose equations are given in Exercises 47–52. Label
each circle’s center and intercepts (if any) with their coordinate pairs.
47. x 2 + y 2 + 4x - 4y + 4 = 0
2
x 7 2
2
77. y = - x ,
y = 2x 2 - 1
1 2
x ,
4
y = sx - 1d2
78. y =
2
48. x + y - 8x + 4y + 16 = 0
79. x 2 + y 2 = 1,
sx - 1d2 + y 2 = 1
50. x 2 + y 2 - 4x - s9&gt;4d = 0
80. x 2 + y 2 = 1,
x2 + y = 1
51. x 2 + y 2 - 4x + 4y = 0
Applications
49. x 2 + y 2 - 3y - 4 = 0
52. x 2 + y 2 + 2x = 3
81. Insulation By measuring slopes in the accompanying figure, estimate the temperature change in degrees per inch for (a) the gypsum
wallboard; (b) the fiberglass insulation; (c) the wood sheathing.
Parabolas
Graph the parabolas in Exercises 53–60. Label the vertex, axis, and
intercepts in each case.
80&deg;
Sheathing
53. y = x 2 - 2x - 3
54. y = x 2 + 4x + 3
55. y = - x 2 + 4x
56. y = - x 2 + 4x - 5
57. y = - x 2 - 6x - 5
58. y = 2x 2 - x + 3
60&deg;
1
59. y = x 2 + x + 4
2
1
60. y = - x 2 + 2x + 4
4
50&deg; Air
Describe the regions defined by the inequalities and pairs of inequalities in Exercises 61–68.
61. x 2 + y 2 7 7
70&deg;
Temperature (&deg;F)
Inequalities
Gypsum wallboard
Fiberglass
between studs
inside
room
40&deg; at 72&deg;F
Siding
Air outside
at 0&deg;F
30&deg;
20&deg;
62. x 2 + y 2 6 5
63. sx - 1d2 + y 2 … 4
10&deg;
64. x 2 + sy - 2d2 &Uacute; 4
65. x 2 + y 2 7 1,
2
2
66. x + y … 4,
0&deg;
x2 + y2 6 4
2
2
sx + 2d + y … 4
67. x 2 + y 2 + 6y 6 0,
y 7 -3
0
1
2
3
4
5
Distance through wall (inches)
6
The temperature changes in the wall in Exercises 81 and 82.
7
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18
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
82. Insulation According to the figure in Exercise 81, which of the
materials is the best insulator? the poorest? Explain.
83. Pressure under water The pressure p experienced by a diver
under water is related to the diver’s depth d by an equation of the
form p = kd + 1 (k a constant). At the surface, the pressure is 1
atmosphere. The pressure at 100 meters is about 10.94 atmospheres. Find the pressure at 50 meters.
84. Reflected light A ray of light comes in along the line
x + y = 1 from the second quadrant and reflects off the x-axis
(see the accompanying figure). The angle of incidence is equal to
the angle of reflection. Write an equation for the line along which
the departing light travels.
88. Show that the triangle with vertices A(0, 0), B A 1, 23 B , and
C (2, 0) is equilateral.
89. Show that the points As2, -1d , B(1, 3), and Cs -3, 2d are vertices
of a square, and find the fourth vertex.
90. The rectangle shown here has sides parallel to the axes. It is three
times as long as it is wide, and its perimeter is 56 units. Find the
coordinates of the vertices A, B, and C.
y
A
D(9, 2)
xy1
1
x
0
y
B
Angle of Angle of
incidence reflection
91. Three different parallelograms have vertices at s -1, 1d , (2, 0),
and (2, 3). Sketch them and find the coordinates of the fourth vertex of each.
x
0
C
1
The path of the light ray in Exercise 84.
Angles of incidence and reflection are
measured from the perpendicular.
92. A 90&deg; rotation counterclockwise about the origin takes (2, 0) to
(0, 2), and (0, 3) to s - 3, 0d , as shown in the accompanying figure. Where does it take each of the following points?
a. (4, 1)
b. s -2, -3d
c. s2, - 5d
d. (x, 0)
e. (0, y)
f. (x, y)
g. What point is taken to (10, 3)?
85. Fahrenheit vs. Celsius
equation
In the FC-plane, sketch the graph of the
y
C =
5
sF - 32d
9
linking Fahrenheit and Celsius temperatures. On the same graph
sketch the line C = F . Is there a temperature at which a Celsius
thermometer gives the same numerical reading as a Fahrenheit
thermometer? If so, find it.
86. The Mt. Washington Cog Railway Civil engineers calculate
the slope of roadbed as the ratio of the distance it rises or falls to
the distance it runs horizontally. They call this ratio the grade of
the roadbed, usually written as a percentage. Along the coast,
mountains, they may go as high as 4%. Highway grades are usually less than 5%.
The steepest part of the Mt. Washington Cog Railway in New
Hampshire has an exceptional 37.1% grade. Along this part of the
track, the seats in the front of the car are 14 ft above those in the
rear. About how far apart are the front and rear rows of seats?
(0, 3)
(0, 2)
(4, 1)
x
(–3, 0)
(2, 0)
(–2, –3)
(2, –5)
93. For what value of k is the line 2x + ky = 3 perpendicular to the
line 4x + y = 1 ? For what value of k are the lines parallel?
94. Find the line that passes through the point (1, 2) and through
the point of intersection of the two lines x + 2y = 3 and
2x - 3y = - 1 .
95. Midpoint of a line segment Show that the point with coordinates
Theory and Examples
87. By calculating the lengths of its sides, show that the triangle with
vertices at the points A(1, 2), B(5, 5), and Cs4, -2d is isosceles
but not equilateral.
a
x1 + x2 y1 + y2
,
b
2
2
is the midpoint of the line segment joining Psx1 , y1 d to Qsx2 , y2 d .
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1.2 Lines, Circles, and Parabolas
96. The distance from a point to a line We can find the distance
from a point Psx0 , y0 d to a line L: Ax + By = C by taking the following steps (there is a somewhat faster method in Section 12.5):
19
Use these steps to find the distance from P to L in each of the following cases.
a. Ps2, 1d,
L: y = x + 2
1. Find an equation for the line M through P perpendicular to L.
b. Ps4, 6d,
L : 4x + 3y = 12
2. Find the coordinates of the point Q in which M and L intersect.
c. Psa, bd,
L : x = -1
3. Find the distance from P to Q.
d. Psx0 , y0 d,
L : Ax + By = C
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1.3 Functions and Their Graphs
19
Functions and Their Graphs
1.3
Functions are the major objects we deal with in calculus because they are key to describing the real world in mathematical terms. This section reviews the ideas of functions, their
graphs, and ways of representing them.
Functions; Domain and Range
The temperature at which water boils depends on the elevation above sea level (the boiling
point drops as you ascend). The interest paid on a cash investment depends on the length of
time the investment is held. The area of a circle depends on the radius of the circle. The distance an object travels from an initial location along a straight line path depends on its speed.
In each case, the value of one variable quantity, which we might call y, depends on the
value of another variable quantity, which we might call x. Since the value of y is completely determined by the value of x, we say that y is a function of x. Often the value of y is
given by a rule or formula that says how to calculate it from the variable x. For instance,
the equation A = pr 2 is a rule that calculates the area A of a circle from its radius r.
In calculus we may want to refer to an unspecified function without having any particular formula in mind. A symbolic way to say “y is a function of x” is by writing
y = ƒsxd
s“y equals ƒ of x”d
In this notation, the symbol ƒ represents the function. The letter x, called the independent
variable, represents the input value of ƒ, and y, the dependent variable, represents the
corresponding output value of ƒ at x.
DEFINITION
Function
A function from a set D to a set Y is a rule that assigns a unique (single) element
ƒsxd H Y to each element x H D.
x
Input
(domain)
f
Output
(range)
FIGURE 1.22 A diagram showing a
function as a kind of machine.
f (x)
The set D of all possible input values is called the domain of the function. The set of
all values of ƒ(x) as x varies throughout D is called the range of the function. The range
may not include every element in the set Y.
The domain and range of a function can be any sets of objects, but often in calculus
they are sets of real numbers. (In Chapters 13–16 many variables may be involved.)
Think of a function ƒ as a kind of machine that produces an output value ƒ(x) in its
range whenever we feed it an input value x from its domain (Figure 1.22). The function
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20
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
x
a
D domain set
f (a)
f(x)
Y set containing
the range
FIGURE 1.23 A function from a set D to
a set Y assigns a unique element of Y to
each element in D.
keys on a calculator give an example of a function as a machine. For instance, the 2x key
on a calculator gives an output value (the square root) whenever you enter a nonnegative
number x and press the 2x key. The output value appearing in the display is usually a decimal approximation to the square root of x. If you input a number x 6 0, then the calculator
will indicate an error because x 6 0 is not in the domain of the function and cannot be accepted as an input. The 2x key on a calculator is not the same as the exact mathematical
function ƒ defined by ƒsxd = 2x because it is limited to decimal outputs and has only finitely many inputs.
A function can also be pictured as an arrow diagram (Figure 1.23). Each arrow
associates an element of the domain D to a unique or single element in the set Y. In Figure
1.23, the arrows indicate that ƒ(a) is associated with a, ƒ(x) is associated with x, and so on.
The domain of a function may be restricted by context. For example, the domain of
the area function given by A = pr 2 only allows the radius r to be positive. When we define a function y = ƒsxd with a formula and the domain is not stated explicitly or restricted by context, the domain is assumed to be the largest set of real x-values for which
the formula gives real y-values, the so-called natural domain. If we want to restrict the
domain in some way, we must say so. The domain of y = x 2 is the entire set of real numbers. To restrict the function to, say, positive values of x, we would write “y = x 2, x 7 0.”
Changing the domain to which we apply a formula usually changes the range as well.
The range of y = x 2 is [0, q d . The range of y = x 2, x &Uacute; 2, is the set of all numbers obtained by squaring numbers greater than or equal to 2. In set notation, the range is
5x 2 ƒ x &Uacute; 26 or 5y ƒ y &Uacute; 46 or [4, q d.
When the range of a function is a set of real numbers, the function is said to be realvalued. The domains and ranges of many real-valued functions of a real variable are intervals or combinations of intervals. The intervals may be open, closed, or half open, and may
be finite or infinite.
EXAMPLE 1
Identifying Domain and Range
Verify the domains and ranges of these functions.
Function
y
y
y
y
y
=
=
=
=
=
x2
1/x
2x
24 - x
21 - x 2
Domain (x)
Range ( y)
s - q, q d
s - q , 0d &acute; s0, q d
[0, q d
s - q , 4]
[- 1, 1]
[0, q d
s - q , 0d &acute; s0, q d
[0, q d
[0, q d
[0, 1]
The formula y = x 2 gives a real y-value for any real number x, so the domain
is s - q , q d. The range of y = x 2 is [0, q d because the square of any real number is
nonnegative and every nonnegative number y is the square of its own square root,
y = A 2y B 2 for y &Uacute; 0.
The formula y = 1&gt;x gives a real y-value for every x except x = 0. We cannot divide
any number by zero. The range of y = 1&gt;x, the set of reciprocals of all nonzero real numbers, is the set of all nonzero real numbers, since y = 1&gt;(1&gt;y).
The formula y = 2x gives a real y-value only if x &Uacute; 0. The range of y = 2x is
[0, q d because every nonnegative number is some number’s square root (namely, it is the
square root of its own square).
Solution
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21
1.3 Functions and Their Graphs
In y = 24 - x, the quantity 4 - x cannot be negative. That is, 4 - x &Uacute; 0, or
x … 4. The formula gives real y-values for all x … 4. The range of 24 - x is [0, q d,
the set of all nonnegative numbers.
The formula y = 21 - x 2 gives a real y-value for every x in the closed interval
from -1 to 1. Outside this domain, 1 - x 2 is negative and its square root is not a real
number. The values of 1 - x 2 vary from 0 to 1 on the given domain, and the square roots
of these values do the same. The range of 21 - x 2 is [0, 1].
Graphs of Functions
Another way to visualize a function is its graph. If ƒ is a function with domain D, its graph
consists of the points in the Cartesian plane whose coordinates are the input-output pairs
for ƒ. In set notation, the graph is
5sx, ƒsxdd ƒ x H D6.
The graph of the function ƒsxd = x + 2 is the set of points with coordinates (x, y) for
which y = x + 2. Its graph is sketched in Figure 1.24.
The graph of a function ƒ is a useful picture of its behavior. If (x, y) is a point on the
graph, then y = ƒsxd is the height of the graph above the point x. The height may be positive or negative, depending on the sign of ƒsxd (Figure 1.25).
y
f (1)
y
f (2)
x
yx2
0
1
x
2
f(x)
2
(x, y)
–2
0
x
FIGURE 1.24 The graph of
ƒsxd = x + 2 is the set of points (x, y) for
which y has the value x + 2 .
FIGURE 1.25 If (x, y) lies on the graph of
f, then the value y = ƒsxd is the height of
the graph above the point x (or below x if
ƒ(x) is negative).
x
y x2
-2
-1
0
1
4
1
0
1
3
2
9
4
Graph the function y = x 2 over the interval [ -2, 2].
2
4
Solution
EXAMPLE 2
1.
Sketching a Graph
Make a table of xy-pairs that satisfy the function rule, in this case the equation y = x 2 .
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22
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
2.
Plot the points (x, y) whose
coordinates appear in the table. Use
fractions when they are convenient
computationally.
3.
Draw a smooth curve through the
plotted points. Label the curve with
its equation.
y
y
(–2, 4)
(2, 4)
4
4
3 , 9
2 4
2
(–1, 1)
1
–2
0
–1
y x2
3
3
2
(1, 1)
1
2
1
x
–2
–1
0
1
2
x
How do we know that the graph of y = x 2 doesn’t look like one of these curves?
Computers and graphing calculators
graph functions in much this way—by
stringing together plotted points—and
the same question arises.
y
y
y x 2?
y x 2?
x
x
To find out, we could plot more points. But how would we then connect them? The
basic question still remains: How do we know for sure what the graph looks like
between the points we plot? The answer lies in calculus, as we will see in Chapter 4.
There we will use the derivative to find a curve’s shape between plotted points. Meanwhile we will have to settle for plotting points and connecting them as best we can.
EXAMPLE 3
p
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Evaluating a Function from Its Graph
The graph of a fruit fly population p is shown in Figure 1.26.
(a) Find the populations after 20 and 45 days.
(b) What is the (approximate) range of the population function over the time interval
0 … t … 50?
Solution
10
20
30
Time (days)
40
50
FIGURE 1.26 Graph of a fruit fly
population versus time (Example 3).
t
(a) We see from Figure 1.26 that the point (20, 100) lies on the graph, so the value of the
population p at 20 is ps20d = 100. Likewise, p(45) is about 340.
(b) The range of the population function over 0 … t … 50 is approximately [0, 345]. We
also observe that the population appears to get closer and closer to the value p = 350
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23
1.3 Functions and Their Graphs
Representing a Function Numerically
We have seen how a function may be represented algebraically by a formula (the area
function) and visually by a graph (Examples 2 and 3). Another way to represent a function
is numerically, through a table of values. Numerical representations are often used by engineers and applied scientists. From an appropriate table of values, a graph of the function
can be obtained using the method illustrated in Example 2, possibly with the aid of a computer. The graph of only the tabled points is called a scatterplot.
EXAMPLE 4
A Function Defined by a Table of Values
Musical notes are pressure waves in the air that can be recorded. The data in Table 1.2 give
recorded pressure displacement versus time in seconds of a musical note produced by a
tuning fork. The table provides a representation of the pressure function over time. If we
first make a scatterplot and then connect the data points (t, p) from the table, we obtain the
graph shown in Figure 1.27.
p (pressure)
TABLE 1.2 Tuning fork data
Time
Pressure
Time
Pressure
0.00091
0.00108
0.00125
0.00144
0.00162
0.00180
0.00198
0.00216
0.00234
0.00253
0.00271
0.00289
0.00307
0.00325
0.00344
-0.080
0.200
0.480
0.693
0.816
0.844
0.771
0.603
0.368
0.099
-0.141
-0.309
-0.348
-0.248
-0.041
0.00362
0.00379
0.00398
0.00416
0.00435
0.00453
0.00471
0.00489
0.00507
0.00525
0.00543
0.00562
0.00579
0.00598
0.217
0.480
0.681
0.810
0.827
0.749
0.581
0.346
0.077
- 0.164
- 0.320
- 0.354
- 0.248
- 0.035
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
–0.2
–0.4
–0.6
Data
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007
t (sec)
FIGURE 1.27 A smooth curve through the plotted points
gives a graph of the pressure function represented by
Table 1.2.
The Vertical Line Test
Not every curve you draw is the graph of a function. A function ƒ can have only one value
ƒ(x) for each x in its domain, so no vertical line can intersect the graph of a function more
than once. Thus, a circle cannot be the graph of a function since some vertical lines intersect the circle twice (Figure 1.28a). If a is in the domain of a function ƒ, then the vertical
line x = a will intersect the graph of ƒ in the single point (a, ƒ(a)).
The circle in Figure 1.28a, however, does contain the graphs of two functions of x; the
upper semicircle defined by the function ƒsxd = 21 - x 2 and the lower semicircle defined by the function gsxd = - 21 - x 2 (Figures 1.28b and 1.28c).
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24
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
y
y
y
–1
–1
0
1
x
–1
0
x
0
(b) y 兹1 x 2
(a) x 2 y 2 1
1
x
1
(c) y –兹1 x 2
FIGURE 1.28 (a) The circle is not the graph of a function; it fails the vertical line test. (b) The upper semicircle is the graph of a function
ƒsxd = 21 - x 2 . (c) The lower semicircle is the graph of a function gsxd = - 21 - x 2 .
Piecewise-Defined Functions
y
3
y –x
2
y x
Sometimes a function is described by using different formulas on different parts of its domain. One example is the absolute value function
yx
ƒxƒ = e
1
–3 –2
–1
0
1
2
x
3
x,
- x,
x &Uacute; 0
x 6 0,
whose graph is given in Figure 1.29. Here are some other examples.
FIGURE 1.29 The absolute value
function has domain s - q , q d
and range [0, q d .
EXAMPLE 5
Graphing Piecewise-Defined Functions
The function
-x,
ƒsxd = • x 2,
1,
x 6 0
0 … x … 1
x 7 1
y
is defined on the entire real line but has values given by different formulas depending on
the position of x. The values of ƒ are given by: y = - x when x 6 0, y = x 2 when
0 … x … 1, and y = 1 when x 7 1. The function, however, is just one function whose
domain is the entire set of real numbers (Figure 1.30).
y f (x)
y –x
2
y1
1
y x2
–2
–1
0
1
x
2
FIGURE 1.30 To graph the
function y = ƒsxd shown here,
we apply different formulas to
different parts of its domain
(Example 5).
EXAMPLE 6
The Greatest Integer Function
The function whose value at any number x is the greatest integer less than or equal to x is
called the greatest integer function or the integer floor function. It is denoted :x; , or,
in some books, [x] or [[x]] or int x. Figure 1.31 shows the graph. Observe that
:2.4; = 2,
:2; = 2,
:1.9; = 1,
:0.2; = 0,
:0; = 0,
: -0.3; = - 1
: - 1.2; = - 2,
: -2; = - 2.
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1.3 Functions and Their Graphs
FIGURE 1.31 The graph of the
greatest integer function y = :x ;
lies on or below the line y = x , so
it provides an integer floor for x
(Example 6).
y
yx
3
2
y x
1
–2 –1
1
2
3
25
x
–2
EXAMPLE 7
y
yx
3
2
y x
1
–2 –1
1
2
3
x
The Least Integer Function
The function whose value at any number x is the smallest integer greater than or equal to
x is called the least integer function or the integer ceiling function. It is denoted &lt; x = .
Figure 1.32 shows the graph. For positive values of x, this function might represent, for example, the cost of parking x hours in a parking lot which charges \$1 for each hour or part
of an hour.
–1
EXAMPLE 8
–2
Write a formula for the function y = ƒsxd whose graph consists of the two line segments
in Figure 1.33.
FIGURE 1.32 The graph of the
least integer function y = &lt; x = lies
on or above the line y = x , so it
provides an integer ceiling for x
(Example 7).
Writing Formulas for Piecewise-Defined Functions
We find formulas for the segments from (0, 0) to (1, 1), and from (1, 0) to
(2, 1) and piece them together in the manner of Example 5.
Solution
The line through (0, 0) and (1, 1) has slope
m = s1 - 0d&gt;s1 - 0d = 1 and y-intercept b = 0. Its slope-intercept equation is y = x.
The segment from (0, 0) to (1, 1) that includes the point (0, 0) but not the point (1, 1) is the
graph of the function y = x restricted to the half-open interval 0 … x 6 1, namely,
Segment from (0, 0) to (1, 1)
y = x,
y
The line through (1, 0) and (2, 1) has slope
m = s1 - 0d&gt;s2 - 1d = 1 and passes through the point (1, 0). The corresponding pointslope equation for the line is
Segment from (1, 0) to (2, 1)
y f (x)
(1, 1)
(2, 1)
1
0
0 … x 6 1.
y = 0 + 1(x - 1),
1
2
x
y = x - 1.
The segment from (1, 0) to (2, 1) that includes both endpoints is the graph of y = x - 1
restricted to the closed interval 1 … x … 2, namely,
y = x - 1,
FIGURE 1.33 The segment on the
left contains (0, 0) but not (1, 1).
The segment on the right contains
both of its endpoints (Example 8).
or
Piecewise formula
1 … x … 2.
Combining the formulas for the two pieces of the graph, we obtain
ƒsxd = e
x,
x - 1,
0 … x 6 1
1 … x … 2.
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26
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
EXERCISES 1.3
Functions
12. Express the side length of a square as a function of the length d of
the square’s diagonal. Then express the area as a function of the
diagonal length.
In Exercises 1–6, find the domain and range of each function.
2. ƒsxd = 1 - 2x
1. ƒsxd = 1 + x 2
3. F std =
1
4. F std =
2t
5. g szd = 24 - z
2
6. g szd =
13. Express the edge length of a cube as a function of the cube’s diagonal length d. Then express the surface area and volume of the
cube as a function of the diagonal length.
1
1 + 2t
1
14. A point P in the first quadrant lies on the graph of the function
ƒsxd = 2x . Express the coordinates of P as functions of the
slope of the line joining P to the origin.
24 - z 2
In Exercises 7 and 8, which of the graphs are graphs of functions of x,
7. a.
b.
y
Functions and Graphs
y
Find the domain and graph the functions in Exercises 15–20.
x
0
8. a.
b.
y
x
0
15. ƒsxd = 5 - 2x
16. ƒsxd = 1 - 2x - x 2
17. g sxd = 2ƒ x ƒ
19. F std = t&gt; ƒ t ƒ
18. g sxd = 2- x
20. G std = 1&gt; ƒ t ƒ
21. Graph the following equations and explain why they are not
graphs of functions of x.
a. ƒ y ƒ = x
b. y 2 = x 2
22. Graph the following equations and explain why they are not
graphs of functions of x.
y
a. ƒ x ƒ + ƒ y ƒ = 1
b. ƒ x + y ƒ = 1
Piecewise-Defined Functions
Graph the functions in Exercises 23–26.
x
0
0
x
9. Consider the function y = 2s1&gt;xd - 1 .
a. Can x be negative?
b. Can x = 0 ?
c. Can x be greater than 1?
d. What is the domain of the function?
10. Consider the function y = 22 - 1x .
a. Can x be negative?
b. Can 2x be greater than 2?
c. What is the domain of the function?
23. ƒsxd = e
x,
2 - x,
0 … x … 1
1 6 x … 2
24. g sxd = e
1 - x,
2 - x,
0 … x … 1
1 6 x … 2
25. F sxd = e
3 - x,
2x ,
x … 1
x 7 1
26. G sxd = e
1&gt;x ,
x,
x 6 0
0 … x
27. Find a formula for each function graphed.
a.
b.
y
1
(1, 1)
2
Finding Formulas for Functions
11. Express the area and perimeter of an equilateral triangle as a
function of the triangle’s side length x.
0
y
2
x
0
1
2
3
4
t
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27
1.3 Functions and Their Graphs
28. a.
b.
y
2
Theory and Examples
y
37. A box with an open top is to be constructed from a rectangular piece
of cardboard with dimensions 14 in. by 22 in. by cutting out equal
squares of side x at each corner and then folding up the sides as in
the figure. Express the volume V of the box as a function of x.
3
(2, 1)
2
2
x
5
1
–1
1
–1
x
2
(2, –1)
22
x
–2
x
x
x
14
–3
x
x
x
29. a.
b.
y
y
(–1, 1) (1, 1)
1
38. The figure shown here shows a rectangle inscribed in an isosceles
right triangle whose hypotenuse is 2 units long.
2
x
3
x
(–2, –1)
x
1
(1, –1) (3, –1)
a. Express the y-coordinate of P in terms of x. (You might start
by writing an equation for the line AB.)
b. Express the area of the rectangle in terms of x.
y
30. a.
b.
y
y
B
(T, 1)
1
A
0
0
T
2
T
–A
x
T
2
T 3T 2T
2
P(x, ?)
t
A
–1
T 31. a. Graph the functions ƒsxd = x&gt;2 and g sxd = 1 + s4&gt;xd together to identify the values of x for which
x
4
7 1 + x.
2
b. Confirm your findings in part (a) algebraically.
T 32. a. Graph the functions ƒsxd = 3&gt;sx - 1d and g sxd = 2&gt;sx + 1d
together to identify the values of x for which
0
x
1
x
39. A cone problem Begin with a circular piece of paper with a 4
in. radius as shown in part (a). Cut out a sector with an arc length
of x. Join the two edges of the remaining portion to form a cone
with radius r and height h, as shown in part (b).
3
2
6
.
x - 1
x + 1
b. Confirm your findings in part (a) algebraically.
4 in.
The Greatest and Least Integer Functions
33. For what values of x is
b. &lt; x = = 0 ?
a. : x ; = 0 ?
34. What real numbers x satisfy the equation : x ; = &lt; x = ?
35. Does &lt; - x = = - : x; for all real x? Give reasons for your answer.
36. Graph the function
ƒsxd = e
:x;,
&lt;x=,
Why is ƒ(x) called the integer part of x ?
x &Uacute; 0
x 6 0
4 in.
h
r
x
(a)
(b)
a. Explain why the circumference of the base of the cone is
8p - x .
b. Express the radius r as a function of x.
c. Express the height h as a function of x.
d. Express the volume V of the cone as a function of x .
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28
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
40. Industrial costs Dayton Power and Light, Inc., has a power
plant on the Miami River where the river is 800 ft wide. To lay a
new cable from the plant to a location in the city 2 mi downstream
on the opposite side costs \$180 per foot across the river and \$100
per foot along the land.
2 mi
P
x
Q
Dayton
800 ft
Power plant
(Not to scale)
a. Suppose that the cable goes from the plant to a point Q on the
opposite side that is x ft from the point P directly opposite the
plant. Write a function C (x) that gives the cost of laying the
cable in terms of the distance x.
b. Generate a table of values to determine if the least expensive
location for point Q is less than 2000 ft or greater than 2000 ft
from point P.
41. For a curve to be symmetric about the x-axis, the point (x, y) must
lie on the curve if and only if the point sx, -yd lies on the curve.
Explain why a curve that is symmetric about the x-axis is not the
graph of a function, unless the function is y = 0 .
42. A magic trick You may have heard of a magic trick that goes
like this: Take any number. Add 5. Double the result. Subtract 6.
Divide by 2. Subtract 2. Now tell me your answer, and I’ll tell you
what you started with. Pick a number and try it.
You can see what is going on if you let x be your original
number and follow the steps to make a formula ƒ(x) for the number you end up with.
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28
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
1.4
Identifying Functions; Mathematical Models
There are a number of important types of functions frequently encountered in calculus. We
identify and briefly summarize them here.
Linear Functions A function of the form ƒsxd = mx + b, for constants m and b, is
called a linear function. Figure 1.34 shows an array of lines ƒsxd = mx where b = 0, so
these lines pass through the origin. Constant functions result when the slope m = 0
(Figure 1.35).
y
m –3
m2
y –3x
y 2x
m –1
m1
yx
y –x
0
1
y x
2
m
y
1
2
x
2
y3
2
1
0
FIGURE 1.34 The collection of lines
y = mx has slope m and all lines pass
through the origin.
1
2
x
FIGURE 1.35 A constant function
has slope m = 0 .
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1.4 Identifying Functions; Mathematical Models
29
Power Functions A function ƒsxd = x a , where a is a constant, is called a power function. There are several important cases to consider.
(a) a = n, a positive integer.
The graphs of ƒsxd = x n , for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, are displayed in Figure 1.36. These functions are defined for all real values of x. Notice that as the power n gets larger, the curves
tend to flatten toward the x-axis on the interval s - 1, 1d, and also rise more steeply for
ƒ x ƒ 7 1. Each curve passes through the point (1, 1) and through the origin.
y
y
yx
1
–1
y
y x2
1
0
–1
FIGURE 1.36
1
x
–1
0
–1
y
y x3
1
1
x
–1
0
y y x5
y x4
1
x
1
–1
–1
0
1
x
1
–1
–1
0
1
x
–1
Graphs of ƒsxd = x n, n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 defined for - q 6 x 6 q .
(b) a = - 1
or
a = -2.
The graphs of the functions ƒsxd = x -1 = 1&gt;x and gsxd = x -2 = 1&gt;x 2 are shown in
Figure 1.37. Both functions are defined for all x Z 0 (you can never divide by zero). The
graph of y = 1&gt;x is the hyperbola xy = 1 which approaches the coordinate axes far from
the origin. The graph of y = 1&gt;x 2 also approaches the coordinate axes.
y
y
y 1x
y 12
x
1
0
x
1
Domain: x
Range: y
(a)
0
0
1
x
1
Domain: x 0
Range: y 0
0
(b)
FIGURE 1.37 Graphs of the power functions ƒsxd = x a for part
(a) a = - 1 and for part (b) a = - 2 .
(c) a =
2
1 1 3
, , , and .
2 3 2
3
3
x are the square root and cube
The functions ƒsxd = x 1&gt;2 = 2x and gsxd = x 1&gt;3 = 2
root functions, respectively. The domain of the square root function is [0, q d, but the
cube root function is defined for all real x. Their graphs are displayed in Figure 1.38 along
with the graphs of y = x 3&gt;2 and y = x 2&gt;3 . (Recall that x 3&gt;2 = sx 1&gt;2 d3 and x 2&gt;3 = sx 1&gt;3 d2 .)
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30
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
y
y
y x
3
y x
1
1
0
x
1
0
x
1
Domain: 0 x Range: 0 y Domain: –
Range: –
x
y
y
y
y x 32
y x 23
1
1
0
x
1
x
0
1
Domain: – x Range: 0 y Domain: 0 x Range: 0 y FIGURE 1.38 Graphs of the power functions ƒsxd = x a for a =
2
1 1 3
, , , and .
2 3 2
3
Polynomials A function p is a polynomial if
psxd = an x n + an - 1x n - 1 + &Aacute; + a1 x + a0
where n is a nonnegative integer and the numbers a0 , a1 , a2 , &Aacute; , an are real constants
(called the coefficients of the polynomial). All polynomials have domain s - q , q d. If
the leading coefficient an Z 0 and n 7 0, then n is called the degree of the polynomial.
Linear functions with m Z 0 are polynomials of degree 1. Polynomials of degree 2, usually written as psxd = ax 2 + bx + c, are called quadratic functions. Likewise, cubic
functions are polynomials psxd = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d of degree 3. Figure 1.39 shows
the graphs of three polynomials. You will learn how to graph polynomials in Chapter 4.
3
2
y x x 2x 1
3
3
2
y
4
y
y
2
–2
14x 3
9x 2
y (x 2)4(x 1)3(x 1)
11x 1
16
2
–1
–4
y
8x 4
0
2
–2
–4
4
x
–2
–4
–6
–8
–10
–12
(a)
1
2
x
–1
0
1
2
–16
(b)
(c)
FIGURE 1.39 Graphs of three polynomial functions.
x
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31
1.4 Identifying Functions; Mathematical Models
Rational Functions A rational function is a quotient or ratio of two polynomials:
psxd
qsxd
ƒsxd =
where p and q are polynomials. The domain of a rational function is the set of all real x for
which qsxd Z 0. For example, the function
ƒsxd =
2x2 - 3
7x + 4
is a rational function with domain 5x ƒ x Z - 4&gt;76. Its graph is shown in Figure 1.40a
with the graphs of two other rational functions in Figures 1.40b and 1.40c.
y
y
8
y
2
y 5x 2 8x 3
3x 2
4
6
2
2
–4
–2
2
y 2x 3
7x 4
2
4
x
–5
4
1
Line y 5
3
0
5
2
10
x
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
x
–2
–1
–2
y 11x3 2
2x 1
–2
–4
NOT TO SCALE
–4
–6
–8
(a)
FIGURE 1.40
(b)
(c)
Graphs of three rational functions.
Algebraic Functions An algebraic function is a function constructed from polynomials
using algebraic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and taking
roots). Rational functions are special cases of algebraic functions. Figure 1.41 displays the
graphs of three algebraic functions.
Trigonometric Functions We review trigonometric functions in Section 1.6. The graphs
of the sine and cosine functions are shown in Figure 1.42.
Exponential Functions Functions of the form ƒsxd = a x , where the base a 7 0 is a
positive constant and a Z 1, are called exponential functions. All exponential functions
have domain s - q , q d and range s0, q d. So an exponential function never assumes the
value 0. The graphs of some exponential functions are shown in Figure 1.43. The calculus
of exponential functions is studied in Chapter 7.
Logarithmic Functions These are the functions ƒsxd = loga x, where the base a Z 1 is
a positive constant. They are the inverse functions of the exponential functions, and the
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32
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
y
4
y x(1 x)2/5
y
y x 1/3(x 4)
y 3 (x 2 1) 2/3
4
y
3
1
2
1
–1 0
–1
4
x
x
0
0
–2
5
7
x
1
–1
–3
(b)
(a)
(c)
FIGURE 1.41 Graphs of three algebraic functions.
y
y
1
0
–␲
␲
1
– ␲2
3␲
x
2␲
0
–1
–1
3␲
2
5␲
2
x
␲
2
(b) f (x) ⫽ cos x
(a) f (x) ⫽ sin x
FIGURE 1.42 Graphs of the sine and cosine functions.
y
y
y 10 x
y 10 –x
12
12
10
10
8
8
y 3 –x
6
4
y 3x
2
–1 –0.5
0
0.5
1
(a) y 2 x, y 3 x, y 10 x
6
4
y 2x
y 2 –x
x
2
–1 –0.5
0
0.5
1
(b) y 2 –x, y 3 –x, y 10 –x
x
FIGURE 1.43 Graphs of exponential functions.
calculus of these functions is studied in Chapter 7. Figure 1.44 shows the graphs of four
logarithmic functions with various bases. In each case the domain is s0, q d and the range
is s - q , q d .
Transcendental Functions These are functions that are not algebraic. They include the
trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions, and many
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1.4 Identifying Functions; Mathematical Models
y
other functions as well (such as the hyperbolic functions studied in Chapter 7). An example of a transcendental function is a catenary. Its graph takes the shape of a cable, like a
telephone line or TV cable, strung from one support to another and hanging freely under
its own weight (Figure 1.45).
y log 2 x
y log 3 x
1
x
1
0
33
y log5 x
–1
EXAMPLE 1
y log10 x
Recognizing Functions
Identify each function given here as one of the types of functions we have discussed. Keep
in mind that some functions can fall into more than one category. For example, ƒsxd = x 2
is both a power function and a polynomial of second degree.
FIGURE 1.44 Graphs of four
logarithmic functions.
(a) ƒsxd = 1 + x (d) ystd = sin Qt -
y
1 5
x
2
(b) gsxd = 7x
(c) hszd = z 7
p
4R
Solution
(a) ƒsxd = 1 + x -
(b) gsxd = 7x is an exponential function with base 7. Notice that the variable x is the
exponent.
(c) hszd = z 7 is a power function. (The variable z is the base.)
1
–1
1 5
x is a polynomial of degree 5.
2
0
1
FIGURE 1.45 Graph of a catenary or
hanging cable. (The Latin word catena
means “chain.”)
x
p
(d) ystd = sin Qt - R is a trigonometric function.
4
Increasing Versus Decreasing Functions
If the graph of a function climbs or rises as you move from left to right, we say that the
function is increasing. If the graph descends or falls as you move from left to right, the
function is decreasing. We give formal definitions of increasing functions and decreasing
functions in Section 4.3. In that section, you will learn how to find the intervals over which
a function is increasing and the intervals where it is decreasing. Here are examples from
Figures 1.36, 1.37, and 1.38.
Function
y
y
y
y
y
y
=
=
=
=
=
=
x2
x3
1&gt;x
1&gt;x 2
2x
x 2&gt;3
Where increasing
Where decreasing
0 … x 6 q
-q 6 x 6 q
Nowhere
-q 6 x 6 0
0 … x 6 q
0 … x 6 q
-q 6 x … 0
Nowhere
- q 6 x 6 0 and 0 6 x 6 q
0 6 x 6 q
Nowhere
-q 6 x … 0
Even Functions and Odd Functions: Symmetry
The graphs of even and odd functions have characteristic symmetry properties.
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34
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
DEFINITIONS Even Function, Odd Function
A function y = ƒsxd is an
even function of x if ƒs -xd = ƒsxd,
odd function of x if ƒs -xd = - ƒsxd,
for every x in the function’s domain.
y
y x2
(–x, y)
(x, y)
x
0
(a)
y
y x3
(x, y)
The names even and odd come from powers of x. If y is an even power of x, as in
y = x 2 or y = x 4 , it is an even function of x (because s - xd2 = x 2 and s -xd4 = x 4 d. If y
is an odd power of x, as in y = x or y = x 3 , it is an odd function of x (because
s -xd1 = - x and s -xd3 = - x 3 d.
The graph of an even function is symmetric about the y-axis. Since ƒs -xd = ƒsxd, a
point (x, y) lies on the graph if and only if the point s - x, yd lies on the graph (Figure
1.46a). A reflection across the y-axis leaves the graph unchanged.
The graph of an odd function is symmetric about the origin. Since ƒs -xd = - ƒsxd,
a point (x, y) lies on the graph if and only if the point s -x, - yd lies on the graph (Figure
1.46b). Equivalently, a graph is symmetric about the origin if a rotation of 180&deg; about the
origin leaves the graph unchanged. Notice that the definitions imply both x and -x must
be in the domain of ƒ.
EXAMPLE 2
x
0
Recognizing Even and Odd Functions
Even function: s - xd2 = x 2 for all x ; symmetry about y-axis.
Even function: s - xd2 + 1 = x 2 + 1 for all x; symmetry about
y-axis (Figure 1.47a).
ƒsxd = x 2
ƒsxd = x 2 + 1
(–x, –y)
(b)
y
y
y x2 1
FIGURE 1.46 In part (a) the graph of
y = x 2 (an even function) is symmetric
about the y-axis. The graph of y = x 3 (an
odd function) in part (b) is symmetric
yx1
y x2
yx
1
0
(a)
1
x
–1
0
x
(b)
FIGURE 1.47 (a) When we add the constant term 1 to the function
y = x 2 , the resulting function y = x 2 + 1 is still even and its graph is
still symmetric about the y-axis. (b) When we add the constant term 1 to
the function y = x , the resulting function y = x + 1 is no longer odd.
The symmetry about the origin is lost (Example 2).
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1.4 Identifying Functions; Mathematical Models
ƒsxd = x
ƒsxd = x + 1
35
Odd function: s - xd = - x for all x ; symmetry about the origin.
Not odd: ƒs -xd = - x + 1 , but -ƒsxd = - x - 1 . The two are
not equal.
Not even: s -xd + 1 Z x + 1 for all x Z 0 (Figure 1.47b).
Mathematical Models
To help us better understand our world, we often describe a particular phenomenon mathematically (by means of a function or an equation, for instance). Such a mathematical
model is an idealization of the real-world phenomenon and is seldom a completely accurate
representation. Although any model has its limitations, a good one can provide valuable results and conclusions. A model allows us to reach conclusions, as illustrated in Figure 1.48.
Real-world
data
Simplification
Analysis
Verification
Predictions/
explanations
Model
Interpretation
Mathematical
conclusions
FIGURE 1.48 A flow of the modeling process
beginning with an examination of real-world data.
Most models simplify reality and can only approximate real-world behavior. One simplifying relationship is proportionality.
DEFINITION
Proportionality
Two variables y and x are proportional (to one another) if one is always a constant multiple of the other; that is, if
y = kx
for some nonzero constant k.
The definition means that the graph of y versus x lies along a straight line through the
origin. This graphical observation is useful in testing whether a given data collection reasonably assumes a proportionality relationship. If a proportionality is reasonable, a plot of
one variable against the other should approximate a straight line through the origin.
EXAMPLE 3
Kepler’s Third Law
A famous proportionality, postulated by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in the
early seventeenth century, is his third law. If T is the period in days for a planet to complete
one full orbit around the sun, and R is the mean distance of the planet to the sun, then Kepler
postulated that T is proportional to R raised to the 3&gt;2 power. That is, for some constant k,
T = kR 3&gt;2 .
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Let’s compare his law to the data in Table 1.3 taken from the 1993 World Almanac.
TABLE 1.3 Orbital periods and mean distances of planets
from the sun
Planet
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
T
Period (days)
R Mean distance
(millions of miles)
88.0
224.7
365.3
687.0
4,331.8
10,760.0
30,684.0
60,188.3
90,466.8
36
67.25
93
141.75
483.80
887.97
1,764.50
2,791.05
3,653.90
The graphing principle in this example may be new to you. To plot T versus R 3&gt;2 we
first calculate the value of R 3&gt;2 for each value in Table 1.3. For example,
3653.90 3&gt;2 L 220,869.1 and 363&gt;2 = 216. The horizontal axis represents R 3&gt;2 (not R values) and we plot the ordered pairs sR 3&gt;2, Td in the coordinate system in Figure 1.49. This plot
of ordered pairs or scatterplot gives a graph of the period versus the mean distance to the 3&gt;2
power. We observe that the scatterplot in the figure does lie approximately along a straight
line that projects through the origin. By picking two points that lie on that line we can easily estimate the slope, which is the constant of proportionality (in days per miles *10 -4).
k = slope =
90, 466.8 - 88
L 0.410
220,869.1 - 216
We estimate the model of Kepler’s third law to be T = 0.410R 3&gt;2 (which depends on our
choice of units). We need to be careful to point out that this is not a proof of Kepler’s third
T
Period (Days)
36
90,000
60,000
30,000
0
0
80,000
(Miles
160,000
240,000
R 3/2
10 –4 )
FIGURE 1.49 Graph of Kepler’s third law as a
proportionality: T = 0.410R 3&gt;2 (Example 3).
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1.4 Identifying Functions; Mathematical Models
37
law. We cannot prove or verify a theorem by just looking at some examples. Nevertheless,
Figure 1.49 suggests that Kepler’s third law is reasonable.
The concept of proportionality is one way to test the reasonableness of a conjectured
relationship between two variables, as in Example 3. It can also provide the basis for an
empirical model which comes entirely from a table of collected data.
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1.4 Identifying Functions; Mathematical Models
37
EXERCISES 1.4
Recognizing Functions
b. y = 5x
6. a. y = 5x
In Exercises 1–4, identify each function as a constant function, linear
function, power function, polynomial (state its degree), rational function, algebraic function, trigonometric function, exponential function,
or logarithmic function. Remember that some functions can fall into
more than one category.
y
g
5
b. gsxd = 2
x
1. a. ƒsxd = 7 - 3x
x2 - 1
c. hsxd = 2
x + 1
2. a. Fstd = t 4 - t
h
x
d. rsxd = 8
x
0
b. Gstd = 5t
3 7
z
d. Rszd = 2
c. Hszd = 2z 3 + 1
3. a. y =
c. y = x 5
3 + 2x
x - 1
f
b. y = x 5&gt;2 - 2x + 1
c. y = tan px
d. y = log7 x
1
4. a. y = log5 a t b
b. ƒszd =
z5
2z + 1
d. w = 5 cos a
c. gsxd = 21&gt;x
t
p
+ b
2
6
In Exercises 5 and 6, match each equation with its graph. Do not use a
5. a. y = x 4
b. y = x 7
c. y = x 10
Increasing and Decreasing Functions
Graph the functions in Exercises 7–18. What symmetries, if any, do
the graphs have? Specify the intervals over which the function is increasing and the intervals where it is decreasing.
7. y = - x 3
8. y = -
1
9. y = - x
13. y = x 3&gt;8
g
h
15. y = - x
14. y = - 42x
3&gt;2
2&gt;3
17. y = s - xd
0
f
x
1
ƒxƒ
12. y = 2 -x
10. y =
11. y = 2ƒ x ƒ
y
1
x2
16. y = s - xd3&gt;2
18. y = - x 2&gt;3
Even and Odd Functions
In Exercises 19–30, say whether the function is even, odd, or neither.
20. ƒsxd = x -5
19. ƒsxd = 3
2
21. ƒsxd = x + 1
22. ƒsxd = x 2 + x
23. gsxd = x 3 + x
24. gsxd = x 4 + 3x 2 - 1
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
x
x2 - 1
25. gsxd =
1
x2 - 1
26. gsxd =
27. hstd =
1
t - 1
28. hstd = ƒ t 3 ƒ
29. hstd = 2t + 1
34. In October 2002, astronomers discovered a rocky, icy mini-planet
tentatively named “Quaoar” circling the sun far beyond Neptune.
The new planet is about 4 billion miles from Earth in an outer
fringe of the solar system known as the Kuiper Belt. Using
Kepler’s third law, estimate the time T it takes Quaoar to complete
one full orbit around the sun.
30. hstd = 2 ƒ t ƒ + 1
Proportionality
In Exercises 31 and 32, assess whether the given data sets reasonably
support the stated proportionality assumption. Graph an appropriate
scatterplot for your investigation and, if the proportionality assumption seems reasonable, estimate the constant of proportionality.
T 35. Spring elongation The response of a spring to various loads
must be modeled to design a vehicle such as a dump truck, utility
vehicle, or a luxury car that responds to road conditions in a desired way. We conducted an experiment to measure the stretch y
of a spring in inches as a function of the number x of units of
mass placed on the spring.
31. a. y is proportional to x
y
1
2
3
x
5.9
12.1
17.9
b. y is proportional to x
4
5
6
7
8
23.9
29.9
36.2
41.8
48.2
1&gt;2
y
3.5
5
6
7
8
x
3
6
9
12
15
32. a. y is proportional to 3x
y
5
15
45
135
405
1215
3645
10,935
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
x (number of
units of mass)
0
1
2
3
4
5
y (elongation
in inches)
0
0.875
1.721
2.641
3.531
4.391
x (number of
units of mass)
6
7
8
9
10
y (elongation
in inches)
5.241
6.120
6.992
7.869
8.741
a. Make a scatterplot of the data to test the reasonableness of the
hypothesis that stretch y is proportional to the mass x.
b. Estimate the constant of proportionality from your graph
obtained in part (a).
b. y is proportional to ln x
y
2
4.8
5.3
6.5
8.0
10.5
14.4
15.0
x
2.0
5.0
6.0
9.0
14.0
35.0
120.0
150.0
c. Predict the elongation of the spring for 13 units of mass.
36. Ponderosa pines In the table, x represents the girth (distance
around) of a pine tree measured in inches (in.) at shoulder height;
y represents the board feet (bf) of lumber finally obtained.
T 33. The accompanying table shows the distance a car travels during
the time the driver is reacting before applying the brakes, and the
distance the car travels after the brakes are applied. The distances
(in feet) depend on the speed of the car (in miles per hour). Test
the reasonableness of the following proportionality assumptions
and estimate the constants of proportionality.
x (in.)
17
19
20
23
25
28
32
38
39
41
y (bf)
19
25
32
57
71
113
123
252
259
294
Formulate and test the following two models: that usable board feet
is proportional to (a) the square of the girth and (b) the cube of the
girth. Does one model provide a better “explanation” than the other?
a. reaction distance is proportional to speed.
b. braking distance is proportional to the square of the speed.
Speed (mph)
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
Reaction
distance (ft)
22
28
33
39
44
50
55
61
66
72
77
83
88
Braking
distance (ft)
20
28
41
53
72
93
118
149
182
221
266
318
376
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 38
38
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
1.5
Combining Functions; Shifting and Scaling Graphs
In this section we look at the main ways functions are combined or transformed to form
new functions.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 39
1.5 Combining Functions; Shifting and Scaling Graphs
39
Sums, Differences, Products, and Quotients
Like numbers, functions can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided (except where
the denominator is zero) to produce new functions. If ƒ and g are functions, then for every
x that belongs to the domains of both ƒ and g (that is, for x H Dsƒd &uml; Dsgd), we define
functions ƒ + g, ƒ - g, and ƒg by the formulas
sƒ + gdsxd = ƒsxd + gsxd.
s ƒ - gdsxd = ƒsxd - gsxd.
sƒgdsxd = ƒsxdgsxd.
Notice that the + sign on the left-hand side of the first equation represents the operation of
addition of functions, whereas the + on the right-hand side of the equation means addition
of the real numbers ƒ(x) and g(x).
At any point of Dsƒd &uml; Dsgd at which gsxd Z 0, we can also define the function ƒ&gt;g
by the formula
ƒsxd
ƒ
a g bsxd =
gsxd
swhere gsxd Z 0d.
Functions can also be multiplied by constants: If c is a real number, then the function
cƒ is defined for all x in the domain of ƒ by
scƒdsxd = cƒsxd.
EXAMPLE 1
Combining Functions Algebraically
The functions defined by the formulas
ƒsxd = 2x
and
g sxd = 21 - x,
have domains Dsƒd = [0, q d and Dsgd = s - q , 1]. The points common to these domains are the points
[0, q d &uml; s - q , 1] = [0, 1].
The following table summarizes the formulas and domains for the various algebraic combinations of the two functions. We also write ƒ # g for the product function ƒg.
Function
Formula
Domain
ƒ + g
ƒ - g
g - ƒ
ƒ#g
s ƒ + gdsxd = 2x + 21 - x
sƒ - gdsxd = 2x - 21 - x
sg - ƒdsxd = 21 - x - 2x
sƒ # gdsxd = ƒsxdgsxd = 2xs1 - xd
ƒ
ƒsxd
x
g sxd = gsxd = A 1 - x
[0, 1] = Dsƒd &uml; Dsgd
[0, 1]
[0, 1]
[0, 1]
ƒ&gt;g
g&gt;ƒ
g
gsxd
1 - x
sxd =
=
ƒ
ƒsxd
A x
[0, 1) sx = 1 excludedd
(0, 1] sx = 0 excludedd
The graph of the function ƒ + g is obtained from the graphs of ƒ and g by adding the
corresponding y-coordinates ƒ(x) and g(x) at each point x H Dsƒd &uml; Dsgd, as in Figure
1.50. The graphs of ƒ + g and ƒ # g from Example 1 are shown in Figure 1.51.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 40
40
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
y
y
6
yfg
g(x) 兹1 x
8
y ( f g)(x)
y g(x)
4
2
g(a)
y f (x)
1
2
f (a) g(a)
yf•g
f (a)
0
x
a
0
f(x) 兹x
1
FIGURE 1.50 Graphical addition of two
functions.
1
5
2
5
3
5
4
5
1
x
FIGURE 1.51 The domain of the function ƒ + g is
the intersection of the domains of ƒ and g, the
interval [0, 1] on the x-axis where these domains
overlap. This interval is also the domain of the
function ƒ # g (Example 1).
Composite Functions
Composition is another method for combining functions.
DEFINITION
Composition of Functions
If ƒ and g are functions, the composite function ƒ g (“ƒ composed with g”) is
defined by
sƒ gdsxd = ƒsgsxdd .
The domain of ƒ g consists of the numbers x in the domain of g for which g (x)
lies in the domain of ƒ.
The definition says that ƒ g can be formed when the range of g lies in the domain of
ƒ. To find sƒ gdsxd, first find g(x) and second find ƒ(g(x)). Figure 1.52 pictures ƒ g
as a machine diagram and Figure 1.53 shows the composite as an arrow diagram.
f
g
f(g(x))
x
g
x
g
g(x)
f
f
f (g(x))
FIGURE 1.52 Two functions can be composed at
x whenever the value of one function at x lies in the
domain of the other. The composite is denoted by
ƒ g.
g(x)
FIGURE 1.53 Arrow diagram for ƒ g .
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 41
1.5 Combining Functions; Shifting and Scaling Graphs
EXAMPLE 2
41
Viewing a Function as a Composite
The function y = 21 - x 2 can be thought of as first calculating 1 - x 2 and then taking
the square root of the result. The function y is the composite of the function
g sxd = 1 - x 2 and the function ƒsxd = 2x. Notice that 1 - x 2 cannot be negative. The
domain of the composite is [- 1, 1].
To evaluate the composite function g ƒ (when defined), we reverse the order, finding ƒ(x) first and then g(ƒ(x)). The domain of g ƒ is the set of numbers x in the domain
of ƒ such that ƒ(x) lies in the domain of g.
The functions ƒ g and g ƒ are usually quite different.
EXAMPLE 3
Finding Formulas for Composites
If ƒsxd = 2x and g sxd = x + 1, find
(a) sƒ gdsxd
(b) sg ƒdsxd
(c) sƒ ƒdsxd
(d) sg gdsxd.
Solution
Composite
Domain
(a) sƒ gdsxd = ƒsg sxdd = 2g sxd = 2x + 1
(b) sg ƒdsxd = g sƒsxdd = ƒsxd + 1 = 2x + 1
[-1, q d
[0, q d
(c) sƒ ƒdsxd = ƒsƒsxdd = 2ƒsxd = 21x = x 1&gt;4
(d) sg gdsxd = g sg sxdd = g sxd + 1 = sx + 1d + 1 = x + 2
[0, q d
s - q, q d
To see why the domain of ƒ g is [ -1, q d, notice that gsxd = x + 1 is defined for all
real x but belongs to the domain of ƒ only if x + 1 &Uacute; 0, that is to say, when x &Uacute; - 1.
Notice that if ƒsxd = x 2 and gsxd = 2x, then sƒ gdsxd =
the domain of ƒ g is [0, q d, not s - q , q d.
A 2x B 2 = x. However,
Shifting a Graph of a Function
To shift the graph of a function y = ƒsxd straight up, add a positive constant to the righthand side of the formula y = ƒsxd .
To shift the graph of a function y = ƒsxd straight down, add a negative constant to the
right-hand side of the formula y = ƒsxd.
To shift the graph of y = ƒsxd to the left, add a positive constant to x. To shift the
graph of y = ƒsxd to the right, add a negative constant to x.
Shift Formulas
Vertical Shifts
y = ƒsxd + k
Shifts the graph of f up k units if k 7 0
Shifts it down ƒ k ƒ units if k 6 0
Horizontal Shifts
y = ƒsx + hd
Shifts the graph of f left h units if h 7 0
Shifts it right ƒ h ƒ units if h 6 0
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42
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
y
y x2 2
y x2 1
y x2
y x2 2
2
1 unit
1
–2
0
–1
2
EXAMPLE 4
Shifting a Graph
(a) Adding 1 to the right-hand side of the formula y = x 2 to get y = x 2 + 1 shifts the
graph up 1 unit (Figure 1.54).
(b) Adding -2 to the right-hand side of the formula y = x 2 to get y = x 2 - 2 shifts the
graph down 2 units (Figure 1.54).
(c) Adding 3 to x in y = x 2 to get y = sx + 3d2 shifts the graph 3 units to the left (Figure
1.55).
(d) Adding - 2 to x in y = ƒ x ƒ , and then adding -1 to the result, gives y = ƒ x - 2 ƒ - 1
and shifts the graph 2 units to the right and 1 unit down (Figure 1.56).
x
2 units
constant to x.
–2
FIGURE 1.54 To shift the graph
of ƒsxd = x 2 up (or down), we add
positive (or negative) constants to
the formula for ƒ (Example 4a
and b).
y
constant to x.
y
4
y (x 3) 2
y x2
y x – 2 – 1
y (x 2) 2
1
1
–3
0
–4
1
2
–2
–1
2
4
6
x
x
FIGURE 1.55 To shift the graph of y = x 2 to the
left, we add a positive constant to x. To shift the
graph to the right, we add a negative constant to x
(Example 4c).
FIGURE 1.56 Shifting the graph of
y = ƒ x ƒ 2 units to the right and 1 unit
down (Example 4d).
Scaling and Reflecting a Graph of a Function
To scale the graph of a function y = ƒsxd is to stretch or compress it, vertically or horizontally. This is accomplished by multiplying the function ƒ, or the independent variable x,
by an appropriate constant c. Reflections across the coordinate axes are special cases
where c = - 1.
Vertical and Horizontal Scaling and Reflecting Formulas
For c 7 1,
y = cƒsxd
Stretches the graph of ƒ vertically by a factor of c.
1
y = c ƒsxd
Compresses the graph of ƒ vertically by a factor of c.
y = ƒscxd
y = ƒsx&gt;cd
Compresses the graph of ƒ horizontally by a factor of c.
Stretches the graph of ƒ horizontally by a factor of c.
For c = - 1,
y = - ƒsxd
y = ƒs -xd
Reflects the graph of ƒ across the x-axis.
Reflects the graph of ƒ across the y-axis.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 43
43
1.5 Combining Functions; Shifting and Scaling Graphs
EXAMPLE 5
Scaling and Reflecting a Graph
(a) Vertical: Multiplying the right-hand side of y = 2x by 3 to get y = 32x stretches
the graph vertically by a factor of 3, whereas multiplying by 1&gt;3 compresses the
graph by a factor of 3 (Figure 1.57).
(b) Horizontal: The graph of y = 23x is a horizontal compression of the graph of
y = 2x by a factor of 3, and y = 2x&gt;3 is a horizontal stretching by a factor of 3
(Figure 1.58). Note that y = 23x = 232x so a horizontal compression may correspond to a vertical stretching by a different scaling factor. Likewise, a horizontal
stretching may correspond to a vertical compression by a different scaling factor.
(c) Reflection: The graph of y = - 2x is a reflection of y = 2x across the x-axis, and
y = 2- x is a reflection across the y-axis (Figure 1.59).
y
y
y 3兹x
5
compress
y 兹x
stretch
2
2
1
compress
1
0
y 兹3 x
3
3
–1
y 兹x
4
4
1
2
3
y 3 兹x
4
stretch
1
x
–1
FIGURE 1.57 Vertically stretching and
compressing the graph y = 1x by a
factor of 3 (Example 5a).
y
y 兹–x
0
1
2
3
4
1
y 兹x
–3
y 兹x兾3
–1
1
2
3
x
–1
x
y –兹x
FIGURE 1.58 Horizontally stretching and
compressing the graph y = 1x by a factor of
3 (Example 5b).
EXAMPLE 6
–2
FIGURE 1.59 Reflections of the graph
y = 1x across the coordinate axes
(Example 5c).
Combining Scalings and Reflections
Given the function ƒsxd = x 4 - 4x 3 + 10 (Figure 1.60a), find formulas to
(a) compress the graph horizontally by a factor of 2 followed by a reflection across the
y-axis (Figure 1.60b).
(b) compress the graph vertically by a factor of 2 followed by a reflection across the
x-axis (Figure 1.60c).
y
y
y 16x 4 32x 3 10 y
f (x) x4
4x 3
10
20
20
10
10
–1
0
–10
y – 12 x 4 2x 3 5
10
1
2
3
4
x
–2
–1
0
–10
1
x
–1
0
1
2
3
4
x
–10
–20
–20
(a)
(b)
(c)
FIGURE 1.60 (a) The original graph of f. (b) The horizontal compression of y = ƒsxd in part (a) by a factor of 2, followed
by a reflection across the y-axis. (c) The vertical compression of y = ƒsxd in part (a) by a factor of 2, followed by a reflection
across the x-axis (Example 6).
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 44
44
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Solution
(a) The formula is obtained by substituting - 2x for x in the right-hand side of the equation for ƒ
y = ƒs - 2xd = s -2xd4 - 4s -2xd3 + 10
= 16x 4 + 32x 3 + 10 .
(b) The formula is
y = -
1
1
ƒsxd = - x 4 + 2x 3 - 5.
2
2
Ellipses
Substituting cx for x in the standard equation for a circle of radius r centered at the origin
gives
c 2x 2 + y 2 = r 2 .
(1)
If 0 6 c 6 1, the graph of Equation (1) horizontally stretches the circle; if c 7 1 the circle is compressed horizontally. In either case, the graph of Equation (1) is an ellipse
(Figure 1.61). Notice in Figure 1.61 that the y-intercepts of all three graphs are always -r
and r. In Figure 1.61b, the line segment joining the points s ; r&gt;c, 0d is called the major
axis of the ellipse; the minor axis is the line segment joining s0, ;rd. The axes of the ellipse are reversed in Figure 1.61c: the major axis is the line segment joining the points
s0, ;rd and the minor axis is the line segment joining the points s ; r&gt;c, 0d. In both cases,
the major axis is the line segment having the longer length.
y
y
x2 y2 r2
r
–r
y
0
r
r
x
– cr
r
c 2x 2 y 2 r 2
0
r
c
–r
x
– cr
–r
r
c
x
–r
(a) circle
FIGURE 1.61
0
c 2x 2 y 2 r 2
(b) ellipse, 0 c 1
(c) ellipse, c 1
Horizontal stretchings or compressions of a circle produce graphs of ellipses.
If we divide both sides of Equation (1) by r 2 , we obtain
y2
x2
+ 2 = 1.
2
a
b
(2)
where a = r&gt;c and b = r . If a 7 b, the major axis is horizontal; if a 6 b, the major axis
is vertical. The center of the ellipse given by Equation (2) is the origin (Figure 1.62).
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 45
1.5 Combining Functions; Shifting and Scaling Graphs
45
FIGURE 1.62 Graph of the ellipse
y2
x2
+
= 1, a 7 b , where the major
a2
b2
axis is horizontal.
y
b
–a
Major axis
Center
a
x
–b
Substituting x - h for x, and y - k for y, in Equation (2) results in
s y - kd2
sx - hd2
+
= 1.
a2
b2
(3)
Equation (3) is the standard equation of an ellipse with center at (h, k). The geometric
definition and properties of ellipses are reviewed in Section 10.1.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 45
1.5 Combining Functions; Shifting and Scaling Graphs
45
EXERCISES 1.5
Sums, Differences, Products, and Quotients
In Exercises 1 and 2, find the domains and ranges of ƒ, g, ƒ + g , and
ƒ # g.
1. ƒsxd = x,
g sxd = 2x - 1
2. ƒsxd = 2x + 1,
g sxd = 2x - 1
In Exercises 3 and 4, find the domains and ranges of ƒ, g, ƒ&gt;g, and g &gt;ƒ.
3. ƒsxd = 2,
g sxd = x 2 + 1
4. ƒsxd = 1,
g sxd = 1 + 2x
Composites of Functions
2
5. If ƒsxd = x + 5 and g sxd = x - 3 , find the following.
a. ƒ( g (0))
b. g (ƒ(0))
c. ƒ( g (x))
d. g (ƒ(x))
e. ƒ(ƒ(- 5))
f. g (g (2))
g. ƒ(ƒ(x))
h. g (g (x))
6. If ƒsxd = x - 1 and gsxd = 1&gt;sx + 1d , find the following.
7. If usxd = 4x - 5, ysxd = x 2 , and ƒsxd = 1&gt;x , find formulas for
the following.
a. u(y (ƒ(x)))
b. u (ƒ(y (x)))
c. y (u (ƒ(x)))
d. y (ƒ (u (x)))
e. ƒ (u (y (x)))
f. ƒ(y (u (x)))
8. If ƒsxd = 2x, g sxd = x&gt;4 , and hsxd = 4x - 8 , find formulas
for the following.
a. h(g (ƒ(x)))
b. h(ƒ(g (x)))
c. g (h (ƒ(x)))
d. g (ƒ(h(x)))
e. ƒ(g (h(x)))
f. ƒ(h(g(x)))
Let ƒsxd = x - 3, g sxd = 2x , hsxd = x 3 , and jsxd = 2x . Express each of the functions in Exercises 9 and 10 as a composite involving one or more of ƒ, g, h, and j.
9. a. y = 2x - 3
b. y = 22x
c. y = x 1&gt;4
d. y = 4x
e. y = 2sx - 3d
3
10. a. y = 2x - 3
f. y = s2x - 6d3
b. y = x 3&gt;2
a. ƒ(g (1&gt;2))
b. g (ƒ(1&gt;2))
c. ƒ(g (x))
d. g (ƒ(x))
c. y = x 9
d. y = x - 6
e. ƒ(ƒ(2))
f. g (g (2))
e. y = 22x - 3
f. y = 2x 3 - 3
g. ƒ(ƒ(x))
h. g (g (x))
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 46
46
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
16. The accompanying figure shows the graph of y = x 2 shifted to
two new positions. Write equations for the new graphs.
11. Copy and complete the following table.
g(x)
ƒ(x)
a. x - 7
2x
b. x + 2
y
Position (a)
3x
2x - 5
x
x - 1
1
1 + x
c.
d.
(ƒ g)(x)
x
x - 1
e.
y x2
2x 2 - 5
3
x
x
0
1
f. x
Position (b)
x
12. Copy and complete the following table.
g(x)
ƒ(x)
(ƒ g)(x)
a.
1
x - 1
ƒxƒ
?
b.
?
x - 1
x
x
x + 1
c.
?
2x
ƒxƒ
d.
2x
?
ƒxƒ
–5
17. Match the equations listed in parts (a)–(d) to the graphs in the accompanying figure.
a. y = sx - 1d2 - 4
b. y = sx - 2d2 + 2
c. y = sx + 2d2 + 2
d. y = sx + 3d2 - 2
y
Position 2
Position 1
In Exercises 13 and 14, (a) write a formula for ƒ g and g ƒ and
find the (b) domain and (c) range of each.
13. ƒ(x) = 2x + 1,
14. ƒ(x) = x 2,
1
g (x) = x
3
(–2, 2)
Position 3
g (x) = 1 - 2x
Shifting Graphs
2
–4 –3 –2 –1 0
15. The accompanying figure shows the graph of y = - x 2 shifted to
two new positions. Write equations for the new graphs.
(2, 2)
1
x
1 2 3
Position 4
(–3, –2)
y
(1, –4)
–7
0
4
x
18. The accompanying figure shows the graph of y = - x 2 shifted to
four new positions. Write an equation for each new graph.
y
(1, 4)
Position (a)
y –x 2
(–2, 3)
Position (b)
(b)
(a)
(2, 0)
x
(–4, –1)
(c)
(d)
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch01p001-072 8/19/04 10:50 AM Page 47
1.5 Combining Functions; Shifting and Scaling Graphs
Exercises 19–28 tell how many units and in what directions the graphs
of the given equations are to be shifted. Give an equation for the
shifted graph. Then sketch the original and shifted graphs together,
labeling each graph with its equation.
47
50. The accompanying figure shows the graph of a function g(t ) with
domain [ -4, 0] and range [- 3, 0] . Find the domains and ranges
of the following functions, and sketch their graphs.
y
19. x 2 + y 2 = 49
Down 3, left 2
20. x 2 + y 2 = 25
Up 3, left 4
21. y = x 3
22. y = x 2&gt;3
Right 1, down 1
23. y = 2x
Left 0.81
24. y = - 2x
Right 3
25. y = 2x - 7
Up 7
26. y =
1
sx + 1d + 5
2
27. y = 1&gt;x
28. y = 1&gt;x
–4
Left 1, down 1
Down 5, right 1
Left 2, down 1
Graph the functions in Exercises 29–48.
x
0
y g(t)
Up 1, right 1
2
–2
–3
a. g s - td
b. -g std
c. g std + 3
d. 1 - g std
e. g s -t + 2d
f. g st - 2d
g. g s1 - td
h. -g st - 4d
Vertical and Horizontal Scaling
29. y = 2x + 4
30. y = 29 - x
31. y = ƒ x - 2 ƒ
33. y = 1 + 2x - 1
32. y = ƒ 1 - x ƒ - 1
34. y = 1 - 2x
Exercises 51–60 tell by what factor and direction the graphs of the
given functions are to be stretched or compressed. Give an equation
for the stretched or compressed graph.
35. y = sx + 1d2&gt;3
36. y = sx - 8d2&gt;3
51. y = x 2 - 1,
37. y = 1 - x
2&gt;3
38. y + 4 = x
3
x - 1 - 1
39. y = 2
2&gt;3
40. y = sx + 2d3&gt;2 + 1
1
x - 2
1
42. y = x - 2
1
43. y = x + 2
1
44. y =
x + 2
41. y =
45. y =
1
sx - 1d2
46. y =
compressed horizontally by a factor of 2
1
53. y = 1 + 2 ,
x
compressed vertically by a factor of 2
1
, stretched horizontally by a factor of 3
x2
55. y = 2x + 1, compressed horizontally by a factor of 4
1
- 1
x2
56. y = 2x + 1,
stretched vertically by a factor of 3
57. y = 24 - x 2,
stretched horizontally by a factor of 2
58. y = 24 - x ,
compressed vertically by a factor of 3
2
59. y = 1 - x 3,
compressed horizontally by a factor of 3
60. y = 1 - x 3,
stretched horizontally by a factor of 2
Graphing
y
0
52. y = x - 1,
54. y = 1 +
1
1
47. y = 2 + 1
48. y =
x
sx + 1d2
49. The accompanying figure shows the graph of a function ƒ(x) with
domain [0, 2] and range [0, 1]. Find the domains and ranges of the
following functions, and sketch their graphs.
1
stretched vertically by a factor of 3
2
In Exercises 61–68, graph each function, not by plotting points, but by
starting with the graph of one of the standard functions presented in
Figures 1.36–1.38, and applying an appropriate transformation.
y f (x)
2
x
a. ƒsxd + 2
b. ƒsxd - 1
c. 2ƒ(x)
d. -ƒsxd
e. ƒsx + 2d
f. ƒsx - 1d
g. ƒs - xd
h. - ƒsx + 1d + 1
x
2
61. y = - 22x + 1
62. y =
63. y = sx - 1d3 + 2
64. y = s1 - xd3 + 2
65. y =
1
- 1
2x
3
x
67. y = - 2
A
1 -
2
+ 1
x2
68. y = s - 2xd2&gt;3
66. y =
69. Graph the function y = ƒ x 2 - 1 ƒ .
70. Graph the function y = 2ƒ x ƒ .
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48
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Ellipses
Even and Odd Functions
Exercises 71–76 give equations of ellipses. Put each equation in standard form and sketch the ellipse.
79. Assume that ƒ is an even function, g is an odd function, and both
ƒ and g are defined on the entire real line . Which of the following (where defined) are even? odd?
71. 9x 2 + 25y 2 = 225
2
72. 16x 2 + 7y 2 = 112
2
74. sx + 1d2 + 2y 2 = 4
73. 3x + s y - 2d = 3
75. 3sx - 1d2 + 2s y + 2d2 = 6
76. 6 ax +
2
2
3
1
b + 9 ay - b = 54
2
2
77. Write an equation for the ellipse sx 2&gt;16d + sy 2&gt;9d = 1 shifted 4
units to the left and 3 units up. Sketch the ellipse and identify its
center and major axis.
78. Write an equation for the ellipse sx 2&gt;4d + sy 2&gt;25d = 1 shifted 3
units to the right and 2 units down. Sketch the ellipse and identify
its center and major axis.
a. ƒg
b. ƒ&gt;g
d. ƒ 2 = ƒƒ
e. g 2 = g g
g. g ƒ
h. ƒ ƒ
c. g &gt;ƒ
f. ƒ g
i. g g
80. Can a function be both even and odd? Give reasons for your
T 81. (Continuation of Example 1.) Graph the functions ƒsxd = 2x
and g sxd = 21 - x together with their (a) sum, (b) product,
(c) two differences, (d) two quotients.
T 82. Let ƒsxd = x - 7 and g sxd = x 2 . Graph ƒ and g together with
ƒ g and g ƒ .
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48
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Trigonometric Functions
1.6
This section reviews the basic trigonometric functions. The trigonometric functions are
important because they are periodic, or repeating, and therefore model many naturally occurring periodic processes.
B'
s
B
1
C
C ir
A'
A
r
it cir cl
e
Un
θ
cle of ra diu
sr
FIGURE 1.63 The radian measure of
angle ACB is the length u of arc AB on the
unit circle centered at C. The value of u
can be found from any other circle,
however, as the ratio s&gt;r. Thus s = r u is
the length of arc on a circle of radius r
when u is measured in radians.
In navigation and astronomy, angles are measured in degrees, but in calculus it is best to
use units called radians because of the way they simplify later calculations.
The radian measure of the angle ACB at the center of the unit circle (Figure 1.63)
equals the length of the arc that ACB cuts from the unit circle. Figure 1.63 shows that
s = ru is the length of arc cut from a circle of radius r when the subtending angle u producing the arc is measured in radians.
Since the circumference of the circle is 2p and one complete revolution of a circle is
360&deg;, the relation between radians and degrees is given by
For example, 45&deg; in radian measure is
45 #
Conversion Formulas
p
p
180
4
p
1 degree =
180
p
180
180
1 radian = p s L57d degrees
180
Radians to degrees: multiply by p
p # 180
= 30&deg;.
6 p
Figure 1.64 shows the angles of two common triangles in both measures.
An angle in the xy-plane is said to be in standard position if its vertex lies at the origin and its initial ray lies along the positive x-axis (Figure 1.65). Angles measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis are assigned positive measures; angles measured clockwise are assigned negative measures.
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49
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Degrees
␲
4
45

1
45

1
␲
4
90
1
␲
2
1
y
y
Terminal ray
␲
6
30

2
60
90
1
Initial ray

2
␲
3
␲
2
x
Positive
measure
Initial ray
Negative
measure
Terminal
ray
x
1
FIGURE 1.64 The angles of two common
FIGURE 1.65 Angles in standard position in the xy-plane.
When angles are used to describe counterclockwise rotations, our measurements can
go arbitrarily far beyond 2p radians or 360&deg;. Similarly, angles describing clockwise rotations can have negative measures of all sizes (Figure 1.66).
y
y
3
x
x
9␲
4
y
y
– 5␲
2
x
– 3␲
4
FIGURE 1.66 Nonzero radian measures can be positive or
negative and can go beyond 2p .
x
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50
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
hypotenuse
From now on in this book it is assumed that all angles are measured in radians
unless degrees or some other unit is stated explicitly. When we talk about the angle p&gt;3, we mean p&gt;3 radians (which is 60&deg;), not p&gt;3 degrees. When you do
opposite
␪
opp
hyp
cos ␪ hyp
opp
hyp
opp
hyp
cot ␪ opp
sin ␪ csc ␪ The Six Basic Trigonometric Functions
You are probably familiar with defining the trigonometric functions of an acute angle in
terms of the sides of a right triangle (Figure 1.67). We extend this definition to obtuse and
negative angles by first placing the angle in standard position in a circle of radius r. We
then define the trigonometric functions in terms of the coordinates of the point P(x, y)
where the angle’s terminal ray intersects the circle (Figure 1.68).
y
r
sine: sin u = r
cosecant: csc u = y
x
r
cosine: cos u = r
secant: sec u = x
y
x
tangent: tan u = x
cotangent: cot u = y
FIGURE 1.67 Trigonometric
ratios of an acute angle.
y
P(x, y)
r
These extended definitions agree with the right-triangle definitions when the angle is
acute (Figure 1.69).
Notice also the following definitions, whenever the quotients are defined.
␪
0
r
x
sin u
cos u
1
sec u =
cos u
1
tan u
1
csc u =
sin u
tan u =
FIGURE 1.68 The trigonometric
functions of a general angle u are
defined in terms of x, y, and r.
As you can see, tan u and sec u are not defined if x = 0. This means they are not defined
if u is ;p&gt;2, ;3p&gt;2, &Aacute; . Similarly, cot u and csc u are not defined for values of u for
which y = 0, namely u = 0, ; p, ;2p, &Aacute; .
The exact values of these trigonometric ratios for some angles can be read from the
triangles in Figure 1.64. For instance,
y
0
p
1
=
4
22
p
1
cos =
4
22
p
tan = 1
4
sin
hypotenuse
r
␪
x
P(x, y)
y opposite
x
sin
p
1
=
6
2
sin
23
p
=
3
2
cos
23
p
=
6
2
cos
p
1
=
3
2
p
p
1
tan = 23
=
3
6
23
The CAST rule (Figure 1.70) is useful for remembering when the basic trigonometric functions are positive or negative. For instance, from the triangle in Figure 1.71, we see that
sin
FIGURE 1.69 The new and old
definitions agree for acute angles.
cot u =
23
2p
=
,
3
2
tan
cos
2p
1
= - ,
3
2
tan
2p
= - 23.
3
Using a similar method we determined the values of sin u, cos u, and tan u shown in Table
1.4.
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51
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
cos 2 ␲ , sin 2 ␲  – 1 , 兹3 

3
3  2 2 
y
y
P
S
sin pos
A
all pos
x
T
tan pos
1

2
2␲
3
x
1
2
C
cos pos
FIGURE 1.71 The triangle for
calculating the sine and cosine of 2p&gt;3
radians. The side lengths come from the
geometry of right triangles.
FIGURE 1.70 The CAST rule,
remembered by the statement “All
Students Take Calculus,” tells
which trigonometric functions are
Most calculators and computers readily provide values of the trigonometric functions
for angles given in either radians or degrees.
TABLE 1.4 Values of sin u, cos u, and tan u for selected values of u
Degrees
180
-p
135
3p
4
90
p
2
45
p
4
0
0
30
p
6
45
p
4
60
p
3
90
p
2
120
2p
3
135
3p
4
150
5p
6
22
2
1
2
- 22
2
-1
sin u
0
- 22
2
-1
- 22
2
0
1
2
22
2
23
2
1
23
2
cos u
-1
- 22
2
0
22
2
1
23
2
22
2
1
2
0
-
tan u
0
-1
0
23
3
1
23
1
EXAMPLE 1
1
2
- 23
180
270
3p
2
360
0
-1
0
- 23
2
-1
0
1
- 23
3
0
p
2p
0
Finding Trigonometric Function Values
If tan u = 3&gt;2 and 0 6 u 6 p&gt;2, find the five other trigonometric functions of u .
Solution From tan u = 3&gt;2, we construct the right triangle of height 3 (opposite) and
base 2 (adjacent) in Figure 1.72. The Pythagorean theorem gives the length of the hypotenuse, 24 + 9 = 213. From the triangle we write the values of the other five
trigonometric functions:
cos u =
2
,
213
sin u =
3
213
,
sec u =
213
,
2
csc u =
213
,
3
cot u =
2
3
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52
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Periodicity and Graphs of the Trigonometric Functions
y
When an angle of measure u and an angle of measure u + 2p are in standard position,
their terminal rays coincide. The two angles therefore have the same trigonometric function values:

3
0
␪
2
cos su + 2pd = cos u
sec su + 2pd = sec u
x
sin su + 2pd = sin u
csc su + 2pd = csc u
tan su + 2pd = tan u
cot su + 2pd = cot u
Similarly, cos su - 2pd = cos u, sin su - 2pd = sin u, and so on. We describe this repeating behavior by saying that the six basic trigonometric functions are periodic.
FIGURE 1.72 The triangle for
calculating the trigonometric functions in
Example 1.
DEFINITION
Periodic Function
A function ƒ(x) is periodic if there is a positive number p such that
ƒsx + pd = ƒsxd for every value of x. The smallest such value of p is the period
of ƒ.
When we graph trigonometric functions in the coordinate plane, we usually denote the independent variable by x instead of u . See Figure 1.73.
y
y
y
y cos x
–␲ – ␲
2
␲
␲
2
0
y sin x
3␲ 2␲
2
␲ ␲ 3␲
2
2
␲ , 3␲ , . . .
2
2
Range: y ⱕ –1 and y ⱖ 1
Period: 2␲
(d)
Domain: x
–␲ – ␲
2
␲
␲
2
0
y
y sec x
1
– 3␲ –␲ – ␲ 0
2
2
x
3␲ 2␲
2
y sinx
Domain: – x Range: –1 ⱕ y ⱕ 1
Period: 2␲
(b)
Domain: – x Range: –1 ⱕ y ⱕ 1
Period: 2␲
(a)
y
y tan x
x
x
– 3␲ –␲ – ␲
2
2
x
␲
3␲
,
,...
2
2
Range: – y Period: ␲
(c)
Domain: x
y
y csc x
1
–␲ – ␲ 0
2
0 ␲ ␲ 3␲
2
2
y cot x
1
␲
2
␲ 3␲ 2␲
2
Domain: x 0, ␲, 2␲, . . .
Range: y ⱕ –1 and y ⱖ 1
Period: 2␲
x
–␲ – ␲ 0
2
␲
2
␲ 3␲ 2␲
2
Domain: x 0, ␲, 2␲, . . .
Range: – y Period: ␲
(e)
(f)
FIGURE 1.73 Graphs of the (a) cosine, (b) sine, (c) tangent, (d) secant, (e) cosecant, and (f) cotangent
functions using radian measure. The shading for each trigonometric function indicates its periodicity.
x
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53
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Periods of Trigonometric
Functions
Period P :
tan sx + pd = tan x
cot sx + pd = cot x
Period 2P :
sin sx + 2pd = sin x
cos sx + 2pd = cos x
sec sx + 2pd = sec x
csc sx + 2pd = csc x
As we can see in Figure 1.73, the tangent and cotangent functions have period p = p.
The other four functions have period 2p. Periodic functions are important because many
behaviors studied in science are approximately periodic. A theorem from advanced calculus says that every periodic function we want to use in mathematical modeling can be written as an algebraic combination of sines and cosines. We show how to do this in Section
11.11.
The symmetries in the graphs in Figure 1.73 reveal that the cosine and secant functions are even and the other four functions are odd:
Even
Odd
cos s - xd = cos x
sin s - xd = - sin x
sec s -xd = sec x
tan s -xd = - tan x
csc s -xd = - csc x
cot s -xd = - cot x
y
Identities
P(cos ␪, sin ␪)
The coordinates of any point P(x, y) in the plane can be expressed in terms of the point’s
distance from the origin and the angle that ray OP makes with the positive x-axis (Figure
1.69). Since x&gt;r = cos u and y&gt;r = sin u, we have
x 2 y2 1
␪
sin ␪ x = r cos u,
x
cos ␪ 1
y = r sin u.
When r = 1 we can apply the Pythagorean theorem to the reference right triangle in
Figure 1.74 and obtain the equation
cos2 u + sin2 u = 1.
FIGURE 1.74 The reference
triangle for a general angle u .
(1)
This equation, true for all values of u, is the most frequently used identity in trigonometry.
Dividing this identity in turn by cos2 u and sin2 u gives
1 + tan2 u = sec2 u.
1 + cot2 u = csc2 u.
The following formulas hold for all angles A and B (Exercises 53 and 54).
cos sA + Bd = cos A cos B - sin A sin B
sin sA + Bd = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
(2)
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54
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
There are similar formulas for cos sA - Bd and sin sA - Bd (Exercises 35 and 36).
All the trigonometric identities needed in this book derive from Equations (1) and (2). For
example, substituting u for both A and B in the addition formulas gives
Double-Angle Formulas
cos 2u = cos2 u - sin2 u
sin 2u = 2 sin u cos u
(3)
Additional formulas come from combining the equations
cos2 u + sin2 u = 1,
cos2 u - sin2 u = cos 2u.
We add the two equations to get 2 cos2 u = 1 + cos 2u and subtract the second from the
first to get 2 sin2 u = 1 - cos 2u. This results in the following identities, which are useful
in integral calculus.
Half-Angle Formulas
cos2 u =
1 + cos 2u
2
(4)
sin2 u =
1 - cos 2u
2
(5)
The Law of Cosines
If a, b, and c are sides of a triangle ABC and if u is the angle opposite c, then
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos u.
This equation is called the law of cosines.
We can see why the law holds if we introduce coordinate axes with the origin at C and
the positive x-axis along one side of the triangle, as in Figure 1.75. The coordinates of A
are (b, 0); the coordinates of B are sa cos u, a sin ud. The square of the distance between A
and B is therefore
y
B(a cos ␪, a sin ␪)
c 2 = sa cos u - bd2 + sa sin ud2
c
a
␪
C
(6)
b
A(b, 0)
x
FIGURE 1.75 The square of the distance
between A and B gives the law of cosines.
= a 2scos2 u + sin2 ud + b 2 - 2ab cos u
('')''*
1
= a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos u.
The law of cosines generalizes the Pythagorean theorem. If u = p&gt;2, then cos u = 0
and c 2 = a 2 + b 2 .
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1.6 Trigonometric Functions
55
Transformations of Trigonometric Graphs
The rules for shifting, stretching, compressing, and reflecting the graph of a function apply to the trigonometric functions. The following diagram will remind you of the controlling parameters.
Vertical stretch or compression;
Vertical shift
y = aƒ(bsx + cdd + d
Horizontal shift
Horizontal stretch or compression;
EXAMPLE 2
The builders of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline used insulated pads to keep the pipeline heat
from melting the permanently frozen soil beneath. To design the pads, it was necessary to
take into account the variation in air temperature throughout the year. The variation was
represented in the calculations by a general sine function or sinusoid of the form
ƒsxd = A sin c
2p
sx - Cd d + D,
B
where ƒ A ƒ is the amplitude, ƒ B ƒ is the period, C is the horizontal shift, and D is the vertical
shift (Figure 1.76).
y
(
Horizontal
shift (C)
Amplitude (A)
D
DA
)
y A sin 2␲ (x C) D
B
DA
This axis is the
line y D.
Vertical
shift (D)
This distance is
the period (B).
x
0
FIGURE 1.76 The general sine curve y = A sin [s2p&gt;Bdsx - Cd] + D ,
shown for A, B, C, and D positive (Example 2).
Figure 1.77 shows how to use such a function to represent temperature data. The data
points in the figure are plots of the mean daily air temperatures for Fairbanks, Alaska,
based on records of the National Weather Service from 1941 to 1970. The sine function
used to fit the data is
ƒsxd = 37 sin c
2p
sx - 101d d + 25,
365
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
where ƒ is temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and x is the number of the day counting from
the beginning of the year. The fit, obtained by using the sinusoidal regression feature on a
calculator or computer, as we discuss in the next section, is very good at capturing the
trend of the data.
60
Temperature (&deg;F)
56
40
20
0
20
Jan
Feb Mar Apr May Jun
Jul
Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan
Feb Mar
FIGURE 1.77 Normal mean air temperatures for Fairbanks, Alaska, plotted as data points
(red). The approximating sine function (blue) is
ƒsxd
37 sin [s2p 365dsx
101d]
25 .
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56
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
EXERCISES 1.6
1. On a circle of radius 10 m, how long is an arc that subtends a central angle of (a) 4p&gt;5 radians? (b) 110&deg;?
2. A central angle in a circle of radius 8 is subtended by an arc of
length 10p . Find the angle’s radian and degree measures.
3. You want to make an 80&deg; angle by marking an arc on the perimeter of a 12-in.-diameter disk and drawing lines from the ends of
the arc to the disk’s center. To the nearest tenth of an inch, how
long should the arc be?
4. If you roll a 1-m-diameter wheel forward 30 cm over level
ground, through what angle will the wheel turn? Answer in radians (to the nearest tenth) and degrees (to the nearest degree).
5. Copy and complete the following table of function values. If the
function is undefined at a given angle, enter “UND.” Do not use a
calculator or tables.
sin u
cos u
tan u
cot u
sec u
csc u
P
2P&gt;3
0
U
3P&gt;2
P&gt;3
P&gt;6
P&gt;4
5P&gt;6
sin u
cos u
tan u
cot u
sec u
csc u
In Exercises 7–12, one of sin x, cos x, and tan x is given. Find the other
two if x lies in the specified interval.
Evaluating Trigonometric Functions
U
6. Copy and complete the following table of function values. If the
function is undefined at a given angle, enter “UND.” Do not use a
calculator or tables.
P&gt;2
7. sin x =
3
,
5
p
x c , pd
2
9. cos x =
1
,
3
x c-
5
p
, 0 d 10. cos x = - ,
2
13
11. tan x =
1
,
2
x cp,
3p
d
2
3P&gt;4
8. tan x = 2,
1
12. sin x = - ,
2
x c0,
p
d
2
p
x c , pd
2
x cp,
3p
d
2
Graphing Trigonometric Functions
Graph the functions in Exercises 13–22. What is the period of each
function?
13. sin 2x
14. sin ( x&gt;2)
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1.6 Trigonometric Functions
15. cos px
17. -sin
16. cos
px
3
px
2
41. sin a
18. -cos 2px
19. cos ax -
p
b
2
20. sin ax +
p
b
2
21. sin ax -
p
b + 1
4
22. cos ax +
p
b - 1
4
Graph the functions in Exercises 23–26 in the ts-plane (t-axis horizontal, s-axis vertical). What is the period of each function? What symmetries do the graphs have?
23. s = cot 2t
24. s = - tan pt
25. s = sec a
t
26. s = csc a b
2
pt
b
2
T 27. a. Graph y = cos x and y = sec x together for -3p&gt;2 … x
… 3p&gt;2 . Comment on the behavior of sec x in relation to the
signs and values of cos x.
b. Graph y = sin x and y = csc x together for -p … x … 2p .
Comment on the behavior of csc x in relation to the signs and
values of sin x.
T 28. Graph y = tan x and y = cot x together for - 7 … x … 7 . Comment on the behavior of cot x in relation to the signs and values of
tan x.
29. Graph y = sin x and y = : sin x ; together. What are the domain
and range of : sin x ; ?
30. Graph y = sin x and y = &lt; sin x = together. What are the domain
and range of &lt; sin x = ?
42. cos a
3p
- xb
2
43. Evaluate sin
7p
p
p
as sin a + b .
12
4
3
44. Evaluate cos
11p
p
2p
b.
as cos a +
12
4
3
45. Evaluate cos
p
.
12
46. Evaluate sin
5p
.
12
p
b = sin x
2
32. cos ax +
p
b = - sin x
2
33. sin ax +
p
b = cos x
2
34. sin ax -
p
b = - cos x
2
3p
+ xb
2
Using the Double-Angle Formulas
Find the function values in Exercises 47–50.
47. cos2
p
8
48. cos2
p
12
49. sin2
p
12
50. sin2
p
8
Theory and Examples
51. The tangent sum formula The standard formula for the tangent of the sum of two angles is
tan A + tan B
.
1 - tan A tan B
tansA + Bd =
Derive the formula.
52. (Continuation of Exercise 51.) Derive a formula for tan sA - Bd .
53. Apply the law of cosines to the triangle in the accompanying figure to derive the formula for cos sA - Bd .
Use the addition formulas to derive the identities in Exercises 31–36.
31. cos ax -
57
y
1
A
35. cos sA - Bd = cos A cos B + sin A sin B (Exercise 53 provides a
different derivation.)
1
B
0
1
x
36. sin sA - Bd = sin A cos B - cos A sin B
37. What happens if you take B = A in the identity
cos sA - Bd = cos A cos B + sin A sin B ? Does the result agree
38. What happens if you take B = 2p in the addition formulas? Do
the results agree with something you already know?
In Exercises 39–42, express the given quantity in terms of sin x and
cos x.
39. cos sp + xd
40. sin s2p - xd
54. a. Apply the formula for cos sA - Bd to the identity sin u =
cos a
p
- u b to obtain the addition formula for sin sA + Bd .
2
b. Derive the formula for cos sA + Bd by substituting - B for B
in the formula for cos sA - Bd from Exercise 35.
55. A triangle has sides a = 2 and b = 3 and angle C = 60&deg; . Find
the length of side c.
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58
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
56. A triangle has sides a = 2 and b = 3 and angle C = 40&deg; . Find
the length of side c.
57. The law of sines The law of sines says that if a, b, and c are the
sides opposite the angles A, B, and C in a triangle, then
sin C
sin A
sin B
a = b = c .
Use the accompanying figures and the identity sin sp - ud =
sin u , if required, to derive the law.
A
c
B
A
c
b
h
b
C
a
B
a
h
65. Temperature in Fairbanks, Alaska Find the (a) amplitude, (b)
period, (c) horizontal shift, and (d) vertical shift of the general
sine function
ƒsxd = 37 sin a
2p
sx - 101d b + 25 .
365
66. Temperature in Fairbanks, Alaska Use the equation in Exercise 65 to approximate the answers to the following questions
Assume that the year has 365 days.
a. What are the highest and lowest mean daily temperatures
shown?
b. What is the average of the highest and lowest mean daily temperatures shown? Why is this average the vertical shift of the
function?
C
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
58. A triangle has sides a = 2 and b = 3 and angle C = 60&deg; (as in
Exercise 55). Find the sine of angle B using the law of sines.
59. A triangle has side c = 2 and angles A = p&gt;4 and B = p&gt;3 .
Find the length a of the side opposite A.
T 60. The approximation sin x x It is often useful to know that,
when x is measured in radians, sin x L x for numerically small
values of x. In Section 3.8, we will see why the approximation
holds. The approximation error is less than 1 in 5000 if ƒ x ƒ 6 0.1 .
In Exercises 67–70, you will explore graphically the general sine
function
ƒsxd = A sin a
2p
sx - Cd b + D
B
as you change the values of the constants A, B, C, and D. Use a CAS
or computer grapher to perform the steps in the exercises.
67. The period B
Set the constants A = 3, C = D = 0 .
a. With your grapher in radian mode, graph y = sin x and y = x
together in a viewing window about the origin. What do you
see happening as x nears the origin?
a. Plot ƒ(x) for the values B = 1, 3, 2p, 5p over the interval
- 4p … x … 4p . Describe what happens to the graph of the
general sine function as the period increases.
b. With your grapher in degree mode, graph y = sin x and
y = x together about the origin again. How is the picture different from the one obtained with radian mode?
b. What happens to the graph for negative values of B? Try it
with B = - 3 and B = - 2p .
mode? Evaluate sin x at a value of x near the origin, say
x = 0.1 . If sin x L x , the calculator is in radian mode; if not,
it isn’t. Try it.
For
p
2
1
63. y = - p sin a tb + p
2
b. What happens to the graph for negative values of C?
69. The vertical shift D
2p
sx - Cdb + D ,
B
identify A, B, C, and D for the sine functions in Exercises 61–64 and
sketch their graphs (see Figure 1.76).
61. y = 2 sin sx + pd - 1
a. Plot ƒ(x) for the values C = 0, 1 , and 2 over the interval
- 4p … x … 4p . Describe what happens to the graph of the
general sine function as C increases through positive values.
c. What smallest positive value should be assigned to C so the
a plot.
General Sine Curves
ƒsxd = A sin a
68. The horizontal shift C Set the constants A = 3, B = 6, D = 0 .
62. y =
64. y =
1
1
sin spx - pd +
2
2
2pt
L
sin
,
L
2p
L 7 0
Set the constants A = 3, B = 6, C = 0 .
a. Plot ƒ(x) for the values D = 0, 1 , and 3 over the interval
- 4p … x … 4p . Describe what happens to the graph of the
general sine function as D increases through positive values.
b. What happens to the graph for negative values of D?
70. The amplitude A Set the constants B = 6, C = D = 0 .
a. Describe what happens to the graph of the general sine function as A increases through positive values. Confirm your answer by plotting ƒ(x) for the values A = 1, 5 , and 9.
b. What happens to the graph for negative values of A?
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1.7 Graphing with Calculators and Computers
1.7
59
Graphing with Calculators and Computers
A graphing calculator or a computer with graphing software enables us to graph very complicated functions with high precision. Many of these functions could not otherwise be easily graphed. However, care must be taken when using such devices for graphing purposes
and we address those issues in this section. In Chapter 4 we will see how calculus helps us
to be certain we are viewing accurately all the important features of a function’s graph.
Graphing Windows
When using a graphing calculator or computer as a graphing tool, a portion of the graph is
displayed in a rectangular display or viewing window. Often the default window gives an
incomplete or misleading picture of the graph. We use the term square window when the
units or scales on both axis are the same. This term does not mean that the display window
itself is square in shape (usually it is rectangular), but means instead that the x-unit is the
same as the y-unit.
When a graph is displayed in the default window, the x-unit may differ from the y-unit
of scaling in order to fit the graph in the display. The viewing window in the display is set
by specifying the minimum and maximum values of the independent and dependent variables. That is, an interval a … x … b is specified as well as a range c … y … d. The machine selects a certain number of equally spaced values of x between a and b. Starting with
a first value for x, if it lies within the domain of the function ƒ being graphed, and if ƒ(x)
lies inside the range [c, d], then the point (x, ƒ(x)) is plotted. If x lies outside the domain of
ƒ, or ƒ(x) lies outside the specified range [c, d], the machine just moves on to the next
x-value since it cannot plot (x, ƒ(x)) in that case. The machine plots a large number of
points (x, ƒ(x)) in this way and approximates the curve representing the graph by drawing
a short line segment between each plotted point and its next neighboring point, as we
might do by hand. Usually, adjacent points are so close together that the graphical representation has the appearance of a smooth curve. Things can go wrong with this procedure
and we illustrate the most common problems through the following examples.
EXAMPLE 1
Choosing a Viewing Window
Graph the function ƒsxd = x 3 - 7x 2 + 28 in each of the following display or viewing
windows:
(a) [-10, 10] by [ -10, 10]
(b) [ -4, 4] by [- 50, 10]
(c) [-4, 10] by [-60, 60]
Solution
(a) We select a = - 10, b = 10, c = - 10, and d = 10 to specify the interval of x-values
and the range of y-values for the window. The resulting graph is shown in Figure
1.78a. It appears that the window is cutting off the bottom part of the graph and that
the interval of x-values is too large. Let’s try the next window.
(b) Now we see more features of the graph (Figure 1.78b), but the top is missing and we
need to view more to the right of x = 4 as well. The next window should help.
(c) Figure 1.78c shows the graph in this new viewing window. Observe that we get a
more complete picture of the graph in this window and it is a reasonable graph of a
third-degree polynomial. Choosing a good viewing window is a trial-and-error
process which may require some troubleshooting as well.
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
10
10
60
–4
–10
4
–4
10
–10
–50
(a)
(b)
10
–60
(c)
The graph of ƒsxd = x 3 - 7x 2 + 28 in different viewing windows (Example 1).
FIGURE 1.78
EXAMPLE 2
Square Windows
When a graph is displayed, the x-unit may differ from the y-unit, as in the graphs shown in
Figures 1.78b and 1.78c. The result is distortion in the picture, which may be misleading.
The display window can be made square by compressing or stretching the units on one
axis to match the scale on the other, giving the true graph. Many systems have built-in
functions to make the window “square.” If yours does not, you will have to do some calculations and set the window size manually to get a square window, or bring to your viewing
some foreknowledge of the true picture.
Figure 1.79a shows the graphs of the perpendicular lines y = x and y -x + 3 22, together with the semicircle y = 29 - x 2 , in a nonsquare [-6, 6] by
[-6, 8] display window. Notice the distortion. The lines do not appear to be perpendicular,
and the semicircle appears to be elliptical in shape.
Figure 1.79b shows the graphs of the same functions in a square window in which the
x-units are scaled to be the same as the y-units. Notice that the [ -6, 6] by [-4, 4] viewing
window has the same x-axis in both figures, but the scaling on the x-axis has been compressed in Figure 1.79b to make the window square. Figure 1.79c gives an enlarged view
with a square [ -3, 3] by [0, 4] window.
8
–6
4
4
6
–6
6
–3
–6
(a)
–4
(b)
3
0
(c)
FIGURE 1.79 Graphs of the perpendicular lines y = x and y = - x + 3 22 , and the semicircle
y = 29 - x 2 , in (a) a nonsquare window, and (b) and (c) square windows (Example 2).
If the denominator of a rational function is zero at some x-value within the viewing
window, a calculator or graphing computer software may produce a steep near-vertical line
segment from the top to the bottom of the window. Here is an example.
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1.7 Graphing with Calculators and Computers
EXAMPLE 3
61
Graph of a Rational Function
Graph the function y =
1
.
2 - x
Solution Figure 1.80a shows the graph in the [- 10, 10] by [- 10, 10] default square
window with our computer graphing software. Notice the near-vertical line segment at
x = 2. It is not truly a part of the graph and x = 2 does not belong to the domain of the
function. By trial and error we can eliminate the line by changing the viewing window to
the smaller [- 6, 6] by [- 4, 4] view, revealing a better graph (Figure 1.80b).
10
4
–10
10
–6
6
–10
(a)
–4
(b)
FIGURE 1.80 Graphs of the function y =
1
(Example 3).
2 - x
Sometimes the graph of a trigonometric function oscillates very rapidly. When a calculator or computer software plots the points of the graph and connects them, many of the maximum and minimum points are actually missed. The resulting graph is then very misleading.
EXAMPLE 4
Graph of a Rapidly Oscillating Function
Graph the function ƒsxd = sin 100x.
Figure 1.81a shows the graph of ƒ in the viewing window [- 12, 12] by
[ -1, 1]. We see that the graph looks very strange because the sine curve should oscillate
periodically between - 1 and 1. This behavior is not exhibited in Figure 1.81a. We might
experiment with a smaller viewing window, say [- 6, 6] by [ -1, 1], but the graph is not
better (Figure 1.81b). The difficulty is that the period of the trigonometric function
y = sin 100x is very small s2p&gt;100 L 0.063d. If we choose the much smaller viewing
window [ -0.1, 0.1] by [- 1, 1] we get the graph shown in Figure 1.81c. This graph reveals
the expected oscillations of a sine curve.
Solution
1
–12
1
12
–1
(a)
–6
1
6
–0.1
–1
(b)
0.1
–1
(c)
FIGURE 1.81 Graphs of the function y = sin 100x in three viewing windows. Because the period is 2p&gt;100 L 0.063 ,
the smaller window in (c) best displays the true aspects of this rapidly oscillating function (Example 4).
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62
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
EXAMPLE 5
Another Rapidly Oscillating Function
Graph the function y = cos x +
1
sin 50x.
50
Solution In the viewing window [ -6, 6] by [- 1, 1] the graph appears much like the cosine function with some small sharp wiggles on it (Figure 1.82a). We get a better look
when we significantly reduce the window to [- 0.6, 0.6] by [0.8, 1.02], obtaining the graph
in Figure 1.82b. We now see the small but rapid oscillations of the second term,
1&gt;50 sin 50x, added to the comparatively larger values of the cosine curve.
1.02
1
–6
6
–0.6
0.6
0.8
(b)
–1
(a)
FIGURE 1.82 In (b) we see a close-up view of the function
1
sin 50x graphed in (a). The term cos x clearly dominates the
y = cos x +
50
1
second term,
sin 50x , which produces the rapid oscillations along the
50
cosine curve (Example 5).
EXAMPLE 6
Graphing an Odd Fractional Power
Graph the function y = x 1&gt;3 .
Solution Many graphing devices display the graph shown in Figure 1.83a. When we
3
compare it with the graph of y = x 1&gt;3 = 2
x in Figure 1.38, we see that the left branch for
x 6 0 is missing. The reason the graphs differ is that many calculators and computer soft-
2
–3
2
3
–2
(a)
–3
3
–2
(b)
FIGURE 1.83 The graph of y = x 1&gt;3 is missing the left branch in (a). In
x # 1&gt;3
(b) we graph the function ƒsxd =
ƒ x ƒ obtaining both branches. (See
ƒxƒ
Example 6.)
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63
1.7 Graphing with Calculators and Computers
ware programs calculate x 1&gt;3 as e s1&gt;3dln x . (The exponential and logarithmic functions are
studied in Chapter 7.) Since the logarithmic function is not defined for negative values of
x, the computing device can only produce the right branch where x 7 0.
To obtain the full picture showing both branches, we can graph the function
ƒsxd =
x # 1&gt;3
ƒxƒ .
ƒxƒ
This function equals x 1&gt;3 except at x = 0 (where ƒ is undefined, although 0 1&gt;3 = 0). The
graph of ƒ is shown in Figure 1.83b.
Empirical Modeling: Capturing the Trend of Collected Data
In Example 3 of Section 1.4, we verified the reasonableness of Kepler’s hypothesis that the
period of a planet’s orbit is proportional to its mean distance from the sun raised to the 3&gt;2
power. If we cannot hypothesize a relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable, we might collect data points and try to find a curve that “fits” the data
and captures the trend of the scatterplot. The process of finding a curve to fit data is called
regression analysis and the curve is called a regression curve. A computer or graphing
calculator finds the regression curve by finding the particular curve which minimizes the
sum of the squares of the vertical distances between the data points and the curve. This
method of least squares is discussed in the Section 14.7 exercises.
There are many useful types of regression curves, such as straight lines, power, polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, and sinusoidal curves. Many computers or graphing calculators have a regression analysis feature to fit a variety of regression curve types. The
next example illustrates using a graphing calculator’s linear regression feature to fit data
from Table 1.5 with a linear equation.
EXAMPLE 7
TABLE 1.5 Price of a
U.S. postage stamp
Year x
Cost y
1968
1971
1974
1975
1977
1981
1981
1985
1987
1991
1995
1998
2002
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.13
0.15
0.18
0.20
0.22
0.25
0.29
0.32
0.33
0.37
Fitting a Regression Line
Starting with the data in Table 1.5, build a model for the price of a postage stamp as a
function of time. After verifying that the model is “reasonable,” use it to predict the price
in 2010.
Solution We are building a model for the price of a stamp since 1968. There were two
increases in 1981, one of three cents followed by another of two cents. To make 1981 comparable with the other listed years, we lump them together as a single five-cent increase,
giving the data in Table 1.6. Figure 1.84a gives the scatterplot for Table 1.6.
TABLE 1.6 Price of a U.S postage stamp since 1968
x
y
0
6
3
8
6
10
7
13
9
15
13
20
17
22
19
25
23
29
27
32
30
33
34
37
Since the scatterplot is fairly linear, we investigate a linear model. Upon entering the data
into a graphing calculator (or computer software) and selecting the linear regression option, we find the regression line to be
y = 0.94x + 6.10.
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Price of stamps (cents)
y
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10 20 30 40 50 60
Year after 1968
(b)
(a)
x
FIGURE 1.84 (a) Scatterplot of (x, y) data in Table 1.6. (b) Using the
regression line to estimate the price of a stamp in 2010. (Example 7).
Figure 1.84b shows the line and scatterplot together. The fit is remarkably good, so the
model seems reasonable.
Evaluating the regression line, we conclude that in 2010 sx = 42d, the price of a
stamp will be
y = 0.94s42d + 6.10 L 46 cents.
The prediction is shown as the red point on the regression line in Figure 1.84b.
EXAMPLE 8
Finding a Curve to Predict Population Levels
We may want to predict the future size of a population, such as the number of trout or catfish living in a fish farm. Figure 1.85 shows a scatterplot of the data collected by R. Pearl
for a collection of yeast cells (measured as biomass) growing over time (measured in
hours) in a nutrient.
y
Biomass
64
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1
2
3
4
Time
5
6
7
x
FIGURE 1.85 Biomass of a yeast culture versus
elapsed time (Example 8).
(Data from R. Pearl, “The Growth of Population,” Quart. Rev.
Biol., Vol. 2 (1927), pp. 532–548.)
The plot of points appears to be reasonably smooth with an upward curving trend. We
might attempt to capture this trend by fitting a polynomial (for example, a quadratic
y = ax 2 + bx + c), a power curve s y = ax b d, or an exponential curve s y = ae bx d.
Figure 1.86 shows the result of using a calculator to fit a quadratic model.
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1.7 Graphing with Calculators and Computers
The quadratic model y = 6.10x 2 - 9.28x + 16.43 appears to fit the collected data
reasonably well (Figure 1.86). Using this model, we predict the population after 17 hours
as ys17d = 1622.65. Let us examine more of Pearl’s data to see if our quadratic model
continues to be a good one.
In Figure 1.87, we display all of Pearl’s data. Now you see that the prediction of
ys17d = 1622.65 grossly overestimates the observed population of 659.6. Why did the
quadratic model fail to predict a more accurate value?
y
Biomass
250
200
150
100
50
0
65
1
2
3
4 5
Time
6
7
x
y
2000
FIGURE 1.86 Fitting a quadratic to
Pearl’s data gives the equation
y = 6.10x 2 - 9.28x + 16.43 and the
prediction y s17d = 1622.65 (Example 8).
1800
1600
Yeast Population
1400
1200
Observed
Predicted
1000
800
600
400
200
x
0
4.5
9
Time (hours)
13.5
18
FIGURE 1.87 The rest of Pearl’s data (Example 8).
The problem lies in the danger of predicting beyond the range of data used to build
the empirical model. (The range of data creating our model was 0 … x … 7.) Such extrapolation is especially dangerous when the model selected is not supported by some underlying rationale suggesting the form of the model. In our yeast example, why would we
expect a quadratic function as underlying population growth? Why not an exponential
function? In the face of this, how then do we predict future values? Often, calculus can
help, and in Chapter 9 we use it to model population growth.
Regression Analysis
Regression analysis has four steps:
1. Plot the data (scatterplot).
2. Find a regression equation. For a line, it has the form y = mx + b, and for a
quadratic, the form y = ax 2 + bx + c.
3. Superimpose the graph of the regression equation on the scatterplot to see the fit.
4. If the fit is satisfactory, use the regression equation to predict y-values for values of x not in the table.
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
EXERCISES 1.7
Choosing a Viewing Window
In Exercises 1–4, use a graphing calculator or computer to determine
which of the given viewing windows displays the most appropriate
graph of the specified function.
1. ƒsxd = x 4 - 7x 2 + 6x
a. [- 1, 1] by [- 1, 1]
b. [-2, 2] by [-5, 5]
c. [- 10, 10] by [ - 10, 10]
d. [- 5, 5] by [- 25, 15]
3
2. ƒsxd = x - 4x - 4x + 16
a. [- 1, 1] by [ -5, 5]
b. [-3, 3] by [ -10, 10]
c. [- 5, 5] by [-10, 20]
d. [- 20, 20] by [- 100, 100]
3. ƒsxd = 5 + 12x - x 3
b. [- 5, 5] by [- 10, 10]
c. [- 4, 4] by [-20, 20]
4. ƒsxd = 25 + 4x - x
32. Graph the upper branch of the hyperbola y 2 - 16x 2 = 1 .
33. Graph four periods of the function ƒsxd = - tan 2x .
34. Graph two periods of the function ƒsxd = 3 cot
x
+ 1.
2
35. Graph the function ƒsxd = sin 2x + cos 3x .
36. Graph the function ƒsxd = sin3 x .
2
a. [ -1, 1] by [- 1, 1]
31. Graph the lower half of the circle defined by the equation
x 2 + 2x = 4 + 4y - y 2 .
d. [- 4, 5] by [- 15, 25]
Graphing in Dot Mode
Another way to avoid incorrect connections when using a graphing
device is through the use of a “dot mode,” which plots only the points.
If your graphing utility allows that mode, use it to plot the functions in
Exercises 37–40.
2
37. y =
a. [- 2, 2] by [- 2, 2]
b. [-2, 6] by [-1, 4]
c. [- 3, 7] by [0, 10]
d. [- 10, 10] by [- 10, 10]
1
38. y = sin x
x3 - 1
40. y = 2
x - 1
1
x - 3
39. y = x :x ;
Regression Analysis
Determining a Viewing Window
In Exercises 5–30, determine an appropriate viewing window for the
given function and use it to display its graph.
x3
x2
- 2x + 1
3
2
5. ƒsxd = x 4 - 4x 3 + 15
6. ƒsxd =
7. ƒsxd = x 5 - 5x 4 + 10
8. ƒsxd = 4x 3 - x 4
9. ƒsxd = x 29 - x 2
11. y = 2x - 3x
13. y = 5x
2&gt;5
- 2x
x2 + 2
x2 + 1
x - 1
21. ƒsxd = 2
x - x - 6
1
sin 30x
29. y = x +
10
sx - 8d
14. y = x
2&gt;3
s5 - xd
1
x + 3
x2 - 1
x2 + 1
8
22. ƒsxd = 2
x - 9
20. ƒsxd =
6x 2 - 15x + 6
4x 2 - 10x
25. y = sin 250x
x
b
50
2
18. y = 1 -
19. ƒsxd =
27. y = cos a
12. y = x
1&gt;3
16. y = ƒ x 2 - x ƒ
x + 3
x + 2
23. ƒsxd =
TABLE 1.7 Construction workers’ average
annual compensation
Year
Annual compensation
(dollars)
1980
1985
1988
1990
1992
1995
1999
2002
22,033
27,581
30,466
32,836
34,815
37,996
42,236
45,413
10. ƒsxd = x 2s6 - x 3 d
2&gt;3
15. y = ƒ x 2 - 1 ƒ
17. y =
T 41. Table 1.7 shows the mean annual compensation of construction
workers.
24. ƒsxd =
x2 - 3
x - 2
26. y = 3 cos 60x
28. y =
x
1
sin a b
10
10
1
cos 100x
30. y = x +
50
2
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis.
a. Find a linear regression equation for the data.
b. Find the slope of the regression line. What does the slope represent?
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1.7 Graphing with Calculators and Computers
c. Superimpose the graph of the linear regression equation on a
scatterplot of the data.
d. Use the regression equation to predict the construction workers’ average annual compensation in 2010.
T 42. The median price of existing single-family homes has increased
consistently since 1970. The data in Table 1.8, however, show that
there have been differences in various parts of the country.
a. Find a linear regression equation for home cost in the
Northeast.
b. What does the slope of the regression line represent?
c. Find a linear regression equation for home cost in the
Midwest.
d. Where is the median price increasing more rapidly, in the
Northeast or the Midwest?
TABLE 1.8 Median price of single-family homes
Year
Northeast
(dollars)
Midwest
(dollars)
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
25,200
39,300
60,800
88,900
141,200
197,100
264,700
20,100
30,100
51,900
58,900
74,000
88,300
97,000
Source: National Association of Realtors&reg;
T 43. Vehicular stopping distance Table 1.9 shows the total stopping
distance of a car as a function of its speed.
a. Find the quadratic regression equation for the data in Table 1.9.
b. Superimpose the graph of the quadratic regression equation
on a scatterplot of the data.
c. Use the graph of the quadratic regression equation to predict
the average total stopping distance for speeds of 72 and 85
mph. Confirm algebraically.
d. Now use linear regression to predict the average total stopping distance for speeds of 72 and 85 mph. Superimpose the
regression line on a scatterplot of the data. Which gives the
better fit, the line here or the graph in part (b)?
67
TABLE 1.9 Vehicular stopping distance
Speed (mph)
Average total stopping distance (ft)
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
42
56
73.5
91.5
116
142.5
173
209.5
248
292.5
343
401
464
Source: U.S. Bureau of Public Roads.
T 44. Stern waves Observations of the stern waves that follow a boat
at right angles to its course have disclosed that the distance between the crests of these waves (their wave length) increases with
the speed of the boat. Table 1.10 shows the relationship between
wave length and the speed of the boat.
TABLE 1.10 Wave lengths
Wave length (m)
Speed (km/h)
0.20
0.65
1.13
2.55
4.00
5.75
7.80
10.20
12.90
16.00
18.40
1.8
3.6
5.4
7.2
9.0
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.2
18.0
19.8
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68
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
a. Find a power regression equation y = ax b for the data in
Table 1.10, where x is the wave length, and y the speed of the
boat.
c. Use the graph of the power regression equation to predict
the speed of the boat when the wave length is 11 m. Confirm
algebraically.
b. Superimpose the graph of the power regression equation on a
scatterplot of the data.
d. Now use linear regression to predict the speed when the wave
length is 11 m. Superimpose the regression line on a scatterplot of the data. Which gives the better fit, the line here or the
curve in part (b)?
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68
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Chapter 1
1. How are the real numbers represented? What are the main categories characterizing the properties of the real number system?
What are the primary subsets of the real numbers?
2. How are the rational numbers described in terms of decimal expansions? What are the irrational numbers? Give examples.
3. What are the order properties of the real numbers? How are they
used in solving equations?
4. What is a number’s absolute value? Give examples? How are
ƒ -a ƒ , ƒ ab ƒ , ƒ a&gt;b ƒ , and ƒ a + b ƒ related to ƒ a ƒ and ƒ b ƒ ?
5. How are absolute values used to describe intervals or unions of
intervals? Give examples.
6. How do we identify points in the plane using the Cartesian coordinate system? What is the graph of an equation in the variables x
and y?
7. How can you write an equation for a line if you know the coordinates of two points on the line? The line’s slope and the coordinates of one point on the line? The line’s slope and y-intercept?
Give examples.
8. What are the standard equations for lines perpendicular to the coordinate axes?
9. How are the slopes of mutually perpendicular lines related? What
10. When a line is not vertical, what is the relation between its slope
and its angle of inclination?
11. How do you find the distance between two points in the coordinate plane?
12. What is the standard equation of a circle with center (h, k) and radius a? What is the unit circle and what is its equation?
13. Describe the steps you would take to graph the circle
x 2 + y 2 + 4x - 6y + 12 = 0 .
14. What inequality describes the points in the coordinate plane that
lie inside the circle of radius a centered at the point (h, k)? That
lie inside or on the circle? That lie outside the circle? That lie outside or on the circle?
15. If a, b, and c are constants and a Z 0 , what can you say about the
graph of the equation y = ax 2 + bx + c ? In particular, how
would you go about sketching the curve y = 2x 2 + 4x ?
16. What is a function? What is its domain? Its range? What is an arrow diagram for a function? Give examples.
17. What is the graph of a real-valued function of a real variable?
What is the vertical line test?
18. What is a piecewise-defined function? Give examples.
19. What are the important types of functions frequently encountered
in calculus? Give an example of each type.
20. In terms of its graph, what is meant by an increasing function? A
decreasing function? Give an example of each.
21. What is an even function? An odd function? What symmetry
properties do the graphs of such functions have? What advantage
can we take of this? Given an example of a function that is neither
even nor odd.
22. What does it mean to say that y is proportional to x? To x 3&gt;2 ?
What is the geometric interpretation of proportionality? How can
this interpretation be used to test a proposed proportionality?
23. If ƒ and g are real-valued functions, how are the domains of
ƒ + g, ƒ - g, ƒg , and ƒ&gt;g related to the domains of ƒ and g?
Give examples.
24. When is it possible to compose one function with another? Give
examples of composites and their values at various points. Does
the order in which functions are composed ever matter?
25. How do you change the equation y = ƒsxd to shift its graph vertically up or down by a factor k 7 0 ? Horizontally to the left or
right? Give examples.
26. How do you change the equation y = ƒsxd to compress or stretch
the graph by c 7 1 ? Reflect the graph across a coordinate axis?
Give examples.
27. What is the standard equation of an ellipse with center (h, k)?
What is its major axis? Its minor axis? Give examples.
29. Graph the six basic trigonometric functions. What symmetries do
the graphs have?
30. What is a periodic function? Give examples. What are the periods
of the six basic trigonometric functions?
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Chapter 1
69
31. Starting with the identity sin2 u + cos2 u = 1 and the formulas
for cos sA + Bd and sin sA + Bd , show how a variety of other
trigonometric identities may be derived.
stretching, compressing, and reflection of its graph? Give examples. Graph the general sine curve and identify the constants A, B,
C, and D.
32. How does the formula for the general sine function
ƒsxd = A sin ss2p&gt;Bdsx - Cdd + D relate to the shifting,
33. Name three issues that arise when functions are graphed using a
calculator or computer with graphing software. Give examples.
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Chapter 1 Practice Exercises
Chapter 1
69
Practice Exercises
Inequalities
16. through s -3, 6d and s1, -2d
In Exercises 1–4, solve the inequalities and show the solution sets on
the real line.
17. the horizontal line through (0, 2)
18. through (3, 3) and s -2, 5d
1. 7 + 2x &Uacute; 3
2. -3x 6 10
19. with slope - 3 and y-intercept 3
1
1
3. sx - 1d 6 sx - 2d
5
4
x - 3
4 + x
&Uacute; 4.
2
3
20. through (3, 1) and parallel to 2x - y = - 2
21. through s4, -12d and parallel to 4x + 3y = 12
22. through s - 2, - 3d and perpendicular to 3x - 5y = 1
Absolute Value
23. through s -1, 2d and perpendicular to s1&gt;2dx + s1&gt;3dy = 1
Solve the equations or inequalities in Exercises 5–8.
5. ƒ x + 1 ƒ = 7
6. ƒ y - 3 ƒ 6 4
7. ` 1 -
8. `
3
x
` 7
2
2
2x + 7
` … 5
3
Coordinates
9. A particle in the plane moved from As - 2, 5d to the y-axis in such
a way that &cent;y equaled 3&cent;x . What were the particle’s new coordinates?
10. a. Plot the points As8, 1d, Bs2, 10d, Cs - 4, 6d, Ds2, - 3d , and
E(14&gt;3, 6).
b. Find the slopes of the lines AB, BC, CD, DA, CE, and BD.
c. Do any four of the five points A, B, C, D, and E form a parallelogram?
d. Are any three of the five points collinear? How do you know?
e. Which of the lines determined by the five points pass through
the origin?
11. Do the points As6, 4d, Bs4, -3d , and Cs - 2, 3d form an isosceles
triangle? A right triangle? How do you know?
24. with x-intercept 3 and y-intercept -5
Functions and Graphs
25. Express the area and circumference of a circle as functions of the
circle’s radius. Then express the area as a function of the circumference.
26. Express the radius of a sphere as a function of the sphere’s surface
area. Then express the surface area as a function of the volume.
27. A point P in the first quadrant lies on the parabola y = x 2 . Express the coordinates of P as functions of the angle of inclination
of the line joining P to the origin.
28. A hot-air balloon rising straight up from a level field is tracked by
a range finder located 500 ft from the point of liftoff. Express the
balloon’s height as a function of the angle the line from the range
finder to the balloon makes with the ground.
In Exercises 29–32, determine whether the graph of the function is
symmetric about the y-axis, the origin, or neither.
29. y = x 1&gt;5
30. y = x 2&gt;5
12. Find the coordinates of the point on the line y = 3x + 1 that is
equidistant from (0, 0) and s -3, 4d .
31. y = x 2 - 2x - 1
32. y = e -x
Lines
33. y = x 2 + 1
34. y = x 5 - x 3 - x
In Exercises 13–24, write an equation for the specified line.
35. y = 1 - cos x
36. y = sec x tan x
13. through s1, - 6d with slope 3
x4 + 1
37. y = 3
x - 2x
39. y = x + cos x
14. through s - 1, 2d with slope - 1&gt;2
15. the vertical line through s0, - 3d
2
In Exercises 33–40, determine whether the function is even, odd, or
neither.
38. y = 1 - sin x
40. y = 2x 4 - 1
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70
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Composition with absolute values In Exercises 65–68, graph g1
and g2 together. Then describe how taking absolute values after applying g1 affects the graph.
In Exercises 41–50, find the (a) domain and (b) range.
42. y = - 2 + 21 - x
41. y = ƒ x ƒ - 2
43. y = 216 - x 2
45. y = 2e
-x
44. y = 32 - x + 1
46. y = tan s2x - pd
- 3
48. y = x 2&gt;5
65. x
49. y = ln sx - 3d + 1
3
2 - x
50. y = - 1 + 2
66. 2x
-4 … x … 0
0 6 x … 4
- x - 2,
52. y = • x,
- x + 2,
54.
69. y = cos 2x
0
1
71. y = sin px
y
5
1
4
75. a. Find a and b if c = 2, B = p&gt;3 .
b. Find a and c if b = 2, B = p&gt;3 .
In Exercises 55 and 56, find
a. sƒ gds - 1d .
b. sg ƒds2d .
c. sƒ ƒdsxd .
d. sg gdsxd .
56. ƒsxd = 2 - x,
76. a. Express a in terms of A and c.
b. Express a in terms of A and b.
77. a. Express a in terms of B and b.
1
2x + 2
b. Express c in terms of A and a.
3
g sxd = 2
x + 1
78. a. Express sin A in terms of a and c.
b. Express sin A in terms of b and c.
In Exercises 57 and 58, (a) write a formula for ƒ g and g ƒ and
find the (b) domain and (c) range of each.
58. ƒsxd = 2x,
79. Height of a pole Two wires stretch from the top T of a vertical
pole to points B and C on the ground, where C is 10 m closer to
the base of the pole than is B. If wire BT makes an angle of 35&deg;
with the horizontal and wire CT makes an angle of 50&deg; with the
horizontal, how high is the pole?
g sxd = 2x + 2
57. ƒsxd = 2 - x 2,
g sxd = 21 - x
Composition with absolute values In Exercises 59–64, graph ƒ1
and ƒ2 together. Then describe how applying the absolute value function before applying ƒ1 affects the graph.
ƒ1sxd
59. x
60. x
3
61. x
2
80. Height of a weather balloon Observers at positions A and B
2 km apart simultaneously measure the angle of elevation of a
weather balloon to be 40&deg; and 70&deg;, respectively. If the balloon is
directly above a point on the line segment between A and B, find
the height of the balloon.
ƒ2sxd ƒ1s ƒ x ƒ d
ƒxƒ
ƒ x ƒ3
ƒxƒ
p
b.
4
In Exercises 75–78, ABC is a right triangle with the right angle at C.
The sides opposite angles A, B, and C are a, b, and c, respectively.
x
Composition of Functions
g sxd =
p
b.
3
74. Sketch the graph y = 1 + sin ax +
0
1
55. ƒsxd = x ,
x
2
px
72. y = cos
2
70. y = sin
73. Sketch the graph y = 2 cos ax -
(2, 5)
x
2
2
ƒx + xƒ
In Exercises 69–72, sketch the graph of the given function. What is the
period of the function?
-2 … x … -1
-1 6 x … 1
1 6 x … 2
y
ƒ 2x ƒ
ƒ 4 - x2 ƒ
Trigonometry
In Exercises 53 and 54, write a piecewise formula for the function.
53.
2
68. x 2 + x
In Exercises 51 and 52, find the (a) domain and (b) range.
2 -x,
2x,
3
67. 4 - x
Piecewise-Defined Functions
51. y = e
g2sxd ƒ g1sxd ƒ
ƒ x3 ƒ
g1sxd
47. y = 2 sin s3x + pd - 1
T
2
81. a. Graph the function ƒsxd = sin x + cossx&gt;2d .
b. What appears to be the period of this function?
c. Confirm your finding in part (b) algebraically.
1
62. x
1
ƒxƒ
63. 2x
2ƒ x ƒ
b. What are the domain and range of ƒ?
64. sin x
sin ƒ x ƒ
T
82. a. Graph ƒsxd = sin s1&gt;xd .
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Chapter 1
71
Functions and Graphs
13. Find sin B if a = 2, b = 3, c = 4 .
1. The graph of ƒ is shown. Draw the graph of each function.
a. y = ƒs - xd
b. y = - ƒsxd
c. y = - 2ƒsx + 1d + 1
d. y = 3ƒsx - 2d - 2
y
1
Derivations and Proofs
15. Prove the following identities.
a.
1 - cos x
sin x
=
1 + cos x
sin x
b.
1 - cos x
x
= tan2
1 + cos x
2
16. Explain the following “proof without words” of the law of
cosines. (Source: “Proof without Words: The Law of Cosines,”
Sidney H. Kung, Mathematics Magazine, Vol. 63, No. 5, Dec.
1990, p. 342.)
x
–1
14. Find sin C if a = 2, b = 4, c = 5 .
2. A portion of the graph of a function defined on [- 3, 3] is shown.
Complete the graph assuming that the function is
a. even.
2a cos ␪ b
ac
b. odd.
c
y
a
a
(3, 2)
2
b
␪
a
1
0
–1
1
2
3
x
(1, –1)
17. Show that the area of triangle ABC is given by
s1&gt;2dab sin C = s1&gt;2dbc sin A = s1&gt;2dca sin B .
C
3. Are there two functions ƒ and g such that ƒ g = g ƒ ? Give
b
4. Are there two functions ƒ and g with the following property? The
graphs of ƒ and g are not straight lines but the graph of ƒ g is a
5. If ƒ(x) is odd, can anything be said of g sxd = ƒsxd - 2? What if
6. If g (x) is an odd function defined for all values of x, can anything
7. Graph the equation ƒ x ƒ + ƒ y ƒ = 1 + x .
8. Graph the equation y + ƒ y ƒ = x + ƒ x ƒ .
Trigonometry
In Exercises 9–14, ABC is an arbitrary triangle with sides a, b, and c
opposite angles A, B, and C, respectively.
9. Find b if a = 23, A = p&gt;3, B = p&gt;4 .
A
a
c
18. Show that the area of triangle ABC is given by
2sss - adss - bdss - cd where s = sa + b + cd&gt;2 is the
semiperimeter of the triangle.
19. Properties of inequalities If a and b are real numbers, we say
that a is less than b and write a 6 b if (and only if ) b - a is
positive. Use this definition to prove the following properties of
inequalities.
If a, b, and c are real numbers, then:
1. a 6 b Q a + c 6 b + c
2. a 6 b Q a - c 6 b - c
10. Find sin B if a = 4, b = 3, A = p&gt;4 .
3. a 6 b and c 7 0 Q ac 6 bc
11. Find cos A if a = 2, b = 2, c = 3 .
4. a 6 b and c 6 0 Q bc 6 ac
(Special case: a 6 b Q - b 6 - a)
12. Find c if a = 2, b = 3, C = p&gt;4 .
B
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Chapter 1: Preliminaries
1
5. a 7 0 Q a 7 0
b. b changes (a and c fixed, a Z 0)?
c. c changes (a and b fixed, a Z 0)?
1
1
6. 0 6 a 6 b Q
6 a
b
1
1
7. a 6 b 6 0 Q
6 a
b
20. Prove that the following inequalities hold for any real numbers a
and b.
a. ƒ a ƒ 6 ƒ b ƒ if and only if a 2 6 b 2
b. ƒ a - b ƒ &Uacute; ƒ ƒ a ƒ - ƒ b ƒ ƒ
Generalizing the triangle inequality Prove by mathematical induction that the inequalities in Exercises 21 and 22 hold for any n real
numbers a1, a2 , &Aacute; , an . (Mathematical induction is reviewed in Appendix 1.)
21. ƒ a1 + a2 + &Aacute; + an ƒ … ƒ a1 ƒ + ƒ a2 ƒ + &Aacute; + ƒ an ƒ
22. ƒ a1 + a2 + &Aacute; + an ƒ &Uacute; ƒ a1 ƒ - ƒ a2 ƒ - &Aacute; - ƒ an ƒ
23. Show that if ƒ is both even and odd, then ƒsxd = 0 for every x in
the domain of ƒ.
24. a. Even-odd decompositions Let ƒ be a function whose domain is symmetric about the origin, that is, - x belongs to the
domain whenever x does. Show that ƒ is the sum of an even
function and an odd function:
27. Find all values of the slope of the line y = mx + 2 for which the
x-intercept exceeds 1&gt;2 .
Geometry
28. An object’s center of mass moves at a constant velocity y along a
straight line past the origin. The accompanying figure shows the
coordinate system and the line of motion. The dots show positions
that are 1 sec apart. Why are the areas A1, A2 , &Aacute; , A5 in the figure
all equal? As in Kepler’s equal area law (see Section 13.6), the
line that joins the object’s center of mass to the origin sweeps out
equal areas in equal times.
y
t6
10
t5
Kilometers
72
A5
yt
A4
5
yt
A3
t2
A2
t1
A1
ƒsxd = Esxd + O sxd ,
where E is an even function and O is an odd function. (Hint:
Let Esxd = sƒsxd + ƒs - xdd&gt;2 . Show that Es -xd = Esxd , so
that E is even. Then show that O sxd = ƒsxd - Esxd is odd.)
b. Uniqueness Show that there is only one way to write ƒ as
the sum of an even and an odd function. (Hint: One way is
given in part (a). If also ƒsxd = E1sxd + O1sxd where E1 is
even and O1 is odd, show that E - E1 = O1 - O . Then use
Exercise 23 to show that E = E1 and O = O1 .)
0
5
10
Kilometers
15
29. a. Find the slope of the line from the origin to the midpoint P, of
side AB in the triangle in the accompanying figure sa, b 7 0d .
y
B(0, b)
Grapher Explorations—Effects of Parameters
25. What happens to the graph of y = ax 2 + bx + c as
P
a. a changes while b and c remain fixed?
b. b changes (a and c fixed, a Z 0)?
O
c. c changes (a and b fixed, a Z 0)?
26. What happens to the graph of y = asx + bd3 + c as
x
b. When is OP perpendicular to AB?
a. a changes while b and c remain fixed?
A(a, 0)
x
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72
Chapter 1: Preliminaries
Chapter 1
Technology Application Projects
An Overview of Mathematica
An overview of Mathematica sufficient to complete the Mathematica modules appearing on the Web site.
Mathematica/Maple Module
Modeling Change: Springs, Driving Safety, Radioactivity, Trees, Fish, and Mammals.
Construct and interpret mathematical models, analyze and improve them, and make predictions using them.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:00 AM Page 73
Chapter
2
LIMITS AND CONTINUITY
OVERVIEW The concept of a limit is a central idea that distinguishes calculus from algebra and trigonometry. It is fundamental to finding the tangent to a curve or the velocity of
an object.
In this chapter we develop the limit, first intuitively and then formally. We use limits
to describe the way a function ƒ varies. Some functions vary continuously; small changes
in x produce only small changes in ƒ(x). Other functions can have values that jump or vary
erratically. The notion of limit gives a precise way to distinguish between these behaviors.
The geometric application of using limits to define the tangent to a curve leads at once to
the important concept of the derivative of a function. The derivative, which we investigate
thoroughly in Chapter 3, quantifies the way a function’s values change.
2.1
Rates of Change and Limits
In this section, we introduce average and instantaneous rates of change. These lead to the
main idea of the section, the idea of limit.
Average and Instantaneous Speed
A moving body’s average speed during an interval of time is found by dividing the distance covered by the time elapsed. The unit of measure is length per unit time: kilometers
per hour, feet per second, or whatever is appropriate to the problem at hand.
EXAMPLE 1
Finding an Average Speed
A rock breaks loose from the top of a tall cliff. What is its average speed
(a) during the first 2 sec of fall?
(b) during the 1-sec interval between second 1 and second 2?
Solution In solving this problem we use the fact, discovered by Galileo in the late sixteenth century, that a solid object dropped from rest (not moving) to fall freely near the
surface of the earth will fall a distance proportional to the square of the time it has been
falling. (This assumes negligible air resistance to slow the object down and that gravity is
73
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74
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY*
Galileo Galilei
(1564–1642)
the only force acting on the falling body. We call this type of motion free fall.) If y denotes
the distance fallen in feet after t seconds, then Galileo’s law is
y = 16t 2 ,
where 16 is the constant of proportionality.
The average speed of the rock during a given time interval is the change in distance,
&cent;y , divided by the length of the time interval, &cent;t.
(a) For the first 2 sec:
&cent;y
16s2d2 - 16s0d2
ft
=
= 32 sec
2 - 0
&cent;t
(b) From sec 1 to sec 2:
&cent;y
16s2d2 - 16s1d2
ft
=
= 48 sec
2 - 1
&cent;t
The next example examines what happens when we look at the average speed of a falling
object over shorter and shorter time intervals.
EXAMPLE 2
Finding an Instantaneous Speed
Find the speed of the falling rock at t = 1 and t = 2 sec.
Solution We can calculate the average speed of the rock over a time interval [t0 , t0 + h],
having length &cent;t = h, as
&cent;y
16st0 + hd2 - 16t0 2
=
.
h
&cent;t
(1)
We cannot use this formula to calculate the “instantaneous” speed at t0 by substituting
h = 0, because we cannot divide by zero. But we can use it to calculate average speeds
over increasingly short time intervals starting at t0 = 1 and t0 = 2. When we do so, we see
a pattern (Table 2.1).
TABLE 2.1 Average speeds over short time intervals
Average speed:
&cent;y
16st0 + hd2 - 16t0 2
=
h
&cent;t
Length of
time interval
h
Average speed over
interval of length h
starting at t0 1
Average speed over
interval of length h
starting at t0 2
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
48
33.6
32.16
32.016
32.0016
80
65.6
64.16
64.016
64.0016
The average speed on intervals starting at t0 = 1 seems to approach a limiting value
of 32 as the length of the interval decreases. This suggests that the rock is falling at a speed
of 32 ft&gt; sec at t0 = 1 sec. Let’s confirm this algebraically.
To learn more about the historical figures and the development of the major elements and topics of calculus, visit www.aw-bc.com/thomas.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:00 AM Page 75
2.1 Rates of Change and Limits
75
If we set t0 = 1 and then expand the numerator in Equation (1) and simplify, we find that
&cent;y
16s1 + hd2 - 16s1d2
16s1 + 2h + h 2 d - 16
=
=
h
h
&cent;t
2
32h + 16h
= 32 + 16h.
=
h
For values of h different from 0, the expressions on the right and left are equivalent and the
average speed is 32 + 16h ft&gt;sec. We can now see why the average speed has the limiting
value 32 + 16s0d = 32 ft&gt;sec as h approaches 0.
Similarly, setting t0 = 2 in Equation (1), the procedure yields
&cent;y
= 64 + 16h
&cent;t
for values of h different from 0. As h gets closer and closer to 0, the average speed at
t0 = 2 sec has the limiting value 64 ft&gt; sec.
Average Rates of Change and Secant Lines
Given an arbitrary function y = ƒsxd, we calculate the average rate of change of y with
respect to x over the interval [x1 , x2] by dividing the change in the value of y,
&cent;y = ƒsx2 d - ƒsx1 d, by the length &cent;x = x2 - x1 = h of the interval over which the
change occurs.
DEFINITION
Average Rate of Change over an Interval
The average rate of change of y = ƒsxd with respect to x over the interval [x1 , x2] is
ƒsx2 d - ƒsx1 d
ƒsx1 + hd - ƒsx1 d
&cent;y
,
=
=
x2 - x1
h
&cent;x
Geometrically, the rate of change of ƒ over [x1, x2] is the slope of the line through the
points Psx1, ƒsx1 dd and Qsx2 , ƒsx2 dd (Figure 2.1). In geometry, a line joining two points of
a curve is a secant to the curve. Thus, the average rate of change of ƒ from x1 to x2 is identical with the slope of secant PQ.
Experimental biologists often want to know the rates at which populations grow under
controlled laboratory conditions.
y
y f (x)
Q(x 2, f (x 2 ))
EXAMPLE 3
Secant
x h
0
x1
x2
FIGURE 2.1 A secant to the graph
y = ƒsxd . Its slope is &cent;y&gt; &cent;x , the
average rate of change of ƒ over the
interval [x1 , x2] .
The Average Growth Rate of a Laboratory Population
Figure 2.2 shows how a population of fruit flies (Drosophila) grew in a 50-day experiment. The number of flies was counted at regular intervals, the counted values plotted with
respect to time, and the points joined by a smooth curve (colored blue in Figure 2.2). Find
the average growth rate from day 23 to day 45.
y
P(x1, f(x1))
h Z 0.
x
Solution There were 150 flies on day 23 and 340 flies on day 45. Thus the number of
flies increased by 340 - 150 = 190 in 45 - 23 = 22 days. The average rate of change
of the population from day 23 to day 45 was
Average rate of change:
&cent;p
340 - 150
190
=
=
L 8.6 flies&gt;day.
45 - 23
22
&cent;t
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
p
350
Q(45, 340)
Number of flies
300
p 190
250
p
8.6 flies/day
t
t 22
200
P(23, 150)
150
100
50
0
10
20
30
Time (days)
40
t
50
FIGURE 2.2 Growth of a fruit fly population in a controlled
experiment. The average rate of change over 22 days is the slope
&cent;p&gt;&cent;t of the secant line.
This average is the slope of the secant through the points P and Q on the graph in Figure
2.2.
The average rate of change from day 23 to day 45 calculated in Example 3 does not
tell us how fast the population was changing on day 23 itself. For that we need to examine
time intervals closer to the day in question.
EXAMPLE 4
The Growth Rate on Day 23
How fast was the number of flies in the population of Example 3 growing on day 23?
Solution To answer this question, we examine the average rates of change over increasingly short time intervals starting at day 23. In geometric terms, we find these rates by calculating the slopes of secants from P to Q, for a sequence of points Q approaching P along
the curve (Figure 2.3).
p
Q
(45, 340)
(40, 330)
(35, 310)
(30, 265)
Slope of PQ ≤p/≤t
(flies / day)
340
45
330
40
310
35
265
30
-
150
23
150
23
150
23
150
23
L 8.6
L 10.6
B(35, 350)
350
Q(45, 340)
300
Number of flies
76
250
200
150
P(23, 150)
100
L 13.3
50
L 16.4
0
10
20
30
A(14, 0) Time (days)
40
50
FIGURE 2.3 The positions and slopes of four secants through the point P on the fruit fly graph (Example 4).
t
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2.1 Rates of Change and Limits
77
The values in the table show that the secant slopes rise from 8.6 to 16.4 as the t-coordinate of Q decreases from 45 to 30, and we would expect the slopes to rise slightly higher
as t continued on toward 23. Geometrically, the secants rotate about P and seem to approach the red line in the figure, a line that goes through P in the same direction that the
curve goes through P. We will see that this line is called the tangent to the curve at P.
Since the line appears to pass through the points (14, 0) and (35, 350), it has slope
350 - 0
= 16.7 flies&gt;day (approximately).
35 - 14
On day 23 the population was increasing at a rate of about 16.7 flies&gt; day.
The rates at which the rock in Example 2 was falling at the instants t = 1 and t = 2
and the rate at which the population in Example 4 was changing on day t = 23 are called
instantaneous rates of change. As the examples suggest, we find instantaneous rates as
limiting values of average rates. In Example 4, we also pictured the tangent line to the population curve on day 23 as a limiting position of secant lines. Instantaneous rates and tangent lines, intimately connected, appear in many other contexts. To talk about the two constructively, and to understand the connection further, we need to investigate the process by
which we determine limiting values, or limits, as we will soon call them.
Limits of Function Values
Our examples have suggested the limit idea. Let’s begin with an informal definition of
limit, postponing the precise definition until we’ve gained more insight.
Let ƒ(x) be defined on an open interval about x0 , except possibly at x0 itself. If ƒ(x)
gets arbitrarily close to L (as close to L as we like) for all x sufficiently close to x0 , we say
that ƒ approaches the limit L as x approaches x0 , and we write
lim ƒsxd = L,
x:x0
which is read “the limit of ƒ(x) as x approaches x0 is L”. Essentially, the definition says that
the values of ƒ(x) are close to the number L whenever x is close to x0 (on either side of x0).
This definition is “informal” because phrases like arbitrarily close and sufficiently close are
imprecise; their meaning depends on the context. To a machinist manufacturing a piston,
close may mean within a few thousandths of an inch. To an astronomer studying distant
galaxies, close may mean within a few thousand light-years. The definition is clear enough,
however, to enable us to recognize and evaluate limits of specific functions. We will need the
precise definition of Section 2.3, however, when we set out to prove theorems about limits.
EXAMPLE 5
Behavior of a Function Near a Point
How does the function
ƒsxd =
x2 - 1
x - 1
behave near x = 1?
Solution The given formula defines ƒ for all real numbers x except x = 1 (we cannot divide by zero). For any x Z 1, we can simplify the formula by factoring the numerator and
canceling common factors:
ƒsxd =
sx - 1dsx + 1d
= x + 1
x - 1
for
x Z 1.
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
The graph of ƒ is thus the line y = x + 1 with the point (1, 2) removed. This removed
point is shown as a “hole” in Figure 2.4. Even though ƒ(1) is not defined, it is clear that
we can make the value of ƒ(x) as close as we want to 2 by choosing x close enough to 1
(Table 2.2).
y
2
2
y f (x) x 1
x 1
1
TABLE 2.2 The closer x gets to 1, the closer ƒ(x) (x 2 1)/(x 1)
seems to get to 2
–1
0
x
1
y
2
yx1
1
–1
0
x
1
FIGURE 2.4 The graph of ƒ is
identical with the line y = x + 1
except at x = 1 , where ƒ is not
defined (Example 5).
x2 1
x 1,
x1
Values of x below and above 1
ƒ(x) 0.9
1.1
0.99
1.01
0.999
1.001
0.999999
1.000001
1.9
2.1
1.99
2.01
1.999
2.001
1.999999
2.000001
x1
We say that ƒ(x) approaches the limit 2 as x approaches 1, and write
lim ƒsxd = 2,
x:1
EXAMPLE 6
or
x2 - 1
= 2.
x:1 x - 1
lim
The Limit Value Does Not Depend on How the Function Is
Defined at x0
The function ƒ in Figure 2.5 has limit 2 as x : 1 even though ƒ is not defined at x = 1.
The function g has limit 2 as x : 1 even though 2 Z gs1d. The function h is the only one
y
–1
y
y
2
2
2
1
1
1
0
2
(a) f (x) x 1
x 1
1
x
–1
0
1
x
 x2 1 , x 1

(b) g(x)  x 1
 1,
x1

–1
0
1
x
(c) h(x) x 1
FIGURE 2.5 The limits of ƒ(x), g(x), and h(x) all equal 2 as x approaches 1. However,
only h (x) has the same function value as its limit at x = 1 (Example 6).
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2.1 Rates of Change and Limits
79
whose limit as x : 1 equals its value at x = 1. For h, we have limx:1 hsxd = hs1d. This
equality of limit and function value is special, and we return to it in Section 2.6.
y
yx
Sometimes limx:x0 ƒsxd can be evaluated by calculating ƒsx0 d. This holds, for example, whenever ƒ(x) is an algebraic combination of polynomials and trigonometric functions for which ƒsx0 d is defined. (We will say more about this in Sections 2.2 and 2.6.)
x0
EXAMPLE 7
x
x0
Finding Limits by Calculating ƒ(x0)
(a) lim s4d = 4
x:2
(a) Identity function
(b)
y
lim s4d = 4
x: -13
(c) lim x = 3
x:3
(d) lim s5x - 3d = 10 - 3 = 7
x:2
yk
k
(e)
x0
0
x
lim
x: -2
-6 + 4
3x + 4
2
=
= x + 5
-2 + 5
3
EXAMPLE 8
The Identity and Constant Functions Have Limits at Every Point
(a) If ƒ is the identity function ƒsxd = x, then for any value of x0 (Figure 2.6a),
(b) Constant function
lim ƒsxd = lim x = x0 .
x :x0
FIGURE 2.6 The functions in Example 8.
x :x0
(b) If ƒ is the constant function ƒsxd = k (function with the constant value k), then for
any value of x0 (Figure 2.6b),
lim ƒsxd = lim k = k .
x :x0
x :x0
For instance,
lim x = 3
x:3
and
lim s4d = lim s4d = 4.
x: -7
x:2
We prove these results in Example 3 in Section 2.3.
Some ways that limits can fail to exist are illustrated in Figure 2.7 and described in the
next example.
y
1
y
x
0
y
1
 , x0
y x
 0, x 0

 0, x 0
y
 1, x ⱖ 0
0
1
x
x
0

xⱕ 0
 0,
y
1
 sin x , x 0

–1
(a) Unit step function U(x)
(b) g(x)
FIGURE 2.7 None of these functions has a limit as x approaches 0 (Example 9).
(c) f(x)
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80
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
EXAMPLE 9
A Function May Fail to Have a Limit at a Point in Its Domain
Discuss the behavior of the following functions as x : 0.
(a) Usxd = e
0,
1,
x 6 0
x &Uacute; 0
(b) gsxd = L
1
x,
x Z 0
0,
x = 0
(c) ƒsxd = •
0,
x … 0
1
sin x ,
x 7 0
Solution
(a) It jumps: The unit step function U(x) has no limit as x : 0 because its values jump
at x = 0. For negative values of x arbitrarily close to zero, Usxd = 0. For positive
values of x arbitrarily close to zero, Usxd = 1. There is no single value L approached
by U(x) as x : 0 (Figure 2.7a).
(b) It grows too large to have a limit: g(x) has no limit as x : 0 because the values of g
grow arbitrarily large in absolute value as x : 0 and do not stay close to any real
number (Figure 2.7b).
(c) It oscillates too much to have a limit: ƒ(x) has no limit as x : 0 because the function’s
values oscillate between +1 and - 1 in every open interval containing 0. The values
do not stay close to any one number as x : 0 (Figure 2.7c).
Using Calculators and Computers to Estimate Limits
Tables 2.1 and 2.2 illustrate using a calculator or computer to guess a limit numerically as
x gets closer and closer to x0 . That procedure would also be successful for the limits of
functions like those in Example 7 (these are continuous functions and we study them in
Section 2.6). However, calculators and computers can give false values and misleading impressions for functions that are undefined at a point or fail to have a limit there. The differential calculus will help us know when a calculator or computer is providing strange or
ambiguous information about a function’s behavior near some point (see Sections 4.4 and
4.6). For now, we simply need to be attentive to the fact that pitfalls may occur when using
computing devices to guess the value of a limit. Here’s one example.
EXAMPLE 10
Guessing a Limit
Guess the value of lim
x:0
2x 2 + 100 - 10
.
x2
Table 2.3 lists values of the function for several values near x = 0. As x approaches 0 through the values ;1, ; 0.5, ;0.10, and ; 0.01, the function seems to approach the number 0.05.
As we take even smaller values of x, ;0.0005, ; 0.0001, ;0.00001, and ;0.000001,
the function appears to approach the value 0.
So what is the answer? Is it 0.05 or 0, or some other value? The calculator/computer
values are ambiguous, but the theorems on limits presented in the next section will confirm the correct limit value to be 0.05 A = 120 B . Problems such as these demonstrate the
Solution
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2.1 Rates of Change and Limits
TABLE 2.3 Computer values of ƒ(x) 81
2x 2 + 100 - 10
Near x 0
x2
x
ƒ(x)
;1
;0.5
;0.1
;0.01
0.049876
0.049969
t approaches 0.05?
0.049999
0.050000
;0.0005
;0.0001
;0.00001
;0.000001
0.080000
0.000000
t approaches 0?
0.000000
0.000000
power of mathematical reasoning, once it is developed, over the conclusions we might
draw from making a few observations. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages in revealing nature’s realities.
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2.1 Rates of Change and Limits
81
EXERCISES 2.1
Limits from Graphs
1. For the function g (x) graphed here, find the following limits or
explain why they do not exist.
a. lim g sxd
b. lim g sxd
x:1
c. lim g sxd
x :3
x: 2
3. Which of the following statements about the function y = ƒsxd
graphed here are true, and which are false?
a. lim ƒsxd exists.
x :0
b. lim ƒsxd = 0 .
x :0
c. lim ƒsxd = 1 .
y
x :0
d. lim ƒsxd = 1 .
x :1
y g(x)
e. lim ƒsxd = 0 .
1
x :1
f. lim ƒsxd exists at every point x0 in s - 1, 1d .
2
1
x
3
x :x0
y
2. For the function ƒ(t) graphed here, find the following limits or explain why they do not exist.
a. lim ƒstd
t: -2
b. lim ƒstd
1
y f (x)
c. lim ƒstd
t : -1
t: 0
–1
1
2
x
s
–1
s f (t)
1
–1
0
–2
1
–1
t
4. Which of the following statements about the function y = ƒsxd
graphed here are true, and which are false?
a. lim ƒsxd does not exist.
x :2
b. lim ƒsxd = 2 .
x :2
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82
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
13. Let Gsxd = sx + 6d&gt;sx 2 + 4x - 12d .
c. lim ƒsxd does not exist.
x:1
d. lim ƒsxd exists at every point x0 in s -1, 1d .
x:x0
e. lim ƒsxd exists at every point x0 in (1, 3).
x:x0
y
y f (x)
1
–1
1
2
3
x
–1
–2
Existence of Limits
In Exercises 5 and 6, explain why the limits do not exist.
x
1
6. lim
x: 1 x - 1
ƒxƒ
7. Suppose that a function ƒ(x) is defined for all real values of x except x = x0 . Can anything be said about the existence of
5. lim
x:0
8. Suppose that a function ƒ(x) is defined for all x in [-1, 1] . Can
9. If limx:1 ƒsxd = 5 , must ƒ be defined at x = 1 ? If it is, must
ƒs1d = 5 ? Can we conclude anything about the values of ƒ at
x = 1 ? Explain.
10. If ƒs1d = 5 , must limx:1 ƒsxd exist? If it does, then must
limx:1 ƒsxd = 5 ? Can we conclude anything about limx:1 ƒsxd ?
Explain.
Estimating Limits
T You will find a graphing calculator useful for Exercises 11–20.
11. Let ƒsxd = sx 2 - 9d&gt;sx + 3d .
a. Make a table of the values of ƒ at the points x = - 3.1,
-3.01, - 3.001 , and so on as far as your calculator can go.
Then estimate limx:-3 ƒsxd . What estimate do you arrive at if
you evaluate ƒ at x = - 2.9, - 2.99, - 2.999, &Aacute; instead?
b. Support your conclusions in part (a) by graphing ƒ near
x0 = - 3 and using Zoom and Trace to estimate y-values on
the graph as x : - 3 .
c. Find limx:-3 ƒsxd algebraically, as in Example 5.
12. Let g sxd = sx 2 - 2d&gt; A x - 22 B .
a. Make a table of the values of g at the points x = 1.4, 1.41,
1.414 , and so on through successive decimal approximations
of 22 . Estimate limx:22 g sxd .
b. Support your conclusion in part (a) by graphing g near
x0 = 22 and using Zoom and Trace to estimate y-values on
the graph as x : 22 .
c. Find limx:22 g sxd algebraically.
a. Make a table of the values of G at x = - 5.9, - 5.99, - 5.999,
and so on. Then estimate limx:-6 Gsxd . What estimate do you
arrive at if you evaluate G at x = - 6.1, - 6.01, -6.001, &Aacute;
b. Support your conclusions in part (a) by graphing G and
using Zoom and Trace to estimate y-values on the graph
as x : - 6 .
c. Find limx:-6 Gsxd algebraically.
14. Let hsxd = sx 2 - 2x - 3d&gt;sx 2 - 4x + 3d .
a. Make a table of the values of h at x = 2.9, 2.99, 2.999, and so
on. Then estimate limx:3 hsxd . What estimate do you arrive
at if you evaluate h at x = 3.1, 3.01, 3.001, &Aacute; instead?
b. Support your conclusions in part (a) by graphing h near
x0 = 3 and using Zoom and Trace to estimate y-values on the
graph as x : 3 .
c. Find limx:3 hsxd algebraically.
15. Let ƒsxd = sx 2 - 1d&gt;s ƒ x ƒ - 1d .
a. Make tables of the values of ƒ at values of x that approach
x0 = - 1 from above and below. Then estimate limx:-1 ƒsxd .
b. Support your conclusion in part (a) by graphing ƒ near
x0 = - 1 and using Zoom and Trace to estimate y-values on
the graph as x : -1 .
c. Find limx:-1 ƒsxd algebraically.
16. Let Fsxd = sx 2 + 3x + 2d&gt;s2 - ƒ x ƒ d .
a. Make tables of values of F at values of x that approach
x0 = - 2 from above and below. Then estimate limx:-2 Fsxd .
b. Support your conclusion in part (a) by graphing F near
x0 = - 2 and using Zoom and Trace to estimate y-values on
the graph as x : -2 .
c. Find limx:-2 Fsxd algebraically.
17. Let g sud = ssin ud&gt;u .
a. Make a table of the values of g at values of u that approach
u0 = 0 from above and below. Then estimate limu:0 g sud .
b. Support your conclusion in part (a) by graphing g near
u0 = 0 .
18. Let Gstd = s1 - cos td&gt;t 2 .
a. Make tables of values of G at values of t that approach t0 = 0
from above and below. Then estimate limt:0 Gstd .
b. Support your conclusion in part (a) by graphing G near
t0 = 0 .
19. Let ƒsxd = x 1&gt;s1 - xd .
a. Make tables of values of ƒ at values of x that approach x0 = 1
from above and below. Does ƒ appear to have a limit as
x : 1 ? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
b. Support your conclusions in part (a) by graphing ƒ near
x0 = 1 .
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2.1 Rates of Change and Limits
20. Let ƒsxd = s3x - 1d&gt;x .
a. Make tables of values of ƒ at values of x that approach x0 = 0
from above and below. Does ƒ appear to have a limit as
x : 0 ? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
b. Support your conclusions in part (a) by graphing ƒ near
x0 = 0 .
Limits by Substitution
In Exercises 21–28, find the limits by substitution. Support your answers with a computer or calculator if available.
36. The accompanying figure shows the plot of distance fallen versus
time for an object that fell from the lunar landing module a distance 80 m to the surface of the moon.
a. Estimate the slopes of the secants PQ1 , PQ2 , PQ3 , and PQ4 ,
arranging them in a table like the one in Figure 2.3.
b. About how fast was the object going when it hit the surface?
y
x: 0
lim s3x - 1d
24. lim
x:1&gt;3
x: 1
-1
s3x - 1d
80
3x 2
2x - 1
cos x
28. lim
x: p 1 - p
25. lim 3xs2x - 1d
26. lim
x: -1
27.
b. Then estimate the Cobra’s speed at time t = 20 sec .
Distance fallen (m)
x:2
23.
a. Estimate the slopes of secants PQ1 , PQ2 , PQ3 , and PQ4 ,
arranging them in order in a table like the one in Figure 2.3.
What are the appropriate units for these slopes?
22. lim 2x
21. lim 2x
x: -1
lim x sin x
x:p&gt;2
Average Rates of Change
29. ƒsxd = x 3 + 1 ;
Q3
Q2
40
Q1
20
0
P
Q4
60
In Exercises 29–34, find the average rate of change of the function
over the given interval or intervals.
5
Elapsed time (sec)
10
t
T 37. The profits of a small company for each of the first five years of
its operation are given in the following table:
b. [ -1, 1]
a. [2, 3]
83
2
30. g sxd = x ;
Year
Profit in \$1000s
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
6
27
62
111
174
a. [- 1, 1] b. [- 2, 0]
31. hstd = cot t ;
a. [p&gt;4, 3p&gt;4] b. [p&gt;6, p&gt;2]
32. g std = 2 + cos t ;
a. [0, p]
b. [- p, p]
33. Rsud = 24u + 1;
[0, 2]
34. Psud = u3 - 4 u2 + 5u;
a. Plot points representing the profit as a function of year, and
join them by as smooth a curve as you can.
[1, 2]
35. A Ford Mustang Cobra’s speed The accompanying figure
shows the time-to-distance graph for a 1994 Ford Mustang Cobra
accelerating from a standstill.
s
P
650
600
Q3
Distance (m)
400
a. Find the average rate of change of F(x) over the intervals
[1, x] for each x Z 1 in your table.
Q2
b. Extending the table if necessary, try to determine the rate of
change of F(x) at x = 1 .
300
200
Q1
T 39. Let g sxd = 2x for x &Uacute; 0 .
100
0
c. Use your graph to estimate the rate at which the profits were
changing in 1992.
T 38. Make a table of values for the function Fsxd = sx + 2d&gt;sx - 2d
at the points x = 1.2, x = 11&gt;10, x = 101&gt;100, x = 1001&gt;1000,
x = 10001&gt;10000 , and x = 1 .
Q4
500
b. What is the average rate of increase of the profits between
1992 and 1994?
5
10
15
20
Elapsed time (sec)
t
a. Find the average rate of change of g (x) with respect to x over
the intervals [1, 2], [1, 1.5] and [1, 1 + h] .
b. Make a table of values of the average rate of change of g with
respect to x over the interval [1, 1 + h] for some values of h
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:00 AM Page 84
84
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
approaching zero, say h = 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001, 0.00001 ,
and 0.000001.
d. Calculate the limit as T approaches 2 of the average rate of
change of ƒ with respect to t over the interval from 2 to T. You
will have to do some algebra before you can substitute T = 2 .
c. What does your table indicate is the rate of change of g(x)
with respect to x at x = 1 ?
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
d. Calculate the limit as h approaches zero of the average rate of
change of g (x) with respect to x over the interval [1, 1 + h] .
Graphical Estimates of Limits
T 40. Let ƒstd = 1&gt;t for t Z 0 .
a. Find the average rate of change of ƒ with respect to t over the
intervals (i) from t = 2 to t = 3 , and (ii) from t = 2 to
t = T.
b. Make a table of values of the average rate of change of ƒ with
respect to t over the interval [2, T], for some values of T
approaching 2, say T = 2.1, 2.01, 2.001, 2.0001, 2.00001 ,
and 2.000001.
c. What does your table indicate is the rate of change of ƒ with
respect to t at t = 2 ?
In Exercises 41–46, use a CAS to perform the following steps:
a. Plot the function near the point x0 being approached.
b. From your plot guess the value of the limit.
41. lim
x 4 - 16
x - 2
42. lim
43. lim
21 + x - 1
x
44. lim
45. lim
1 - cos x
x sin x
x :2
x : -1
3
x :0
x :0
x 3 - x 2 - 5x - 3
sx + 1d2
x2 - 9
2x 2 + 7 - 4
2x 2
46. lim
x :0 3 - 3 cos x
x :3
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84
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
2.2
HISTORICAL ESSAY*
Limits
Calculating Limits Using the Limit Laws
In Section 2.1 we used graphs and calculators to guess the values of limits. This section
presents theorems for calculating limits. The first three let us build on the results of Example 8 in the preceding section to find limits of polynomials, rational functions, and powers.
The fourth and fifth prepare for calculations later in the text.
The Limit Laws
The next theorem tells how to calculate limits of functions that are arithmetic combinations of functions whose limits we already know.
THEOREM 1
Limit Laws
If L, M, c and k are real numbers and
lim ƒsxd = L
x:c
1. Sum Rule:
and
lim gsxd = M,
x:c
then
lim sƒsxd + gsxdd = L + M
x:c
The limit of the sum of two functions is the sum of their limits.
2. Difference Rule:
lim sƒsxd - gsxdd = L - M
x:c
The limit of the difference of two functions is the difference of their limits.
3. Product Rule:
lim sƒsxd # gsxdd = L # M
x:c
The limit of a product of two functions is the product of their limits.
To learn more about the historical figures and the development of the major elements and topics of calculus, visit www.aw-bc.com/thomas.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:00 AM Page 85
2.2 Calculating Limits Using the Limit Laws
85
lim sk # ƒsxdd = k # L
4. Constant Multiple Rule:
x:c
The limit of a constant times a function is the constant times the limit of the
function.
ƒsxd
L
= , M Z 0
5. Quotient Rule:
lim
M
x:c gsxd
The limit of a quotient of two functions is the quotient of their limits, provided
the limit of the denominator is not zero.
6. Power Rule: If r and s are integers with no common factor and s Z 0, then
lim sƒsxddr&gt;s = L r&gt;s
x:c
provided that L r&gt;s is a real number. (If s is even, we assume that L 7 0.)
The limit of a rational power of a function is that power of the limit of the function, provided the latter is a real number.
It is easy to convince ourselves that the properties in Theorem 1 are true (although
these intuitive arguments do not constitute proofs). If x is sufficiently close to c, then ƒ(x)
is close to L and g(x) is close to M, from our informal definition of a limit. It is then reasonable that ƒsxd + g sxd is close to L + M; ƒsxd - gsxd is close to L - M; ƒ(x)g (x) is
close to LM; kƒ(x) is close to kL; and that ƒ(x)&gt;g(x) is close to L&gt;M if M is not zero. We
prove the Sum Rule in Section 2.3, based on a precise definition of limit. Rules 2–5 are
proved in Appendix 2. Rule 6 is proved in more advanced texts.
Here are some examples of how Theorem 1 can be used to find limits of polynomial
and rational functions.
EXAMPLE 1
Using the Limit Laws
Use the observations limx:c k = k and limx:c x = c (Example 8 in Section 2.1) and the
properties of limits to find the following limits.
(a) lim sx 3 + 4x 2 - 3d
x:c
x4 + x2 - 1
x:c
x2 + 5
(b) lim
(c) lim 24x 2 - 3
x: -2
Solution
(a) lim sx 3 + 4x 2 - 3d = lim x 3 + lim 4x 2 - lim 3
x:c
x:c
x:c
x:c
= c 3 + 4c 2 - 3
4
x4 + x2 - 1
=
x:c
x2 + 5
(b) lim
Sum and Difference Rules
Product and Multiple Rules
2
lim sx + x - 1d
x:c
Quotient Rule
lim sx 2 + 5d
x:c
lim x 4 + lim x 2 - lim 1
=
x:c
x:c
x:c
lim x 2 + lim 5
x:c
c4 + c2 - 1
=
c2 + 5
Sum and Difference Rules
x:c
Power or Product Rule
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:00 AM Page 86
86
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
(c)
lim 24x 2 - 3 = 2 lim s4x 2 - 3d
x: -2
x: -2
= 2 lim 4x 2 - lim 3
x: -2
x: -2
= 24s -2d2 - 3
= 216 - 3
= 213
Power Rule with r&gt;s = 12
Difference Rule
Product and Multiple Rules
Two consequences of Theorem 1 further simplify the task of calculating limits of polynomials and rational functions. To evaluate the limit of a polynomial function as x approaches c, merely substitute c for x in the formula for the function. To evaluate the limit
of a rational function as x approaches a point c at which the denominator is not zero, substitute c for x in the formula for the function. (See Examples 1a and 1b.)
THEOREM 2
Limits of Polynomials Can Be Found by Substitution
If Psxd = an x n + an - 1 x n - 1 + &Aacute; + a0 , then
lim Psxd = Pscd = an c n + an - 1 c n - 1 + &Aacute; + a0 .
x:c
THEOREM 3
Limits of Rational Functions Can Be Found by Substitution
If the Limit of the Denominator Is Not Zero
If P(x) and Q(x) are polynomials and Qscd Z 0, then
lim
x:c
EXAMPLE 2
Pscd
Psxd
=
.
Qsxd
Qscd
Limit of a Rational Function
s -1d3 + 4s -1d2 - 3
x 3 + 4x 2 - 3
0
=
= = 0
6
x: -1
x2 + 5
s - 1d2 + 5
lim
This result is similar to the second limit in Example 1 with c = - 1, now done in one step.
Identifying Common Factors
It can be shown that if Q(x) is a
polynomial and Qscd = 0 , then
sx - cd is a factor of Q(x). Thus, if
the numerator and denominator of a
rational function of x are both zero at
x = c , they have sx - cd as a common
factor.
Eliminating Zero Denominators Algebraically
Theorem 3 applies only if the denominator of the rational function is not zero at the limit
point c. If the denominator is zero, canceling common factors in the numerator and denominator may reduce the fraction to one whose denominator is no longer zero at c. If this
happens, we can find the limit by substitution in the simplified fraction.
EXAMPLE 3
Canceling a Common Factor
Evaluate
x2 + x - 2
.
x:1
x2 - x
lim
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2.2 Calculating Limits Using the Limit Laws
Solution We cannot substitute x = 1 because it makes the denominator zero. We test the
numerator to see if it, too, is zero at x = 1. It is, so it has a factor of sx - 1d in common
with the denominator. Canceling the sx - 1d’s gives a simpler fraction with the same values as the original for x Z 1:
y
2
x2
y x x2 x
(1, 3)
3
sx - 1dsx + 2d
x + 2
x2 + x - 2
= x ,
=
2
xsx
1d
x - x
–2
0
x
1
87
if x Z 1.
Using the simpler fraction, we find the limit of these values as x : 1 by substitution:
x2 + x - 2
x + 2
1 + 2
= 3.
= lim x =
1
x:1
x:1
x2 - x
lim
(a)
y
See Figure 2.8.
yx2
x
(1, 3)
3
EXAMPLE 4
Creating and Canceling a Common Factor
Evaluate
–2
0
1
(b)
FIGURE 2.8 The graph of
ƒsxd = sx 2 + x - 2d&gt;sx 2 - xd in
part (a) is the same as the graph of
g sxd = sx + 2d&gt;x in part (b) except
at x = 1 , where ƒ is undefined. The
functions have the same limit as x : 1
(Example 3).
lim
x
x:0
2x 2 + 100 - 10
.
x2
Solution This is the limit we considered in Example 10 of the preceding section. We
cannot substitute x = 0, and the numerator and denominator have no obvious common
factors. We can create a common factor by multiplying both numerator and denominator
by the expression 2x 2 + 100 + 10 (obtained by changing the sign after the square root).
The preliminary algebra rationalizes the numerator:
2x 2 + 100 - 10
2x 2 + 100 - 10 # 2x 2 + 100 + 10
=
2
x
x2
2x 2 + 100 + 10
2
x + 100 - 100
=
2
x A 2x 2 + 100 + 10 B
x2
x 2 A 2x 2 + 100 + 10 B
1
=
.
2
2x + 100 + 10
=
Common factor x2
Cancel x2 for x 0
Therefore,
lim
x:0
2x 2 + 100 - 10
1
= lim
x:0 2x 2 + 100 + 10
x2
1
=
2
20 + 100 + 10
1
= 0.05.
=
20
Denominator
not 0 at x 0;
substitute
This calculation provides the correct answer to the ambiguous computer results in Example 10 of the preceding section.
The Sandwich Theorem
The following theorem will enable us to calculate a variety of limits in subsequent chapters. It is called the Sandwich Theorem because it refers to a function ƒ whose values are
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:00 AM Page 88
88
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
sandwiched between the values of two other functions g and h that have the same limit L at
a point c. Being trapped between the values of two functions that approach L, the values of
ƒ must also approach L (Figure 2.9). You will find a proof in Appendix 2.
y
h
f
L
g
x
c
0
THEOREM 4
The Sandwich Theorem
Suppose that gsxd … ƒsxd … hsxd for all x in some open interval containing c,
except possibly at x = c itself. Suppose also that
lim gsxd = lim hsxd = L.
x:c
FIGURE 2.9 The graph of ƒ is
sandwiched between the graphs of g and h.
y
0
EXAMPLE 5
y u(x)
1
–1
The Sandwich Theorem is sometimes called the Squeeze Theorem or the Pinching Theorem.
2
y1 x
2
2
Applying the Sandwich Theorem
Given that
2
y1 x
4
1
x:c
Then limx:c ƒsxd = L.
x
1 -
for all x Z 0,
find limx:0 usxd , no matter how complicated u is.
Solution
FIGURE 2.10 Any function u(x)
whose graph lies in the region between
y = 1 + sx 2&gt;2d and y = 1 - sx 2&gt;4d has
limit 1 as x : 0 (Example 5).
x2
x2
… usxd … 1 +
4
2
Since
lim s1 - sx 2&gt;4dd = 1
and
x:0
lim s1 + sx 2&gt;2dd = 1,
x:0
the Sandwich Theorem implies that limx:0 usxd = 1 (Figure 2.10).
EXAMPLE 6
More Applications of the Sandwich Theorem
(a) (Figure 2.11a). It follows from the definition of sin u that - ƒ u ƒ … sin u … ƒ u ƒ for all u,
and since limu:0 s - ƒ u ƒ d = limu:0 ƒ u ƒ = 0, we have
lim sin u = 0 .
u:0
y
y
1
y  
2
y sin –
–1
y –  
y  
1
–2
–1
0
y 1 cos 1
2
(b)
(a)
FIGURE 2.11 The Sandwich Theorem confirms that (a) limu:0 sin u = 0 and
(b) limu:0 s1 - cos ud = 0 (Example 6).
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:00 AM Page 89
2.2 Calculating Limits Using the Limit Laws
89
(b) (Figure 2.11b). From the definition of cos u, 0 … 1 - cos u … ƒ u ƒ for all u , and we
have limu:0 s1 - cos ud = 0 or
lim cos u = 1 .
u:0
(c) For any function ƒ(x), if limx:c ƒ ƒsxd ƒ = 0, then limx:c ƒsxd = 0. The argument:
- ƒ ƒsxd ƒ … ƒsxd … ƒ ƒsxd ƒ and - ƒ ƒsxd ƒ and ƒ ƒsxd ƒ have limit 0 as x : c.
Another important property of limits is given by the next theorem. A proof is given in
the next section.
THEOREM 5
If ƒsxd … g sxd for all x in some open interval containing c, except
possibly at x = c itself, and the limits of ƒ and g both exist as x approaches c,
then
lim ƒsxd … lim gsxd .
x:c
x:c
The assertion resulting from replacing the less than or equal to … inequality by the strict
6 inequality in Theorem 5 is false. Figure 2.11a shows that for u Z 0,
- ƒ u ƒ 6 sin u 6 ƒ u ƒ , but in the limit as u : 0, equality holds.
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2.2 Calculating Limits Using the Limit Laws
EXERCISES 2.2
Limit Calculations
Find the limits in Exercises 19–36.
Find the limits in Exercises 1–18.
19. lim
1. lim s2x + 5d
2. lim s10 - 3xd
3. lim s - x 2 + 5x - 2d
4. lim sx 3 - 2x 2 + 4x + 8d
x - 5
x 2 - 25
x 2 + 3x - 10
21. lim
x + 5
x : -5
5. lim 8st - 5dst - 7d
6. lim 3ss2s - 1d
23. lim
x + 3
7. lim
x:2 x + 6
4
8. lim
x: 5 x - 7
x: -7
x:2
t:6
y2
9. lim
y: -5 5 - y
4&gt;3
13. lim s5 - yd
y: -3
17. lim
h: 0
s: 2&gt;3
y: 2
x: -1
h: 0
x: -2
10. lim
11. lim 3s2x - 1d2
15. lim
x: 12
3
23h + 1 + 1
23h + 1 - 1
h
x :5
y 2 + 5y + 6
12. lim sx + 3d1984
x: -4
1&gt;3
14. lim s2z - 8d
x : -3
t2 + t - 2
t: 1
t2 - 1
24. lim
-2x - 4
x 3 + 2x 2
26. lim
25. lim
y + 2
x + 3
x 2 + 4x + 3
x 2 - 7x + 10
22. lim
x - 2
x :2
20. lim
x : -2
27. lim
u:1
u4 - 1
u3 - 1
2x - 3
29. lim
x :9 x - 9
t: -1
y :0
h :0
18. lim
h :0
5
25h + 4 + 2
25h + 4 - 2
h
31. lim
x :1
x - 1
2x + 3 - 2
2x + 12 - 4
x - 2
3y 4 - 16y 2
y3 - 8
y4 - 16
28. lim
y:2
30. lim
x :4
z: 0
16. lim
t 2 + 3t + 2
t2 - t - 2
5y 3 + 8y 2
4x - x 2
2 - 2x
32. lim
x : -1
2
33. lim
x :2
34. lim
x : -2
2x 2 + 8 - 3
x + 1
x + 2
2x + 5 - 3
2
89
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90
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
2 - 2x 2 - 5
x + 3
x: -3
35. lim
42. Suppose that limx:-2 psxd = 4, limx:-2 r sxd = 0 , and
limx:-2 ssxd = - 3 . Find
4 - x
36. lim
5 - 2x + 9
2
x: 4
a. lim spsxd + r sxd + ssxdd
x : -2
b.
Using Limit Rules
37. Suppose limx:0 ƒsxd = 1 and limx:0 g sxd = - 5 . Name the
rules in Theorem 1 that are used to accomplish steps (a), (b), and
(c) of the following calculation.
lim
x: 0
lim s2ƒsxd - g sxdd
2ƒsxd - g sxd
sƒsxd + 7d2&gt;3
=
x:0
(a)
lim sƒsxd + 7d2&gt;3
lim psxd # r sxd # ssxd
x : -2
c. lim s - 4psxd + 5r sxdd&gt;ssxd
x : -2
Limits of Average Rates of Change
Because of their connection with secant lines, tangents, and instantaneous rates, limits of the form
x:0
lim
lim 2ƒsxd - lim g sxd
=
x:0
x :0
A lim A ƒsxd + 7 B B 2&gt;3
h:0
(b)
x: 0
2 lim ƒsxd - lim g sxd
=
x:0
x :0
A lim ƒ(x) + lim 7 B
x:0
s1 + 7d2&gt;3
lim 25hsxd
x:1
25hsxd
x:1
=
psxds4 - rsxdd
lim spsxds4 - rsxddd
(a)
A lim p(x) B A lim A 4 - r(x) B B
(b)
x:1
x: 1
A lim p(x) B A lim 4 - lim r (x) B
x:1
=
x:1
x :1
2s5ds5d
5
=
2
s1ds4 - 2d
39. Suppose limx:c ƒsxd = 5 and limx:c g sxd = - 2 . Find
a. lim ƒsxdg sxd
b. lim 2ƒsxdg sxd
c. lim sƒsxd + 3g sxdd
ƒsxd
d. lim
x: c ƒsxd - g sxd
x:c
x:c
x: c
40. Suppose limx:4 ƒsxd = 0 and limx:4 g sxd = - 3 . Find
a. lim sg sxd + 3d
b. lim xƒsxd
c. lim sg sxdd2
d. lim
x:4
x:4
x: 4
x: 4
g sxd
ƒsxd - 1
41. Suppose limx:b ƒsxd = 7 and limx:b g sxd = - 3 . Find
a. lim sƒsxd + g sxdd
b. lim ƒsxd # g sxd
c. lim 4g sxd
d. lim ƒsxd&gt;g sxd
x:b
x:b
x: b
x: b
x = 0
x sin x
x2
6
6 1
6
2 - 2 cos x
hold for all values of x close to zero. What, if anything, does
25 lim hsxd
=
x = -2
51. a. It can be shown that the inequalities
1 -
x:1
46. ƒsxd = 1&gt;x,
48. ƒsxd = 23x + 1,
x = 7
50. If 2 - x 2 … g sxd … 2 cos x for all x, find limx:0 g sxd .
2 lim 5hsxd
x:1
x = 2
x = -2
49. If 25 - 2x 2 … ƒsxd … 25 - x 2 for - 1 … x … 1 , find
limx:0 ƒsxd .
x: 1
=
44. ƒsxd = x 2,
x = 1
Using the Sandwich Theorem
38. Let limx:1 hsxd = 5, limx:1 psxd = 1 , and limx:1 r sxd = 2 .
Name the rules in Theorem 1 that are used to accomplish steps
(a), (b), and (c) of the following calculation.
lim
43. ƒsxd = x 2,
47. ƒsxd = 2x,
7
4
=
occur frequently in calculus. In Exercises 43–48, evaluate this limit
for the given value of x and function ƒ.
45. ƒsxd = 3x - 4,
x :0
s2ds1d - s -5d
=
2&gt;3
(c)
ƒsx + hd - ƒsxd
h
lim
x :0
(c)
x sin x
?
2 - 2 cos x
T b. Graph
y = 1 - sx 2&gt;6d, y = sx sin xd&gt;s2 - 2 cos xd, and y = 1
together for - 2 … x … 2 . Comment on the behavior of the
graphs as x : 0 .
52. a. Suppose that the inequalities
1 - cos x
x2
1
1
6
6
2
24
2
x2
hold for values of x close to zero. (They do, as you will see in
Section 11.9.) What, if anything, does this tell you about
lim
x :0
1 - cos x
?
x2
b. Graph the equations y = s1&gt;2d - sx 2&gt;24d,
y = s1 - cos xd&gt;x 2 , and y = 1&gt;2 together for - 2 … x … 2 .
Comment on the behavior of the graphs as x : 0 .
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2.2 Calculating Limits Using the Limit Laws
Theory and Examples
4
2
2
4
53. If x … ƒsxd … x for x in [- 1, 1] and x … ƒsxd … x for
x 6 - 1 and x 7 1 , at what points c do you automatically know
limx:c ƒsxd ? What can you say about the value of the limit at
these points?
54. Suppose that g sxd … ƒsxd … hsxd for all x Z 2 and suppose that
lim g sxd = lim hsxd = - 5 .
x:2
x: 2
Can we conclude anything about the values of ƒ, g, and h at
x = 2 ? Could ƒs2d = 0 ? Could limx:2 ƒsxd = 0 ? Give reasons
ƒsxd - 5
55. If lim
= 1 , find lim ƒsxd .
x:4 x - 2
x:4
56. If lim
x: -2
ƒsxd
x2
= 1 , find
a. lim ƒsxd
x : -2
b.
lim
x : -2
91
ƒsxd
x
ƒsxd - 5
= 3 , find lim ƒsxd .
x :2 x - 2
x :2
ƒsxd - 5
b. If lim
= 4 , find lim ƒsxd .
x :2 x - 2
x :2
ƒsxd
58. If lim 2 = 1 , find
x :0 x
ƒsxd
a. lim ƒsxd
b. lim x
x :0
x :0
57. a. If lim
T 59. a. Graph g sxd = x sin s1&gt;xd to estimate limx:0 g sxd , zooming
in on the origin as necessary.
b. Confirm your estimate in part (a) with a proof.
2
3
T 60. a. Graph hsxd = x cos s1&gt;x d to estimate limx:0 hsxd , zooming
in on the origin as necessary.
b. Confirm your estimate in part (a) with a proof.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:00 AM Page 91
2.3 The Precise Definition of a Limit
2.3
91
The Precise Definition of a Limit
Now that we have gained some insight into the limit concept, working intuitively with the
informal definition, we turn our attention to its precise definition. We replace vague
phrases like “gets arbitrarily close to” in the informal definition with specific conditions
that can be applied to any particular example. With a precise definition we will be able to
prove conclusively the limit properties given in the preceding section, and we can establish
other particular limits important to the study of calculus.
To show that the limit of ƒ(x) as x : x0 equals the number L, we need to show that the gap
between ƒ(x) and L can be made “as small as we choose” if x is kept “close enough” to x0 .
Let us see what this would require if we specified the size of the gap between ƒ(x) and L.
EXAMPLE 1
Consider the function y = 2x - 1 near x0 = 4. Intuitively it is clear that y is close to 7
when x is close to 4, so limx:4 s2x - 1d = 7. However, how close to x0 = 4 does x have
to be so that y = 2x - 1 differs from 7 by, say, less than 2 units?
y
y 2x 1
Upper bound:
y9
9
To satisfy 
7
this

5
We are asked: For what values of x is ƒ y - 7 ƒ 6 2? To find the answer we
first express ƒ y - 7 ƒ in terms of x:
Solution
ƒ y - 7 ƒ = ƒ s2x - 1d - 7 ƒ = ƒ 2x - 8 ƒ .
Lower bound:
y5
3 4 5



0
A Linear Function
Restrict
to this
FIGURE 2.12 Keeping x within 1 unit
of x0 = 4 will keep y within 2 units of
y0 = 7 (Example 1).
x
The question then becomes: what values of x satisfy the inequality ƒ 2x - 8 ƒ 6 2? To
find out, we solve the inequality:
ƒ 2x - 8 ƒ
-2
6
3
-1
6
6
6
6
6
2
2x - 8 6 2
2x 6 10
x 6 5
x - 4 6 1.
Keeping x within 1 unit of x0 = 4 will keep y within 2 units of y0 = 7 (Figure 2.12).
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
In the previous example we determined how close x must be to a particular value x0 to
ensure that the outputs ƒ(x) of some function lie within a prescribed interval about a limit
value L. To show that the limit of ƒ(x) as x : x0 actually equals L, we must be able to show
that the gap between ƒ(x) and L can be made less than any prescribed error, no matter how
small, by holding x close enough to x0 .
y
L
1
10
f(x)
f(x) lies
in here
L
L
Definition of Limit
1
10
for all x x0
in here
x
x0 0
x0
x0 Suppose we are watching the values of a function ƒ(x) as x approaches x0 (without taking on
the value of x0 itself). Certainly we want to be able to say that ƒ(x) stays within one-tenth of
a unit of L as soon as x stays within some distance d of x0 (Figure 2.13). But that in itself is
not enough, because as x continues on its course toward x0 , what is to prevent ƒ(x) from jittering about within the interval from L - (1&gt;10) to L + (1&gt;10) without tending toward L?
We can be told that the error can be no more than 1&gt;100 or 1&gt;1000 or 1&gt;100,000.
Each time, we find a new d-interval about x0 so that keeping x within that interval satisfies
the new error tolerance. And each time the possibility exists that ƒ(x) jitters away from L at
some stage.
The figures on the next page illustrate the problem. You can think of this as a quarrel
between a skeptic and a scholar. The skeptic presents P-challenges to prove that the limit
does not exist or, more precisely, that there is room for doubt, and the scholar answers
every challenge with a d-interval around x0 .
How do we stop this seemingly endless series of challenges and responses? By proving that for every error tolerance P that the challenger can produce, we can find, calculate,
or conjure a matching distance d that keeps x “close enough” to x0 to keep ƒ(x) within that
tolerance of L (Figure 2.14). This leads us to the precise definition of a limit.
x
FIGURE 2.13 How should we define
d 7 0 so that keeping x within the
interval sx0 - d, x0 + dd will keep ƒ(x)
1
1
within the interval aL ,L +
b?
10
10
y
L
L
f(x)
f(x) lies
in here
DEFINITION Limit of a Function
Let ƒ(x) be defined on an open interval about x0 , except possibly at x0 itself. We
say that the limit of ƒ(x) as x approaches x0 is the number L, and write
L
lim ƒsxd = L,
x:x0
for all x x 0
in here
x
0
x0 if, for every number P 7 0, there exists a corresponding number d 7 0 such that
for all x,
x
x0
x0 FIGURE 2.14 The relation of d and P in
the definition of limit.
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
Q
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P .
One way to think about the definition is to suppose we are machining a generator
shaft to a close tolerance. We may try for diameter L, but since nothing is perfect, we must
be satisfied with a diameter ƒ(x) somewhere between L - P and L + P . The d is the
measure of how accurate our control setting for x must be to guarantee this degree of accuracy in the diameter of the shaft. Notice that as the tolerance for error becomes stricter, we
may have to adjust d. That is, the value of d , how tight our control setting must be, depends on the value of P, the error tolerance.
Examples: Testing the Definition
The formal definition of limit does not tell how to find the limit of a function, but it enables us to verify that a suspected limit is correct. The following examples show how the
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:00 AM Page 93
2.3 The Precise Definition of a Limit
y
L
y f (x)
1
10
L
L
x
x0
0
1
10
L
1
100
L
L
1
100
x
x0
x 0 1/10
x 0 1/10
Response:
x x 0 1/10 (a number)
1
100
L
1
L
100
L
y
y f (x)
y f (x)
1
L
1000
1
L
1000
L
L
1
1000
1
L
1000
x0
0
x
Response:
x x 0 1/1000
y
y
y f (x)
1
L
100,000
L
L
1
L
100,000
1
L
100,000
x0
New challenge:
1
100,000
y
y f (x)
1
100,000
0
x
x0
0
New challenge:
1
1000
L
0
New challenge:
Make f (x) – L 1
100
y
L
x
x0
x 0 1/100
x 0 1/100
Response:
x x 0 1/100
x
x0
0
0
The challenge:
Make f (x) – L 1
10
y f(x)
y f (x)
L
1
10
y
y f (x)
1
10
L
L
y
y
93
x
0
y f (x)
L
x0
Response:
x x 0 1/100,000
x
0
x0
x
New challenge:
...
definition can be used to verify limit statements for specific functions. (The first two examples correspond to parts of Examples 7 and 8 in Section 2.1.) However, the real purpose
of the definition is not to do calculations like this, but rather to prove general theorems so
that the calculation of specific limits can be simplified.
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94
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
y
EXAMPLE 2
y 5x 3
Testing the Definition
Show that
2
lim s5x - 3d = 2.
x:1
2
Solution Set x0 = 1, ƒsxd = 5x - 3, and L = 2 in the definition of limit. For any given
P 7 0, we have to find a suitable d 7 0 so that if x Z 1 and x is within distance d of
x0 = 1, that is, whenever
2
1 1 1
5
5
0
x
0 6 ƒ x - 1 ƒ 6 d,
it is true that ƒ(x) is within distance P of L = 2, so
ƒ ƒsxd - 2 ƒ 6 P .
We find d by working backward from the P-inequality:
–3
ƒ s5x - 3d - 2 ƒ = ƒ 5x - 5 ƒ 6 P
5ƒx - 1ƒ 6 P
ƒ x - 1 ƒ 6 P&gt;5.
NOT TO SCALE
FIGURE 2.15 If ƒsxd = 5x - 3 , then
0 6 ƒ x - 1 ƒ 6 P&gt;5 guarantees that
ƒ ƒsxd - 2 ƒ 6 P (Example 2).
Thus, we can take d = P&gt;5 (Figure 2.15). If 0 6 ƒ x - 1 ƒ 6 d = P&gt;5, then
ƒ s5x - 3d - 2 ƒ = ƒ 5x - 5 ƒ = 5 ƒ x - 1 ƒ 6 5sP&gt;5d = P ,
which proves that limx:1s5x - 3d = 2.
The value of d = P&gt;5 is not the only value that will make 0 6 ƒ x - 1 ƒ 6 d imply
ƒ 5x - 5 ƒ 6 P . Any smaller positive d will do as well. The definition does not ask for a
“best” positive d, just one that will work.
EXAMPLE 3
Limits of the Identity and Constant Functions
y
Prove:
yx
x0 (a) lim x = x0
x:x0
x0 x0
x0 x:x0
(k constant).
Solution
(a) Let P 7 0 be given. We must find d 7 0 such that for all x
x0 0
(b) lim k = k
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
x0 x0 x0 x
FIGURE 2.16 For the function ƒsxd = x ,
we find that 0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d will
guarantee ƒ ƒsxd - x0 ƒ 6 P whenever
d … P (Example 3a).
implies
ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 P .
The implication will hold if d equals P or any smaller positive number (Figure 2.16).
This proves that limx:x0 x = x0 .
(b) Let P 7 0 be given. We must find d 7 0 such that for all x
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
implies
ƒ k - k ƒ 6 P.
Since k - k = 0, we can use any positive number for d and the implication will hold
(Figure 2.17). This proves that limx:x0 k = k .
Finding Deltas Algebraically for Given Epsilons
In Examples 2 and 3, the interval of values about x0 for which ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ was less than P
was symmetric about x0 and we could take d to be half the length of that interval. When
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:00 AM Page 95
95
2.3 The Precise Definition of a Limit
such symmetry is absent, as it usually is, we can take d to be the distance from x0 to the interval’s nearer endpoint.
y
k
k
k
0
yk
EXAMPLE 4
Finding Delta Algebraically
For the limit limx:5 2x - 1 = 2, find a d 7 0 that works for P = 1. That is, find a
d 7 0 such that for all x
x0 x0 x0 FIGURE 2.17 For the function ƒsxd = k ,
we find that ƒ ƒsxd - k ƒ 6 P for any
positive d (Example 3b).
Solution
1.
ƒ 2x - 1 - 2 ƒ 6 1.
Q
0 6 ƒx - 5ƒ 6 d
x
We organize the search into two steps, as discussed below.
Solve the inequality ƒ 2x - 1 - 2 ƒ 6 1 to find an interval containing x0 = 5 on
which the inequality holds for all x Z x0 .
ƒ 2x - 1 - 2 ƒ 6 1
-1 6 2x - 1 - 2 6 1
1 6 2x - 1 6 3
1 6 x - 1 6 9
2 6 x 6 10
2.
The inequality holds for all x in the open interval (2, 10), so it holds for all x Z 5 in
this interval as well (see Figure 2.19).
Find a value of d 7 0 to place the centered interval 5 - d 6 x 6 5 + d (centered
at x0 = 5) inside the interval (2, 10). The distance from 5 to the nearer endpoint of
(2, 10) is 3 (Figure 2.18). If we take d = 3 or any smaller positive number, then the
inequality 0 6 ƒ x - 5 ƒ 6 d will automatically place x between 2 and 10 to make
ƒ 2x - 1 - 2 ƒ 6 1 (Figure 2.19)
ƒ 2x - 1 - 2 ƒ 6 1.
Q
0 6 ƒx - 5ƒ 6 3
y
y 兹x 1
3
2
1
3
2
3
3
5
8
10
3
x
0
1 2
5
8
10
NOT TO SCALE
FIGURE 2.18 An open interval of
open interval (2, 10).
FIGURE 2.19 The function and intervals
in Example 4.
x
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96
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
How to Find Algebraically a D for a Given f, L, x0 , and P&gt;0
The process of finding a d 7 0 such that for all x
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
Q
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P
can be accomplished in two steps.
1. Solve the inequality ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P to find an open interval (a, b) containing x0 on which the inequality holds for all x Z x0 .
2. Find a value of d 7 0 that places the open interval sx0 - d, x0 + dd centered
at x0 inside the interval (a, b). The inequality ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P will hold for all
x Z x0 in this d-interval.
EXAMPLE 5
Finding Delta Algebraically
Prove that limx:2 ƒsxd = 4 if
ƒsxd = e
x 2,
1,
x Z 2
x = 2.
y
Solution
y x2
Our task is to show that given P 7 0 there exists a d 7 0 such that for all x
0 6 ƒx - 2ƒ 6 d
4
1.
(2, 4)
4
For x Z x0 = 2, we have ƒsxd = x 2 , and the inequality to solve is ƒ x 2 - 4 ƒ 6 P :
ƒ x2 - 4 ƒ 6 P
-P 6 x 2 - 4 6 P
4 - P 6 x2 6 4 + P
24 - P 6 ƒ x ƒ 6 24 + P
24 - P 6 x 6 24 + P.
(2, 1)

ƒ ƒsxd - 4 ƒ 6 P .
Solve the inequality ƒ ƒsxd - 4 ƒ 6 P to find an open interval containing x0 = 2 on
which the inequality holds for all x Z x0 .
4
0
Q
x

x = 2 so that the function in Example 5
satisfies ƒ ƒsxd - 4 ƒ 6 P .
Assumes P 6 4 ; see below.
An open interval about x0 = 2
that solves the inequality
The inequality ƒ ƒsxd - 4 ƒ 6 P holds for all x Z 2 in the open interval A 24 - P,
24 + P B (Figure 2.20).
2. Find a value of d 7 0 that places the centered interval s2 - d, 2 + dd inside the interval A 24 - P, 24 + P B .
Take d to be the distance from x0 = 2 to the nearer endpoint of A 24 - P, 24 + P B .
In other words, take d = min E 2 - 24 - P, 24 + P - 2 F , the minimum (the smaller)
of the two numbers 2 - 24 - P and 24 + P - 2. If d has this or any smaller positive
value, the inequality 0 6 ƒ x - 2 ƒ 6 d will automatically place x between 24 - P and
24 + P to make ƒ ƒsxd - 4 ƒ 6 P . For all x,
0 6 ƒx - 2ƒ 6 d
Q
ƒ ƒsxd - 4 ƒ 6 P .
This completes the proof.
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2.3 The Precise Definition of a Limit
97
Why was it all right to assume P 6 4? Because, in finding a d such that for all
x, 0 6 ƒ x - 2 ƒ 6 d implied ƒ ƒsxd - 4 ƒ 6 P 6 4, we found a d that would work for
any larger P as well.
Finally, notice the freedom we gained in letting d = min E 2 - 24 - P,
24 + P - 2 F . We did not have to spend time deciding which, if either, number was the
smaller of the two. We just let d represent the smaller and went on to finish the argument.
Using the Definition to Prove Theorems
We do not usually rely on the formal definition of limit to verify specific limits such as
those in the preceding examples. Rather we appeal to general theorems about limits, in
particular the theorems of Section 2.2. The definition is used to prove these theorems
(Appendix 2). As an example, we prove part 1 of Theorem 1, the Sum Rule.
EXAMPLE 6
Proving the Rule for the Limit of a Sum
Given that limx:c ƒsxd = L and limx:c gsxd = M, prove that
lim sƒsxd + gsxdd = L + M.
x:c
Solution
Let P 7 0 be given. We want to find a positive number d such that for all x
0 6 ƒx - cƒ 6 d
ƒ ƒsxd + gsxd - sL + Md ƒ 6 P .
Q
Regrouping terms, we get
ƒ ƒsxd + gsxd - sL + Md ƒ = ƒ sƒsxd - Ld + sgsxd - Md ƒ
… ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ + ƒ gsxd - M ƒ .
Triangle Inequality:
ƒa + bƒ … ƒaƒ + ƒbƒ
Since limx:c ƒsxd = L, there exists a number d1 7 0 such that for all x
0 6 ƒ x - c ƒ 6 d1
Q
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P&gt;2.
Similarly, since limx:c gsxd = M, there exists a number d2 7 0 such that for all x
0 6 ƒ x - c ƒ 6 d2
Q
ƒ gsxd - M ƒ 6 P&gt;2.
Let d = min 5d1, d26, the smaller of d1 and d2 . If 0 6 ƒ x - c ƒ 6 d then ƒ x - c ƒ 6 d1 ,
so ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P&gt;2, and ƒ x - c ƒ 6 d2 , so ƒ gsxd - M ƒ 6 P&gt;2. Therefore
P
P
ƒ ƒsxd + gsxd - sL + Md ƒ 6 2 + 2 = P .
This shows that limx:c sƒsxd + gsxdd = L + M.
Let’s also prove Theorem 5 of Section 2.2.
EXAMPLE 7
Given that limx:c ƒsxd = L and limx:c gsxd = M, and that ƒsxd … gsxd
for all x in an open interval containing c (except possibly c itself), prove that L … M.
We use the method of proof by contradiction. Suppose, on the contrary, that
L 7 M . Then by the limit of a difference property in Theorem 1,
Solution
lim s gsxd - ƒsxdd = M - L.
x:c
Therefore, for any P 7 0, there exists d 7 0 such that
ƒ sgsxd - ƒsxdd - sM - Ld ƒ 6 P
whenever
0 6 ƒ x - c ƒ 6 d.
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98
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
Since L - M 7 0 by hypothesis, we take P = L - M in particular and we have a number
d 7 0 such that
ƒ sgsxd - ƒsxdd - sM - Ld ƒ 6 L - M
whenever
0 6 ƒ x - c ƒ 6 d.
whenever
0 6 ƒx - cƒ 6 d
Since a … ƒ a ƒ for any number a, we have
sgsxd - ƒsxdd - sM - Ld 6 L - M
which simplifies to
gsxd 6 ƒsxd
whenever
0 6 ƒ x - c ƒ 6 d.
But this contradicts ƒsxd … gsxd. Thus the inequality L 7 M must be false. Therefore
L … M.
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
EXERCISES 2.3
9.
In Exercises 1–6, sketch the interval (a, b) on the x-axis with the
point x0 inside. Then find a value of d 7 0 such that for all
x, 0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d Q a 6 x 6 b .
1. a = 1, b = 7, x0 = 5
2. a = 1,
b = 7,
x0 = 2
3. a = - 7&gt;2,
b = - 1&gt;2,
x0 = - 3
4. a = - 7&gt;2,
b = - 1&gt;2,
x0 = - 3&gt;2
b = 4&gt;7,
5. a = 4&gt;9,
6. a = 2.7591,
x0 = 1&gt;2
b = 3.2391,
y
5
4
1
3
4
0
x0 = 3
10.
y
f (x) 兹x
x0 1
L1
1 y 兹x
4
f(x) 2兹x 1
x0 3
L4
0.2
y 2兹x 1
4.2
4
3.8
1
9
16
2
x
25
16
Finding Deltas Graphically
–1 0
2.61 3 3.41
NOT TO SCALE
In Exercises 7–14, use the graphs to find a d 7 0 such that for all x
Q
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
7.
11.
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P .
12.
y 2x 4
f (x) 2x 4
x0 5
L6
0.2
6.2
6
5.8
0
y x2
y –3 x 3
2
y 4 x2
5
4
7.65
7.5
7.35
x
5
4.9
f (x) 4 x 2
x0 –1
L3
0.25
f (x) x 2
x0 2
L4
1
y
f (x) – 3 x 3
2
x0 –3
L 7.5
0.15
y
y
8.
y
x
3.25
3
2.75
3
5.1
0
NOT TO SCALE

2
x

NOT TO SCALE
–3.1
–3
–2.9
0
NOT TO SCALE
x
–

–
2
2
NOT TO SCALE
0
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 9/17/04 1:46 PM Page 99
2.3 The Precise Definition of a Limit
13.
More on Formal Limits
14.
Each of Exercises 31–36 gives a function ƒ(x), a point x0, and a positive number P. Find L = lim ƒsxd. Then find a number d 7 0 such
y
y
2

x0 ⫽ –1
L⫽2
⑀ ⫽ 0.5
f(x) ⫽
f (x) ⫽ 1x
x0 ⫽ 1
2
L⫽2
⑀ ⫽ 0.01
2.01
y⫽ 2

x :x0
that for all x
Q
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
31. ƒsxd = 3 - 2 x,
x0 = 3,
32. ƒsxd = - 3x - 2,
2
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P .
P = 0.02
x0 = - 1,
P = 0.03
2
2.5
1.99
2
y ⫽ 1x
1.5
33. ƒsxd =
x - 4
,
x - 2
34. ƒsxd =
x 2 + 6x + 5
,
x + 5
x0 = 2,
35. ƒsxd = 21 - 5x,
36. ƒsxd = 4&gt;x,
P = 0.05
x0 = - 5,
P = 0.05
x0 = - 3,
x0 = 2,
P = 0.5
P = 0.4
Prove the limit statements in Exercises 37–50.
–16
9
–1 – 16
25
x
0
x
1
1
1
2
2.01
1.99
0
37. lim s9 - xd = 5
38. lim s3x - 7d = 2
39. lim 2x - 5 = 2
40. lim 24 - x = 2
x :4
41. lim ƒsxd = 1
x :1
Finding Deltas Algebraically
Each of Exercises 15–30 gives a function ƒ(x) and numbers L, x0 and
P 7 0 . In each case, find an open interval about x0 on which the inequality ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P holds. Then give a value for d 7 0 such
that for all x satisfying 0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d the inequality
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P holds.
L = 5,
16. ƒsxd = 2x - 2,
x0 = 4,
L = - 6,
17. ƒsxd = 2x + 1,
18. ƒsxd = 2x,
L = 1,
L = 1&gt;2,
19. ƒsxd = 219 - x,
20. ƒsxd = 2x - 7,
21. ƒsxd = 1&gt;x,
L = 3,
L = 4,
L = 1&gt;4,
P = 0.1
x0 = 1&gt;4,
P = 0.1
x0 = 10,
x0 = 4,
x0 = 23,
23. ƒsxd = x 2,
L = 4,
x0 = - 2,
2
25. ƒsxd = x - 5,
26. ƒsxd = 120&gt;x,
L = - 1,
L = 11,
L = 5,
x0 = - 1,
x0 = 4,
x0 = 24,
44.
lim
x : 23
ƒsxd = e
if
x Z 1
x = 1
x 2,
1,
x Z -2
x = -2
45. lim
1
1
=
3
x2
x2 - 9
= -6
x + 3
46. lim
x :1
47. lim ƒsxd = 2
if
4 - 2x,
ƒsxd = e
6x - 4,
48. lim ƒsxd = 0
if
ƒsxd = e
x :0
2x,
x&gt;2,
x2 - 1
= 2
x - 1
x 6 1
x &Uacute; 1
x 6 0
x &Uacute; 0
1
49. lim x sin x = 0
P = 0.1
x :0
y
P = 0.5
P = 0.1
P = 1
P = 1
L = 2m,
x0 = 2,
28. ƒsxd = mx,
P = c 7 0
m 7 0,
L = 3m,
x0 = 3,
m 7 0,
x :0
x 2,
ƒsxd = e
2,
1
43. lim x = 1
x :1
x :1
P = 0.05
m 7 0,
30. ƒsxd = mx + b,
P = 0.05
x : -2
x : -3
P = 1
27. ƒsxd = mx,
m 7 0,
29. ƒsxd = mx + b,
x0 = 1&gt;2,
P = c 7 0
42. lim ƒsxd = 4
if
P = 1
x0 = 23,
L = 3,
24. ƒsxd = 1&gt;x,
P = 0.02
x0 = 0,
22. ƒsxd = x ,
2
P = 0.01
x0 = - 2,
x :3
x :9
NOT TO SCALE
15. ƒsxd = x + 1,
99
P = 0.03
– 1
2␲
1
–␲
L = sm&gt;2d + b,
L = m + b,
y ⫽ x sin 1x
1
2␲
x0 = 1,
1
␲
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 100
100
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
1
50. lim x 2 sin x = 0
volts and I is to be 5 ; 0.1 amp . In what interval does R have to
lie for I to be within 0.1 amp of the value I0 = 5 ?
x:0
y
V
y x2
1
0
2
–
2
1
R
When Is a Number L Not the Limit of ƒ(x)
as x : x0 ?
y x 2 sin 1x
–1
I
x
We can prove that limx:x0 ƒsxd Z L by providing an P 7 0 such that
no possible d 7 0 satisfies the condition
For all x, 0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
Q
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P .
We accomplish this for our candidate P by showing that for each
d 7 0 there exists a value of x such that
–1
y –x 2
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
and
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ &Uacute; P .
y
y f (x)
Theory and Examples
L
51. Define what it means to say that lim g sxd = k .
x: 0
52. Prove that lim ƒsxd = L if and only if lim ƒsh + cd = L .
x: c
L
h :0
53. A wrong statement about limits Show by example that the following statement is wrong.
L
The number L is the limit of ƒ(x) as x approaches x0 if ƒ(x) gets
closer to L as x approaches x0 .
f (x)
Explain why the function in your example does not have the given
value of L as a limit as x : x0 .
0 x0 Explain why the function in your example does not have the given
value of L as a limit as x : x0 .
T 55. Grinding engine cylinders Before contracting to grind engine
cylinders to a cross-sectional area of 9 in2 , you need to know how
much deviation from the ideal cylinder diameter of x0 = 3.385
in. you can allow and still have the area come within 0.01 in2 of
the required 9 in2 . To find out, you let A = psx&gt;2d2 and look for
the interval in which you must hold x to make ƒ A - 9 ƒ … 0.01 .
What interval do you find?
56. Manufacturing electrical resistors Ohm’s law for electrical circuits like the one shown in the accompanying figure states that
V = RI . In this equation, V is a constant voltage, I is the current
in amperes, and R is the resistance in ohms. Your firm has been
asked to supply the resistors for a circuit in which V will be 120
x
x0 a value of x for which
0 x x 0 and f(x) L ⱖ 54. Another wrong statement about limits Show by example that
the following statement is wrong.
The number L is the limit of ƒ(x) as x approaches x0 if, given any
P 7 0 , there exists a value of x for which ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P .
x0
57. Let ƒsxd = e
x,
x 6 1
x + 1, x 7 1.
y
yx1
2
y f(x)
1
1
yx
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 101
2.3 The Precise Definition of a Limit
a. Let P = 1&gt;2 . Show that no possible d 7 0 satisfies the
following condition:
0 6 ƒx - 1ƒ 6 d
Q
ƒ ƒsxd - 2 ƒ 6 1&gt;2.
That is, for each d 7 0 show that there is a value of x such that
For all x,
101
60. a. For the function graphed here, show that limx : -1 g sxd Z 2 .
b. Does limx : -1 g sxd appear to exist? If so, what is the value of
the limit? If not, why not?
y
0 6 ƒx - 1ƒ 6 d
and
ƒ ƒsxd - 2 ƒ &Uacute; 1&gt;2.
This will show that limx:1 ƒsxd Z 2 .
2
b. Show that limx:1 ƒsxd Z 1 .
c. Show that limx:1 ƒsxd Z 1.5 .
x 2,
58. Let hsxd = • 3,
2,
y g(x)
x 6 2
x = 2
x 7 2.
1
y
–1
0
x
y h(x)
4
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
3
In Exercises 61–66, you will further explore finding deltas graphically. Use a CAS to perform the following steps:
y2
2
a. Plot the function y = ƒsxd near the point x0 being approached.
1
y x2
0
2
b. Guess the value of the limit L and then evaluate the limit
symbolically to see if you guessed correctly.
x
c. Using the value P = 0.2 , graph the banding lines y1 = L - P
and y2 = L + P together with the function ƒ near x0 .
d. From your graph in part (c), estimate a d 7 0 such that for all x
Show that
a. lim hsxd Z 4
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
x:2
b. lim hsxd Z 3
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P .
Test your estimate by plotting ƒ, y1 , and y2 over the interval
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d . For your viewing window use
x0 - 2d … x … x0 + 2d and L - 2P … y … L + 2P . If any
function values lie outside the interval [L - P, L + P] , your
choice of d was too large. Try again with a smaller estimate.
x:2
c. lim hsxd Z 2
x:2
59. For the function graphed here, explain why
a. lim ƒsxd Z 4
x:3
e. Repeat parts (c) and (d) successively for P = 0.1, 0.05 , and
0.001.
b. lim ƒsxd Z 4.8
x:3
c. lim ƒsxd Z 3
x:3
y
61. ƒsxd =
x 4 - 81
,
x - 3
62. ƒsxd =
5x 3 + 9x 2
,
2x 5 + 3x 2
63. ƒsxd =
sin 2x
,
3x
64. ƒsxd =
xs1 - cos xd
,
x - sin x
65. ƒsxd =
3
2
x - 1
,
x - 1
66. ƒsxd =
3x 2 - s7x + 1d2x + 5
,
x - 1
4.8
4
y f (x)
3
0
Q
3
x
x0 = 3
x0 = 0
x0 = 0
x0 = 0
x0 = 1
x0 = 1
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 102
102
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
One-Sided Limits and Limits at Infinity
2.4
In this section we extend the limit concept to one-sided limits, which are limits as x approaches the number x0 from the left-hand side (where x 6 x0) or the right-hand side
sx 7 x0 d only. We also analyze the graphs of certain rational functions as well as other
functions with limit behavior as x : ; q .
y
y x
x
1
x
0
–1
FIGURE 2.21 Different right-hand and
left-hand limits at the origin.
One-Sided Limits
To have a limit L as x approaches c, a function ƒ must be defined on both sides of c and its
values ƒ(x) must approach L as x approaches c from either side. Because of this, ordinary
limits are called two-sided.
If ƒ fails to have a two-sided limit at c, it may still have a one-sided limit, that is, a
limit if the approach is only from one side. If the approach is from the right, the limit is a
right-hand limit. From the left, it is a left-hand limit.
The function ƒsxd = x&gt; ƒ x ƒ (Figure 2.21) has limit 1 as x approaches 0 from the right,
and limit -1 as x approaches 0 from the left. Since these one-sided limit values are not the
same, there is no single number that ƒ(x) approaches as x approaches 0. So ƒ(x) does not
have a (two-sided) limit at 0.
Intuitively, if ƒ(x) is defined on an interval (c, b), where c 6 b, and approaches arbitrarily close to L as x approaches c from within that interval, then ƒ has right-hand limit L
at c. We write
lim ƒsxd = L.
x:c +
The symbol “x : c + ” means that we consider only values of x greater than c.
Similarly, if ƒ(x) is defined on an interval (a, c), where a 6 c and approaches arbitrarily close to M as x approaches c from within that interval, then ƒ has left-hand limit M
at c. We write
lim ƒsxd = M.
x:c -
The symbol “x : c - ” means that we consider only x values less than c.
These informal definitions are illustrated in Figure 2.22. For the function ƒsxd = x&gt; ƒ x ƒ
in Figure 2.21 we have
lim ƒsxd = 1
and
x:0 +
lim ƒsxd = - 1.
x:0 -
y
y
f (x)
L
0
c
x
M
f (x)
x
0
(a) lim f (x) L
x→c
FIGURE 2.22 (a) Right-hand limit as x approaches c.
approaches c.
x
c
(b) lim f (x) M
x→c
(b) Left-hand limit as x
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 103
2.4 One-Sided Limits and Limits at Infinity
EXAMPLE 1
y
One-Sided Limits for a Semicircle
The domain of ƒsxd = 24 - x 2 is [ -2, 2]; its graph is the semicircle in Figure 2.23. We
have
y 兹4 x 2
lim 24 - x 2 = 0
x: -2 +
–2
0
FIGURE 2.23
2
103
and
lim 24 - x 2 = 0.
x:2 -
The function does not have a left-hand limit at x = - 2 or a right-hand limit at x = 2. It
does not have ordinary two-sided limits at either -2 or 2.
x
lim 24 - x 2 = 0 and
x: 2 -
lim 24 - x 2 = 0 (Example 1).
x: - 2 +
One-sided limits have all the properties listed in Theorem 1 in Section 2.2. The righthand limit of the sum of two functions is the sum of their right-hand limits, and so on. The
theorems for limits of polynomials and rational functions hold with one-sided limits, as
does the Sandwich Theorem and Theorem 5. One-sided limits are related to limits in the
following way.
THEOREM 6
A function ƒ(x) has a limit as x approaches c if and only if it has left-hand and
right-hand limits there and these one-sided limits are equal:
lim ƒsxd = L
x:c
EXAMPLE 2
y
At x = 0:
y f (x)
2
1
0
At x = 1:
1
2
3
4
lim ƒsxd = L
x:c -
and
lim ƒsxd = L .
x:c +
Limits of the Function Graphed in Figure 2.24
limx:0+ ƒsxd = 1,
limx:0- ƒsxd and limx:0 ƒsxd do not exist. The function is not defined to the left of x = 0.
limx:1- ƒsxd = 0 even though ƒs1d = 1,
limx:1+ ƒsxd = 1,
limx:1 ƒsxd does not exist. The right- and left-hand limits are not
equal.
x
FIGURE 2.24 Graph of the function
in Example 2.
3
At x = 2:
At x = 3:
At x = 4:
limx:2- ƒsxd = 1,
limx:2+ ƒsxd = 1,
limx:2 ƒsxd = 1 even though ƒs2d = 2.
limx:3- ƒsxd = limx:3+ ƒsxd = limx:3 ƒsxd = ƒs3d = 2.
limx:4- ƒsxd = 1 even though ƒs4d Z 1,
limx:4+ ƒsxd and limx:4 ƒsxd do not exist. The function is not defined to the right of x = 4.
At every other point c in [0, 4], ƒ(x) has limit ƒ(c).
Precise Definitions of One-Sided Limits
The formal definition of the limit in Section 2.3 is readily modified for one-sided limits.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 104
104
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
y
DEFINITIONS
Right-Hand, Left-Hand Limits
We say that ƒ(x) has right-hand limit L at x0 , and write
lim ƒsxd = L
(See Figure 2.25)
x:x0 +
L
if for every number P 7 0 there exists a corresponding number d 7 0 such that
for all x
f(x)
f(x) lies
in here
L
Q
x0 6 x 6 x0 + d
L
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P .
We say that ƒ has left-hand limit L at x0 , and write
lim ƒsxd = L
for all x x 0
in here
if for every number P 7 0 there exists a corresponding number d 7 0 such that
for all x
x
0
x
x0 x0
(See Figure 2.26)
x:x0 -
Q
x0 - d 6 x 6 x0
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P .
FIGURE 2.25 Intervals associated with
the definition of right-hand limit.
EXAMPLE 3
y
Applying the Definition to Find Delta
Prove that
lim 2x = 0.
x:0 +
L
Solution Let P 7 0 be given. Here x0 = 0 and L = 0, so we want to find a d 7 0 such
that for all x
f(x)
0 6 x 6 d
f(x) lies
in here
L
or
L
for all x x 0
in here
Squaring both sides of this last inequality gives
x 6 P2
x
0 6 x 6 d.
If we choose d = P we have
x0
0 6 x 6 d = P2
FIGURE 2.26 Intervals associated with
the definition of left-hand limit.
2x 6 P ,
Q
or
0 6 x 6 P2
Q
ƒ 2x - 0 ƒ 6 P .
According to the definition, this shows that limx:0+ 2x = 0 (Figure 2.27).
y
f (x) 兹x
The functions examined so far have had some kind of limit at each point of interest. In
general, that need not be the case.
f(x)
L0
if
2
x
x0 2x 6 P .
Q
0 6 x 6 d
0
ƒ 2x - 0 ƒ 6 P ,
Q
EXAMPLE 4
x
FIGURE 2.27
2
x
lim 1x = 0 in Example 3.
x: 0 +
A Function Oscillating Too Much
Show that y = sin s1&gt;xd has no limit as x approaches zero from either side (Figure 2.28).
Solution As x approaches zero, its reciprocal, 1&gt;x, grows without bound and the values
of sin (1&gt;x) cycle repeatedly from -1 to 1. There is no single number L that the function’s
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 105
2.4 One-Sided Limits and Limits at Infinity
105
y
1
x
0
y sin 1x
–1
FIGURE 2.28 The function y = sin s1&gt;xd has neither a
right-hand nor a left-hand limit as x approaches zero
(Example 4).
values stay increasingly close to as x approaches zero. This is true even if we restrict x to
positive values or to negative values. The function has neither a right-hand limit nor a lefthand limit at x = 0.
Limits Involving (sin U)/U
A central fact about ssin ud&gt;u is that in radian measure its limit as u : 0 is 1. We can see
this in Figure 2.29 and confirm it algebraically using the Sandwich Theorem.
y
1
–3
–2
–
2
3
y
NOT TO SCALE
T
FIGURE 2.29 The graph of ƒsud = ssin ud&gt;u .
1
P
THEOREM 7
tan sin u
= 1
u:0 u
1
lim
sin cos O
A(1, 0)
(1)
x













Q
1
FIGURE 2.30 The figure for the proof of
Theorem 7. TA&gt;OA = tan u , but OA = 1 ,
so TA = tan u .
Proof The plan is to show that the right-hand and left-hand limits are both 1. Then we
will know that the two-sided limit is 1 as well.
To show that the right-hand limit is 1, we begin with positive values of u less than p&gt;2
(Figure 2.30). Notice that
Area &cent;OAP 6 area sector OAP 6 area &cent;OAT .
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 106
106
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
Equation (2) is where radian measure
comes in: The area of sector OAP is u&gt;2
only if u is measured in radians.
We can express these areas in terms of u as follows:
1
1
1
base * height = s1dssin ud = sin u
2
2
2
u
1
1
Area sector OAP = r 2u = s1d2u =
2
2
2
1
1
1
Area &cent;OAT = base * height = s1dstan ud = tan u.
2
2
2
Area &cent;OAP =
(2)
Thus,
1
1
1
sin u 6 u 6 tan u.
2
2
2
This last inequality goes the same way if we divide all three terms by the number
(1&gt;2) sin u, which is positive since 0 6 u 6 p&gt;2:
1 6
u
1
6
.
cos u
sin u
Taking reciprocals reverses the inequalities:
1 7
sin u
7 cos u.
u
Since limu:0+ cos u = 1 (Example 6b, Section 2.2), the Sandwich Theorem gives
lim+
u:0
sin u
= 1.
u
Recall that sin u and u are both odd functions (Section 1.4). Therefore, ƒsud =
ssin ud&gt;u is an even function, with a graph symmetric about the y-axis (see Figure 2.29).
This symmetry implies that the left-hand limit at 0 exists and has the same value as the
right-hand limit:
lim
u:0 -
sin u
sin u
= 1 = lim+
,
u
u
u:0
so limu:0 ssin ud&gt;u = 1 by Theorem 6.
EXAMPLE 5
Using lim
u:0
Show that (a) lim
h:0
sin u
= 1
u
cos h - 1
sin 2x
2
= 0 and (b) lim
= .
5
h
x:0 5x
Solution
(a) Using the half-angle formula cos h = 1 - 2 sin2 sh&gt;2d, we calculate
2 sin2 sh&gt;2d
cos h - 1
= lim h
h
h:0
h:0
sin u
= - lim
sin u
u:0 u
lim
= - s1ds0d = 0.
Let u = h&gt;2 .
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 107
2.4 One-Sided Limits and Limits at Infinity
107
(b) Equation (1) does not apply to the original fraction. We need a 2x in the denominator,
not a 5x. We produce it by multiplying numerator and denominator by 2&gt;5:
s2&gt;5d # sin 2x
sin 2x
= lim
x:0 5x
x:0 s2&gt;5d # 5x
lim
y
4
=
sin 2x
2
lim
5 x:0 2x
=
2
2
s1d =
5
5
3
y 1x
2
Now, Eq. (1) applies with
u 2x.
1
–1 0
–1
FIGURE 2.31
1
2
3
4
The graph of y = 1&gt;x .
x
Finite Limits as x : — ˆ
The symbol for infinity s q d does not represent a real number. We use q to describe the
behavior of a function when the values in its domain or range outgrow all finite bounds.
For example, the function ƒsxd = 1&gt;x is defined for all x Z 0 (Figure 2.31). When x is
positive and becomes increasingly large, 1&gt;x becomes increasingly small. When x is negative and its magnitude becomes increasingly large, 1&gt;x again becomes small. We summarize these observations by saying that ƒsxd = 1&gt;x has limit 0 as x : ; q or that 0 is a
limit of ƒsxd = 1&gt;x at infinity and negative infinity. Here is a precise definition.
DEFINITIONS Limit as x approaches ˆ or ˆ
1. We say that ƒ(x) has the limit L as x approaches infinity and write
lim ƒsxd = L
x: q
if, for every number P 7 0, there exists a corresponding number M such that
for all x
x 7 M
Q
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P .
2. We say that ƒ(x) has the limit L as x approaches minus infinity and write
lim ƒsxd = L
x: - q
if, for every number P 7 0, there exists a corresponding number N such that
for all x
x 6 N
Q
ƒ ƒsxd - L ƒ 6 P .
Intuitively, limx: q ƒsxd = L if, as x moves increasingly far from the origin in the positive
direction, ƒ(x) gets arbitrarily close to L. Similarly, limx:- q ƒsxd = L if, as x moves increasingly far from the origin in the negative direction, ƒ(x) gets arbitrarily close to L.
The strategy for calculating limits of functions as x : ; q is similar to the one for
finite limits in Section 2.2. There we first found the limits of the constant and identity
functions y = k and y = x . We then extended these results to other functions by applying
a theorem about limits of algebraic combinations. Here we do the same thing, except that
the starting functions are y = k and y = 1&gt;x instead of y = k and y = x.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 108
108
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
y
y 1x
0
lim k = k
lim
x: ; q
1
x = 0.
(3)
We prove the latter and leave the former to Exercises 71 and 72.
x
M 1
and
x: ; q
y
N – 1
y –
The basic facts to be verified by applying the formal definition are
No matter what
positive number is,
the graph enters
this band at x 1
and stays.
EXAMPLE 6
1
Limits at Infinity for ƒsxd = x
Show that
–
1
(a) lim x = 0
x: q
No matter what
positive number is,
the graph enters
this band at x – 1
and stays.
(b)
lim
x: - q
1
x = 0.
Solution
(a) Let P 7 0 be given. We must find a number M such that for all x
FIGURE 2.32 The geometry behind the
argument in Example 6.
x 7 M
1
1
` x - 0 ` = ` x ` 6 P.
Q
The implication will hold if M = 1&gt;P or any larger positive number (Figure 2.32).
This proves limx: q s1&gt;xd = 0.
(b) Let P 7 0 be given. We must find a number N such that for all x
x 6 N
1
1
` x - 0 ` = ` x ` 6 P.
Q
The implication will hold if N = - 1&gt;P or any number less than -1&gt;P (Figure 2.32).
This proves limx:- q s1&gt;xd = 0.
Limits at infinity have properties similar to those of finite limits.
THEOREM 8
Limit Laws as x : — ˆ
If L, M, and k, are real numbers and
lim ƒsxd = L
x: ; q
1. Sum Rule:
2. Difference Rule:
3. Product Rule:
4. Constant Multiple Rule:
5. Quotient Rule:
and
lim gsxd = M,
x: ; q
then
lim sƒsxd + gsxdd = L + M
x: ; q
lim sƒsxd - gsxdd = L - M
x: ; q
lim sƒsxd # gsxdd = L # M
x: ; q
lim sk # ƒsxdd = k # L
x: ; q
lim
x: ; q
ƒsxd
L
= ,
M
gsxd
M Z 0
6. Power Rule: If r and s are integers with no common factors, s Z 0, then
lim sƒsxddr&gt;s = L r&gt;s
x: ; q
provided that L r&gt;s is a real number. (If s is even, we assume that L 7 0.)
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2.4 One-Sided Limits and Limits at Infinity
109
These properties are just like the properties in Theorem 1, Section 2.2, and we use
them the same way.
EXAMPLE 7
Using Theorem 8
1
1
(a) lim a5 + x b = lim 5 + lim x
q
q
q
x:
x:
x:
Sum Rule
= 5 + 0 = 5
(b)
lim
x: - q
p23
=
x2
=
Known limits
1 1
lim p23 # x # x
q
x: 1
lim p23 # lim x
x: - q
#
x: - q
= p23 # 0 # 0 = 0
2
y 5x 2 8x 3
3x 2
y
2
–5
1
lim x
x: - q
Product rule
Known limits
Limits at Infinity of Rational Functions
1
Line y 5
3
0
5
10
x
To determine the limit of a rational function as x : ; q , we can divide the numerator
and denominator by the highest power of x in the denominator. What happens then depends on the degrees of the polynomials involved.
EXAMPLE 8
–1
–2
Numerator and Denominator of Same Degree
5 + s8&gt;xd - s3&gt;x 2 d
5x 2 + 8x - 3
=
lim
x: q
x: q
3x 2 + 2
3 + s2&gt;x 2 d
lim
NOT TO SCALE
FIGURE 2.33 The graph of the function
in Example 8. The graph approaches the
line y = 5&gt;3 as ƒ x ƒ increases.
=
EXAMPLE 9
11x + 2
=
x: - q 2x 3 - 1
lim
y
6
See Fig. 2.33.
Degree of Numerator Less Than Degree of Denominator
y
8
5
5 + 0 - 0
=
3 + 0
3
Divide numerator and
denominator by x 2.
11x 2
2x 3 1
=
lim
s11&gt;x 2 d + s2&gt;x 3 d
x: - q
2 - s1&gt;x 3 d
0 + 0
= 0
2 - 0
Divide numerator and
denominator by x 3.
See Fig. 2.34.
We give an example of the case when the degree of the numerator is greater than the
degree of the denominator in the next section (Example 8, Section 2.5).
4
2
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
–2
–4
–6
x
Horizontal Asymptotes
If the distance between the graph of a function and some fixed line approaches zero as a
point on the graph moves increasingly far from the origin, we say that the graph approaches the line asymptotically and that the line is an asymptote of the graph.
Looking at ƒsxd = 1&gt;x (See Figure 2.31), we observe that the x-axis is an asymptote
of the curve on the right because
1
lim x = 0
q
x:
–8
FIGURE 2.34 The graph of the
function in Example 9. The graph
approaches the x-axis as ƒ x ƒ increases.
and on the left because
1
lim x = 0.
x: - q
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110
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
We say that the x-axis is a horizontal asymptote of the graph of ƒsxd = 1&gt;x.
DEFINITION
Horizontal Asymptote
A line y = b is a horizontal asymptote of the graph of a function y = ƒsxd if
either
lim ƒsxd = b
or
x: q
lim ƒsxd = b.
x: - q
The curve
ƒsxd =
5x 2 + 8x - 3
3x 2 + 2
sketched in Figure 2.33 (Example 8) has the line y = 5&gt;3 as a horizontal asymptote on
both the right and the left because
5
3
lim ƒsxd =
x: q
EXAMPLE 10
and
lim ƒsxd =
x: - q
5
.
3
Substituting a New Variable
Find lim sin s1&gt;xd.
x: q
We introduce the new variable t = 1&gt;x. From Example 6, we know that t : 0 +
as x : q (see Figure 2.31). Therefore,
Solution
1
lim sin x = lim+ sin t = 0.
t:0
x: q
The Sandwich Theorem Revisited
The Sandwich Theorem also holds for limits as x : ; q .
EXAMPLE 11
A Curve May Cross Its Horizontal Asymptote
Using the Sandwich Theorem, find the horizontal asymptote of the curve
y
y = 2 +
sin x
x .
y 2 sinx x
Solution
2
We are interested in the behavior as x : ; q . Since
sin x
1
0 … ` x ` … `x`
1
–3 –2 –
0
2
3
FIGURE 2.35 A curve may cross one of
its asymptotes infinitely often (Example
11).
x
and limx:; q ƒ 1&gt;x ƒ = 0, we have limx:; q ssin xd&gt;x = 0 by the Sandwich Theorem. Hence,
lim a2 +
x: ; q
sin x
x b = 2 + 0 = 2,
and the line y = 2 is a horizontal asymptote of the curve on both left and right (Figure 2.35).
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 111
2.4 One-Sided Limits and Limits at Infinity
111
This example illustrates that a curve may cross one of its horizontal asymptotes, perhaps many times.
Oblique Asymptotes
If the degree of the numerator of a rational function is one greater than the degree of the
denominator, the graph has an oblique (slanted) asymptote. We find an equation for the
asymptote by dividing numerator by denominator to express ƒ as a linear function plus a
remainder that goes to zero as x : ; q . Here’s an example.
EXAMPLE 12
Finding an Oblique Asymptote
Find the oblique asymptote for the graph of
ƒsxd =
2x 2 - 3
7x + 4
in Figure 2.36.
Solution
y
ƒsxd =
4
2
By long division, we find
y
2x 2 - 3
7x + 4
- 115
8
2
b +
= a x 7
49
49s7x + 4d
('')''* ('')''*
2x 2 3
7x 4
linear function gsxd
–4
–2
2
4
remainder
x
As x : ; q , the remainder, whose magnitude gives the vertical distance between the
graphs of ƒ and g, goes to zero, making the (slanted) line
–2
gsxd =
–4
FIGURE 2.36 The function in Example
12 has an oblique asymptote.
8
2
x 7
49
an asymptote of the graph of ƒ (Figure 2.36). The line y = gsxd is an asymptote both to
the right and to the left. In the next section you will see that the function ƒ(x) grows arbitrarily large in absolute value as x approaches -4&gt;7, where the denominator becomes zero
(Figure 2.36).
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2.4 One-Sided Limits and Limits at Infinity
EXERCISES 2.4
Finding Limits Graphically
a.
1. Which of the following statements about the function y = ƒsxd
graphed here are true, and which are false?
lim ƒsxd = 1
x : -1 +
y f (x)
d. lim- ƒsxd = lim+ ƒsxd
e. lim ƒsxd exists
f. lim ƒsxd = 0
g. lim ƒsxd = 1
h. lim ƒsxd = 1
i. lim ƒsxd = 0
j. lim- ƒsxd = 2
x :0
x :0
1
x :1
k.
–1
0
1
2
x
x :0
c. lim- ƒsxd = 1
x :0
y
b. lim- ƒsxd = 0
lim - ƒsxd does not exist .
x : -1
x :0
x :0
x :0
x :1
x :2
l. lim+ ƒsxd = 0
x :2
111
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112
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
2. Which of the following statements about the function y = ƒsxd
graphed here are true, and which are false?
a. Find limx:2+ ƒsxd, limx:2- ƒsxd , and ƒ(2).
b. Does limx:2 ƒsxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
c. Find limx:-1- ƒsxd and limx:-1+ ƒsxd .
y
y f (x)
d. Does limx:-1 ƒsxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
5. Let ƒsxd = •
2
1
–1
1
0
2
0,
x … 0
1
sin x ,
x 7 0.
y
x
3
1
a.
b. lim ƒsxd does not exist.
lim + ƒsxd = 1
x: -1
x: 2
c. lim ƒsxd = 2
d. lim- ƒsxd = 2
e. lim+ ƒsxd = 1
f. lim ƒsxd does not exist.
x:2
x: 1
x:1
x: 1
g. lim+ ƒsxd = lim- ƒsxd
x:0
x:0
x
0

xⱕ0
0,
y 1
 sin x , x 0

h. lim ƒsxd exists at every c in the open interval s - 1, 1d .
x:c
i. lim ƒsxd exists at every c in the open interval (1, 3).
x:c
j.
lim ƒsxd = 0
–1
k. lim+ ƒsxd does not exist.
x: -1 -
x: 3
3 - x,
3. Let ƒsxd = • x
+ 1,
2
x 6 2
a. Does limx:0+ ƒsxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
x 7 2.
b. Does limx:0- ƒsxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
y
c. Does limx:0 ƒsxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
6. Let g sxd = 2x sins1&gt;xd .
y3x
3
y x1
2
y
y 兹x
1
0
x
4
2
a. Find limx:2+ ƒsxd and limx:2- ƒsxd .
y 兹x sin 1x
b. Does limx:2 ƒsxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
c. Find limx:4- ƒsxd and limx:4+ ƒsxd .
1
2
d. Does limx:4 ƒsxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
4. Let ƒsxd = d
0
3 - x,
2,
x 6 2
x = 2
x
,
2
x 7 2.
1
2
1
x
y
–1
y3x
y –兹x
3
a. Does limx:0+ g sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
y x
2
–2
0
2
x
b. Does limx:0- g sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
c. Does limx:0 g sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
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2.4 One-Sided Limits and Limits at Infinity
7. a. Graph ƒsxd = e
x 3,
0,
sin U
1
U:0 U
x Z 1
x = 1.
Using lim
b. Find limx:1- ƒsxd and limx:1+ ƒsxd .
c. Does limx:1 ƒsxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
1 - x 2,
8. a. Graph ƒsxd = e
2,
Find the limits in Exercises 21–36.
sin 22u
21. lim
sin kt
t
sk constantd
b. Find limx:1+ ƒsxd and limx:1- ƒsxd .
c. Does limx:1 ƒsxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
25. lim
tan 2x
x
26. lim
27. lim
x csc 2x
cos 5x
28. lim 6x 2scot xdscsc 2xd
x Z 1
x = 1.
u :0
x :0
Graph the functions in Exercises 9 and 10. Then answer these questions.
x :0
a. What are the domain and range of ƒ?
b. At what points c, if any, does limx:c ƒsxd exist?
x,
10. ƒsxd = • 1,
0,
0 … x 6 1
1 … x 6 2
x = 2
Finding One-Sided Limits Algebraically
Find the limits in Exercises 11–18.
x + 2
11. lim x: -0.5 A x + 1
lim + a
x: -2
x - 1
12. lim+
x: 1 A x + 2
t: 0
15. lim+
2h 2 + 4h + 5 - 25
h
16. lim-
26 - 25h + 11h + 6
h
ƒx + 2ƒ
17. a. lim +sx + 3d
x + 2
x: -2
18. a. lim+
x:1
22x sx - 1d
ƒx - 1ƒ
t:4
x 2 - x + sin x
2x
x :0
30. lim
32. lim
sin ssin hd
sin h
sin 5x
sin 4x
h:0
34. lim
35. lim
tan 3x
sin 8x
36. lim
x :0
2t
tan t
x :0
sin u
sin 2u
x :0
sin 3y cot 5y
y cot 4y
y :0
Calculating Limits as x : — ˆ
In Exercises 37–42, find the limit of each function (a) as x : q and
(b) as x : - q . (You may wish to visualize your answer with a
graphing calculator or computer.)
2
37. ƒsxd = x - 3
41. hsxd =
38. ƒsxd = p -
1
2 + s1&gt;xd
-5 + s7&gt;xd
2
3 - s1&gt;x d
40. g sxd =
43. lim
x: q
45.
ƒx + 2ƒ
b. lim -sx + 3d
x + 2
x: -2
b. limx: 1
22x sx - 1d
ƒx - 1ƒ
b. lim-st - : t; d
t :4
lim
sin 2x
x
3 - s2&gt;xd
42. hsxd =
4 +
t: - q
2 - t + sin t
t + cos t
44.
r: q
A 22&gt;x 2 B
cos u
3u
lim
u: -q
46. lim
2
x2
1
8 - s5&gt;x 2 d
Find the limits in Exercises 43–46.
Use the graph of the greatest integer function y = :x; (sometimes
written y = int x), Figure 1.31 in Section 1.3, to help you find the limits in Exercises 19 and 20.
:u;
:u;
19. a. lim+
b. limu
u
u :3
u: 3
20. a. lim+st - : t ; d
t: 0
33. lim
2
h: 0
h:0
sin s1 - cos td
1 - cos t
39. g sxd =
2x + 5
x
b
ba 2
x + 1
x + x
x + 6 3 - x
1
ba x ba
b
14. lim- a
7
x:1 x + 1
h: 0
31. lim
h
sin 3h
24. lim-
x + x cos x
x :0 sin x cos x
u :0
- 1 … x 6 0, or 0 6 x … 1
x = 0
x 6 - 1, or x 7 1
t: 0
29. lim
c. At what points does only the left-hand limit exist?
d. At what points does only the right-hand limit exist?
13.
22. lim
22u
sin 3y
23. lim
y :0 4y
21 - x 2,
9. ƒsxd = • 1,
2,
113
r + sin r
2r + 7 - 5 sin r
Limits of Rational Functions
In Exercises 47–56, find the limit of each rational function (a) as
x : q and (b) as x : - q .
47. ƒsxd =
2x + 3
5x + 7
48. ƒsxd =
2x 3 + 7
x - x2 + x + 7
49. ƒsxd =
x + 1
x2 + 3
50. ƒsxd =
3x + 7
x2 - 2
51. hsxd =
7x 3
x - 3x 2 + 6x
52. g sxd =
1
x 3 - 4x + 1
3
3
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114
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
53. g sxd =
10x 5 + x 4 + 31
x6
Formal Definitions of One-Sided Limits
73. Given P 7 0 , find an interval I = s5, 5 + dd, d 7 0 , such that
if x lies in I, then 2x - 5 6 P . What limit is being verified and
what is its value?
9x 4 + x
54. hsxd =
4
2x + 5x 2 - x + 6
55. hsxd =
-2x 3 - 2x + 3
3x 3 + 3x 2 - 5x
56. hsxd =
-x4
x - 7x + 7x 2 + 9
4
74. Given P 7 0 , find an interval I = s4 - d, 4d, d 7 0 , such that
if x lies in I, then 24 - x 6 P . What limit is being verified and
what is its value?
Use the definitions of right-hand and left-hand limits to prove the
limit statements in Exercises 75 and 76.
3
Limits with Noninteger or Negative Powers
The process by which we determine limits of rational functions applies equally well to ratios containing noninteger or negative powers
of x: divide numerator and denominator by the highest power of x in
the denominator and proceed from there. Find the limits in Exercises
57–62.
2 2x + x -1
3x - 7
x: q
57. lim
lim
61. lim
x: q
2 - 2x
x -1 + x -4
60. lim -2
x: q x
- x -3
5
3
2
x + 2x
2x 5&gt;3 - x 1&gt;3 + 7
x: - q
2 + 2x
x: q
5
2x - 2x
3
59.
58. lim
62.
x 8&gt;5 + 3x + 2x
lim
x: - q
3
2
x - 5x + 3
2x + x 2&gt;3 - 4
Theory and Examples
63. Once you know limx:a ƒsxd and limx:a ƒsxd at an interior point
of the domain of ƒ, do you then know limx:a ƒsxd ? Give reasons
+
-
x
x - 2
76. lim+
= -1
= 1
x :2 ƒ x - 2 ƒ
ƒxƒ
77. Greatest integer function Find (a) limx:400+ :x ; and (b)
limx:400- :x ; ; then use limit definitions to verify your findings.
(c) Based on your conclusions in parts (a) and (b), can anything
75. limx :0
78. One-sided limits Let ƒsxd = e
Find (a) limx:0+ ƒsxd and (b) limx:0- ƒsxd ; then use limit definitions
to verify your findings. (c) Based on your conclusions in parts (a)
and (b), can anything be said about limx:0 ƒsxd ? Give reasons for
Grapher Explorations—“Seeing” Limits
at Infinity
Sometimes a change of variable can change an unfamiliar expression
into one whose limit we know how to find. For example,
64. If you know that limx:c ƒsxd exists, can you find its value by calculating limx:c+ ƒsxd ? Give reasons for your answer.
65. Suppose that ƒ is an odd function of x. Does knowing that
66. Suppose that ƒ is an even function of x. Does knowing that
limx:2- ƒsxd = 7 tell you anything about either limx:-2- ƒsxd or
67. Suppose that ƒ(x) and g (x) are polynomials in x and that
limx: q sƒsxd&gt;g sxdd = 2 . Can you conclude anything about
68. Suppose that ƒ(x) and g (x) are polynomials in x. Can the graph of
ƒ(x)&gt;g (x) have an asymptote if g (x) is never zero? Give reasons
69. How many horizontal asymptotes can the graph of a given rational function have? Give reasons for your answer.
70. Find lim A 2x 2 + x - 2x 2 - x B .
1
lim sin x = lim+ sin u
x: q
Use the formal definitions of limits as x : ; q to establish the limits
in Exercises 71 and 72.
u :0
Substitute u = 1&gt;x
= 0.
This suggests a creative way to “see” limits at infinity. Describe the
procedure and use it to picture and determine limits in Exercises
79–84.
79.
80.
81.
1
lim x sin x
x: ;q
lim
cos s1&gt;xd
1 + s1&gt;xd
lim
3x + 4
2x - 5
x: -q
x: ;q
1
82. lim a x b
x: q
83.
x: q
x 2 sin s1&gt;xd, x 6 0
2x,
x 7 0.
1&gt;x
1
2
lim a3 + x b acos x b
x: ;q
84. lim a
x: q
3
1
1
- cos x b a1 + sin x b
x2
71. If ƒ has the constant value ƒsxd = k , then lim ƒsxd = k .
x: q
72. If ƒ has the constant value ƒsxd = k , then lim ƒsxd = k .
x: -q
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2.5 Infinite Limits and Vertical Asymptotes
115
Infinite Limits and Vertical Asymptotes
2.5
In this section we extend the concept of limit to infinite limits, which are not limits as before, but rather an entirely new use of the term limit. Infinite limits provide useful symbols
and language for describing the behavior of functions whose values become arbitrarily
large, positive or negative. We continue our analysis of graphs of rational functions from
the last section, using vertical asymptotes and dominant terms for numerically large values
of x.
Infinite Limits
y
B
You can get as high
as you want by
taking x close enough
to 0. No matter how
high B is, the graph
goes higher.
Let us look again at the function ƒsxd = 1&gt;x. As x : 0 + , the values of ƒ grow without
bound, eventually reaching and surpassing every positive real number. That is, given any
positive real number B, however large, the values of ƒ become larger still (Figure 2.37).
Thus, ƒ has no limit as x : 0 + . It is nevertheless convenient to describe the behavior of ƒ
by saying that ƒ(x) approaches q as x : 0 + . We write
y 1x
x0
x
No matter how
low –B is, the
graph goes lower.
You can get as low as
you want by taking
x close enough to 0.
FIGURE 2.37
1
lim
= q
x: 0 + x
1
lim ƒsxd = lim+ x = q .
x:0
x
–B
One-sided infinite limits:
1
and
lim
= -q
x: 0 - x
x:0 +
In writing this, we are not saying that the limit exists. Nor are we saying that there is a real
number q , for there is no such number. Rather, we are saying that limx:0+ s1&gt;xd does not
exist because 1&gt;x becomes arbitrarily large and positive as x : 0 + .
As x : 0 - , the values of ƒsxd = 1&gt;x become arbitrarily large and negative. Given
any negative real number -B, the values of ƒ eventually lie below -B. (See Figure 2.37.)
We write
1
lim ƒsxd = lim- x = - q .
x:0
x:0 -
Again, we are not saying that the limit exists and equals the number - q . There is no real
number - q . We are describing the behavior of a function whose limit as x : 0 - does not
exist because its values become arbitrarily large and negative.
y
y
1
x1
EXAMPLE 1
1
–1
0
Find lim+
1
2
3
x
x:1
One-Sided Infinite Limits
1
x - 1
and
lim
x:1 -
1
.
x - 1
Geometric Solution The graph of y = 1&gt;sx - 1d is the graph of y = 1&gt;x shifted 1 unit
to the right (Figure 2.38). Therefore, y = 1&gt;sx - 1d behaves near 1 exactly the way
y = 1&gt;x behaves near 0:
FIGURE 2.38 Near x = 1 , the function
y = 1&gt;sx - 1d behaves the way the
function y = 1&gt;x behaves near x = 0 . Its
graph is the graph of y = 1&gt;x shifted 1
unit to the right (Example 1).
lim
x:1 +
1
= q
x - 1
and
lim
x:1 -
1
= -q.
x - 1
Think about the number x - 1 and its reciprocal. As x : 1+ , we have
sx - 1d : 0 and 1&gt;sx - 1d : q . As x : 1- , we have sx - 1d : 0 - and
1&gt;sx - 1d : - q .
Analytic Solution
+
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
EXAMPLE 2
y
Discuss the behavior of
No matter how
high B is, the graph
goes higher.
B
f(x) 12
x
x 0
x
x
(a) ƒsxd =
1
near x = 0,
x2
(b) gsxd =
1
near x = - 3.
sx + 3d2
Solution
(a) As x approaches zero from either side, the values of 1&gt;x 2 are positive and become arbitrarily large (Figure 2.39a):
(a)
g(x) Two-Sided Infinite Limits
1
(x 3)2
lim ƒsxd = lim
y
x:0
x:0
1
= q.
x2
(b) The graph of gsxd = 1&gt;sx + 3d2 is the graph of ƒsxd = 1&gt;x 2 shifted 3 units to the left
(Figure 2.39b). Therefore, g behaves near -3 exactly the way ƒ behaves near 0.
5
4
x: -3
2
1
–5
–4
–3
–2
–1
1
= q.
x: -3 sx + 3d2
lim gsxd = lim
3
x
0
(b)
The function y = 1&gt;x shows no consistent behavior as x : 0. We have 1&gt;x : q if
x : 0 + , but 1&gt;x : - q if x : 0 - . All we can say about limx:0 s1&gt;xd is that it does not
exist. The function y = 1&gt;x 2 is different. Its values approach infinity as x approaches zero
from either side, so we can say that limx:0 s1&gt;x 2 d = q .
EXAMPLE 3
FIGURE 2.39 The graphs of the
functions in Example 2. (a) ƒ(x)
approaches infinity as x : 0 . (b) g(x)
approaches infinity as x : - 3 .
Rational Functions Can Behave in Various Ways Near Zeros
of Their Denominators
(a) lim
sx - 2d2
sx - 2d2
x - 2
= 0
=
lim
= lim
x:2 sx - 2dsx + 2d
x:2 x + 2
x2 - 4
(b) lim
x - 2
x - 2
1
1
=
= lim
= lim
4
x:2 sx - 2dsx + 2d
x:2 x + 2
x2 - 4
x:2
x:2
(c)
lim
x:2 +
(d) limx:2
x - 3
x - 3
= lim+
= -q
2
sx
2dsx + 2d
x:2
x - 4
The values are negative
for x 7 2, x near 2.
x - 3
x - 3
= lim= q
2
sx
2dsx + 2d
x:2
x - 4
The values are positive
for x 6 2, x near 2.
x - 3
x - 3
does not exist.
= lim
x:2 sx - 2dsx + 2d
x2 - 4
-sx - 2d
2 - x
-1
(f) lim
= lim
= lim
= -q
x:2 sx - 2d3
x:2 sx - 2d3
x:2 sx - 2d2
(e) lim
x:2
See parts (c) and (d).
In parts (a) and (b) the effect of the zero in the denominator at x = 2 is canceled because the numerator is zero there also. Thus a finite limit exists. This is not true in part (f),
where cancellation still leaves a zero in the denominator.
Precise Definitions of Infinite Limits
Instead of requiring ƒ(x) to lie arbitrarily close to a finite number L for all x sufficiently
close to x0 , the definitions of infinite limits require ƒ(x) to lie arbitrarily far from the oriCopyright &copy; 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 117
2.5 Infinite Limits and Vertical Asymptotes
117
gin. Except for this change, the language is identical with what we have seen before.
Figures 2.40 and 2.41 accompany these definitions.
y
y f (x)
DEFINITIONS
Infinity, Negative Infinity as Limits
1. We say that ƒ(x) approaches infinity as x approaches x0 , and write
B
lim ƒsxd = q ,
x:x0
0
x0 if for every positive real number B there exists a corresponding d 7 0 such
that for all x
x
x0
x0 Q
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
ƒsxd 7 B.
2. We say that ƒ(x) approaches negative infinity as x approaches x0 , and write
FIGURE 2.40
x : x0 .
ƒ(x) approaches infinity as
lim ƒsxd = - q ,
x:x0
if for every negative real number - B there exists a corresponding d 7 0 such
that for all x
y
Q
0 6 ƒ x - x0 ƒ 6 d
x0 x0
ƒsxd 6 - B.
x0 x
0
The precise definitions of one-sided infinite limits at x0 are similar and are stated in the
exercises.
EXAMPLE 4
–B
Prove that lim
x:0
y f (x)
Solution
FIGURE 2.41 ƒ(x) approaches negative
infinity as x : x0 .
Using the Definition of Infinite Limits
1
= q.
x2
Given B 7 0, we want to find d 7 0 such that
0 6 ƒx - 0ƒ 6 d
implies
1
7 B.
x2
Now,
1
7 B
x2
if and only if x 2 6
1
B
or, equivalently,
ƒxƒ 6
1
.
2B
Thus, choosing d = 1&gt; 2B (or any smaller positive number), we see that
ƒxƒ 6 d
implies
1
1
7 2 &Uacute; B.
x2
d
Therefore, by definition,
lim
x:0
1
= q.
x2
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
Vertical Asymptotes
y
Notice that the distance between a point on the graph of y = 1&gt;x and the y-axis approaches zero as the point moves vertically along the graph and away from the origin
(Figure 2.42). This behavior occurs because
Vertical asymptote
Horizontal
asymptote
y 1x
1
lim x = q
1
0
We say that the line x = 0 (the y-axis) is a vertical asymptote of the graph of y = 1&gt;x.
Observe that the denominator is zero at x = 0 and the function is undefined there.
Horizontal
asymptote,
y0
DEFINITION
Vertical Asymptote
A line x = a is a vertical asymptote of the graph of a function y = ƒsxd if either
lim ƒsxd = ; q
FIGURE 2.42 The coordinate axes are
asymptotes of both branches of the
hyperbola y = 1&gt;x .
EXAMPLE 5
Horizontal
asymptote,
y1
3
Find the horizontal and vertical asymptotes of the curve
y
y =
x3
x2
1
1
x2
1
3
We are interested in the behavior as x : ; q and as x : -2, where the denominator is zero.
The asymptotes are quickly revealed if we recast the rational function as a polynomial
with a remainder, by dividing sx + 2d into sx + 3d.
1
2
x + 3
.
x + 2
Solution
2
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0
–1
lim ƒsxd = ; q .
x:a -
Looking for Asymptotes
6
4
or
x:a +
y
5
1
lim x = - q .
x:0 -
x
1
Vertical asymptote,
x0
Vertical
asymptote,
x –2
and
x:0 +
x
1
x + 2 x + 3
x + 2
1
–2
–3
–4
This result enables us to rewrite y:
FIGURE 2.43 The lines y = 1 and
x = - 2 are asymptotes of the curve
y = sx + 3d&gt;sx + 2d (Example 5).
y = 1 +
1
.
x + 2
We now see that the curve in question is the graph of y = 1&gt;x shifted 1 unit up and 2 units
left (Figure 2.43). The asymptotes, instead of being the coordinate axes, are now the lines
y = 1 and x = - 2.
EXAMPLE 6
Asymptotes Need Not Be Two-Sided
Find the horizontal and vertical asymptotes of the graph of
ƒsxd = -
8
.
x2 - 4
Solution We are interested in the behavior as x : ; q and as x : ; 2, where the denominator is zero. Notice that ƒ is an even function of x, so its graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis.
(a) The behavior as x : ; q . Since limx: q ƒsxd = 0, the line y = 0 is a horizontal
asymptote of the graph to the right. By symmetry it is an asymptote to the left as well
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119
2.5 Infinite Limits and Vertical Asymptotes
(Figure 2.44). Notice that the curve approaches the x-axis from only the negative side
(or from below).
(b) The behavior as x : ;2. Since
y
Vertical
asymptote,
x –2
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
–4 –3 –2 –1 0
y – 28
x 4
lim ƒsxd = - q
Vertical
asymptote, x 2
lim ƒsxd = q ,
x:2 -
the line x = 2 is a vertical asymptote both from the right and from the left. By symmetry, the same holds for the line x = - 2.
Horizontal
asymptote, y 0
1 2 3 4
and
x:2 +
x
There are no other asymptotes because ƒ has a finite limit at every other point.
EXAMPLE 7
Curves with Infinitely Many Asymptotes
The curves
1
y = sec x = cos x
FIGURE 2.44 Graph of
y = - 8&gt;sx 2 - 4d . Notice that the curve
approaches the x-axis from only one side.
Asymptotes do not have to be two-sided
(Example 6).
and
sin x
y = tan x = cos x
both have vertical asymptotes at odd-integer multiples of p&gt;2, where cos x = 0 (Figure 2.45).
y
y
y sec x
1
– 3 – – 2
2
y tan x
1
2
0
x
3
2
0 – 3 – – –1
2
2
2
3
2
x
FIGURE 2.45 The graphs of sec x and tan x have infinitely many vertical
asymptotes (Example 7).
The graphs of
y = csc x =
1
sin x
and
y = cot x =
cos x
sin x
have vertical asymptotes at integer multiples of p, where sin x = 0 (Figure 2.46).
y
y
y csc x
1
1
– – 2
0
y cot x
2
3 2
2
x
– – 2
0
FIGURE 2.46 The graphs of csc x and cot x (Example 7).
2
3 2
2
x
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120
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
EXAMPLE 8
A Rational Function with Degree of Numerator Greater than
Degree of Denominator
Find the asymptotes of the graph of
y
ƒsxd =
3x1 1
2x 4
2x 4 2
x2
y
The vertical distance
between curve and
line goes to zero as x →
6
Solution We are interested in the behavior as x : ; q and also as x : 2, where the denominator is zero. We divide s2x - 4d into sx 2 - 3d :
x
+ 1
2
5
4
3
2x - 4 x 2 - 3
x 2 - 2x
2x - 3
2x - 4
1
Oblique
asymptote
x2
y x 1
2
2
1
–1 0
–1
–2
–3
1
2
3
4
x
x2 - 3
.
2x - 4
x
This tells us that
Vertical
asymptote,
x2
ƒsxd =
FIGURE 2.47 The graph of
ƒsxd = sx 2 - 3d&gt;s2x - 4d has a vertical
asymptote and an oblique asymptote
(Example 8).
x2 - 3
x
1
= + 1 +
.
2x - 4
2
2x - 4
123
linear
14243
remainder
Since limx:2+ ƒsxd = q and limx:2- ƒsxd = - q , the line x = 2 is a two-sided vertical
asymptote. As x : ; q , the remainder approaches 0 and ƒsxd : sx&gt;2d + 1. The line
y = sx&gt;2d + 1 is an oblique asymptote both to the right and to the left (Figure 2.47).
Notice in Example 8, that if the degree of the numerator in a rational function is greater
than the degree of the denominator, then the limit is + q or - q , depending on the signs
assumed by the numerator and denominator as ƒ x ƒ becomes large.
Dominant Terms
Of all the observations we can make quickly about the function
ƒsxd =
x2 - 3
2x - 4
in Example 8, probably the most useful is that
ƒsxd =
x
1
+ 1 +
.
2
2x - 4
This tells us immediately that
ƒsxd L
x
+ 1
2
For x numerically large
ƒsxd L
1
2x - 4
For x near 2
If we want to know how ƒ behaves, this is the way to find out. It behaves like
y = sx&gt;2d + 1 when x is numerically large and the contribution of 1&gt;s2x - 4d to the total
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121
2.5 Infinite Limits and Vertical Asymptotes
value of ƒ is insignificant. It behaves like 1&gt;s2x - 4d when x is so close to 2 that
1&gt;s2x - 4d makes the dominant contribution.
We say that sx&gt;2d + 1 dominates when x is numerically large, and we say that
1&gt;s2x - 4d dominates when x is near 2. Dominant terms like these are the key to predicting a function’s behavior. Here’s another example.
EXAMPLE 9
Two Graphs Appearing Identical on a Large Scale
Let ƒsxd = 3x 4 - 2x 3 + 3x 2 - 5x + 6 and gsxd = 3x 4 . Show that although ƒ and g are
quite different for numerically small values of x, they are virtually identical for ƒ x ƒ very
large.
The graphs of ƒ and g behave quite differently near the origin (Figure 2.48a),
but appear as virtually identical on a larger scale (Figure 2.48b).
Solution
y
y
20
500,000
15
300,000
10
f (x)
5
–2
–1
0
100,000
g(x)
1
2
x
–5
–20
–10
0
10
20
x
–100,000
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 2.48 The graphs of ƒ and g, (a) are distinct for ƒ x ƒ small, and (b) nearly
identical for ƒ x ƒ large (Example 9).
We can test that the term 3x 4 in ƒ, represented graphically by g, dominates the polynomial ƒ for numerically large values of x by examining the ratio of the two functions as
x : ; q . We find that
ƒsxd
=
x: ; q gsxd
lim
=
3x 4 - 2x 3 + 3x 2 - 5x + 6
x: ; q
3x 4
lim
lim a1 -
x: ; q
5
1
2
2
+ 2 + 4b
3
3x
x
3x
x
= 1,
so that ƒ and g are nearly identical for ƒ x ƒ large.
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122
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
EXERCISES 2.5
x 2 - 3x + 2
as
x 3 - 2x 2
a. x : 0 +
c. x : 2-
Infinite Limits
21. lim
Find the limits in Exercises 1–12.
1. lim+
1
3x
2. lim-
5
2x
3. lim-
3
x - 2
4. lim+
1
x - 3
x:0
x:2
5.
lim
x: -8 +
7. lim
x:7
x: 0
x: 3
2x
x + 8
6.
4
sx - 7d2
9. a. lim+
x:0
10. a. lim+
x:0
8. lim
x: 0
2
3x 1&gt;3
x:0
x
3x
2x + 10
-1
x 2sx + 1d
b. limx: 0
2
b. lim-
x 1&gt;5
x: 0
4
11. lim
lim
x: -5 -
12. lim
2&gt;5
x: 0
2
3x 1&gt;3
2
x 1&gt;5
15.
lim
x:sp&gt;2d
-
tan x
14.
lim- s1 + csc ud
x: s-p&gt;2d
+
sec x
16. lim s2 - cot ud
u :0
u: 0
1
as
x2 - 4
a. x : 2+
b. x : 2-
c. x : - 2+
d. x : - 2-
17. lim
x
as
x2 - 1
a. x : 1+
b. x : 1-
c. x : - 1+
d. x : -1-
18. lim
x2
1
- x b as
2
a. x : 0 +
b. x : 0 -
c. x : 22
d. x : -1
20. lim
x2 - 1
as
2x + 4
a. x : - 2+
b. x : - 2-
c. x : 1
d. x : 0
+
a. x : 2+
c. x : 0 -
b. x : - 2+
d. x : 1+
e. What, if anything, can be said about the limit as x : 0 ?
Find the limits in Exercises 23–26.
23. lim a2 -
3
b as
t 1&gt;3
a. t : 0 +
b. t : 0 -
1
2
+
b as
x 2&gt;3
sx - 1d2&gt;3
a. x : 0 +
c. x : 1+
-
b. t : 0 -
25. lim a
b. x : 0 d. x : 1-
1
1
b as
x 1&gt;3
sx - 1d4&gt;3
a. x : 0 +
c. x : 1+
Find the limits in Exercises 17–22.
3
x 2 - 3x + 2
as
x 3 - 4x
26. lim a
19. lim a
22. lim
1
+ 7b as
t 3&gt;5
a. t : 0 +
x 2&gt;3
lim
e. What, if anything, can be said about the limit as x : 0 ?
24. lim a
1
Find the limits in Exercises 13–16.
13.
b. x : 2+
d. x : 2
b. x : 0 d. x : 1-
Graphing Rational Functions
Graph the rational functions in Exercises 27–38. Include the graphs
and equations of the asymptotes and dominant terms.
27. y =
1
x - 1
28. y =
1
x + 1
29. y =
1
2x + 4
30. y =
-3
x - 3
31. y =
x + 3
x + 2
32. y =
2x
x + 1
33. y =
x2
x - 1
34. y =
x2 + 1
x - 1
35. y =
x2 - 4
x - 1
36. y =
x2 - 1
2x + 4
37. y =
x2 - 1
x
38. y =
x3 + 1
x2
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2.5 Infinite Limits and Vertical Asymptotes
Inventing Graphs from Values and Limits
In Exercises 39–42, sketch the graph of a function y = ƒsxd that satisfies
the given conditions. No formulas are required—just label the coordinate
axes and sketch an appropriate graph. (The answers are not unique, so
your graphs may not be exactly like those in the answer section.)
39. ƒs0d = 0, ƒs1d = 2, ƒs - 1d = - 2, lim ƒsxd = - 1, and
x: - q
lim ƒsxd = 1
x: q
40. ƒs0d = 0, lim ƒsxd = 0, lim+ ƒsxd = 2, and
x: ;q
x:0
lim ƒsxd = - 2
x:0 -
41. ƒs0d = 0, lim ƒsxd = 0, lim- ƒsxd = lim + ƒsxd = q ,
x: ;q
x:1
x : -1
Modify the definition to cover the following cases.
a.
b.
lim ƒsxd = q
x :x0 -
lim ƒsxd = - q
x :x0 +
c. lim - ƒsxd = - q
x :x0
Use the formal definitions from Exercise 51 to prove the limit statements in Exercises 52–56.
1
52. lim+ x = q
x :0
1
53. lim- x = - q
x :0
lim ƒsxd = - q , and lim - ƒsxd = - q
x:1 +
x: -1
42. ƒs2d = 1, ƒs - 1d = 0, lim ƒsxd = 0, lim+ ƒsxd = q ,
x: q
x: -q
x:0
In Exercises 43–46, find a function that satisfies the given conditions
and sketch its graph. (The answers here are not unique. Any function
that satisfies the conditions is acceptable. Feel free to use formulas defined in pieces if that will help.)
43. lim ƒsxd = 0, lim- ƒsxd = q , and lim+ ƒsxd = q
44.
x:2
45.
x:2
lim g sxd = 0, lim- g sxd = - q , and lim+ g sxd = q
x:3
x: ; q
x:3
lim hsxd = - 1, lim hsxd = 1, lim- hsxd = - 1, and
x: q
x: - q
1
= -q
x - 2
55. lim+
1
= q
x - 2
56. lim-
1
= q
1 - x2
x :2
x :2
Inventing Functions
x: ; q
54. lim-
x:0
lim- ƒsxd = - q , and lim ƒsxd = 1
x:0
x :1
Graphing Terms
Each of the functions in Exercises 57–60 is given as the sum or difference of two terms. First graph the terms (with the same set of axes).
Then, using these graphs as guides, sketch in the graph of the function.
1
57. y = sec x + x ,
lim hsxd = 1
-
p
p
6 x 6
2
2
58. y = sec x -
1
,
x2
-
p
p
6 x 6
2
2
The Formal Definition of Infinite Limit
59. y = tan x +
1
,
x2
-
p
p
6 x 6
2
2
Use formal definitions to prove the limit statements in Exercises 47–50.
1
60. y = x - tan x,
x:0 +
46.
lim k sxd = 1, lim- k sxd = q , and lim+ k sxd = - q
x:1
x: ; q
x: 1
-1
47. lim 2 = - q
x:0 x
49. lim
x:3
1
= q
48. lim
x: 0 ƒ x ƒ
-2
= -q
sx - 3d2
50. lim
x: -5
1
= q
sx + 5d2
Formal Definitions of Infinite One-Sided Limits
lim
ƒsxd = q ,
if, for every positive real number B, there exists a corresponding number d 7 0 such that for all x
x0 6 x 6 x0 + d
Q
p
p
6 x 6
2
2
Graph the curves in Exercises 61–64. Explain the relation between the
curve’s formula and what you see.
61. y =
x: x0 +
-
Grapher Explorations—Comparing Graphs
with Formulas
51. Here is the definition of infinite right-hand limit.
We say that ƒ(x) approaches infinity as x approaches x0
from the right, and write
123
62. y =
x
24 - x 2
-1
24 - x 2
1
63. y = x 2&gt;3 + 1&gt;3
x
64. y = sin a
p
b
x2 + 1
ƒsxd 7 B.
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
Continuity
2.6
y
Distance fallen (m)
80
P
Q4
Q3
60
Q2
40
Q1
20
0
5
Elapsed time (sec)
10
t
FIGURE 2.49 Connecting plotted points
by an unbroken curve from experimental
data Q1 , Q2 , Q3 , &Aacute; for a falling object.
When we plot function values generated in a laboratory or collected in the field, we often
connect the plotted points with an unbroken curve to show what the function’s values are
likely to have been at the times we did not measure (Figure 2.49). In doing so, we are assuming that we are working with a continuous function, so its outputs vary continuously
with the inputs and do not jump from one value to another without taking on the values
in between. The limit of a continuous function as x approaches c can be found simply by
calculating the value of the function at c. (We found this to be true for polynomials in
Section 2.2.)
Any function y = ƒsxd whose graph can be sketched over its domain in one continuous motion without lifting the pencil is an example of a continuous function. In this section we investigate more precisely what it means for a function to be continuous. We also
study the properties of continuous functions, and see that many of the function types presented in Section 1.4 are continuous.
Continuity at a Point
To understand continuity, we need to consider a function like the one in Figure 2.50 whose
limits we investigated in Example 2, Section 2.4.
EXAMPLE 1
Investigating Continuity
y
Find the points at which the function ƒ in Figure 2.50 is continuous and the points at which
ƒ is discontinuous.
y f (x)
2
The function ƒ is continuous at every point in its domain [0, 4] except at
x = 1, x = 2, and x = 4. At these points, there are breaks in the graph. Note the relationship between the limit of ƒ and the value of ƒ at each point of the function’s domain.
Solution
1
0
1
2
3
x
4
Points at which ƒ is continuous:
FIGURE 2.50 The function is continuous
on [0, 4] except at x = 1, x = 2 , and
x = 4 (Example 1).
At x = 0,
At x = 3,
At 0 6 c 6 4, c Z 1, 2,
lim ƒsxd = ƒs0d.
x:0 +
lim ƒsxd = ƒs3d .
x:3
lim ƒsxd = ƒscd .
x:c
Points at which ƒ is discontinuous:
At x = 1,
Continuity
from the right
Two-sided
continuity
Continuity
from the left
At x = 2,
At x = 4,
y f (x)
At c 6 0, c 7 4,
a
c
b
lim ƒsxd does not exist.
x:1
lim ƒsxd = 1, but 1 Z ƒs2d.
x:2
lim ƒsxd = 1, but 1 Z ƒs4d .
x:4 -
these points are not in the domain of ƒ.
x
FIGURE 2.51 Continuity at points a, b,
and c.
To define continuity at a point in a function’s domain, we need to define continuity at
an interior point (which involves a two-sided limit) and continuity at an endpoint (which
involves a one-sided limit) (Figure 2.51).
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2.6 Continuity
125
DEFINITION
Continuous at a Point
Interior point: A function y = ƒsxd is continuous at an interior point c of its
domain if
lim ƒsxd = ƒscd .
x:c
Endpoint: A function y = ƒsxd is continuous at a left endpoint a or is
continuous at a right endpoint b of its domain if
x:a +
y
2
–2
0
y 兹4 x 2
2
x
FIGURE 2.52 A function
that is continuous at every
domain point (Example 2).
or
lim ƒsxd = ƒsbd,
x:b -
respectively.
If a function ƒ is not continuous at a point c, we say that ƒ is discontinuous at c and c
is a point of discontinuity of ƒ. Note that c need not be in the domain of ƒ.
A function ƒ is right-continuous (continuous from the right) at a point x = c in its
domain if limx:c+ ƒsxd = ƒscd . It is left-continuous (continuous from the left) at c if
limx:c- ƒsxd = ƒscd. Thus, a function is continuous at a left endpoint a of its domain if it
is right-continuous at a and continuous at a right endpoint b of its domain if it is leftcontinuous at b. A function is continuous at an interior point c of its domain if and only if
it is both right-continuous and left-continuous at c (Figure 2.51).
EXAMPLE 2
A Function Continuous Throughout Its Domain
The function ƒsxd = 24 - x 2 is continuous at every point of its domain, [- 2, 2] (Figure
2.52), including x = - 2, where ƒ is right-continuous, and x = 2, where ƒ is left-continuous.
y
1
0
EXAMPLE 3
y U(x)
The Unit Step Function Has a Jump Discontinuity
The unit step function U(x), graphed in Figure 2.53, is right-continuous at x = 0, but is
neither left-continuous nor continuous there. It has a jump discontinuity at x = 0.
x
We summarize continuity at a point in the form of a test.
FIGURE 2.53 A function
that is right-continuous,
but not left-continuous, at
the origin. It has a jump
discontinuity there
(Example 3).
Continuity Test
A function ƒ(x) is continuous at x = c if and only if it meets the following three
conditions.
1.
2.
3.
ƒ(c) exists
limx:c ƒsxd exists
limx:c ƒsxd = ƒscd
(c lies in the domain of ƒ)
(ƒ has a limit as x : c)
(the limit equals the function value)
For one-sided continuity and continuity at an endpoint, the limits in parts 2 and 3 of
the test should be replaced by the appropriate one-sided limits.
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
EXAMPLE 4
y
4
The function y = :x; or y = int x, introduced in Chapter 1, is graphed in Figure 2.54. It
is discontinuous at every integer because the limit does not exist at any integer n:
y int x
or
y x
3
lim int x = n - 1
1
1
2
and
x:n -
2
–1
The Greatest Integer Function
3
4
x
lim int x = n
x:n +
so the left-hand and right-hand limits are not equal as x : n. Since int n = n, the greatest
integer function is right-continuous at every integer n (but not left-continuous).
The greatest integer function is continuous at every real number other than the integers. For example,
lim int x = 1 = int 1.5.
x:1.5
In general, if n - 1 6 c 6 n, n an integer, then
–2
lim int x = n - 1 = int c.
FIGURE 2.54 The greatest integer
function is continuous at every
noninteger point. It is right-continuous,
but not left-continuous, at every integer
point (Example 4).
x:c
Figure 2.55 is a catalog of discontinuity types. The function in Figure 2.55a is continuous at x = 0. The function in Figure 2.55b would be continuous if it had ƒs0d = 1. The
function in Figure 2.55c would be continuous if ƒ(0) were 1 instead of 2. The discontinuities in Figure 2.55b and c are removable. Each function has a limit as x : 0, and we can
remove the discontinuity by setting ƒ(0) equal to this limit.
The discontinuities in Figure 2.55d through f are more serious: limx:0 ƒsxd does not
exist, and there is no way to improve the situation by changing ƒ at 0. The step function in
Figure 2.55d has a jump discontinuity: The one-sided limits exist but have different values. The function ƒsxd = 1&gt;x 2 in Figure 2.55e has an infinite discontinuity. The function
in Figure 2.55f has an oscillating discontinuity: It oscillates too much to have a limit as
x : 0.
y f (x)
0
2
y f (x)
1
1
x
x
0
(b)
(c)
y
y
y f (x) 12
x
1
1
0
y f (x)
1
0
(a)
y
y
y
y
1
x
y f(x)
0
(d)
y sin 2
x
0
x
x
–1
(e)
(f)
FIGURE 2.55 The function in (a) is continuous at x = 0 ; the functions in (b) through (f )
are not.
x
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2.6 Continuity
Continuous Functions
y
y 1x
0
127
x
A function is continuous on an interval if and only if it is continuous at every point of the
interval. For example, the semicircle function graphed in Figure 2.52 is continuous on the
interval [- 2, 2], which is its domain. A continuous function is one that is continuous at
every point of its domain. A continuous function need not be continuous on every interval.
For example, y = 1&gt;x is not continuous on [- 1, 1] (Figure 2.56), but it is continuous over
its domain s - q , 0d &acute; s0, q d.
EXAMPLE 5
FIGURE 2.56 The function y = 1&gt;x is
continuous at every value of x except
x = 0 . It has a point of discontinuity at
x = 0 (Example 5).
Identifying Continuous Functions
(a) The function y = 1&gt;x (Figure 2.56) is a continuous function because it is continuous
at every point of its domain. It has a point of discontinuity at x = 0, however, because
it is not defined there.
(b) The identity function ƒsxd = x and constant functions are continuous everywhere by
Example 3, Section 2.3.
Algebraic combinations of continuous functions are continuous wherever they are
defined.
THEOREM 9
Properties of Continuous Functions
If the functions ƒ and g are continuous at x = c, then the following combinations
are continuous at x = c.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Sums:
Differences:
Products:
Constant multiples:
Quotients:
Powers:
ƒ + g
ƒ - g
ƒ#g
k # ƒ, for any number k
ƒ&gt;g provided gscd Z 0
f r&gt;s , provided it is defined on an open interval
containing c, where r and s are integers
Most of the results in Theorem 9 are easily proved from the limit rules in Theorem 1,
Section 2.2. For instance, to prove the sum property we have
lim sƒ + gdsxd = lim sƒsxd + gsxdd
x:c
x:c
= lim ƒsxd + lim gsxd,
Sum Rule, Theorem 1
= ƒscd + gscd
= sƒ + gdscd .
Continuity of ƒ, g at c
x:c
x:c
This shows that ƒ + g is continuous.
EXAMPLE 6
Polynomial and Rational Functions Are Continuous
(a) Every polynomial Psxd = an x n + an - 1x n - 1 + &Aacute; + a0 is continuous because
lim Psxd = Pscd by Theorem 2, Section 2.2.
x:c
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
(b) If P(x) and Q(x) are polynomials, then the rational function Psxd&gt;Qsxd is continuous
wherever it is defined sQscd Z 0d by the Quotient Rule in Theorem 9.
EXAMPLE 7
Continuity of the Absolute Value Function
The function ƒsxd = ƒ x ƒ is continuous at every value of x. If x 7 0, we have ƒsxd = x, a
polynomial. If x 6 0, we have ƒsxd = - x, another polynomial. Finally, at the origin,
limx:0 ƒ x ƒ = 0 = ƒ 0 ƒ .
The functions y = sin x and y = cos x are continuous at x = 0 by Example 6 of
Section 2.2. Both functions are, in fact, continuous everywhere (see Exercise 62). It follows from Theorem 9 that all six trigonometric functions are then continuous wherever
they are defined. For example, y = tan x is continuous on &Aacute; &acute; s - p&gt;2, p&gt;2d &acute;
sp&gt;2, 3p&gt;2d &acute; &Aacute; .
Composites
All composites of continuous functions are continuous. The idea is that if ƒ(x) is continuous at x = c and g (x) is continuous at x = ƒscd , then g f is continuous at x = c (Figure
2.57). In this case, the limit as x : c is g(ƒ(c)).
g f
˚
Continuous at c
f
g
Continuous
at c
Continuous
at f (c)
f (c)
c
g( f(c))
FIGURE 2.57 Composites of continuous functions are continuous.
THEOREM 10
Composite of Continuous Functions
If ƒ is continuous at c and g is continuous at ƒ(c), then the composite g f is
continuous at c.
Intuitively, Theorem 10 is reasonable because if x is close to c, then ƒ(x) is close to
ƒ(c), and since g is continuous at ƒ(c), it follows that g (ƒ(x)) is close to g(ƒ(c)).
The continuity of composites holds for any finite number of functions. The only requirement is that each function be continuous where it is applied. For an outline of the
proof of Theorem 10, see Exercise 6 in Appendix 2.
EXAMPLE 8
Applying Theorems 9 and 10
Show that the following functions are continuous everywhere on their respective domains.
x 2&gt;3
1 + x4
(a) y = 2x 2 - 2x - 5
(b) y =
(c) y = `
(d) y = `
x - 2
`
x2 - 2
x sin x
`
x2 + 2
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2.6 Continuity
Solution
y
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
–2
–
0
2
FIGURE 2.58 The graph suggests that
y = ƒ sx sin xd&gt;sx 2 + 2d ƒ is continuous
(Example 8d).
x
(a) The square root function is continuous on [0, q d because it is a rational power of the
continuous identity function ƒsxd = x (Part 6, Theorem 9). The given function is then
the composite of the polynomial ƒsxd = x 2 - 2x - 5 with the square root function
gstd = 2t.
(b) The numerator is a rational power of the identity function; the denominator is an
everywhere-positive polynomial. Therefore, the quotient is continuous.
(c) The quotient sx - 2d&gt;sx 2 - 2d is continuous for all x Z ; 22, and the function is
the composition of this quotient with the continuous absolute value function (Example 7).
(d) Because the sine function is everywhere-continuous (Exercise 62), the numerator
term x sin x is the product of continuous functions, and the denominator term x 2 + 2
is an everywhere-positive polynomial. The given function is the composite of a quotient of continuous functions with the continuous absolute value function (Figure
2.58).
Continuous Extension to a Point
The function y = ssin xd&gt;x is continuous at every point except x = 0. In this it is like the
function y = 1&gt;x. But y = ssin xd&gt;x is different from y = 1&gt;x in that it has a finite limit
as x : 0 (Theorem 7). It is therefore possible to extend the function’s domain to include the
point x = 0 in such a way that the extended function is continuous at x = 0. We define
Fsxd = L
sin x
x ,
x Z 0
1,
x = 0.
The function F(x) is continuous at x = 0 because
lim
x:0
sin x
x = Fs0d
(Figure 2.59).
y
y
(0, 1)
– , 2
 2 
–
2
(0, 1)
f (x)
 , 2
 2 
0
– , 2
 2 
2
x
–
2
(a)
F(x)
 , 2
 2 
0
2
(b)
FIGURE 2.59 The graph (a) of ƒsxd = ssin xd&gt;x for -p&gt;2 … x … p&gt;2 does not include
the point (0, 1) because the function is not defined at x = 0 . (b) We can remove the
discontinuity from the graph by defining the new function F(x) with Fs0d = 1 and
Fsxd = ƒsxd everywhere else. Note that Fs0d = lim ƒsxd .
x :0
x
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
More generally, a function (such as a rational function) may have a limit even at a
point where it is not defined. If ƒ(c) is not defined, but limx:c ƒsxd = L exists, we can define a new function F(x) by the rule
Fsxd = e
ƒsxd,
L,
if x is in the domain of f
if x = c.
The function F is continuous at x = c. It is called the continuous extension of ƒ to
x = c. For rational functions ƒ, continuous extensions are usually found by canceling
common factors.
EXAMPLE 9
A Continuous Extension
Show that
ƒsxd =
x2 + x - 6
x2 - 4
y
2
y
has a continuous extension to x = 2, and find that extension.
x2 x 6
x2 4
Solution
1
–1
0
1
2
3
4
–1
x 3
y x2
Fsxd =
1
0
sx - 2dsx + 3d
x + 3
x2 + x - 6
=
.
=
x + 2
sx - 2dsx + 2d
x2 - 4
The new function
y
2
ƒsxd =
x
(a)
5
4
Although ƒ(2) is not defined, if x Z 2 we have
1
2
3
4
x
(b)
x + 3
x + 2
is equal to ƒ(x) for x Z 2, but is continuous at x = 2, having there the value of 5&gt;4. Thus
F is the continuous extension of ƒ to x = 2, and
x2 + x - 6
5
= lim ƒsxd = .
4
x:2
x:2
x2 - 4
lim
FIGURE 2.60 (a) The graph of
ƒ(x) and (b) the graph of its
continuous extension F(x)
(Example 9).
The graph of ƒ is shown in Figure 2.60. The continuous extension F has the same graph
except with no hole at (2, 5&gt;4). Effectively, F is the function ƒ with its point of discontinuity at x = 2 removed.
Intermediate Value Theorem for Continuous Functions
Functions that are continuous on intervals have properties that make them particularly useful in mathematics and its applications. One of these is the Intermediate Value Property. A
function is said to have the Intermediate Value Property if whenever it takes on two values, it also takes on all the values in between.
THEOREM 11 The Intermediate Value Theorem for Continuous Functions
A function y = ƒsxd that is continuous on a closed interval [a, b] takes on every
value between ƒ(a) and ƒ(b). In other words, if y0 is any value between ƒ(a) and
ƒ(b), then y0 = ƒscd for some c in [a, b].
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2.6 Continuity
131
y
y f (x)
f (b)
y0
f (a)
0
a
c
b
x
Geometrically, the Intermediate Value Theorem says that any horizontal line y = y0
crossing the y-axis between the numbers ƒ(a) and ƒ(b) will cross the curve y = ƒsxd at
least once over the interval [a, b].
The proof of the Intermediate Value Theorem depends on the completeness property
of the real number system and can be found in more advanced texts.
The continuity of ƒ on the interval is essential to Theorem 11. If ƒ is discontinuous at
even one point of the interval, the theorem’s conclusion may fail, as it does for the function
graphed in Figure 2.61.
y
3
x
A Consequence for Graphing: Connectivity Theorem 11 is the reason the graph of a
function continuous on an interval cannot have any breaks over the interval. It will be
connected, a single, unbroken curve, like the graph of sin x. It will not have jumps like the
graph of the greatest integer function (Figure 2.54) or separate branches like the graph of
1&gt;x (Figure 2.56).
FIGURE 2.61 The function
2x - 2, 1 … x 6 2
ƒsxd = e
3,
2 … x … 4
does not take on all values between
ƒs1d = 0 and ƒs4d = 3 ; it misses all the
values between 2 and 3.
A Consequence for Root Finding We call a solution of the equation ƒsxd = 0 a root of
the equation or zero of the function ƒ. The Intermediate Value Theorem tells us that if ƒ is
continuous, then any interval on which ƒ changes sign contains a zero of the function.
In practical terms, when we see the graph of a continuous function cross the horizontal axis on a computer screen, we know it is not stepping across. There really is a point
where the function’s value is zero. This consequence leads to a procedure for estimating
the zeros of any continuous function we can graph:
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
1.
2.
Graph the function over a large interval to see roughly where the zeros are.
Zoom in on each zero to estimate its x-coordinate value.
You can practice this procedure on your graphing calculator or computer in some of
the exercises. Figure 2.62 shows a typical sequence of steps in a graphical solution of the
equation x 3 - x - 1 = 0.
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
5
1
1
–1
1.6
2
–2
–1
(a)
(b)
0.02
0.003
1.320
1.330
–0.02
1.3240
1.3248
–0.003
(c)
(d)
FIGURE 2.62 Zooming in on a zero of the function ƒsxd = x 3 - x - 1 . The zero is near
x = 1.3247 .
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
EXERCISES 2.6
Continuity from Graphs
Exercises 5–10 are about the function
In Exercises 1–4, say whether the function graphed is continuous on
[ -1, 3] . If not, where does it fail to be continuous and why?
1.
2.
y
y
y f (x)
–1
y g(x)
2
2
1
1
0
1
2
3
x
3.
–1
1
2
3
x
y h(x)
1
1
0
1
2
3
x
–1
0
x
x
1
x
x
6 0
6 1
6 2
6 3
y f (x)
(1, 2)
2
y 2x
y –2x 4
1
(1, 1)
y
2
…
6
=
6
6
y
4.
2
-1
0
x
1
2
graphed in the accompanying figure.
0
y
–1
x 2 - 1,
2x,
ƒsxd = e 1,
-2x + 4,
0,
y k(x)
–1
y x2 1
1
2
3
x
0
1
2
–1
The graph for Exercises 5–10.
3
x
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2.6 Continuity
133
5. a.
b.
c.
d.
Does ƒs -1d exist?
Does limx: -1+ ƒsxd exist?
Does limx:-1+ ƒsxd = ƒs - 1d ?
Is ƒ continuous at x = - 1 ?
33. lim cos a
6. a.
b.
c.
d.
Does ƒ(1) exist?
Does limx:1 ƒsxd exist?
Does limx:1 ƒsxd = ƒs1d ?
Continuous Extensions
Is ƒ continuous at x = 1 ?
36. Define h(2) in a way that extends hstd = st 2 + 3t - 10d&gt;st - 2d
to be continuous at t = 2 .
t: 0
34.
p
219 - 3 sec 2t
b
lim 2csc2 x + 513 tan x
x :p&gt;6
35. Define g(3) in a way that extends g sxd = sx 2 - 9d&gt;sx - 3d to
be continuous at x = 3 .
7. a. Is ƒ defined at x = 2 ? (Look at the definition of ƒ.)
b. Is ƒ continuous at x = 2 ?
8. At what values of x is ƒ continuous?
37. Define ƒ(1) in a way that extends ƒssd = ss 3 - 1d&gt;ss 2 - 1d to
be continuous at s = 1 .
9. What value should be assigned to ƒ(2) to make the extended function continuous at x = 2 ?
38. Define g (4) in a way that extends g sxd = sx 2 - 16d&gt;
sx 2 - 3x - 4d to be continuous at x = 4 .
10. To what new value should ƒ(1) be changed to remove the discontinuity?
39. For what value of a is
ƒsxd = e
Applying the Continuity Test
At which points do the functions in Exercises 11 and 12 fail to be continuous? At which points, if any, are the discontinuities removable?
11. Exercise 1, Section 2.4
1
- 3x
13. y =
x - 2
15. y =
1
+ 4
14. y =
sx + 2d2
x + 1
x 2 - 4x + 3
17. y = ƒ x - 1 ƒ + sin x
19. y =
cos x
x
16. y =
x + 3
x 2 - 3x - 10
18. y =
x2
1
2
ƒxƒ + 1
x + 2
20. y = cos x
px
2
x 6 3
x &Uacute; 3
continuous at every x?
40. For what value of b is
g sxd = e
12. Exercise 2, Section 2.4
At what points are the functions in Exercises 13–28 continuous?
x 2 - 1,
2ax,
x,
bx 2,
x 6 -2
x &Uacute; -2
continuous at every x?
T In Exercises 41–44, graph the function ƒ to see whether it appears to
have a continuous extension to the origin. If it does, use Trace and
Zoom to find a good candidate for the extended function’s value at
x = 0. If the function does not appear to have a continuous extension, can it be extended to be continuous at the origin from the right or
from the left? If so, what do you think the extended function’s value(s)
should be?
41. ƒsxd =
10 x - 1
x
42. ƒsxd =
10 ƒ x ƒ - 1
x
sin x
ƒxƒ
44. ƒsxd = s1 + 2xd1&gt;x
21. y = csc 2x
22. y = tan
x tan x
23. y = 2
x + 1
25. y = 22x + 3
2x 4 + 1
24. y =
1 + sin2 x
4
26. y = 23x - 1
43. ƒsxd =
27. y = s2x - 1d1&gt;3
28. y = s2 - xd1&gt;5
45. A continuous function y = ƒsxd is known to be negative at x = 0
and positive at x = 1 . Why does the equation ƒsxd = 0 have at
least one solution between x = 0 and x = 1 ? Illustrate with a
sketch.
Composite Functions
Find the limits in Exercises 29–34. Are the functions continuous at the
point being approached?
29. lim sin sx - sin xd
x:p
30. lim sin a
t:0
p
cos stan tdb
2
31. lim sec sy sec2 y - tan2 y - 1d
y:1
32. lim tan a
x:0
p
cos ssin x 1&gt;3 db
4
Theory and Examples
46. Explain why the equation cos x = x has at least one solution.
47. Roots of a cubic Show that the equation x 3 - 15x + 1 = 0 has
three solutions in the interval [- 4, 4] .
48. A function value Show that the function Fsxd = sx - ad2 #
sx - bd2 + x takes on the value sa + bd&gt;2 for some value of x.
49. Solving an equation If ƒsxd = x 3 - 8x + 10 , show that there
are values c for which ƒ(c) equals (a) p ; (b) - 23 ; (c)
5,000,000.
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
50. Explain why the following five statements ask for the same information.
a. Find the roots of ƒsxd = x 3 - 3x - 1 .
b. Find the x-coordinates of the points where the curve y = x 3
crosses the line y = 3x + 1 .
c. Find all the values of x for which x 3 - 3x = 1 .
d. Find the x-coordinates of the points where the cubic curve
y = x 3 - 3x crosses the line y = 1 .
e. Solve the equation x 3 - 3x - 1 = 0 .
51. Removable discontinuity Give an example of a function ƒ(x) that
is continuous for all values of x except x = 2 , where it has a removable discontinuity. Explain how you know that ƒ is discontinuous at x = 2 , and how you know the discontinuity is removable.
52. Nonremovable discontinuity Give an example of a function
g(x) that is continuous for all values of x except x = - 1 , where it
has a nonremovable discontinuity. Explain how you know that g is
discontinuous there and why the discontinuity is not removable.
58. Stretching a rubber band Is it true that if you stretch a rubber
band by moving one end to the right and the other to the left,
some point of the band will end up in its original position? Give
59. A fixed point theorem Suppose that a function ƒ is continuous
on the closed interval [0, 1] and that 0 … ƒsxd … 1 for every x in
[0, 1]. Show that there must exist a number c in [0, 1] such that
ƒscd = c (c is called a fixed point of ƒ).
60. The sign-preserving property of continuous functions Let ƒ
be defined on an interval (a, b) and suppose that ƒscd Z 0 at
some c where ƒ is continuous. Show that there is an interval
sc - d, c + dd about c where ƒ has the same sign as ƒ(c). Notice
how remarkable this conclusion is. Although ƒ is defined throughout (a, b), it is not required to be continuous at any point except c.
That and the condition ƒscd Z 0 are enough to make ƒ different
from zero (positive or negative) throughout an entire interval.
61. Prove that ƒ is continuous at c if and only if
lim ƒsc + hd = ƒscd .
h:0
53. A function discontinuous at every point
a. Use the fact that every nonempty interval of real numbers
contains both rational and irrational numbers to show that the
function
1, if x is rational
ƒsxd = e
0, if x is irrational
is discontinuous at every point.
62. Use Exercise 61 together with the identities
b. Is ƒ right-continuous or left-continuous at any point?
Solving Equations Graphically
54. If functions ƒ(x) and g(x) are continuous for 0 … x … 1 , could
ƒ(x)&gt;g (x) possibly be discontinuous at a point of [0, 1]? Give reasons for your answer.
55. If the product function hsxd = ƒsxd # g sxd is continuous at x = 0 ,
must ƒ(x) and g(x) be continuous at x = 0 ? Give reasons for your
56. Discontinuous composite of continuous functions Give an example of functions ƒ and g, both continuous at x = 0 , for which
the composite ƒ g is discontinuous at x = 0 . Does this contradict Theorem 10? Give reasons for your answer.
57. Never-zero continuous functions Is it true that a continuous
function that is never zero on an interval never changes sign on
sin sh + cd = sin h cos c + cos h sin c ,
cos sh + cd = cos h cos c - sin h sin c
to prove that ƒsxd = sin x and g sxd = cos x are continuous at
every point x = c .
T Use a graphing calculator or computer grapher to solve the equations
in Exercises 63–70.
63. x 3 - 3x - 1 = 0
64. 2x 3 - 2x 2 - 2x + 1 = 0
65. xsx - 1d2 = 1
sone rootd
66. x x = 2
67. 2x + 21 + x = 4
68. x 3 - 15x + 1 = 0
69. cos x = x
70. 2 sin x = x
sthree rootsd
sone rootd . Make sure you are using radian mode.
sthree rootsd . Make sure you are using radian mode.
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
2.7
Tangents and Derivatives
This section continues the discussion of secants and tangents begun in Section 2.1. We calculate limits of secant slopes to find tangents to curves.
What Is a Tangent to a Curve?
For circles, tangency is straightforward. A line L is tangent to a circle at a point P if L
passes through P perpendicular to the radius at P (Figure 2.63). Such a line just touches
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2.7 Tangents and Derivatives
the circle. But what does it mean to say that a line L is tangent to some other curve C at a
point P? Generalizing from the geometry of the circle, we might say that it means one of
the following:
P
L
1.
2.
3.
O
FIGURE 2.63 L is tangent to the
circle at P if it passes through P
L passes through P perpendicular to the line from P to the center of C.
L passes through only one point of C, namely P.
L passes through P and lies on one side of C only.
Although these statements are valid if C is a circle, none of them works consistently for
more general curves. Most curves do not have centers, and a line we may want to call tangent may intersect C at other points or cross C at the point of tangency (Figure 2.64).
L
L
C
L
C
C
P
P
P
L meets C only at P
but is not tangent to C.
L is tangent to C at P but
meets C at several points.
L is tangent to C at P but lies on
two sides of C, crossing C at P.
FIGURE 2.64 Exploding myths about tangent lines.
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
Pierre de Fermat
(1601–1665)
To define tangency for general curves, we need a dynamic approach that takes into account the behavior of the secants through P and nearby points Q as Q moves toward P
along the curve (Figure 2.65). It goes like this:
1.
2.
3.
We start with what we can calculate, namely the slope of the secant PQ.
Investigate the limit of the secant slope as Q approaches P along the curve.
If the limit exists, take it to be the slope of the curve at P and define the tangent to the
curve at P to be the line through P with this slope.
This approach is what we were doing in the falling-rock and fruit fly examples in Section
2.1.
Secants
Tangent
P
P
Q
Tangent
Secants
Q
FIGURE 2.65 The dynamic approach to tangency. The tangent to the curve at P is the line
through P whose slope is the limit of the secant slopes as Q : P from either side.
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
EXAMPLE 1
Tangent Line to a Parabola
Find the slope of the parabola y = x 2 at the point P(2, 4). Write an equation for the tangent to the parabola at this point.
We begin with a secant line through P(2, 4) and Qs2 + h, s2 + hd2 d nearby.
We then write an expression for the slope of the secant PQ and investigate what happens to
the slope as Q approaches P along the curve:
Solution
Secant slope =
&cent;y
s2 + hd2 - 22
h 2 + 4h + 4 - 4
=
=
h
h
&cent;x
=
h 2 + 4h
= h + 4.
h
If h 7 0, then Q lies above and to the right of P, as in Figure 2.66. If h 6 0, then Q lies to
the left of P (not shown). In either case, as Q approaches P along the curve, h approaches
zero and the secant slope approaches 4:
lim sh + 4d = 4.
h:0
We take 4 to be the parabola’s slope at P.
The tangent to the parabola at P is the line through P with slope 4:
y = 4 + 4sx - 2d
y = 4x - 4.
Point-slope equation
y
y x2
Secant slope is
(2 h) 2 4
h 4.
h
Q(2 h, (2 h) 2)
Tangent slope 4
∆y (2 h)2 4
P(2, 4)
∆x h
0
2
2h
x
NOT TO SCALE
FIGURE 2.66 Finding the slope of the parabola y = x 2 at the point P(2, 4) (Example 1).
Finding a Tangent to the Graph of a Function
The problem of finding a tangent to a curve was the dominant mathematical problem of
the early seventeenth century. In optics, the tangent determined the angle at which a ray of
light entered a curved lens. In mechanics, the tangent determined the direction of a body’s
motion at every point along its path. In geometry, the tangents to two curves at a point of
intersection determined the angles at which they intersected. To find a tangent to an arbitrary curve y = ƒsxd at a point Psx0 , ƒsx0 dd , we use the same dynamic procedure. We calculate the slope of the secant through P and a point Qsx0 + h, ƒsx0 + hdd . We then investigate the limit of the slope as h : 0 (Figure 2.67). If the limit exists, we call it the slope of
the curve at P and define the tangent at P to be the line through P having this slope.
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2.7 Tangents and Derivatives
137
y
DEFINITIONS
Slope, Tangent Line
The slope of the curve y = ƒsxd at the point Psx0 , ƒsx0 dd is the number
y f (x)
Q(x 0 h, f (x 0 h))
ƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 d
h
h:0
f (x 0 h) f (x 0)
m = lim
(provided the limit exists).
The tangent line to the curve at P is the line through P with this slope.
P(x 0, f(x 0))
h
0
x0
FIGURE 2.67
x0 h
The slope of the tangent
ƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 d
line at P is lim
.
h
h :0
x
Whenever we make a new definition, we try it on familiar objects to be sure it is consistent with results we expect in familiar cases. Example 2 shows that the new definition
of slope agrees with the old definition from Section 1.2 when we apply it to nonvertical
lines.
EXAMPLE 2
Testing the Definition
Show that the line y = mx + b is its own tangent at any point sx0, mx0 + bd.
Solution
1.
We let ƒsxd = mx + b and organize the work into three steps.
Find ƒsx0 d and ƒsx0 + hd .
ƒsx0 d = mx0 + b
ƒsx0 + hd = msx0 + hd + b = mx0 + mh + b
2.
Find the slope lim sƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 dd&gt;h.
h:0
ƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 d
smx0 + mh + bd - smx0 + bd
lim
= lim
h
h
h:0
h:0
= lim
h:0
3.
mh
= m
h
Find the tangent line using the point-slope equation. The tangent line at the point
sx0, mx0 + bd is
y = smx0 + bd + msx - x0 d
y = mx0 + b + mx - mx0
y = mx + b.
Let’s summarize the steps in Example 2.
Finding the Tangent to the Curve y ƒsxd at sx0 , y0 d
1. Calculate ƒsx0 d and ƒsx0 + hd .
2. Calculate the slope
ƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 d
.
m = lim
h
h:0
3. If the limit exists, find the tangent line as
y = y0 + msx - x0 d.
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
EXAMPLE 3
Slope and Tangent to y = 1&gt;x, x Z 0
(a) Find the slope of the curve y = 1&gt;x at x = a Z 0.
(b) Where does the slope equal - 1&gt;4?
(c) What happens to the tangent to the curve at the point (a, 1&gt;a) as a changes?
Solution
(a) Here ƒsxd = 1&gt;x. The slope at (a, 1&gt;a) is
1
1
- a
a + h
= lim
lim
h
h:0
h:0
h
1 a - sa + hd
= lim
h:0 h asa + hd
= lim
-h
hasa + hd
= lim
1
-1
= - 2.
asa + hd
a
h:0
h:0
Notice how we had to keep writing “limh:0” before each fraction until the stage
where we could evaluate the limit by substituting h = 0. The number a may be positive or negative, but not 0.
(b) The slope of y = 1&gt;x at the point where x = a is -1&gt;a 2 . It will be -1&gt;4 provided that
-
1
1
= - .
4
a2
This equation is equivalent to a 2 = 4, so a = 2 or a = - 2. The curve has slope
-1&gt;4 at the two points (2, 1&gt;2) and s - 2, -1&gt;2d (Figure 2.68).
(c) Notice that the slope -1&gt;a 2 is always negative if a Z 0. As a : 0 +, the slope approaches - q and the tangent becomes increasingly steep (Figure 2.69). We see this
situation again as a : 0 - . As a moves away from the origin in either direction, the
slope approaches 0 - and the tangent levels off.
y
y
y 1x
y 1x
slope is – 1
4
slope is – 12
a
2, 1 
 2
x
–2, – 1 

2
0
a
x
slope is – 1
4
FIGURE 2.68 The two tangent lines to
y = 1&gt;x having slope -1&gt;4 (Example 3).
FIGURE 2.69 The tangent slopes, steep
near the origin, become more gradual as
the point of tangency moves away.
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2.7 Tangents and Derivatives
139
Rates of Change: Derivative at a Point
The expression
ƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 d
h
is called the difference quotient of ƒ at x0 with increment h. If the difference quotient
has a limit as h approaches zero, that limit is called the derivative of ƒ at x0. If we interpret the difference quotient as a secant slope, the derivative gives the slope of the curve
and tangent at the point where x = x0 . If we interpret the difference quotient as an average
rate of change, as we did in Section 2.1, the derivative gives the function’s rate of change
with respect to x at the point x = x0 . The derivative is one of the two most important mathematical objects considered in calculus. We begin a thorough study of it in Chapter 3. The
other important object is the integral, and we initiate its study in Chapter 5.
EXAMPLE 4
Instantaneous Speed (Continuation of Section 2.1,
Examples 1 and 2)
In Examples 1 and 2 in Section 2.1, we studied the speed of a rock falling freely from rest
near the surface of the earth. We knew that the rock fell y = 16t 2 feet during the first t sec,
and we used a sequence of average rates over increasingly short intervals to estimate the
rock’s speed at the instant t = 1. Exactly what was the rock’s speed at this time?
We let ƒstd = 16t 2 . The average speed of the rock over the interval between
t = 1 and t = 1 + h seconds was
Solution
ƒs1 + hd - ƒs1d
16s1 + hd2 - 16s1d2
16sh 2 + 2hd
=
=
= 16sh + 2d.
h
h
h
The rock’s speed at the instant t = 1 was
lim 16sh + 2d = 16s0 + 2d = 32 ft&gt;sec.
h:0
Our original estimate of 32 ft &gt; sec was right.
Summary
We have been discussing slopes of curves, lines tangent to a curve, the rate of change of a
function, the limit of the difference quotient, and the derivative of a function at a point. All
of these ideas refer to the same thing, summarized here:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The slope of y = ƒsxd at x = x0
The slope of the tangent to the curve y = ƒsxd at x = x0
The rate of change of ƒ(x) with respect to x at x = x0
The derivative of ƒ at x = x0
ƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 d
The limit of the difference quotient, lim
h
h:0
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
EXERCISES 2.7
Slopes and Tangent Lines
In Exercises 19–22, find the slope of the curve at the point indicated.
In Exercises 1–4, use the grid and a straight edge to make a rough estimate of the slope of the curve (in y-units per x-unit) at the points P1
and P2 . Graphs can shift during a press run, so your estimates may be
somewhat different from those in the back of the book.
19. y = 5x 2,
y
1.
2.
2
y
P2
1
0
2
x
P1 –1
P1
0
x - 1
,
x + 1
x = 0
22. y =
Tangent Lines with Specified Slopes
24. g sxd = x 3 - 3x
26. Find an equation of the straight line having slope 1&gt;4 that is tangent to the curve y = 2x .
Rates of Change
x
1
x = 2
25. Find equations of all lines having slope - 1 that are tangent to the
curve y = 1&gt;sx - 1d .
1
–1
x = 3
23. ƒsxd = x 2 + 4x - 1
1
–2
1
,
x - 1
20. y = 1 - x 2,
At what points do the graphs of the functions in Exercises 23 and 24
have horizontal tangents?
P2
2
21. y =
x = -1
27. Object dropped from a tower An object is dropped from the
top of a 100-m-high tower. Its height above ground after t sec is
100 - 4.9t 2 m. How fast is it falling 2 sec after it is dropped?
–2
–1
28. Speed of a rocket At t sec after liftoff, the height of a rocket is
3t 2 ft. How fast is the rocket climbing 10 sec after liftoff?
3.
4.
y
y
29. Circle’s changing area What is the rate of change of the area of a circle sA = pr 2 d with respect to the radius when the radius is r = 3 ?
4
30. Ball’s changing volume What is the rate of change of the volume of a ball sV = s4&gt;3dpr 3 d with respect to the radius when the
radius is r = 2 ?
2
3
2
P2
P1
1
P2
P1
Testing for Tangents
1
0
1
2
x
–2
–1
0
31. Does the graph of
1
2
In Exercises 5–10, find an equation for the tangent to the curve at the
given point. Then sketch the curve and tangent together.
5. y = 4 - x 2,
7. y = 2 2x,
3
6. y = sx - 1d2 + 1,
s - 1, 3d
s1, 2d
8. y =
1
10. y = 3 ,
x
s -2, - 8d
9. y = x ,
1
,
x2
ƒsxd = e
x
32. Does the graph of
s1, 1d
g sxd = e
s - 1, 1d
1
a- 2, - b
8
x 2 sin s1&gt;xd, x Z 0
0,
x = 0
x sin s1&gt;xd, x Z 0
0,
x = 0
Vertical Tangents
In Exercises 11–18, find the slope of the function’s graph at the given
point. Then find an equation for the line tangent to the graph there.
We say that the curve y = ƒsxd has a vertical tangent at the point
where x = x0 if lim h:0 sƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 dd&gt;h = q or - q .
11. ƒsxd = x 2 + 1,
s2, 5d
12. ƒsxd = x - 2x 2,
Vertical tangent at x = 0 (see accompanying figure):
x
,
x - 2
s3, 3d
14. g sxd =
13. g sxd =
15. hstd = t 3,
s2, 8d
17. ƒsxd = 2x,
s4, 2d
s1, - 1d
8
, s2, 2d
x2
16. hstd = t 3 + 3t, s1, 4d
18. ƒsxd = 2x + 1,
s8, 3d
ƒs0 + hd - ƒs0d
h 1&gt;3 - 0
= lim
h
h
h:0
h:0
lim
= lim
h:0
1
= q
h 2&gt;3
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2.7 Tangents and Derivatives
141
34. Does the graph of
y
Usxd = e
y f (x) x 1兾3
x 6 0
x &Uacute; 0
have a vertical tangent at the point (0, 1)? Give reasons for your
x
0
0,
1,
T
a. Graph the curves in Exercises 35–44. Where do the graphs
appear to have vertical tangents?
b. Confirm your findings in part (a) with limit calculations. But
before you do, read the introduction to Exercises 33 and 34.
VERTICAL TANGENT AT ORIGIN
35. y = x 2&gt;5
36. y = x 4&gt;5
1&gt;5
38. y = x 3&gt;5
37. y = x
No vertical tangent at x = 0 (see next figure):
39. y = 4x 2&gt;5 - 2x
g s0 + hd - g s0d
h 2&gt;3 - 0
lim
= lim
h
h
h: 0
h :0
= lim
h :0
41. y = x
43. y = e
1
h
1&gt;3
does not exist, because the limit is q from the right and - q from
the left.
40. y = x 5&gt;3 - 5x 2&gt;3
1&gt;3
42. y = x 1&gt;3 + sx - 1d1&gt;3
- sx - 1d
- 2ƒ x ƒ , x … 0
2x,
x 7 0
44. y = 2 ƒ 4 - x ƒ
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
Graphing Secant and Tangent Lines
Use a CAS to perform the following steps for the functions in Exercises 45–48.
y
y g(x) 2&gt;3
x 2兾3
a. Plot y = ƒsxd over the interval sx0 - 1&gt;2d … x … sx0 + 3d .
b. Holding x0 fixed, the difference quotient
x
0
NO VERTICAL TANGENT AT ORIGIN
33. Does the graph of
- 1,
ƒsxd = • 0,
1,
x 6 0
x = 0
x 7 0
have a vertical tangent at the origin? Give reasons for your answer.
qshd =
ƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 d
h
at x0 becomes a function of the step size h. Enter this function
c. Find the limit of q as h : 0 .
d. Define the secant lines y = ƒsx0 d + q # sx - x0 d for h = 3, 2 ,
and 1. Graph them together with ƒ and the tangent line over the
interval in part (a).
5
45. ƒsxd = x 3 + 2x, x0 = 0 46. ƒsxd = x + x , x0 = 1
47. ƒsxd = x + sin s2xd, x0 = p&gt;2
48. ƒsxd = cos x + 4 sin s2xd,
x0 = p
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Chapter 2 Questions to Guide Your Review
Chapter 2
141
1. What is the average rate of change of the function g(t) over the interval from t = a to t = b ? How is it related to a secant line?
2. What limit must be calculated to find the rate of change of a function g(t) at t = t0 ?
3. What is an informal or intuitive definition of the limit
lim ƒsxd = L ?
x: x0
4. Does the existence and value of the limit of a function ƒ(x) as x
approaches x0 ever depend on what happens at x = x0 ? Explain
and give examples.
5. What function behaviors might occur for which the limit may fail
to exist? Give examples.
6. What theorems are available for calculating limits? Give examples of how the theorems are used.
Why is the definition “informal”? Give examples.
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
7. How are one-sided limits related to limits? How can this relationship sometimes be used to calculate a limit or prove it does not
exist? Give examples.
8. What is the value of lim u:0 sssin ud&gt;ud ? Does it matter whether u
is measured in degrees or radians? Explain.
9. What exactly does limx:x0 ƒsxd = L mean? Give an example in
which you find a d 7 0 for a given f, L, x0 , and P 7 0 in the precise definition of limit.
10. Give precise definitions of the following statements.
a. limx:2- ƒsxd = 5
c. limx:2 ƒsxd = q
b. limx:2+ ƒsxd = 5
d. limx:2 ƒsxd = - q
11. What exactly do limx: q ƒsxd = L and limx:- q ƒsxd = L mean?
Give examples.
12. What are limx:; q k (k a constant) and limx:; q s1&gt;xd ? How do
you extend these results to other functions? Give examples.
13. How do you find the limit of a rational function as x : ; q ?
Give examples.
14. What are horizontal, vertical, and oblique asymptotes? Give examples.
15. What conditions must be satisfied by a function if it is to be continuous at an interior point of its domain? At an endpoint?
16. How can looking at the graph of a function help you tell where
the function is continuous?
17. What does it mean for a function to be right-continuous at a
point? Left-continuous? How are continuity and one-sided continuity related?
18. What can be said about the continuity of polynomials? Of rational
functions? Of trigonometric functions? Of rational powers and al-
gebraic combinations of functions? Of composites of functions?
Of absolute values of functions?
19. Under what circumstances can you extend a function ƒ(x) to be
continuous at a point x = c ? Give an example.
20. What does it mean for a function to be continuous on an interval?
21. What does it mean for a function to be continuous? Give examples to illustrate the fact that a function that is not continuous on
its entire domain may still be continuous on selected intervals
within the domain.
22. What are the basic types of discontinuity? Give an example of
each. What is a removable discontinuity? Give an example.
23. What does it mean for a function to have the Intermediate Value
Property? What conditions guarantee that a function has this
property over an interval? What are the consequences for graphing and solving the equation ƒsxd = 0 ?
24. It is often said that a function is continuous if you can draw its
graph without having to lift your pen from the paper. Why is that?
25. What does it mean for a line to be tangent to a curve C at a point P?
26. What is the significance of the formula
lim
h:0
ƒsx + hd - ƒsxd
?
h
Interpret the formula geometrically and physically.
27. How do you find the tangent to the curve y = ƒsxd at a point
sx0, y0 d on the curve?
28. How does the slope of the curve y = ƒsxd at x = x0 relate to the
function’s rate of change with respect to x at x = x0 ? To the derivative of ƒ at x0 ?
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Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
Chapter 2
Practice Exercises
Limits and Continuity
2. Repeat the instructions of Exercise 1 for
0,
1&gt;x,
ƒsxd = d
0,
1,
1. Graph the function
1,
- x,
ƒsxd = e 1,
- x,
1,
x … -1
-1 6 x 6 0
x = 0
0 6 x 6 1
x &Uacute; 1.
Then discuss, in detail, limits, one-sided limits, continuity, and
one-sided continuity of ƒ at x = - 1, 0 , and 1. Are any of the discontinuities removable? Explain.
x
0
x
x
…
6
=
7
-1
ƒxƒ 6 1
1
1.
3. Suppose that ƒ(t) and g (t) are defined for all t and that limt:t0
ƒstd = - 7 and limt:t0 g std = 0 . Find the limit as t : t0 of the
following functions.
a. 3ƒ(t)
c. ƒstd # g std
e. cos (g (t))
g. ƒstd + g std
b. sƒstdd2
ƒstd
d.
g std - 7
f. ƒ ƒstd ƒ
h. 1&gt;ƒ(t)
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Chapter 2 Practice Exercises
4. Suppose that ƒ(x) and g (x) are defined for all x and that
limx:0 ƒsxd = 1&gt;2 and limx:0 g sxd = 22 . Find the limits as
x : 0 of the following functions.
a. -g sxd
b. g sxd # ƒsxd
c. ƒsxd + g sxd
d. 1&gt;ƒ(x)
ƒsxd # cos x
f.
x - 1
e. x + ƒsxd
In Exercises 5 and 6, find the value that limx:0 g sxd must have if the
given limit statements hold.
4 - g sxd
b = 1
5. lim a
6. lim ax lim g sxdb = 2
x
x: 0
x: -4
x :0
7. On what intervals are the following functions continuous?
a. ƒsxd = x 1&gt;3
b. g sxd = x 3&gt;4
c. hsxd = x -2&gt;3
d. ksxd = x -1&gt;6
8. On what intervals are the following functions continuous?
a. ƒsxd = tan x
b. g sxd = csc x
cos x
c. hsxd = x - p
d. ksxd =
sin x
x
Finding Limits
In Exercises 9–16, find the limit or explain why it does not exist.
x 2 - 4x + 4
x + 5x 2 - 14x
a. as x : 0
9. lim
b. as x : - 1
x2 - a2
x: a x 4 - a 4
sx + hd2 - x 2
14. lim
h
x: 0
12. lim
sx + hd2 - x 2
h
h:0
13. lim
1
1
2 + x
2
15. lim
x
x: 0
s2 + xd3 - 8
x
x: 0
16. lim
In Exercises 17–20, find the limit of g (x) as x approaches the indicated value.
17. lim+ s4g sxdd1&gt;3 = 2
x: 0
3x 2 + 1
= q
g sxd
18.
lim
x: 25
20. lim
x: -2
1
= 2
x + g sxd
5 - x2
2g sxd
= 0
x: q
x + sin x + 22x
x + sin x
2x + 3
5x + 7
30. lim
x: q
x 2&gt;3 + x -1
x 2&gt;3 + cos2 x
Continuous Extension
31. Can ƒsxd = xsx 2 - 1d&gt; ƒ x 2 - 1 ƒ be extended to be continuous at
x = 1 or -1 ? Give reasons for your answers. (Graph the function—you will find the graph interesting.)
32. Explain why the function ƒsxd = sin s1&gt;xd has no continuous extension to x = 0 .
T In Exercises 33–36, graph the function to see whether it appears to
have a continuous extension to the given point a. If it does, use Trace
and Zoom to find a good candidate for the extended function’s value
at a. If the function does not appear to have a continuous extension,
can it be extended to be continuous from the right or left? If so, what
do you think the extended function’s value should be?
x - 1
4
x - 2x
,
a = 1
34. g sud =
a = 0 36. k sxd =
5 cos u
,
4u - 2p
x
,
1 - 2ƒ x ƒ
a = p&gt;2
a = 0
Roots
T 37. Let ƒsxd = x 3 - x - 1 .
a. Show that ƒ has a zero between -1 and 2.
b. Solve the equation ƒsxd = 0 graphically with an error of
magnitude at most 10 -8 .
c. It can be shown that the exact value of the solution in part (b) is
269 1&gt;3
269 1&gt;3
1
1
+ a +
b
b
2
18
2
18
Evaluate this exact answer and compare it with the value you
found in part (b).
a
T 38. Let ƒsud = u3 - 2u + 2 .
a. Show that ƒ has a zero between -2 and 0.
b. Solve the equation ƒsud = 0 graphically with an error of
magnitude at most 10 -4 .
a
Find the limits in Exercises 21–30.
x: q
29. lim
x: q
c. It can be shown that the exact value of the solution in part (b) is
Limits at Infinity
21. lim
24. lim
x: -q
35. hstd = s1 + ƒ t ƒ d1&gt;t,
1 - 2x
x: 1 1 - x
x: 1
lim
33. ƒsxd =
b. as x : 2
5
11. lim
19. lim
1
x 2 - 7x + 1
x4 + x3
26. lim
x : q 12x 3 + 128
sIf you have a grapher, try graphing the function
sin x
27. lim
x : q :x ;
for -5 … x … 5.d
sIf you have a grapher, try graphing
cos u - 1
28. lim
ƒsxd = xscos s1&gt;xd - 1d near the origin to
u
u: q
“see” the limit at infinity.d
23.
3
x2 + x
x + 2x 4 + x 3
a. as x : 0
10. lim
x 2 - 4x + 8
3x 3
2
x - 7x
25. lim
x: -q x + 1
143
22.
lim
x: - q
2x 2 + 3
5x 2 + 7
1&gt;3
1&gt;3
19
19
- 1b
- a
+ 1b
A 27
A 27
Evaluate this exact answer and compare it with the value you
found in part (b).
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/23/04 6:55 AM Page 144
144
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
Chapter 2
T
1. Assigning a value to 00 The rules of exponents (see Appendix
9) tell us that a 0 = 1 if a is any number different from zero. They
also tell us that 0 n = 0 if n is any positive number.
If we tried to extend these rules to include the case 0 0 , we
would get conflicting results. The first rule would say 0 0 = 1 ,
whereas the second would say 0 0 = 0 .
We are not dealing with a question of right or wrong here.
Neither rule applies as it stands, so there is no contradiction. We
could, in fact, define 0 0 to have any value we wanted as long as
we could persuade others to agree.
What value would you like 0 0 to have? Here is an example
that might help you to decide. (See Exercise 2 below for another
example.)
a. Calculate x x for x = 0.1 , 0.01, 0.001, and so on as far as your
calculator can go. Record the values you get. What pattern do
you see?
x
b. Graph the function y = x for 0 6 x … 1 . Even though the
function is not defined for x … 0 , the graph will approach the
y-axis from the right. Toward what y-value does it seem to be
T
2. A reason you might want 00 to be something other than 0 or 1
As the number x increases through positive values, the numbers
1&gt;x and 1&gt; (ln x) both approach zero. What happens to the number
1
ƒsxd = a x b
1&gt;sln xd
as x increases? Here are two ways to find out.
a. Evaluate ƒ for x = 10 , 100, 1000, and so on as far as your
calculator can reasonably go. What pattern do you see?
b. Graph ƒ in a variety of graphing windows, including windows
that contain the origin. What do you see? Trace the y-values
along the graph. What do you find?
3. Lorentz contraction In relativity theory, the length of an object,
say a rocket, appears to an observer to depend on the speed at
which the object is traveling with respect to the observer. If the
observer measures the rocket’s length as L0 at rest, then at speed y
the length will appear to be
L = L0 1 -
B
x
Exit rate y ft 3兾min
Suppose that y = 2x&gt;2 for a certain tank. You are trying to
maintain a fairly constant exit rate by adding water to the tank
with a hose from time to time. How deep must you keep the water
if you want to maintain the exit rate
a. within 0.2 ft3&gt;min of the rate y0 = 1 ft3&gt;min ?
b. within 0.1 ft3&gt;min of the rate y0 = 1 ft3&gt;min ?
5. Thermal expansion in precise equipment As you may know,
most metals expand when heated and contract when cooled. The
dimensions of a piece of laboratory equipment are sometimes so
critical that the shop where the equipment is made must be held at
the same temperature as the laboratory where the equipment is to
be used. A typical aluminum bar that is 10 cm wide at 70&deg;F will be
y = 10 + st - 70d * 10 -4
centimeters wide at a nearby temperature t. Suppose that you are
using a bar like this in a gravity wave detector, where its width
must stay within 0.0005 cm of the ideal 10 cm. How close to
t0 = 70&deg;F must you maintain the temperature to ensure that this
tolerance is not exceeded?
6. Stripes on a measuring cup The interior of a typical 1-L measuring cup is a right circular cylinder of radius 6 cm (see accompanying figure). The volume of water we put in the cup is therefore a
function of the level h to which the cup is filled, the formula being
V = p62h = 36ph .
How closely must we measure h to measure out 1 L of water
s1000 cm3 d with an error of no more than 1% s10 cm3 d ?
y2
.
c2
This equation is the Lorentz contraction formula. Here, c is the
speed of light in a vacuum, about 3 * 10 8 m&gt;sec . What happens
to L as y increases? Find limy:c- L . Why was the left-hand limit
needed?
4. Controlling the flow from a draining tank Torricelli’s law says
that if you drain a tank like the one in the figure shown, the rate y
at which water runs out is a constant times the square root of the
water’s depth x. The constant depends on the size and shape of the
exit valve.
Stripes
1 mm
wide
(a)
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 145
18. The Dirichlet ruler function If x is a rational number, then x
can be written in a unique way as a quotient of integers m&gt;n
where n 7 0 and m and n have no common factors greater than 1.
(We say that such a fraction is in lowest terms. For example, 6&gt;4
written in lowest terms is 3&gt;2.) Let ƒ(x) be defined for all x in the
interval [0, 1] by
r 6 cm
Liquid volume
V 36h
h
145
ƒsxd = e
1&gt;n,
0,
if x = m&gt;n is a rational number in lowest terms
if x is irrational.
For instance, ƒs0d = ƒs1d = 1, ƒs1&gt;2d = 1&gt;2, ƒs1&gt;3d =
ƒs2&gt;3d = 1&gt;3, ƒs1&gt;4d = ƒs3&gt;4d = 1&gt;4 , and so on.
(b)
A 1-L measuring cup (a), modeled as a right circular cylinder (b) of
a. Show that ƒ is discontinuous at every rational number in [0, 1].
Precise Definition of Limit
b. Show that ƒ is continuous at every irrational number in [0, 1].
(Hint: If P is a given positive number, show that there are only
finitely many rational numbers r in [0, 1] such that ƒsrd &Uacute; P .)
In Exercises 7–10, use the formal definition of limit to prove that the
function is continuous at x0 .
c. Sketch the graph of ƒ. Why do you think ƒ is called the “ruler
function”?
7. ƒsxd = x 2 - 7,
8. g sxd = 1&gt;s2xd,
x0 = 1
9. hsxd = 22x - 3,
x0 = 1&gt;4
x0 = 2 10. Fsxd = 29 - x,
x0 = 5
19. Antipodal points Is there any reason to believe that there is always a pair of antipodal (diametrically opposite) points on Earth’s
equator where the temperatures are the same? Explain.
11. Uniqueness of limits Show that a function cannot have two different limits at the same point. That is, if limx:x0 ƒsxd = L1 and
limx:x0 ƒsxd = L2 , then L1 = L2 .
20. If lim sƒsxd + g sxdd = 3 and lim sƒsxd - g sxdd = - 1 , find
12. Prove the limit Constant Multiple Rule:
lim kƒsxd = k lim ƒsxd
for any constant k .
21. Roots of a quadratic equation that is almost linear The equation ax 2 + 2x - 1 = 0 , where a is a constant, has two roots if
a 7 - 1 and a Z 0 , one positive and one negative:
x: c
x:c
13. One-sided limits If limx:0+ ƒsxd = A and limx:0- ƒsxd = B ,
find
3
3
a. limx:0+ ƒsx - xd
b. limx:0- ƒsx - xd
c. limx:0+ ƒsx 2 - x 4 d
d. limx:0- ƒsx 2 - x 4 d
x :c
lim ƒsxdg sxd .
x :c
x :c
- 1 + 21 + a
,
a
-1 - 21 + a
.
a
a. What happens to r+sad as a : 0 ? As a : - 1+ ?
14. Limits and continuity Which of the following statements are
true, and which are false? If true, say why; if false, give a counterexample (that is, an example confirming the falsehood).
b. What happens to r-sad as a : 0 ? As a : -1+ ?
a. If limx:a ƒsxd exists but limx:a g sxd does not exist, then
limx:asƒsxd + g sxdd does not exist.
d. For added support, graph ƒsxd = ax 2 + 2x - 1
simultaneously for a = 1, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, and 0.05.
functions of a. Describe what you see.
b. If neither limx:a ƒsxd nor limx:a g sxd exists, then
limx:a sƒsxd + g sxdd does not exist.
22. Root of an equation Show that the equation x + 2 cos x = 0
has at least one solution.
c. If ƒ is continuous at x, then so is ƒ ƒ ƒ .
23. Bounded functions A real-valued function ƒ is bounded from
above on a set D if there exists a number N such that ƒsxd … N
for all x in D. We call N, when it exists, an upper bound for ƒ on
D and say that ƒ is bounded from above by N. In a similar manner,
we say that ƒ is bounded from below on D if there exists a
number M such that ƒsxd &Uacute; M for all x in D. We call M, when it
exists, a lower bound for ƒ on D and say that ƒ is bounded from
below by M. We say that ƒ is bounded on D if it is bounded from
both above and below.
d. If ƒ ƒ ƒ is continuous at a, then so is ƒ.
In Exercises 15 and 16, use the formal definition of limit to prove that
the function has a continuous extension to the given value of x.
15. ƒsxd =
x2 - 1
,
x + 1
x = -1
16. g sxd =
x 2 - 2x - 3
,
2x - 6
x = 3
17. A function continuous at only one point Let
ƒsxd = e
x, if x is rational
0, if x is irrational.
a. Show that ƒ is continuous at x = 0 .
b. Use the fact that every nonempty open interval of real
numbers contains both rational and irrational numbers to
show that ƒ is not continuous at any nonzero value of x.
a. Show that ƒ is bounded on D if and only if there exists a number B such that ƒ ƒsxd ƒ … B for all x in D.
b. Suppose that ƒ is bounded from above by N. Show that if
limx:x0 ƒsxd = L , then L … N .
c. Suppose that ƒ is bounded from below by M. Show that if
limx:x0 ƒsxd = L , then L &Uacute; M .
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146
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
24. Max 5a, b6 and min 5a, b6
sin x 2
sin x 2
x2
lim x = 1 # 0 = 0 .
= lim
x
2
x :0
x :0 x
x :0
b. lim
a. Show that the expression
ƒa - bƒ
a + b
max 5a, b6 =
+
2
2
equals a if a &Uacute; b and equals b if b &Uacute; a . In other words,
max {a, b} gives the larger of the two numbers a and b.
b. Find a similar expression for min 5a, b6 , the smaller of a and b.
Generalized Limits Involving
sin U
U
The formula limu:0 ssin ud&gt;u = 1 can be generalized. If limx:c
ƒsxd = 0 and ƒ(x) is never zero in an open interval containing the
point x = c , except possibly c itself, then
sin ƒsxd
lim
= 1.
x: c ƒsxd
Here are several examples.
sin x 2
= 1.
x: 0 x 2
a. lim
sin sx 2 - x - 2d
sin sx 2 - x - 2d
= lim
x + 1
x : -1
x : -1 sx 2 - x - 2d
c. lim
#
sx 2 - x - 2d
sx + 1dsx - 2d
= 1 # lim
= -3.
x + 1
x + 1
x : -1
x : -1
lim
d. lim
sin A 1 - 2x B
x - 1
x :1
1 # lim
x :1
sin A 1 - 2x B 1 - 2x
=
x - 1
x :1
1 - 2x
= lim
A 1 - 2x B A 1 + 2x B
sx - 1d A 1 + 2x B
= lim
x :1
Find the limits in Exercises 25–30.
25. lim
sin s1 - cos xd
x
27. lim
sin ssin xd
x
x :0
x :0
sin sx 2 - 4d
x - 2
x :2
29. lim
1 - x
sx - 1d A 1 + 2x B
26. lim+
sin x
sin 2x
sin sx 2 + xd
28. lim
x
x :0
x :0
30. lim
sin A 2x - 3 B
x :9
x - 9
1
=- .
2
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146
Chapter 2: Limits and Continuity
Chapter 2
Technology Application Projects
Mathematica-Maple Module
Take It to the Limit
Part I
Part II (Zero Raised to the Power Zero: What Does it Mean?)
Part III (One-Sided Limits)
Visualize and interpret the limit concept through graphical and numerical explorations.
Part IV (What a Difference a Power Makes)
See how sensitive limits can be with various powers of x.
Mathematica-Maple Module
Going to Infinity
Part I (Exploring Function Behavior as x : q or x : - q )
This module provides four examples to explore the behavior of a function as x : q or x : - q .
Part II (Rates of Growth)
Observe graphs that appear to be continuous, yet the function is not continuous. Several issues of continuity are explored to obtain results that you
may find surprising.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:16 AM Page 147
Chapter
3
DIFFERENTIATION
OVERVIEW In Chapter 2, we defined the slope of a curve at a point as the limit of secant
slopes. This limit, called a derivative, measures the rate at which a function changes, and it
is one of the most important ideas in calculus. Derivatives are used to calculate velocity
and acceleration, to estimate the rate of spread of a disease, to set levels of production so
as to maximize efficiency, to find the best dimensions of a cylindrical can, to find the age
of a prehistoric artifact, and for many other applications. In this chapter, we develop techniques to calculate derivatives easily and learn how to use derivatives to approximate complicated functions.
3.1
The Derivative as a Function
At the end of Chapter 2, we defined the slope of a curve y = ƒsxd at the point where
x = x0 to be
HISTORICAL ESSAY
lim
The Derivative
h:0
ƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 d
.
h
We called this limit, when it existed, the derivative of ƒ at x0 . We now investigate the
derivative as a function derived from ƒ by considering the limit at each point of the domain of ƒ.
DEFINITION
Derivative Function
The derivative of the function ƒ(x) with respect to the variable x is the function
ƒ&iquest; whose value at x is
ƒsx + hd - ƒsxd
,
h
h:0
ƒ&iquest;sxd = lim
provided the limit exists.
147
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148
Chapter 3: Differentiation
y f (x)
Secant slope is
f (z) f (x)
zx
Q(z, f (z))
f (z) f (x)
P(x, f(x))
We use the notation ƒ(x) rather than simply ƒ in the definition to emphasize the independent variable x, which we are differentiating with respect to. The domain of ƒ&iquest; is the set
of points in the domain of ƒ for which the limit exists, and the domain may be the same or
smaller than the domain of ƒ. If ƒ&iquest; exists at a particular x, we say that ƒ is differentiable
(has a derivative) at x. If ƒ&iquest; exists at every point in the domain of ƒ, we call ƒ differentiable.
If we write z = x + h, then h = z - x and h approaches 0 if and only if z approaches
x. Therefore, an equivalent definition of the derivative is as follows (see Figure 3.1).
hzx
x
z
Alternative Formula for the Derivative
Derivative of f at x is
f(x h) f (x)
f '(x) lim
h
h→0
lim
z→x
ƒ&iquest;sxd = lim
f (z) f (x)
zx
z:x
FIGURE 3.1 The way we write the
difference quotient for the derivative of a
function ƒ depends on how we label the
points involved.
ƒszd - ƒsxd
z - x .
Calculating Derivatives from the Definition
The process of calculating a derivative is called differentiation. To emphasize the idea
that differentiation is an operation performed on a function y = ƒsxd, we use the notation
d
ƒsxd
dx
as another way to denote the derivative ƒ&iquest;sxd . Examples 2 and 3 of Section 2.7 illustrate
the differentiation process for the functions y = mx + b and y = 1&gt;x. Example 2 shows
that
d
smx + bd = m.
dx
For instance,
3
d 3
a x - 4b = .
2
dx 2
In Example 3, we see that
d 1
1
a b = - 2.
dx x
x
Here are two more examples.
EXAMPLE 1
Applying the Definition
Differentiate ƒsxd =
Solution
x
.
x - 1
Here we have ƒsxd =
x
x - 1
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:16 AM Page 149
3.1 The Derivative as a Function
149
and
sx + hd
, so
sx + hd - 1
ƒsx + hd - ƒsxd
ƒ&iquest;sxd = lim
h
h:0
ƒsx + hd =
= lim
x
x + h
x - 1
x + h - 1
h
sx
+
hdsx
- 1d - xsx + h - 1d
1
= lim #
sx + h - 1dsx - 1d
h:0 h
h:0
= lim
-h
1 #
h sx + h - 1dsx - 1d
= lim
-1
-1
=
.
sx + h - 1dsx - 1d
sx - 1d2
h:0
h:0
EXAMPLE 2
c
a
- =
b
d
bd
Derivative of the Square Root Function
(a) Find the derivative of y = 1x for x 7 0.
(b) Find the tangent line to the curve y = 1x at x = 4.
Solution
You will often need to know the
derivative of 1x for x 7 0 :
(a) We use the equivalent form to calculate ƒ&iquest; :
ƒszd - ƒsxd
z - x
z:x
d
1
1x =
.
dx
2 1x
ƒ&iquest;sxd = lim
= lim
z:x
= lim
z:x
= lim
y
z:x
y 1x1
4
(4, 2)
1z - 1x
A 1z - 1x B A 1z + 1x B
1
1
=
.
1z + 1x
21x
(b) The slope of the curve at x = 4 is
ƒ&iquest;s4d =
y 兹x
1
0
1z - 1x
z - x
1
1
= .
4
224
The tangent is the line through the point (4, 2) with slope 1&gt;4 (Figure 3.2):
4
x
FIGURE 3.2 The curve y = 1x and its
tangent at (4, 2). The tangent’s slope is
found by evaluating the derivative at x = 4
(Example 2).
y = 2 +
y =
1
sx - 4d
4
1
x + 1.
4
We consider the derivative of y = 1x when x = 0 in Example 6.
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150
Chapter 3: Differentiation
Notations
There are many ways to denote the derivative of a function y = ƒsxd, where the independent variable is x and the dependent variable is y. Some common alternative notations for
the derivative are
ƒ&iquest;sxd = y&iquest; =
dƒ
dy
d
=
=
ƒsxd = Dsƒdsxd = Dx ƒsxd.
dx
dx
dx
The symbols d&gt;dx and D indicate the operation of differentiation and are called
differentiation operators. We read dy&gt;dx as “the derivative of y with respect to x,” and
dƒ&gt;dx and (d&gt;dx)ƒ(x) as “the derivative of ƒ with respect to x.” The “prime” notations y&iquest;
and ƒ&iquest; come from notations that Newton used for derivatives. The d&gt;dx notations are similar to those used by Leibniz. The symbol dy&gt;dx should not be regarded as a ratio (until we
introduce the idea of “differentials” in Section 3.8).
Be careful not to confuse the notation D(ƒ) as meaning the domain of the function ƒ
instead of the derivative function ƒ&iquest; . The distinction should be clear from the context.
To indicate the value of a derivative at a specified number x = a, we use the notation
dy
df
d
`
=
`
=
ƒsxd `
.
dx x = a
dx x = a
dx
x=a
For instance, in Example 2b we could write
ƒ&iquest;s4d =
d
1
1
1
1x `
=
`
=
= .
4
dx
21x
x=4
x=4
224
To evaluate an expression, we sometimes use the right bracket ] in place of the vertical bar ƒ .
Graphing the Derivative
We can often make a reasonable plot of the derivative of y = ƒsxd by estimating the slopes
on the graph of ƒ. That is, we plot the points sx, ƒ&iquest;sxdd in the xy-plane and connect them
with a smooth curve, which represents y = ƒ&iquest;sxd .
EXAMPLE 3
Graphing a Derivative
Graph the derivative of the function y = ƒsxd in Figure 3.3a.
We sketch the tangents to the graph of ƒ at frequent intervals and use their
slopes to estimate the values of ƒ&iquest;sxd at these points. We plot the corresponding sx, ƒ&iquest;sxdd
pairs and connect them with a smooth curve as sketched in Figure 3.3b.
Solution
What can we learn from the graph of y = ƒ&iquest;sxd? At a glance we can see
1.
2.
3.
where the rate of change of ƒ is positive, negative, or zero;
the rough size of the growth rate at any x and its size in relation to the size of ƒ(x);
where the rate of change itself is increasing or decreasing.
Here’s another example.
EXAMPLE 4
Concentration of Blood Sugar
On April 23, 1988, the human-powered airplane Daedalus flew a record-breaking 119 km
from Crete to the island of Santorini in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece. Dur-
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151
3.1 The Derivative as a Function
y
Slope 0
y f (x)
A
Slope –1
10
B
Slope – 4
3
C
E
D
5





Slope 0

Slope 8 2 y-units/x-unit

4


 8 y-units




0
4 x-units
10
15
(a)
5
x
Slope
4
y f '(x)
3
E'
2
1
A'
D'
–1
–2
5
C'
10
15
x
B'
Vertical coordinate –1
(b)
FIGURE 3.3 We made the graph of y = ƒ&iquest;sxd in (b) by plotting slopes from the
graph of y = ƒsxd in (a). The vertical coordinate of B&iquest; is the slope at B and so on. The
graph of ƒ&iquest; is a visual record of how the slope of ƒ changes with x.
ing the 6-hour endurance tests before the flight, researchers monitored the prospective pilots’
blood-sugar concentrations. The concentration graph for one of the athlete-pilots is shown in
Figure 3.4a, where the concentration in milligrams&gt; deciliter is plotted against time in hours.
The graph consists of line segments connecting data points. The constant slope of
each segment gives an estimate of the derivative of the concentration between measurements. We calculated the slope of each segment from the coordinate grid and plotted the
derivative as a step function in Figure 3.4b. To make the plot for the first hour, for instance, we observed that the concentration increased from about 79 mg&gt; dL to 93 mg&gt; dL.
The net increase was &cent;y = 93 - 79 = 14 mg&gt;dL. Dividing this by &cent;t = 1 hour gave
the rate of change as
&cent;y
14
=
= 14 mg&gt;dL per hour.
1
&cent;t
Notice that we can make no estimate of the concentration’s rate of change at times
t = 1, 2, &Aacute; , 5, where the graph we have drawn for the concentration has a corner and no
slope. The derivative step function is not defined at these times.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
Athens
110
a
ge
Ae
GREECE
TURKEY
nS
ea
Concentration, mg/dL
y
100
90
SANTORINI
80
RHODES
0
1
2
4
3
Time (h)
5
Sea of Crete
t
6
(a)
Heraklion
Mediterranean
Sea
0
50
CRETE
100
150
km
Daedalus's flight path on April 23, 1988
15
10
▼
Rate of change of concentration,
mg/dL
h
y'
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
t
FIGURE 3.4 (a) Graph of the sugar concentration in the blood of a Daedalus pilot
during a 6-hour preflight endurance test. (b) The derivative of the pilot’s blood-sugar
concentration shows how rapidly the concentration rose and fell during various portions
of the test.
–5
Differentiable on an Interval; One-Sided Derivatives
–10
Time (h)
A function y = ƒsxd is differentiable on an open interval (finite or infinite) if it has a derivative at each point of the interval. It is differentiable on a closed interval [a, b] if it is
differentiable on the interior (a, b) and if the limits
(b)
lim
h
Right-hand derivative at a
lim
ƒsb + hd - ƒsbd
h
Left-hand derivative at b
h:0 +
h:0 -
Slope f(a h) f(a)
lim h
h→0
exist at the endpoints (Figure 3.5).
Right-hand and left-hand derivatives may be defined at any point of a function’s domain. The usual relation between one-sided and two-sided limits holds for these derivatives.
Because of Theorem 6, Section 2.4, a function has a derivative at a point if and only if it
has left-hand and right-hand derivatives there, and these one-sided derivatives are equal.
Slope f (b h) f (b)
lim
h
h→0
EXAMPLE 5
Show that the function y = ƒ x ƒ is differentiable on s - q , 0d and s0, q d but has no derivative at x = 0.
y f (x)
Solution
a
ah
h0
y = ƒ x ƒ Is Not Differentiable at the Origin
bh
h0
b
To the right of the origin,
d
d
d
s x d =
sxd =
s1 # xd = 1.
dx ƒ ƒ
dx
dx
x
d
smx + bd = m, ƒ x ƒ = x
dx
To the left,
FIGURE 3.5 Derivatives at endpoints are
one-sided limits.
d
d
d
s x d =
s - xd =
s - 1 # xd = - 1
dx ƒ ƒ
dx
dx
ƒ x ƒ = -x
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3.1 The Derivative as a Function
(Figure 3.6). There can be no derivative at the origin because the one-sided derivatives differ there:
y
y x
y' –1
ƒ0 + hƒ - ƒ0ƒ
ƒhƒ
= lim+
h
h:0
h:0 h
h
= lim+
ƒ h ƒ = h when h 7 0.
h:0 h
= lim+1 = 1
Right-hand derivative of ƒ x ƒ at zero = lim+
y' 1
0
153
x
y' not defined at x 0:
right-hand derivative
left-hand derivative
h:0
ƒ0 + hƒ - ƒ0ƒ
ƒhƒ
= limh
h:0
h:0 h
-h
= limƒ h ƒ = - h when h 6 0.
h:0 h
= lim- - 1 = - 1.
Left-hand derivative of ƒ x ƒ at zero = lim-
FIGURE 3.6 The function y = ƒ x ƒ is
not differentiable at the origin where
the graph has a “corner.”
h:0
EXAMPLE 6
y = 1x Is Not Differentiable at x = 0
In Example 2 we found that for x 7 0,
d
1
1x =
.
dx
21x
We apply the definition to examine if the derivative exists at x = 0:
lim
h:0 +
20 + h - 20
1
= lim+
= q.
h
h:0 1h
Since the (right-hand) limit is not finite, there is no derivative at x = 0. Since the slopes
of the secant lines joining the origin to the points A h, 1h B on a graph of y = 1x approach q , the graph has a vertical tangent at the origin.
When Does a Function Not Have a Derivative at a Point?
A function has a derivative at a point x0 if the slopes of the secant lines through
Psx0, ƒsx0 dd and a nearby point Q on the graph approach a limit as Q approaches P. Whenever the secants fail to take up a limiting position or become vertical as Q approaches P,
the derivative does not exist. Thus differentiability is a “smoothness” condition on the
graph of ƒ. A function whose graph is otherwise smooth will fail to have a derivative at a
point for several reasons, such as at points where the graph has
1.
a corner, where the one-sided
derivatives differ.
2. a cusp, where the slope of PQ
approaches q from one side and - q
from the other.
P
P
Q
Q
Q
Q
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154
Chapter 3: Differentiation
3.
a vertical tangent, where the slope of PQ approaches q from both sides or
approaches - q from both sides (here, - q ).
Q
P
Q
4.
a discontinuity.
P
P
Q
Q
Q
Q
Differentiable Functions Are Continuous
A function is continuous at every point where it has a derivative.
THEOREM 1
Differentiability Implies Continuity
If ƒ has a derivative at x = c, then ƒ is continuous at x = c .
Proof Given that ƒ&iquest;scd exists, we must show that limx:c ƒsxd = ƒscd, or equivalently,
that limh:0 ƒsc + hd = ƒscd. If h Z 0, then
ƒsc + hd = ƒscd + sƒsc + hd - ƒscdd
ƒsc + hd - ƒscd
# h.
= ƒscd +
h
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3.1 The Derivative as a Function
155
Now take limits as h : 0. By Theorem 1 of Section 2.2,
ƒsc + hd - ƒscd
h
h:0
lim ƒsc + hd = lim ƒscd + lim
h:0
h:0
# lim h
h:0
= ƒscd + ƒ&iquest;scd # 0
= ƒscd + 0
= ƒscd.
Similar arguments with one-sided limits show that if ƒ has a derivative from one side
(right or left) at x = c then ƒ is continuous from that side at x = c.
Theorem 1 on page 154 says that if a function has a discontinuity at a point (for instance, a jump discontinuity), then it cannot be differentiable there. The greatest integer
function y = :x; = int x fails to be differentiable at every integer x = n (Example 4,
Section 2.6).
CAUTION The converse of Theorem 1 is false. A function need not have a derivative at a
point where it is continuous, as we saw in Example 5.
y
1
The Intermediate Value Property of Derivatives
y U(x)
Not every function can be some function’s derivative, as we see from the following theorem.
x
0
FIGURE 3.7 The unit step
function does not have the
Intermediate Value Property and
cannot be the derivative of a
function on the real line.
THEOREM 2
If a and b are any two points in an interval on which ƒ is differentiable, then ƒ&iquest;
takes on every value between ƒ&iquest;sad and ƒ&iquest;sbd.
Theorem 2 (which we will not prove) says that a function cannot be a derivative on an interval unless it has the Intermediate Value Property there. For example, the unit step function in Figure 3.7 cannot be the derivative of any real-valued function on the real line. In
Chapter 5 we will see that every continuous function is a derivative of some function.
In Section 4.4, we invoke Theorem 2 to analyze what happens at a point on the graph
of a twice-differentiable function where it changes its “bending” behavior.
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3.1 The Derivative as a Function
EXERCISES 3.1
1 - z
;
2z
Finding Derivative Functions and Values
4. k szd =
Using the definition, calculate the derivatives of the functions in Exercises 1–6. Then find the values of the derivatives as specified.
5. psud = 23u ;
1. ƒsxd = 4 - x 2;
ƒ&iquest;s - 3d, ƒ&iquest;s0d, ƒ&iquest;s1d
2
2. Fsxd = sx - 1d + 1;
3. g std =
1
;
t2
F&iquest;s - 1d, F&iquest;s0d, F&iquest;s2d
g&iquest;s - 1d, g&iquest;s2d, g&iquest; A 23 B
k&iquest;s -1d, k&iquest;s1d, k&iquest; A 22 B
p&iquest;s1d, p&iquest;s3d, p&iquest;s2&gt;3d
6. r ssd = 22s + 1 ;
r&iquest;s0d, r&iquest;s1d, r&iquest;s1&gt;2d
In Exercises 7–12, find the indicated derivatives.
dy
s3
dr
if y = 2x 3
if r =
+ 1
7.
8.
2
dx
ds
155
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156
Chapter 3: Differentiation
9.
ds
dt
if
s =
10.
dy
dt
if
1
y = t - t
11.
dp
dq
if
p =
dz
12.
dw
if
z =
Graphs
t
2t + 1
Match the functions graphed in Exercises 27–30 with the derivatives
graphed in the accompanying figures (a)–(d).
y'
2q + 1
1
23w - 2
2
15. s = t - t ,
(b)
y'
y'
x = 2
x
0
x
0
t = -1
16. y = sx + 1d3,
x = -2
In Exercises 17–18, differentiate the functions. Then find an equation
of the tangent line at the indicated point on the graph of the function.
17. y = ƒsxd =
(a)
x = -3
1
,
2 + x
3
x
0
In Exercises 13–16, differentiate the functions and find the slope of
the tangent line at the given value of the independent variable.
9
13. ƒsxd = x + x ,
x
0
Slopes and Tangent Lines
14. k sxd =
y'
1
8
2x - 2
,
(d)
(c)
27.
28.
y
y
sx, yd = s6, 4d
18. w = g szd = 1 + 24 - z,
In Exercises 19–22, find the values of the derivatives.
19.
ds
`
dt t = -1
20.
dy
`
dx x = 23
21.
dr
`
du u = 0
if
r =
22.
dw
`
dz z = 4
if
w = z + 1z
y f 2 (x)
y f1(x)
sz, wd = s3, 2d
x
0
x
0
s = 1 - 3t 2
if
1
y = 1 - x
if
29.
30.
y
y
y f3(x)
2
y f4(x)
24 - u
Using the Alternative Formula for Derivatives
Use the formula
ƒ&iquest;sxd = lim
z: x
x
0
ƒszd - ƒsxd
z - x
x
0
31. a. The graph in the accompanying figure is made of line segments joined end to end. At which points of the interval
[- 4, 6] is ƒ&iquest; not defined? Give reasons for your answer.
y
to find the derivative of the functions in Exercises 23–26.
23. ƒsxd =
1
x + 2
24. ƒsxd =
1
sx - 1d2
25. g sxd =
x
x - 1
(6, 2)
(0, 2)
y f(x)
(– 4, 0)
0
1
(1, –2)
26. g sxd = 1 + 1x
6
(4, –2)
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:16 AM Page 157
3.1 The Derivative as a Function
b. Graph the derivative of ƒ.
The graph should show a step function.
157
p
350
32. Recovering a function from its derivative
300
a. Use the following information to graph the function ƒ over
the closed interval [- 2, 5] .
250
i) The graph of ƒ is made of closed line segments joined
end to end.
ii) The graph starts at the point s -2, 3d .
iii) The derivative of ƒ is the step function in the figure
shown here.
200
150
100
50
y'
0
20
10
y' f '(x)
30
40
50
t
Time (days)
1
–2
0
1
3
b. During what days does the population seem to be increasing
fastest? Slowest?
x
5
One-Sided Derivatives
–2
Compare the right-hand and left-hand derivatives to show that the
functions in Exercises 35–38 are not differentiable at the point P.
b. Repeat part (a) assuming that the graph starts at s - 2, 0d
instead of s - 2, 3d .
33. Growth in the economy The graph in the accompanying figure
shows the average annual percentage change y = ƒstd in the U.S.
gross national product (GNP) for the years 1983–1988. Graph
dy&gt;dt (where defined). (Source: Statistical Abstracts of the United
States, 110th Edition, U.S. Department of Commerce, p. 427.)
35.
36.
y
y f (x)
yx
y2 2
37.
0
38.
y
3
1
1985
1986
1987
1988
34. Fruit flies (Continuation of Example 3, Section 2.1.) Populations starting out in closed environments grow slowly at first,
when there are relatively few members, then more rapidly as the
number of reproducing individuals increases and resources are
still abundant, then slowly again as the population reaches the
carrying capacity of the environment.
a. Use the graphical technique of Example 3 to graph the
derivative of the fruit fly population introduced in Section 2.1.
The graph of the population is reproduced here.
1
0
x
y f (x)
P(1, 1)
y 2x 1
1984
2
y
y f (x)
2
1
0
1983
P(1, 2)
1
x
P(0, 0)
6
4
y 2x
y f (x)
2
yx
7%
5
y
P(1, 1)
y 兹x
1
1
x
yx
1
y 1x
x
Differentiability and Continuity on an Interval
Each figure in Exercises 39–44 shows the graph of a function over a
closed interval D. At what domain points does the function appear to be
a. differentiable?
b. continuous but not differentiable?
c. neither continuous nor differentiable?
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
39.
40.
y
y
y f (x)
D: –3 ⱕ x ⱕ 2
2
2
1
1
–3
–2
–1
0 1
2
x
–2
–1
0
–1
–1
–2
–2
41.
y f (x)
D: –2 ⱕ x ⱕ 3
1
2
3
x
42.
y
y
y f (x)
D: –3 ⱕ x ⱕ 3
y f (x)
D: –2 ⱕ x ⱕ 3
3
1
–3 –2 –1 0
–1
1
2
3
2
x
1
–2
–2
43.
–1
1
0
3
x
44.
b. Show that
y
y
y f (x)
D: –1 ⱕ x ⱕ 2
4
0
y f (x)
D: –3 ⱕ x ⱕ 3
2
1
–1
2
1
2
x
51. Tangent to a parabola Does the parabola y = 2x 2 - 13x + 5
have a tangent whose slope is -1 ? If so, find an equation for the
line and the point of tangency. If not, why not?
52. Tangent to y 1x Does any tangent to the curve y = 1x
cross the x-axis at x = - 1 ? If so, find an equation for the line
and the point of tangency. If not, why not?
53. Greatest integer in x Does any function differentiable on
s - q , q d have y = int x , the greatest integer in x (see Figure
54. Derivative of y ƒ x ƒ Graph the derivative of ƒsxd = ƒ x ƒ . Then
graph y = s ƒ x ƒ - 0d&gt;sx - 0d = ƒ x ƒ &gt;x . What can you conclude?
55. Derivative of ƒ Does knowing that a function ƒ(x) is differentiable at x = x0 tell you anything about the differentiability of the
function -ƒ at x = x0 ? Give reasons for your answer.
56. Derivative of multiples Does knowing that a function g(t) is
differentiable at t = 7 tell you anything about the differentiability
of the function 3g at t = 7 ? Give reasons for your answer.
57. Limit of a quotient Suppose that functions g(t) and h(t) are
defined for all values of t and g s0d = hs0d = 0 . Can
limt:0 sg stdd&gt;shstdd exist? If it does exist, must it equal zero?
58. a. Let ƒ(x) be a function satisfying ƒ ƒsxd ƒ … x 2 for - 1 … x … 1 .
Show that ƒ is differentiable at x = 0 and find ƒ&iquest;s0d .
–3 –2 –1 0
1 2
3
x
ƒsxd = L
1
x 2 sin x ,
x Z 0
0,
x = 0
is differentiable at x = 0 and find ƒ&iquest;s0d .
T 59. Graph y = 1&gt; A 21x B in a window that has 0 … x … 2 . Then, on
the same screen, graph
y =
for h = 1, 0.5, 0.1 . Then try h = - 1, - 0.5, -0.1 . Explain what
is going on.
Theory and Examples
In Exercises 45–48,
a. Find the derivative ƒ&iquest;sxd of the given function y = ƒsxd .
b. Graph y = ƒsxd and y = ƒ&iquest;sxd side by side using separate sets of
coordinate axes, and answer the following questions.
c. For what values of x, if any, is ƒ&iquest; positive? Zero? Negative?
d. Over what intervals of x-values, if any, does the function
y = ƒsxd increase as x increases? Decrease as x increases? How
is this related to what you found in part (c)? (We will say more
45. y = - x 2
47. y = x 3&gt;3
1x + h - 1x
h
46. y = - 1&gt;x
48. y = x 4&gt;4
49. Does the curve y = x 3 ever have a negative slope? If so, where?
50. Does the curve y = 21x have any horizontal tangents? If so,
T 60. Graph y = 3x 2 in a window that has - 2 … x … 2, 0 … y … 3 .
Then, on the same screen, graph
y =
sx + hd3 - x 3
h
for h = 2, 1, 0.2 . Then try h = - 2, -1, - 0.2 . Explain what is
going on.
T 61. Weierstrass’s nowhere differentiable continuous function
The sum of the first eight terms of the Weierstrass function
ƒ(x) = g nq= 0 s2&gt;3dn cos s9npxd is
g sxd = cos spxd + s2&gt;3d1 cos s9pxd + s2&gt;3d2 cos s92pxd
+ s2&gt;3d3 cos s93pxd + &Aacute; + s2&gt;3d7 cos s97pxd .
Graph this sum. Zoom in several times. How wiggly and bumpy
is this graph? Specify a viewing window in which the displayed
portion of the graph is smooth.
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3.1 The Derivative as a Function
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
Use a CAS to perform the following steps for the functions in Exercises 62–67.
a. Plot y = ƒsxd to see that function’s global behavior.
b. Define the difference quotient q at a general point x, with general
step size h.
c. Take the limit as h : 0 . What formula does this give?
d. Substitute the value x = x0 and plot the function y = ƒsxd
together with its tangent line at that point.
159
f. Graph the formula obtained in part (c). What does it mean when
its values are negative? Zero? Positive? Does this make sense
62. ƒsxd = x 3 + x 2 - x,
63. ƒsxd = x
1&gt;3
+ x
2&gt;3
,
x0 = 1
x0 = 1
4x
, x0 = 2
x2 + 1
66. ƒsxd = sin 2x, x0 = p&gt;2
64. ƒsxd =
x - 1
, x0 = - 1
3x 2 + 1
67. ƒsxd = x 2 cos x, x0 = p&gt;4
65. ƒsxd =
e. Substitute various values for x larger and smaller than x0 into the
formula obtained in part (c). Do the numbers make sense with
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3.2 Differentiation Rules
159
Differentiation Rules
3.2
This section introduces a few rules that allow us to differentiate a great variety of functions. By proving these rules here, we can differentiate functions without having to apply
the definition of the derivative each time.
Powers, Multiples, Sums, and Differences
The first rule of differentiation is that the derivative of every constant function is zero.
RULE 1
Derivative of a Constant Function
If ƒ has the constant value ƒsxd = c, then
dƒ
d
=
scd = 0.
dx
dx
EXAMPLE 1
If ƒ has the constant value ƒsxd = 8, then
y
c
(x h, c)
(x, c)
df
d
=
s8d = 0.
dx
dx
yc
Similarly,
h
0
x
xh
FIGURE 3.8 The rule sd&gt;dxdscd = 0 is
another way to say that the values of
constant functions never change and that
the slope of a horizontal line is zero at
every point.
x
d
p
a- b = 0
2
dx
and
d
a23b = 0.
dx
Proof of Rule 1 We apply the definition of derivative to ƒsxd = c, the function whose
outputs have the constant value c (Figure 3.8). At every value of x, we find that
ƒsx + hd - ƒsxd
c - c
= lim
= lim 0 = 0.
h
h
h:0
h:0
h:0
ƒ&iquest;sxd = lim
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160
Chapter 3: Differentiation
The second rule tells how to differentiate x n if n is a positive integer.
RULE 2
Power Rule for Positive Integers
If n is a positive integer, then
d n
x = nx n - 1 .
dx
To apply the Power Rule, we subtract 1 from the original exponent (n) and multiply
the result by n.
EXAMPLE 2
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
Richard Courant
(1888–1972)
Interpreting Rule 2
ƒ
x
x2
x3
x4
&Aacute;
ƒ&iquest;
1
2x
3x 2
4x 3
&Aacute;
First Proof of Rule 2
The formula
z n - x n = sz - xdsz n - 1 + z n - 2 x + &Aacute; + zx n - 2 + x n - 1 d
can be verified by multiplying out the right-hand side. Then from the alternative form for
the definition of the derivative,
ƒszd - ƒsxd
zn - xn
= lim z - x
z
x
z:x
z:x
ƒ&iquest;sxd = lim
= lim sz n - 1 + z n - 2x + &Aacute; + zx n - 2 + x n - 1 d
z:x
= nx n - 1
Second Proof of Rule 2 If ƒsxd = x n , then ƒsx + hd = sx + hdn . Since n is a positive
integer, we can expand sx + hdn by the Binomial Theorem to get
ƒsx + hd - ƒsxd
sx + hdn - x n
= lim
h
h
h:0
h:0
ƒ&iquest;sxd = lim
= lim
cx n + nx n - 1h +
h:0
nx n - 1h +
= lim
h:0
= lim cnx n - 1 +
h:0
nsn - 1d n - 2 2 &Aacute;
x h +
+ nxh n - 1 + h n d - x n
2
h
nsn - 1d n - 2 2 &Aacute;
x h +
+ nxh n - 1 + h n
2
h
nsn - 1d n - 2
x h + &Aacute; + nxh n - 2 + h n - 1 d
2
= nx n - 1
The third rule says that when a differentiable function is multiplied by a constant, its
derivative is multiplied by the same constant.
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3.2 Differentiation Rules
161
RULE 3
Constant Multiple Rule
If u is a differentiable function of x, and c is a constant, then
d
du
scud = c .
dx
dx
In particular, if n is a positive integer, then
y
y 3x 2
3
d
scx n d = cnx n - 1 .
dx
Slope 3(2x)
6x
Slope 6(1) 6
(1, 3)
EXAMPLE 3
(a) The derivative formula
d
s3x 2 d = 3 # 2x = 6x
dx
y x2
2
1
0
Slope 2x
Slope 2(1) 2
(1, 1)
1
2
says that if we rescale the graph of y = x 2 by multiplying each y-coordinate by 3,
then we multiply the slope at each point by 3 (Figure 3.9).
(b) A useful special case
The derivative of the negative of a differentiable function u is the negative of the function’s derivative. Rule 3 with c = - 1 gives
d
d
d
du
s - ud =
s - 1 # ud = - 1 #
sud = - .
dx
dx
dx
dx
x
FIGURE 3.9 The graphs of y = x 2 and
y = 3x 2 . Tripling the y-coordinates triples
the slope (Example 3).
Proof of Rule 3
cusx + hd - cusxd
d
cu = lim
dx
h
h:0
usx + hd - usxd
h
h:0
= c lim
= c
du
dx
Derivative definition
with ƒsxd = cusxd
Limit property
u is differentiable.
The next rule says that the derivative of the sum of two differentiable functions is the
sum of their derivatives.
Denoting Functions by u and Y
The functions we are working with
when we need a differentiation formula
are likely to be denoted by letters like ƒ
and g. When we apply the formula, we
do not want to find it using these same
letters in some other way. To guard
against this problem, we denote the
functions in differentiation rules by
letters like u and y that are not likely to
RULE 4
Derivative Sum Rule
If u and y are differentiable functions of x, then their sum u + y is differentiable
at every point where u and y are both differentiable. At such points,
dy
d
du
+
.
su + yd =
dx
dx
dx
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162
Chapter 3: Differentiation
EXAMPLE 4
Derivative of a Sum
y = x 4 + 12x
dy
d 4
d
=
sx d +
s12xd
dx
dx
dx
= 4x 3 + 12
Proof of Rule 4
We apply the definition of derivative to ƒsxd = usxd + ysxd:
[usx + hd + ysx + hd] - [usxd + ysxd]
d
[usxd + ysxd] = lim
dx
h
h:0
= lim c
h:0
ysx + hd - ysxd
usx + hd - usxd
+
d
h
h
usx + hd - usxd
ysx + hd - ysxd
du
dy
+ lim
=
+
.
h
h
dx
dx
h:0
h:0
= lim
Combining the Sum Rule with the Constant Multiple Rule gives the Difference Rule,
which says that the derivative of a difference of differentiable functions is the difference of
their derivatives.
du
dy
d
dy
d
du
+ s - 1d
=
su - yd =
[u + s - 1dy] =
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
The Sum Rule also extends to sums of more than two functions, as long as there are
only finitely many functions in the sum. If u1 , u2 , &Aacute; , un are differentiable at x, then so is
u1 + u2 + &Aacute; + un , and
dun
du2
du1
d
+
+ &Aacute; +
.
su + u2 + &Aacute; + un d =
dx 1
dx
dx
dx
EXAMPLE 5
Derivative of a Polynomial
y = x3 +
4 2
x - 5x + 1
3
dy
d 3
d 4 2
d
d
=
x +
a x b s5xd +
s1d
dx
dx
dx 3
dx
dx
= 3x 2 +
4#
2x - 5 + 0
3
= 3x 2 +
8
x - 5
3
Notice that we can differentiate any polynomial term by term, the way we differentiated the polynomial in Example 5. All polynomials are differentiable everywhere.
Proof of the Sum Rule for Sums of More Than Two Functions
We prove the statement
dun
du2
du1
d
+
+ &Aacute; +
su + u2 + &Aacute; + un d =
dx 1
dx
dx
dx
by mathematical induction (see Appendix 1). The statement is true for n = 2, as was just
proved. This is Step 1 of the induction proof.
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3.2 Differentiation Rules
163
Step 2 is to show that if the statement is true for any positive integer n = k, where
k &Uacute; n0 = 2, then it is also true for n = k + 1. So suppose that
duk
du2
du1
d
+
+ &Aacute; +
.
su + u2 + &Aacute; + uk d =
dx 1
dx
dx
dx
(1)
Then
d
(u1 + u2 + &Aacute; + uk + uk + 1)
dx (++++)++++*
()*
Call the function
defined by this sum u.
Call this
function y.
=
duk + 1
d
su + u2 + &Aacute; + uk d +
dx 1
dx
Rule 4 for
=
duk
duk + 1
du2
du1
+
+ &Aacute; +
+
.
dx
dx
dx
dx
Eq. (1)
d
su + yd
dx
With these steps verified, the mathematical induction principle now guarantees the
Sum Rule for every integer n &Uacute; 2.
EXAMPLE 6
y
Finding Horizontal Tangents
Does the curve y = x 4 - 2x 2 + 2 have any horizontal tangents? If so, where?
y ⫽ x 4 ⫺ 2x 2 ⫹ 2
Solution
The horizontal tangents, if any, occur where the slope dy&gt;dx is zero. We have,
dy
d 4
=
sx - 2x 2 + 2d = 4x 3 - 4x.
dx
dx
(0, 2)
(–1, 1)
–1
1
0
Now solve the equation
(1, 1)
1
dy
= 0 for x:
dx
4x 3 - 4x = 0
4xsx 2 - 1d = 0
x = 0, 1, -1.
x
FIGURE 3.10 The curve
y = x 4 - 2x 2 + 2 and its horizontal
tangents (Example 6).
The curve y = x 4 - 2x 2 + 2 has horizontal tangents at x = 0, 1, and -1. The corresponding points on the curve are (0, 2), (1, 1) and s - 1, 1d. See Figure 3.10.
Products and Quotients
While the derivative of the sum of two functions is the sum of their derivatives, the derivative of the product of two functions is not the product of their derivatives. For instance,
d 2
d
sx # xd =
sx d = 2x,
dx
dx
while
d
d
sxd #
sxd = 1 # 1 = 1.
dx
dx
The derivative of a product of two functions is the sum of two products, as we now explain.
RULE 5
Derivative Product Rule
If u and y are differentiable at x, then so is their product uy, and
d
dy
du
+ y .
suyd = u
dx
dx
dx
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
Picturing the Product Rule
If u(x) and y(x) are positive and
increase when x increases, and if h 7 0 ,
The derivative of the product uy is u times the derivative of y plus y times the derivative of u. In prime notation, suyd&iquest; = uy&iquest; + yu&iquest; . In function notation,
d
[ƒsxdg sxd] = ƒsxdg&iquest;sxd + gsxdƒ&iquest;sxd.
dx
y(x h)
y
u(x) y
u y
u(x)y(x)
y(x) u
y(x)
EXAMPLE 7
Using the Product Rule
Find the derivative of
0
u(x)
u
u(x h) Solution
then the total shaded area in the picture
is
usx + hdysx + hd - usxdysxd
= usx + hd &cent;y + ysx + hd
&cent;u - &cent;u&cent;y .
Dividing both sides of this equation by
h gives
usx + hdysx + hd - usxdysxd
h
&cent;u
&cent;y
+ ysx + hd
= usx + hd
h
h
&cent;y
- &cent;u
.
h
As h : 0 + ,
&cent;u #
dy
&cent;y
:0#
= 0,
h
dx
leaving
1
1
y = x ax 2 + x b .
We apply the Product Rule with u = 1&gt;x and y = x 2 + s1&gt;xd:
d
dy
du
+ y , and
suyd = u
dx
dx
dx
d 1
1
a x b = - 2 by
dx
x
Example 3, Section 2.7.
d 1 2
1
1
1
1
1
c ax + x b d = x a2x - 2 b + ax 2 + x b a- 2 b
dx x
x
x
= 2 -
1
1
- 1 - 3
x3
x
= 1 -
2
.
x3
Proof of Rule 5
usx + hdysx + hd - usxdysxd
d
suyd = lim
dx
h
h:0
To change this fraction into an equivalent one that contains difference quotients for the derivatives of u and y, we subtract and add usx + hdysxd in the numerator:
usx + hdysx + hd - usx + hdysxd + usx + hdysxd - usxdysxd
d
suyd = lim
dx
h
h:0
= lim cusx + hd
d
dy
du
suyd = u
+ y .
dx
dx
dx
h:0
ysx + hd - ysxd
usx + hd - usxd
+ ysxd
d
h
h
= lim usx + hd # lim
h:0
h:0
ysx + hd - ysxd
usx + hd - usxd
+ ysxd # lim
.
h
h
h:0
As h approaches zero, usx + hd approaches u(x) because u, being differentiable at x, is continuous at x. The two fractions approach the values of dy&gt;dx at x and du&gt;dx at x. In short,
d
dy
du
+ y .
suyd = u
dx
dx
dx
In the following example, we have only numerical values with which to work.
EXAMPLE 8
Derivative from Numerical Values
Let y = uy be the product of the functions u and y. Find y&iquest;s2d if
us2d = 3,
Solution
u&iquest;s2d = - 4,
ys2d = 1,
and
y&iquest;s2d = 2.
From the Product Rule, in the form
y&iquest; = suyd&iquest; = uy&iquest; + yu&iquest; ,
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3.2 Differentiation Rules
165
we have
y&iquest;s2d = us2dy&iquest;s2d + ys2du&iquest;s2d
= s3ds2d + s1ds -4d = 6 - 4 = 2.
EXAMPLE 9
Differentiating a Product in Two Ways
Find the derivative of y = sx 2 + 1dsx 3 + 3d .
Solution
(a) From the Product Rule with u = x 2 + 1 and y = x 3 + 3, we find
d
dx
C A x 2 + 1 B A x 3 + 3 B D = sx 2 + 1ds3x 2 d + sx 3 + 3ds2xd
= 3x 4 + 3x 2 + 2x 4 + 6x
= 5x 4 + 3x 2 + 6x.
(b) This particular product can be differentiated as well (perhaps better) by multiplying
out the original expression for y and differentiating the resulting polynomial:
y = sx 2 + 1dsx 3 + 3d = x 5 + x 3 + 3x 2 + 3
dy
= 5x 4 + 3x 2 + 6x.
dx
This is in agreement with our first calculation.
Just as the derivative of the product of two differentiable functions is not the product of
their derivatives, the derivative of the quotient of two functions is not the quotient of their
derivatives. What happens instead is the Quotient Rule.
RULE 6
Derivative Quotient Rule
If u and y are differentiable at x and if ysxd Z 0, then the quotient u&gt;y is differentiable at x, and
d u
a b =
dx y
y
du
dy
- u
dx
dx
.
2
y
In function notation,
gsxdƒ&iquest;sxd - ƒsxdg&iquest;sxd
d ƒsxd
c
.
d =
dx gsxd
g 2sxd
EXAMPLE 10
Using the Quotient Rule
Find the derivative of
y =
t2 - 1
.
t2 + 1
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
Solution
We apply the Quotient Rule with u = t 2 - 1 and y = t 2 + 1:
dy
st 2 + 1d # 2t - st 2 - 1d # 2t
=
dt
st 2 + 1d2
=
2t 3 + 2t - 2t 3 + 2t
st 2 + 1d2
=
4t
.
st 2 + 1d2
ysdu&gt;dtd - usdy&gt;dtd
d u
a b =
dt y
y2
Proof of Rule 6
usxd
usx + hd
ysx
+
hd
ysxd
d u
a b = lim
dx y
h
h:0
ysxdusx + hd - usxdysx + hd
hysx + hdysxd
h:0
= lim
To change the last fraction into an equivalent one that contains the difference quotients for
the derivatives of u and y, we subtract and add y(x)u(x) in the numerator. We then get
ysxdusx + hd - ysxdusxd + ysxdusxd - usxdysx + hd
d u
a b = lim
dx y
hysx + hdysxd
h:0
ysxd
= lim
h:0
usx + hd - usxd
ysx + hd - ysxd
- usxd
h
h
.
ysx + hdysxd
Taking the limit in the numerator and denominator now gives the Quotient Rule.
Negative Integer Powers of x
The Power Rule for negative integers is the same as the rule for positive integers.
RULE 7
Power Rule for Negative Integers
If n is a negative integer and x Z 0, then
d n
sx d = nx n - 1 .
dx
EXAMPLE 11
(a)
d -1
d 1
1
a b =
sx d = s -1dx -2 = - 2
dx x
dx
x
(b)
d 4
d
12
a b = 4 sx -3 d = 4s - 3dx -4 = - 4
dx x 3
dx
x
Agrees with Example 3, Section 2.7
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3.2 Differentiation Rules
167
Proof of Rule 7 The proof uses the Quotient Rule. If n is a negative integer, then
n = - m, where m is a positive integer. Hence, x n = x -m = 1&gt;x m , and
d n
d 1
sx d =
a b
dx
dx x m
xm #
y
=
0 - mx m - 1
x 2m
= - mx -m - 1
= nx n - 1 .
y x 2x
=
4
3
Quotient Rule with u = 1 and y = x m
Since m 7 0,
d m
sx d = mx m - 1
dx
Since -m = n
(1, 3)
EXAMPLE 12
2
1
2
3
Tangent to a Curve
Find an equation for the tangent to the curve
y –x 4
1
0
d
d
A 1 B - 1 # dx A x m B
dx
sx m d2
2
y = x + x
x
at the point (1, 3) (Figure 3.11).
FIGURE 3.11 The tangent to the curve
y = x + s2&gt;xd at (1, 3) in Example 12.
The curve has a third-quadrant portion
not shown here. We see how to graph
functions like this one in Chapter 4.
Solution
The slope of the curve is
dy
d
d 1
1
2
=
sxd + 2
a b = 1 + 2 a- 2 b = 1 - 2 .
dx
dx
dx x
x
x
The slope at x = 1 is
dy
2
`
= c1 - 2 d
= 1 - 2 = - 1.
dx x = 1
x x=1
The line through (1, 3) with slope m = - 1 is
y - 3 = s - 1dsx - 1d
y = -x + 1 + 3
y = - x + 4.
Point-slope equation
The choice of which rules to use in solving a differentiation problem can make a difference in how much work you have to do. Here is an example.
EXAMPLE 13
Choosing Which Rule to Use
Rather than using the Quotient Rule to find the derivative of
y =
sx - 1dsx 2 - 2xd
,
x4
expand the numerator and divide by x 4 :
y =
sx - 1dsx 2 - 2xd
x 3 - 3x 2 + 2x
=
= x -1 - 3x -2 + 2x -3 .
4
x
x4
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
Then use the Sum and Power Rules:
dy
= - x -2 - 3s -2dx -3 + 2s -3dx -4
dx
6
6
1
= - 2 + 3 - 4.
x
x
x
Second- and Higher-Order Derivatives
If y = ƒsxd is a differentiable function, then its derivative ƒ&iquest;sxd is also a function. If ƒ&iquest; is
also differentiable, then we can differentiate ƒ&iquest; to get a new function of x denoted by ƒ– .
So ƒ– = sƒ&iquest;d&iquest; . The function ƒ– is called the second derivative of ƒ because it is the derivative of the first derivative. Notationally,
ƒ–sxd =
d 2y
dx
2
=
dy&iquest;
d dy
= y– = D 2sƒdsxd = D x2 ƒsxd.
a b =
dx dx
dx
The symbol D 2 means the operation of differentiation is performed twice.
If y = x 6 , then y&iquest; = 6x 5 and we have
y– =
How to Read the Symbols for
Derivatives
“y prime”
y&iquest;
“y double prime”
y–
d 2y
“d squared y dx squared”
dx 2
y‡ “y triple prime”
y snd “y super n”
d ny
“d to the n of y by dx to the n”
dx n
n
D
“D to the n”
dy&iquest;
d
=
A 6x 5 B = 30x 4 .
dx
dx
Thus D 2 A x 6 B = 30x 4 .
If y– is differentiable, its derivative, y‡ = dy–&gt;dx = d 3y&gt;dx 3 is the third derivative
of y with respect to x. The names continue as you imagine, with
y snd =
d ny
d sn - 1d
y
=
= D ny
dx
dx n
denoting the nth derivative of y with respect to x for any positive integer n.
We can interpret the second derivative as the rate of change of the slope of the tangent
to the graph of y = ƒsxd at each point. You will see in the next chapter that the second derivative reveals whether the graph bends upward or downward from the tangent line as we
move off the point of tangency. In the next section, we interpret both the second and third
derivatives in terms of motion along a straight line.
EXAMPLE 14
Finding Higher Derivatives
The first four derivatives of y = x 3 - 3x 2 + 2 are
First derivative:
Second derivative:
Third derivative:
Fourth derivative:
y&iquest; = 3x 2 - 6x
y– = 6x - 6
y‡ = 6
y s4d = 0.
The function has derivatives of all orders, the fifth and later derivatives all being zero.
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3.2 Differentiation Rules
169
EXERCISES 3.2
Derivative Calculations
In Exercises 1–12, find the first and second derivatives.
1. y = - x 2 + 3
3
3. s = 5t - 3t
4. w = 3z 7 - 7z 3 + 21z 2
3
4x
- x
3
6. y =
1
7. w = 3z -2 - z
2
5
1
11. r = 2 2s
3s
x
x
x
+
+
3
2
4
4
t2
10. y = 4 - 2x - x -3
12
1
4
- 3 + 4
12. r =
u
u
u
In Exercises 13–16, find y&iquest; (a) by applying the Product Rule and
(b) by multiplying the factors to produce a sum of simpler terms to
differentiate.
3
1
1
1
15. y = sx 2 + 1d ax + 5 + x b 16. y = ax + x b ax - x + 1b
Find the derivatives of the functions in Exercises 17–28.
2x + 5
3x - 2
19. g sxd =
18. z =
x2 - 4
x + 0.5
1s - 1
1s + 1
t2 - 1
t + t - 2
22. w = s2x - 7d-1sx + 5d
24. u =
1 + x - 4 1x
25. y =
x
2
5x + 1
2 1x
26. r = 2 a
1
+ 2ub
2u
sx + 1dsx + 2d
1
27. y = 2
28. y =
2
sx - 1dsx - 2d
sx - 1dsx + x + 1d
Find the derivatives of all orders of the functions in Exercises 29 and
30.
29. y =
3
x4
- x2 - x
2
2
30. y =
x5
120
33. r =
x3 + 7
x
32. s =
su - 1dsu 2 + u + 1d
35. w = a
us0d = 5,
u3
1 + 3z
bs3 - zd
3z
34. u =
ys0d = - 1,
u&iquest;s0d = - 3,
y&iquest;s0d = 2 .
Find the values of the following derivatives at x = 0 .
a.
d
suyd
dx
b.
d u
a b
dx y
c.
d y
a b
dx u
d.
d
s7y - 2ud
dx
40. Suppose u and y are differentiable functions of x and that
us1d = 2,
ys1d = 5,
u&iquest;s1d = 0,
y&iquest;s1d = - 1 .
Find the values of the following derivatives at x = 1 .
a.
d
suyd
dx
b.
d u
a b
dx y
c.
d y
a b
dx u
d.
d
s7y - 2ud
dx
Slopes and Tangents
b. Smallest slope What is the smallest slope on the curve? At
what point on the curve does the curve have this slope?
c. Tangents having specified slope Find equations for the
tangents to the curve at the points where the slope of the
curve is 8.
42. a. Horizontal tangents Find equations for the horizontal tangents to the curve y = x 3 - 3x - 2 . Also find equations for
the lines that are perpendicular to these tangents at the points
of tangency.
b. Smallest slope What is the smallest slope on the curve? At
what point on the curve does the curve have this slope? Find
an equation for the line that is perpendicular to the curve’s
tangent at this point.
43. Find the tangents to Newton’s serpentine (graphed here) at the origin and the point (1, 2).
Find the first and second derivatives of the functions in Exercises
31–38.
31. y =
sq - 1d3 + sq + 1d3
41. a. Normal to a curve Find an equation for the line perpendicular
to the tangent to the curve y = x 3 - 4x + 1 at the point (2, 1).
2x + 1
x2 - 1
20. ƒstd =
21. y = s1 - tds1 + t 2 d-1
23. ƒssd =
q2 + 3
39. Suppose u and y are functions of x that are differentiable at x = 0
and that
2
13. y = s3 - x dsx - x + 1d 14. y = sx - 1dsx + x + 1d
17. y =
38. p =
Using Numerical Values
8. s = - 2t -1 +
9. y = 6x 2 - 10x - 5x -2
2
q2 + 3 q4 - 1
b
ba
12q
q3
2. y = x 2 + x + 8
5
3
5. y =
37. p = a
t 2 + 5t - 1
t2
sx 2 + xdsx 2 - x + 1d
x4
y
y 24x
x 1
(1, 2)
2
1
0
1 2 3 4
36. w = sz + 1dsz - 1dsz 2 + 1d
x
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170
Chapter 3: Differentiation
44. Find the tangent to the Witch of Agnesi (graphed here) at the point
(2, 1).
51. Suppose that the function y in the Product Rule has a constant
value c. What does the Product Rule then say? What does this say
y
y
2
1
0
8
x2 4
52. The Reciprocal Rule
(2, 1)
1 2 3
how to find the amount of medicine to which the body is most
sensitive.
x
45. Quadratic tangent to identity function The curve y =
ax 2 + bx + c passes through the point (1, 2) and is tangent to the
line y = x at the origin. Find a, b, and c.
46. Quadratics having a common tangent The curves y =
x 2 + ax + b and y = cx - x 2 have a common tangent line at
the point (1, 0). Find a, b, and c.
47. a. Find an equation for the line that is tangent to the curve
y = x 3 - x at the point s - 1, 0d .
a. The Reciprocal Rule says that at any point where the function
y(x) is differentiable and different from zero,
d 1
1 dy
a b = - 2
.
dx y
y dx
Show that the Reciprocal Rule is a special case of the
Quotient Rule.
b. Show that the Reciprocal Rule and the Product Rule together
imply the Quotient Rule.
53. Generalizing the Product Rule The Product Rule gives the
formula
T b. Graph the curve and tangent line together. The tangent
intersects the curve at another point. Use Zoom and Trace to
estimate the point’s coordinates.
T
c. Confirm your estimates of the coordinates of the second
intersection point by solving the equations for the curve and
tangent simultaneously (Solver key).
48. a. Find an equation for the line that is tangent to the curve
y = x 3 - 6x 2 + 5x at the origin.
T b. Graph the curve and tangent together. The tangent intersects
the curve at another point. Use Zoom and Trace to estimate
the point’s coordinates.
T
c. Confirm your estimates of the coordinates of the second
intersection point by solving the equations for the curve and
tangent simultaneously (Solver key).
d
dy
du
suyd = u
+ y
dx
dx
dx
for the derivative of the product uy of two differentiable functions
of x.
a. What is the analogous formula for the derivative of the
product uyw of three differentiable functions of x?
b. What is the formula for the derivative of the product u1 u2 u3 u4
of four differentiable functions of x?
c. What is the formula for the derivative of a product
u1 u2 u3 &Aacute; un of a finite number n of differentiable functions
of x ?
54. Rational Powers
d 3&gt;2
A x B by writing x 3&gt;2 as x # x 1&gt;2 and using the Product
dx
rational power of x. Work parts (b) and (c) by a similar
method.
a. Find
Theory and Examples
49. The general polynomial of degree n has the form
Psxd = an x n + an - 1 x n - 1 + &Aacute; + a2 x 2 + a1 x + a0
where an Z 0 . Find P&iquest;sxd .
50. The body’s reaction to medicine The reaction of the body to a
dose of medicine can sometimes be represented by an equation of
the form
R = M2 a
C
M
- b,
2
3
where C is a positive constant and M is the amount of medicine
absorbed in the blood. If the reaction is a change in blood pressure, R is measured in millimeters of mercury. If the reaction is a
change in temperature, R is measured in degrees, and so on.
Find dR&gt;dM . This derivative, as a function of M, is called the
sensitivity of the body to the medicine. In Section 4.5, we will see
b. Find
d 5&gt;2
sx d .
dx
c. Find
d 7&gt;2
sx d .
dx
d. What patterns do you see in your answers to parts (a), (b), and
(c)? Rational powers are one of the topics in Section 3.6.
55. Cylinder pressure If gas in a cylinder is maintained at a constant temperature T, the pressure P is related to the volume V by a
formula of the form
P =
an 2
nRT
- 2,
V - nb
V
in which a, b, n, and R are constants. Find dP&gt;dV . (See accompanying figure.)
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3.2 Differentiation Rules
171
56. The best quantity to order One of the formulas for inventory
management says that the average weekly cost of ordering, paying
for, and holding merchandise is
hq
km
Asqd = q + cm +
,
2
where q is the quantity you order when things run low (shoes, radios, brooms, or whatever the item might be); k is the cost of placing an order (the same, no matter how often you order); c is the
cost of one item (a constant); m is the number of items sold each
week (a constant); and h is the weekly holding cost per item (a
constant that takes into account things such as space, utilities, insurance, and security). Find dA&gt;dq and d 2A&gt;dq 2 .
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3.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
3.3
171
The Derivative as a Rate of Change
In Section 2.1, we initiated the study of average and instantaneous rates of change. In this
section, we continue our investigations of applications in which derivatives are used to
model the rates at which things change in the world around us. We revisit the study of motion along a line and examine other applications.
It is natural to think of change as change with respect to time, but other variables can
be treated in the same way. For example, a physician may want to know how change in
dosage affects the body’s response to a drug. An economist may want to study how the cost
of producing steel varies with the number of tons produced.
Instantaneous Rates of Change
If we interpret the difference quotient sƒsx + hd - ƒsxdd&gt;h as the average rate of change
in ƒ over the interval from x to x + h, we can interpret its limit as h : 0 as the rate at
which ƒ is changing at the point x.
DEFINITION
Instantaneous Rate of Change
The instantaneous rate of change of ƒ with respect to x at x0 is the derivative
ƒ&iquest;sx0 d = lim
h:0
ƒsx0 + hd - ƒsx0 d
,
h
provided the limit exists.
Thus, instantaneous rates are limits of average rates.
It is conventional to use the word instantaneous even when x does not represent time.
The word is, however, frequently omitted. When we say rate of change, we mean
instantaneous rate of change.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
EXAMPLE 1
How a Circle’s Area Changes with Its Diameter
The area A of a circle is related to its diameter by the equation
A =
p 2
D .
4
How fast does the area change with respect to the diameter when the diameter is 10 m?
Solution
The rate of change of the area with respect to the diameter is
dA
p
pD
= # 2D =
.
4
2
dD
When D = 10 m, the area is changing at rate sp&gt;2d10 = 5p m2&gt;m.
Position at time t …
s f(t)
∆s
Motion Along a Line: Displacement, Velocity, Speed,
Acceleration, and Jerk
and at time t ∆t
s ∆s f (t ∆t)
FIGURE 3.12 The positions of a body
moving along a coordinate line at time t
and shortly later at time t + &cent;t .
s
Suppose that an object is moving along a coordinate line (say an s-axis) so that we know
its position s on that line as a function of time t:
s = ƒstd.
The displacement of the object over the time interval from t to t + &cent;t (Figure 3.12) is
&cent;s = ƒst + &cent;td - ƒstd ,
and the average velocity of the object over that time interval is
yay =
ƒst + &cent;td - ƒstd
displacement
&cent;s
=
=
.
travel time
&cent;t
&cent;t
To find the body’s velocity at the exact instant t, we take the limit of the average velocity over the interval from t to t + &cent;t as &cent;t shrinks to zero. This limit is the derivative of
ƒ with respect to t.
DEFINITION
Velocity
Velocity (instantaneous velocity) is the derivative of position with respect to
time. If a body’s position at time t is s = ƒstd, then the body’s velocity at time t is
ystd =
EXAMPLE 2
ƒst + &cent;td - ƒstd
ds
.
= lim
dt
&cent;t
&cent;t :0
Finding the Velocity of a Race Car
Figure 3.13 shows the time-to-distance graph of a 1996 Riley &amp; Scott Mk III-Olds WSC
race car. The slope of the secant PQ is the average velocity for the 3-sec interval from
t = 2 to t = 5 sec; in this case, it is about 100 ft&gt; sec or 68 mph.
The slope of the tangent at P is the speedometer reading at t = 2 sec, about 57 ft&gt; sec
or 39 mph. The acceleration for the period shown is a nearly constant 28.5 ft&gt;sec2 during
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3.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
173
s
800
700
Distance (ft)
600
500
Secant slope is
average velocity
for interval from
t 2 to t 5.
400
300
Q
Tangent slope
is speedometer
(instantaneous
velocity).
200
100
P
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
t
Elapsed time (sec)
FIGURE 3.13 The time-to-distance graph for
Example 2. The slope of the tangent line at P is the
instantaneous velocity at t = 2 sec.
each second, which is about 0.89g, where g is the acceleration due to gravity. The race
car’s top speed is an estimated 190 mph. (Source: Road and Track, March 1997.)
Besides telling how fast an object is moving, its velocity tells the direction of motion.
When the object is moving forward (s increasing), the velocity is positive; when the body
is moving backward (s decreasing), the velocity is negative (Figure 3.14).
s
s
s f (t)
s f (t)
ds
0
dt
ds
0
dt
t
0
s increasing:
positive slope so
moving forward
t
0
s decreasing:
negative slope so
moving backward
FIGURE 3.14 For motion s = ƒstd along a straight line, y = ds/dt is
positive when s increases and negative when s decreases.
If we drive to a friend’s house and back at 30 mph, say, the speedometer will show 30
on the way over but it will not show -30 on the way back, even though our distance from
home is decreasing. The speedometer always shows speed, which is the absolute value of
velocity. Speed measures the rate of progress regardless of direction.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
DEFINITION
Speed
Speed is the absolute value of velocity.
ds
Speed = ƒ ystd ƒ = ` `
dt
EXAMPLE 3
Horizontal Motion
Figure 3.15 shows the velocity y = ƒ&iquest;std of a particle moving on a coordinate line. The
particle moves forward for the first 3 sec, moves backward for the next 2 sec, stands still
for a second, and moves forward again. The particle achieves its greatest speed at time
t = 4, while moving backward.
y
MOVES FORWARD
FORWARD
AGAIN
(y 0)
(y 0)
y f '(t)
Speeds
up
(y const)
Slows
down
Speeds
up
Stands
still
(y 0)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
t (sec)
Greatest
speed
Speeds
up
Slows
down
MOVES BACKWARD
(y 0)
FIGURE 3.15 The velocity graph for Example 3.
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
Bernard Bolzano
(1781–1848)
The rate at which a body’s velocity changes is the body’s acceleration. The acceleration measures how quickly the body picks up or loses speed.
A sudden change in acceleration is called a jerk. When a ride in a car or a bus is jerky,
it is not that the accelerations involved are necessarily large but that the changes in acceleration are abrupt.
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3.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
175
DEFINITIONS
Acceleration, Jerk
Acceleration is the derivative of velocity with respect to time. If a body’s position at time t is s = ƒstd, then the body’s acceleration at time t is
d 2s
dy
= 2.
dt
dt
Jerk is the derivative of acceleration with respect to time:
astd =
jstd =
d 3s
da
= 3.
dt
dt
Near the surface of the Earth all bodies fall with the same constant acceleration.
Galileo’s experiments with free fall (Example 1, Section 2.1) lead to the equation
s =
1 2
gt ,
2
where s is distance and g is the acceleration due to Earth’s gravity. This equation holds in a
vacuum, where there is no air resistance, and closely models the fall of dense, heavy objects, such as rocks or steel tools, for the first few seconds of their fall, before air resistance starts to slow them down.
The value of g in the equation s = s1&gt;2dgt 2 depends on the units used to measure
t and s. With t in seconds (the usual unit), the value of g determined by measurement at
sea level is approximately 32 ft&gt;sec2 (feet per second squared) in English units, and
g = 9.8 m&gt;sec2 (meters per second squared) in metric units. (These gravitational constants depend on the distance from Earth’s center of mass, and are slightly lower on top of
Mt. Everest, for example.)
The jerk of the constant acceleration of gravity sg = 32 ft&gt;sec2 d is zero:
j =
t (seconds)
t0
s (meters)
t1
5
d
sgd = 0.
dt
An object does not exhibit jerkiness during free fall.
0
EXAMPLE 4
Modeling Free Fall
10
Figure 3.16 shows the free fall of a heavy ball bearing released from rest at time t = 0 sec.
15
t2
(a) How many meters does the ball fall in the first 2 sec?
(b) What is its velocity, speed, and acceleration then?
20
25
30
Solution
35
(a) The metric free-fall equation is s = 4.9t 2 . During the first 2 sec, the ball falls
40
t3
ss2d = 4.9s2d2 = 19.6 m.
45
(b) At any time t, velocity is the derivative of position:
FIGURE 3.16 A ball bearing
falling from rest (Example 4).
ystd = s&iquest;std =
d
s4.9t 2 d = 9.8t.
dt
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176
Chapter 3: Differentiation
At t = 2, the velocity is
s
ys2d = 19.6 m&gt;sec
y0
smax
in the downward (increasing s) direction. The speed at t = 2 is
Height (ft)
Speed = ƒ ys2d ƒ = 19.6 m&gt;sec.
t?
256
The acceleration at any time t is
astd = y&iquest;std = s–std = 9.8 m&gt;sec2 .
At t = 2, the acceleration is 9.8 m&gt;sec2 .
EXAMPLE 5
A dynamite blast blows a heavy rock straight up with a launch velocity of 160 ft&gt; sec
(about 109 mph) (Figure 3.17a). It reaches a height of s = 160t - 16t 2 ft after t sec.
s0
(a) How high does the rock go?
(b) What are the velocity and speed of the rock when it is 256 ft above the ground on the
way up? On the way down?
(c) What is the acceleration of the rock at any time t during its flight (after the blast)?
(d) When does the rock hit the ground again?
(a)
s, y
400
s 160t 16t 2
160
0
–160
Modeling Vertical Motion
Solution
5
10
t
y ds 160 32t
dt
(b)
FIGURE 3.17 (a) The rock in Example 5.
(b) The graphs of s and y as functions of
time; s is largest when y = ds/dt = 0 . The
graph of s is not the path of the rock: It is a
plot of height versus time. The slope of the
plot is the rock’s velocity, graphed here as
a straight line.
(a) In the coordinate system we have chosen, s measures height from the ground up, so
the velocity is positive on the way up and negative on the way down. The instant the
rock is at its highest point is the one instant during the flight when the velocity is 0. To
find the maximum height, all we need to do is to find when y = 0 and evaluate s at
this time.
At any time t, the velocity is
y =
d
ds
=
s160t - 16t 2 d = 160 - 32t ft&gt;sec.
dt
dt
The velocity is zero when
160 - 32t = 0
or
t = 5 sec.
The rock’s height at t = 5 sec is
smax = ss5d = 160s5d - 16s5d2 = 800 - 400 = 400 ft.
See Figure 3.17b.
(b) To find the rock’s velocity at 256 ft on the way up and again on the way down, we first
find the two values of t for which
sstd = 160t - 16t 2 = 256.
To solve this equation, we write
16t 2 - 160t + 256 = 0
16st 2 - 10t + 16d = 0
st - 2dst - 8d = 0
t = 2 sec, t = 8 sec.
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3.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
The rock is 256 ft above the ground 2 sec after the explosion and again 8 sec after the
explosion. The rock’s velocities at these times are
y (dollars)
Slope marginal cost
y c(x)
xh
x
(tons/week)
0
177
ys2d = 160 - 32s2d = 160 - 64 = 96 ft&gt;sec.
ys8d = 160 - 32s8d = 160 - 256 = - 96 ft&gt;sec.
At both instants, the rock’s speed is 96 ft&gt; sec. Since ys2d 7 0, the rock is moving upward (s is increasing) at t = 2 sec; it is moving downward (s is decreasing) at t = 8
because ys8d 6 0.
x
FIGURE 3.18 Weekly steel production:
c(x) is the cost of producing x tons per
week. The cost of producing an additional
h tons is csx + hd - csxd .
(c) At any time during its flight following the explosion, the rock’s acceleration is a
constant
a =
d
dy
=
s160 - 32td = - 32 ft&gt;sec2 .
dt
dt
The acceleration is always downward. As the rock rises, it slows down; as it falls, it
speeds up.
(d) The rock hits the ground at the positive time t for which s = 0. The equation
160t - 16t 2 = 0 factors to give 16t s10 - td = 0, so it has solutions t = 0 and
t = 10. At t = 0, the blast occurred and the rock was thrown upward. It returned to
the ground 10 sec later.
Derivatives in Economics
Engineers use the terms velocity and acceleration to refer to the derivatives of functions
describing motion. Economists, too, have a specialized vocabulary for rates of change and
derivatives. They call them marginals.
In a manufacturing operation, the cost of production c(x) is a function of x, the number of units produced. The marginal cost of production is the rate of change of cost with
respect to level of production, so it is dc&gt;dx.
Suppose that c(x) represents the dollars needed to produce x tons of steel in one week.
It costs more to produce x + h units per week, and the cost difference, divided by h, is the
average cost of producing each additional ton:
y
y c(x)
csx + hd - csxd
average cost of each of the additional
= h tons of steel produced.
h
x 1


 c


dc
dx
The limit of this ratio as h : 0 is the marginal cost of producing more steel per week
when the current weekly production is x tons (Figure 3.18).
csx + hd - csxd
dc
= lim
= marginal cost of production.
dx
h
h:0
Sometimes the marginal cost of production is loosely defined to be the extra cost of
producing one unit:
0
x
x1
x
FIGURE 3.19 The marginal cost dc&gt;dx
is approximately the extra cost &cent;c of
producing &cent; x = 1 more unit.
csx + 1d - csxd
&cent;c
=
,
1
&cent;x
which is approximated by the value of dc&gt;dx at x. This approximation is acceptable if the
slope of the graph of c does not change quickly near x. Then the difference quotient will be
close to its limit dc&gt;dx, which is the rise in the tangent line if &cent;x = 1 (Figure 3.19). The
approximation works best for large values of x.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
Economists often represent a total cost function by a cubic polynomial
csxd = a x 3 + bx 2 + gx + d
where d represents fixed costs such as rent, heat, equipment capitalization, and management costs. The other terms represent variable costs such as the costs of raw materials,
taxes, and labor. Fixed costs are independent of the number of units produced, whereas
variable costs depend on the quantity produced. A cubic polynomial is usually complicated enough to capture the cost behavior on a relevant quantity interval.
EXAMPLE 6
Marginal Cost and Marginal Revenue
Suppose that it costs
csxd = x 3 - 6x 2 + 15x
dollars to produce x radiators when 8 to 30 radiators are produced and that
rsxd = x 3 - 3x 2 + 12x
a day. About how much extra will it cost to produce one more radiator a day, and what is
Solution
The cost of producing one more radiator a day when 10 are produced is about
c&iquest;s10d :
c&iquest;sxd =
d 3
A x - 6x 2 + 15x B = 3x 2 - 12x + 15
dx
c&iquest;s10d = 3s100d - 12s10d + 15 = 195.
r&iquest;sxd =
d 3
A x - 3x 2 + 12x B = 3x 2 - 6x + 12.
dx
The marginal revenue function estimates the increase in revenue that will result from selling one additional unit. If you currently sell 10 radiators a day, you can expect your revenue to increase by about
r&iquest;s10d = 3s100d - 6s10d + 12 = \$252
if you increase sales to 11 radiators a day.
EXAMPLE 7
Marginal Tax Rate
To get some feel for the language of marginal rates, consider marginal tax rates. If your
marginal income tax rate is 28% and your income increases by \$1000, you can expect to
pay an extra \$280 in taxes. This does not mean that you pay 28% of your entire income in
taxes. It just means that at your current income level I, the rate of increase of taxes T with
respect to income is dT&gt;dI = 0.28. You will pay \$0.28 out of every extra dollar you earn
in taxes. Of course, if you earn a lot more, you may land in a higher tax bracket and your
marginal rate will increase.
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3.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
179
Sensitivity to Change
When a small change in x produces a large change in the value of a function ƒ(x), we say
that the function is relatively sensitive to changes in x. The derivative ƒ&iquest;sxd is a measure of
this sensitivity.
EXAMPLE 8
Genetic Data and Sensitivity to Change
The Austrian monk Gregor Johann Mendel (1822–1884), working with garden peas and
other plants, provided the first scientific explanation of hybridization.
His careful records showed that if p (a number between 0 and 1) is the frequency of the
gene for smooth skin in peas (dominant) and s1 - pd is the frequency of the gene for wrinkled skin in peas, then the proportion of smooth-skinned peas in the next generation will be
y = 2ps1 - pd + p 2 = 2p - p 2 .
The graph of y versus p in Figure 3.20a suggests that the value of y is more sensitive to a
change in p when p is small than when p is large. Indeed, this fact is borne out by the derivative graph in Figure 3.20b, which shows that dy&gt;dp is close to 2 when p is near 0 and
close to 0 when p is near 1.
dy /dp
2
y
dy
2 2p
dp
1
y 2p p 2
0
1
(a)
p
0
1
p
(b)
FIGURE 3.20 (a) The graph of y = 2p - p 2 ,
describing the proportion of smooth-skinned peas.
(b) The graph of dy&gt;dp (Example 8).
The implication for genetics is that introducing a few more dominant genes into a
highly recessive population (where the frequency of wrinkled skin peas is small) will have
a more dramatic effect on later generations than will a similar increase in a highly dominant population.
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3.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
179
EXERCISES 3.3
Motion Along a Coordinate Line
Exercises 1–6 give the positions s = ƒstd of a body moving on a coordinate line, with s in meters and t in seconds.
a. Find the body’s displacement and average velocity for the given
time interval.
b. Find the body’s speed and acceleration at the endpoints of the
interval.
c. When, if ever, during the interval does the body change direction?
1. s = t 2 - 3t + 2,
2
2. s = 6t - t ,
0 … t … 2
0 … t … 6
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
3. s = - t 3 + 3t 2 - 3t,
4. s = st &gt;4d - t + t ,
4
5. s =
25
5
- t,
t2
6. s =
25
,
t + 5
3
2
0 … t … 3
0 … t … 3
1 … t … 5
-4 … t … 0
7. Particle motion At time t, the position of a body moving along
the s-axis is s = t 3 - 6t 2 + 9t m .
a. Find the body’s acceleration each time the velocity is zero.
b. Find the body’s speed each time the acceleration is zero.
c. Find the total distance traveled by the body from t = 0 to
t = 2.
8. Particle motion At time t &Uacute; 0 , the velocity of a body moving
along the s-axis is y = t 2 - 4t + 3 .
a. Find the body’s acceleration each time the velocity is zero.
b. When is the body moving forward? Backward?
c. When is the body’s velocity increasing? Decreasing?
Free-Fall Applications
height above ground t sec into the fall would have been
s = 179 - 16t 2 .
a. What would have been the ball’s velocity, speed, and
acceleration at time t?
b. About how long would it have taken the ball to hit the
ground?
c. What would have been the ball’s velocity at the moment of
impact?
14. Galileo’s free-fall formula Galileo developed a formula for a
body’s velocity during free fall by rolling balls from rest down increasingly steep inclined planks and looking for a limiting formula that would predict a ball’s behavior when the plank was vertical and the ball fell freely; see part (a) of the accompanying
figure. He found that, for any given angle of the plank, the ball’s
velocity t sec into motion was a constant multiple of t. That is, the
velocity was given by a formula of the form y = kt . The value of
the constant k depended on the inclination of the plank.
In modern notation—part (b) of the figure—with distance in
meters and time in seconds, what Galileo determined by experiment was that, for any given angle u , the ball’s velocity t sec into
the roll was
y = 9.8ssin udt m&gt;sec .
9. Free fall on Mars and Jupiter The equations for free fall at the
surfaces of Mars and Jupiter (s in meters, t in seconds) are
s = 1.86t 2 on Mars and s = 11.44t 2 on Jupiter. How long does it
take a rock falling from rest to reach a velocity of 27.8 m&gt; sec
(about 100 km&gt; h) on each planet?
Free-fall
position
10. Lunar projectile motion A rock thrown vertically upward
from the surface of the moon at a velocity of 24 m&gt; sec (about 86
km&gt; h) reaches a height of s = 24t - 0.8t 2 meters in t sec.
a. Find the rock’s velocity and acceleration at time t. (The acceleration in this case is the acceleration of gravity on the moon.)
?
θ
(b)
(a)
b. How long does it take the rock to reach its highest point?
a. What is the equation for the ball’s velocity during free fall?
c. How high does the rock go?
b. Building on your work in part (a), what constant acceleration
does a freely falling body experience near the surface of Earth?
d. How long does it take the rock to reach half its maximum
height?
e. How long is the rock aloft?
11. Finding g on a small airless planet Explorers on a small airless planet used a spring gun to launch a ball bearing vertically
upward from the surface at a launch velocity of 15 m&gt; sec. Because the acceleration of gravity at the planet’s surface was
gs m&gt;sec2 , the explorers expected the ball bearing to reach a
height of s = 15t - s1&gt;2dgs t 2 meters t sec later. The ball bearing
reached its maximum height 20 sec after being launched. What
was the value of gs ?
12. Speeding bullet A 45-caliber bullet fired straight up from the
surface of the moon would reach a height of s = 832t - 2.6t 2
feet after t sec. On Earth, in the absence of air, its height would be
s = 832t - 16t 2 ft after t sec. How long will the bullet be aloft in
each case? How high will the bullet go?
13. Free fall from the Tower of Pisa Had Galileo dropped a cannonball from the Tower of Pisa, 179 ft above the ground, the ball’s
15. The accompanying figure shows the velocity y = ds&gt;dt = ƒstd
(m&gt; sec) of a body moving along a coordinate line.
y(m/sec)
y f (t)
3
0
2
4
6
8 10
t (sec)
–3
a. When does the body reverse direction?
b. When (approximately) is the body moving at a constant speed?
c. Graph the body’s speed for 0 … t … 10 .
d. Graph the acceleration, where defined.
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3.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
16. A particle P moves on the number line shown in part (a) of the accompanying figure. Part (b) shows the position of P as a function
of time t.
P
s (cm)
0
f. When was the rocket’s acceleration greatest?
g. When was the acceleration constant? What was its value then
(to the nearest integer)?
18. The accompanying figure shows the velocity y = ƒstd of a particle moving on a coordinate line.
y
(a)
s (cm)
y f(t)
s f (t)
2
0
181
1
2
3
4
0
5
6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
t (sec)
t (sec)
–2
(6, 4)
–4
a. When does the particle move forward? Move backward?
Speed up? Slow down?
(b)
b. When is the particle’s acceleration positive? Negative? Zero?
c. When does the particle move at its greatest speed?
a. When is P moving to the left? Moving to the right? Standing
still?
b. Graph the particle’s velocity and speed (where defined).
17. Launching a rocket When a model rocket is launched, the propellant burns for a few seconds, accelerating the rocket upward.
After burnout, the rocket coasts upward for a while and then begins to fall. A small explosive charge pops out a parachute shortly
after the rocket starts down. The parachute slows the rocket to
keep it from breaking when it lands.
The figure here shows velocity data from the flight of the
model rocket. Use the data to answer the following.
d. When does the particle stand still for more than an instant?
19. Two falling balls The multiflash photograph in the accompanying figure shows two balls falling from rest. The vertical rulers
are marked in centimeters. Use the equation s = 490t 2 (the freefall equation for s in centimeters and t in seconds) to answer the
following questions.
a. How fast was the rocket climbing when the engine stopped?
b. For how many seconds did the engine burn?
200
Velocity (ft/sec)
150
100
50
0
–50
–100
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time after launch (sec)
12
c. When did the rocket reach its highest point? What was its
velocity then?
d. When did the parachute pop out? How fast was the rocket
falling then?
e. How long did the rocket fall before the parachute opened?
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
a. How long did it take the balls to fall the first 160 cm? What
was their average velocity for the period?
y
A
b. How fast were the balls falling when they reached the 160-cm
mark? What was their acceleration then?
c. About how fast was the light flashing (flashes per second)?
20. A traveling truck The accompanying graph shows the position
s of a truck traveling on a highway. The truck starts at t = 0 and
returns 15 h later at t = 15 .
t
0
B
a. Use the technique described in Section 3.1, Example 3, to
graph the truck’s velocity y = ds&gt;dt for 0 … t … 15 . Then
repeat the process, with the velocity curve, to graph the
truck’s acceleration dy&gt;dt.
C
b. Suppose that s = 15t 2 - t 3 . Graph ds&gt;dt and d 2s&gt;dt 2 and
compare your graphs with those in part (a).
FIGURE 3.22
The graphs for Exercise 22.
Position, s (km)
500
Economics
400
23. Marginal cost Suppose that the dollar cost of producing x
washing machines is csxd = 2000 + 100x - 0.1x 2 .
300
a. Find the average cost per machine of producing the first 100
washing machines.
200
b. Find the marginal cost when 100 washing machines are
produced.
100
0
5
10
Elapsed time, t (hr)
15
21. The graphs in Figure 3.21 show the position s, velocity
y = ds&gt;dt , and acceleration a = d 2s&gt;dt 2 of a body moving along
a coordinate line as functions of time t. Which graph is which?
c. Show that the marginal cost when 100 washing machines are
produced is approximately the cost of producing one more
washing machine after the first 100 have been made, by
calculating the latter cost directly.
24. Marginal revenue Suppose that the revenue from selling x
washing machines is
1
rsxd = 20,000 a1 - x b
y
dollars.
A
a. Find the marginal revenue when 100 machines are produced.
B
C
t
0
b. Use the function r&iquest;sxd to estimate the increase in revenue that
will result from increasing production from 100 machines a
week to 101 machines a week.
c. Find the limit of r&iquest;sxd as x : q . How would you interpret
this number?
FIGURE 3.21
The graphs for Exercise 21.
22. The graphs in Figure 3.22 show the position s, the velocity
y = ds&gt;dt , and the acceleration a = d 2s&gt;dt 2 of a body moving
along the coordinate line as functions of time t. Which graph is
25. Bacterium population When a bactericide was added to a nutrient broth in which bacteria were growing, the bacterium population continued to grow for a while, but then stopped growing
and began to decline. The size of the population at time t (hours)
was b = 10 6 + 10 4t - 10 3t 2 . Find the growth rates at
a. t = 0 hours .
b. t = 5 hours .
c. t = 10 hours .
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3.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
26. Draining a tank The number of gallons of water in a tank t minutes after the tank has started to drain is Qstd = 200s30 - td2 .
How fast is the water running out at the end of 10 min? What is the
average rate at which the water flows out during the first 10 min?
T 27. Draining a tank It takes 12 hours to drain a storage tank by
opening the valve at the bottom. The depth y of fluid in the tank t
hours after the valve is opened is given by the formula
2
t
y = 6 a1 b m.
12
a. Find the rate dy&gt;dt (m&gt; h) at which the tank is draining at time t.
b. When is the fluid level in the tank falling fastest? Slowest?
What are the values of dy&gt;dt at these times?
c. Graph y and dy&gt;dt together and discuss the behavior of y in
relation to the signs and values of dy&gt;dt.
28. Inflating a balloon The volume V = s4&gt;3dpr 3 of a spherical
T Exercises 31–34 give the position function s = ƒstd of a body moving
along the s-axis as a function of time t. Graph ƒ together with the velocity function ystd = ds&gt;dt = ƒ&iquest;std and the acceleration function
astd = d 2s&gt;dt 2 = ƒ–std . Comment on the body’s behavior in relation
to the signs and values of y and a. Include in your commentary such
topics as the following:
a. When is the body momentarily at rest?
b. When does it move to the left (down) or to the right (up)?
c. When does it change direction?
d. When does it speed up and slow down?
e. When is it moving fastest (highest speed)? Slowest?
f. When is it farthest from the axis origin?
31. s = 200t - 16t 2, 0 … t … 12.5 (a heavy object fired straight
up from Earth’s surface at 200 ft&gt; sec)
32. s = t 2 - 3t + 2,
3
0 … t … 5
2
a. At what rate sft3&gt;ftd does the volume change with respect to
the radius when r = 2 ft ?
33. s = t - 6t + 7t,
b. By approximately how much does the volume increase when
the radius changes from 2 to 2.2 ft?
35. Thoroughbred racing A racehorse is running a 10-furlong
race. (A furlong is 220 yards, although we will use furlongs and
seconds as our units in this exercise.) As the horse passes each
furlong marker (F ), a steward records the time elapsed (t) since
the beginning of the race, as shown in the table:
29. Airplane takeoff Suppose that the distance an aircraft travels along
a runway before takeoff is given by D = s10&gt;9dt 2 , where D is
measured in meters from the starting point and t is measured in seconds from the time the brakes are released. The aircraft will become
airborne when its speed reaches 200 km&gt; h. How long will it take to
become airborne, and what distance will it travel in that time?
30. Volcanic lava fountains Although the November 1959 Kilauea
Iki eruption on the island of Hawaii began with a line of fountains
along the wall of the crater, activity was later confined to a single
vent in the crater’s floor, which at one point shot lava 1900 ft
straight into the air (a world record). What was the lava’s exit velocity in feet per second? In miles per hour? (Hint: If y0 is the exit
velocity of a particle of lava, its height t sec later will be
s = y0 t - 16t 2 ft . Begin by finding the time at which
ds&gt;dt = 0 . Neglect air resistance.)
0 … t … 4
34. s = 4 - 7t + 6t 2 - t 3,
0 … t … 4
F
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
t
0
20
33
46
59
73
86
100
112
124
135
a. How long does it take the horse to finish the race?
b. What is the average speed of the horse over the first 5 furlongs?
c. What is the approximate speed of the horse as it passes the
3-furlong marker?
d. During which portion of the race is the horse running the
fastest?
e. During which portion of the race is the horse accelerating the
fastest?
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3.4 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
3.4
183
Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
Many of the phenomena we want information about are approximately periodic (electromagnetic fields, heart rhythms, tides, weather). The derivatives of sines and cosines play a
key role in describing periodic changes. This section shows how to differentiate the six basic trigonometric functions.
Derivative of the Sine Function
To calculate the derivative of ƒsxd = sin x, for x measured in radians, we combine the limits in Example 5a and Theorem 7 in Section 2.4 with the angle sum identity for the sine:
sin sx + hd = sin x cos h + cos x sin h.
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184
Chapter 3: Differentiation
If ƒsxd = sin x, then
ƒsx + hd - ƒsxd
h
h:0
sin sx + hd - sin x
= lim
h
h:0
ssin x cos h + cos x sin hd - sin x
= lim
h
h:0
sin x scos h - 1d + cos x sin h
= lim
h
h:0
ƒ&iquest;sxd = lim
= lim asin x #
h:0
Derivative definition
Sine angle sum identity
cos h - 1
sin h
b + lim acos x #
b
h
h
h:0
cos h - 1
sin h
+ cos x # lim
h
h:0 h
= sin x # 0 + cos x # 1
= cos x.
= sin x # lim
h:0
Example 5(a) and
Theorem 7, Section 2.4
The derivative of the sine function is the cosine function:
d
ssin xd = cos x.
dx
EXAMPLE 1
Derivatives Involving the Sine
(a) y = x 2 - sin x:
dy
d
= 2x A sin x B
dx
dx
Difference Rule
= 2x - cos x.
(b) y = x 2 sin x:
dy
d
= x2
A sin x B + 2x sin x
dx
dx
Product Rule
= x 2 cos x + 2x sin x.
(c) y =
sin x
x :
d
x#
A sin x B - sin x # 1
dy
dx
=
dx
x2
x cos x - sin x
=
.
x2
Quotient Rule
Derivative of the Cosine Function
With the help of the angle sum formula for the cosine,
cos sx + hd = cos x cos h - sin x sin h,
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3.4 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
185
we have
cos sx + hd - cos x
d
scos xd = lim
dx
h
h:0
y
y cos x
1
–
scos x cos h - sin x sin hd - cos x
h
h:0
= lim
x
0
–1
y'
= lim
y' –sin x
h:0
1
–
0
–1
Cosine angle sum
identity
cos xscos h - 1d - sin x sin h
h
= lim cos x #
x
Derivative definition
h:0
cos h - 1
sin h
- lim sin x #
h
h
h:0
cos h - 1
sin h
- sin x # lim
h
h:0
h:0 h
= cos x # lim
FIGURE 3.23 The curve y&iquest; = - sin x as
the graph of the slopes of the tangents to
the curve y = cos x .
= cos x # 0 - sin x # 1
= - sin x.
Example 5(a) and
Theorem 7, Section 2.4
The derivative of the cosine function is the negative of the sine function:
d
scos xd = - sin x
dx
Figure 3.23 shows a way to visualize this result.
EXAMPLE 2
Derivatives Involving the Cosine
(a) y = 5x + cos x:
dy
d
d
=
s5xd +
A cos x B
dx
dx
dx
Sum Rule
= 5 - sin x.
(b) y = sin x cos x:
dy
d
d
= sin x
A cos x B + cos x dx A sin x B
dx
dx
Product Rule
= sin xs - sin xd + cos xscos xd
= cos2 x - sin2 x.
(c) y =
cos x
:
1 - sin x
d
d
A 1 - sin x B dx A cos x B - cos x dx A 1 - sin x B
dy
=
dx
s1 - sin xd2
s1 - sin xds -sin xd - cos xs0 - cos xd
s1 - sin xd2
1 - sin x
=
s1 - sin xd2
1
.
=
1 - sin x
Quotient Rule
=
sin2 x + cos2 x = 1
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
Simple Harmonic Motion
The motion of a body bobbing freely up and down on the end of a spring or bungee cord is
an example of simple harmonic motion. The next example describes a case in which there
are no opposing forces such as friction or buoyancy to slow the motion down.
–5
0
Rest
position
5
Position at
t0
EXAMPLE 3
A body hanging from a spring (Figure 3.24) is stretched 5 units beyond its rest position
and released at time t = 0 to bob up and down. Its position at any later time t is
s = 5 cos t.
What are its velocity and acceleration at time t ?
s
FIGURE 3.24 A body hanging from
a vertical spring and then displaced
oscillates above and below its rest position.
Its motion is described by trigonometric
functions (Example 3).
We have
Position:
Solution
s = 5 cos t
d
ds
=
Velocity:
y =
s5 cos td = - 5 sin t
dt
dt
d
dy
=
Acceleration:
a =
s - 5 sin td = - 5 cos t.
dt
dt
Notice how much we can learn from these equations:
s, y
1.
y –5 sin t
s 5 cos t
2.
0
2
3
2
Motion on a Spring
2 5
2
t
3.
FIGURE 3.25 The graphs of the position
and velocity of the body in Example 3.
4.
As time passes, the weight moves down and up between s = - 5 and s = 5 on the
s-axis. The amplitude of the motion is 5. The period of the motion is 2p.
The velocity y = - 5 sin t attains its greatest magnitude, 5, when cos t = 0, as the graphs
show in Figure 3.25. Hence, the speed of the weight, ƒ y ƒ = 5 ƒ sin t ƒ , is greatest when
cos t = 0, that is, when s = 0 (the rest position). The speed of the weight is zero when
sin t = 0. This occurs when s = 5 cos t = ; 5, at the endpoints of the interval of motion.
The acceleration value is always the exact opposite of the position value. When the
weight is above the rest position, gravity is pulling it back down; when the weight is
below the rest position, the spring is pulling it back up.
The acceleration, a = - 5 cos t, is zero only at the rest position, where cos t = 0 and
the force of gravity and the force from the spring offset each other. When the weight is
anywhere else, the two forces are unequal and acceleration is nonzero. The acceleration is greatest in magnitude at the points farthest from the rest position, where
cos t = ; 1.
EXAMPLE 4
Jerk
The jerk of the simple harmonic motion in Example 3 is
j =
d
da
=
s - 5 cos td = 5 sin t.
dt
dt
It has its greatest magnitude when sin t = ; 1, not at the extremes of the displacement but
at the rest position, where the acceleration changes direction and sign.
Derivatives of the Other Basic Trigonometric Functions
Because sin x and cos x are differentiable functions of x, the related functions
sin x
tan x = cos x ,
cot x =
cos x
,
sin x
1
sec x = cos x ,
and
csc x =
1
sin x
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3.4 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
187
are differentiable at every value of x at which they are defined. Their derivatives, calculated from the Quotient Rule, are given by the following formulas. Notice the negative
signs in the derivative formulas for the cofunctions.
Derivatives of the Other Trigonometric Functions
d
stan xd = sec2 x
dx
d
ssec xd = sec x tan x
dx
d
scot xd = - csc2 x
dx
d
scsc xd = - csc x cot x
dx
To show a typical calculation, we derive the derivative of the tangent function. The
other derivations are left to Exercise 50.
EXAMPLE 5
Find d(tan x)&gt; dx.
Solution
d
d sin x
A tan x B = dx a cos x b =
dx
cos x
d
d
A sin x B - sin x dx A cos x B
dx
cos2 x
Quotient Rule
cos x cos x - sin x s - sin xd
cos2 x
cos2 x + sin2 x
=
cos2 x
1
=
= sec2 x
cos2 x
=
EXAMPLE 6
Find y– if y = sec x.
Solution
y = sec x
y&iquest; = sec x tan x
y– =
d
ssec x tan xd
dx
= sec x
d
d
A tan x B + tan x dx A sec x B
dx
= sec xssec2 xd + tan xssec x tan xd
= sec3 x + sec x tan2 x
Product Rule
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188
Chapter 3: Differentiation
The differentiability of the trigonometric functions throughout their domains gives
another proof of their continuity at every point in their domains (Theorem 1, Section 3.1).
So we can calculate limits of algebraic combinations and composites of trigonometric
functions by direct substitution.
EXAMPLE 7
lim
x:0
Finding a Trigonometric Limit
22 + sec 0
22 + 1
23
22 + sec x
=
=
=
= - 23
-1
cos sp - tan xd
cos sp - tan 0d
cos sp - 0d
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
EXERCISES 3.4
Derivatives
26. Find y s4d = d 4 y&gt;dx 4 if
In Exercises 1–12, find dy&gt;dx.
a. y = - 2 sin x .
1. y = - 10x + 3 cos x
3
2. y = x + 5 sin x
3. y = csc x - 4 1x + 7
4. y = x 2 cot x -
1
x2
5. y = ssec x + tan xdssec x - tan xd
7. y =
cot x
1 + cot x
8. y =
cos x
1 + sin x
cos x
x
10. y = x + cos x
4
1
9. y = cos x +
tan x
11. y = x 2 sin x + 2x cos x - 2 sin x
28. y = tan x,
-p&gt;2 6 x 6 p&gt;2
x = - p&gt;3, 0, p&gt;3
29. y = sec x,
-p&gt;2 6 x 6 p&gt;2
-3p&gt;2 … x … 2p
x = - p&gt;3, 3p&gt;2
14. s = t 2 - sec t + 1
1 + csc t
1 - csc t
-3p&gt;2 … x … 2p
x = - p, 0, 3p&gt;2
30. y = 1 + cos x,
In Exercises 13–16, find ds&gt;dt.
15. s =
In Exercises 27–30, graph the curves over the given intervals, together
with their tangents at the given values of x. Label each curve and tangent with its equation.
x = - p&gt;3, p&gt;4
12. y = x 2 cos x - 2x sin x - 2 cos x
13. s = tan t - t
Tangent Lines
27. y = sin x,
6. y = ssin x + cos xd sec x
b. y = 9 cos x .
16. s =
sin t
1 - cos t
T Do the graphs of the functions in Exercises 31–34 have any horizontal
tangents in the interval 0 … x … 2p ? If so, where? If not, why not?
Visualize your findings by graphing the functions with a grapher.
31. y = x + sin x
In Exercises 17–20, find dr&gt;du .
17. r = 4 - u 2 sin u
18. r = u sin u + cos u
19. r = sec u csc u
20. r = s1 + sec ud sin u
32. y = 2x + sin x
33. y = x - cot x
34. y = x + 2 cos x
In Exercises 21–24, find dp&gt;dq.
1
21. p = 5 +
cot q
23. p =
sin q + cos q
cos q
22. p = s1 + csc qd cos q
24. p =
tan q
1 + tan q
25. Find y– if
a. y = csc x .
35. Find all points on the curve y = tan x, - p&gt;2 6 x 6 p&gt;2 , where
the tangent line is parallel to the line y = 2x . Sketch the curve
and tangent(s) together, labeling each with its equation.
36. Find all points on the curve y = cot x, 0 6 x 6 p , where the
tangent line is parallel to the line y = - x . Sketch the curve and
tangent(s) together, labeling each with its equation.
b. y = sec x .
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3.4 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
In Exercises 37 and 38, find an equation for (a) the tangent to the
curve at P and (b) the horizontal tangent to the curve at Q.
37.
48. Is there a value of b that will make
g sxd = e
38.
y
y
x + b, x 6 0
cos x, x &Uacute; 0
continuous at x = 0 ? Differentiable at x = 0 ? Give reasons for
Q
P  , 2
2 
2
189
49. Find d 999&gt;dx 999 scos xd .
50. Derive the formula for the derivative with respect to x of
1
0
2
2
y 4 cot x 2csc x
1
a. sec x.
P  , 4
4 
4
b. csc x.
T 51. Graph y = cos x for -p … x … 2p . On the same screen, graph
y =
x
Q
1
4
0
2
3
T 52. Graph y = - sin x for - p … x … 2p . On the same screen, graph
y =
Trigonometric Limits
1
1
39. lim sin a x - b
2
x:2
x: - p&gt;6
T 53. Centered difference quotients The centered difference quotient
21 + cos sp csc xd
41. lim sec ccos x + p tan a
x:0
ƒsx + hd - ƒsx - hd
2h
p
b - 1d
4 sec x
is used to approximate ƒ&iquest;sxd in numerical work because (1) its
limit as h : 0 equals ƒ&iquest;sxd when ƒ&iquest;sxd exists, and (2) it usually
gives a better approximation of ƒ&iquest;sxd for a given value of h than
Fermat’s difference quotient
p + tan x
b
42. lim sin a
tan x - 2 sec x
x:0
43. lim tan a1 t:0
44. lim cos a
u :0
cos sx + hd - cos x
h
for h = 1, 0.5, 0.3 , and 0.1. Then, in a new window, try
h = - 1, - 0.5 , and -0.3 . What happens as h : 0 + ? As
h : 0 - ? What phenomenon is being illustrated here?
Find the limits in Exercises 39–44.
lim
sin sx + hd - sin x
h
for h = 1, 0.5, 0.3 , and 0.1. Then, in a new window, try
h = - 1, - 0.5 , and -0.3 . What happens as h : 0 + ? As
h : 0 - ? What phenomenon is being illustrated here?
x
y 1 兹2 csc x cot x
40.
c. cot x.
sin t
t b
ƒsx + hd - ƒsxd
.
h
pu
b
sin u
See the accompanying figure.
y
Simple Harmonic Motion
Slope f '(x)
The equations in Exercises 45 and 46 give the position s = ƒstd of a
body moving on a coordinate line (s in meters, t in seconds). Find the
body’s velocity, speed, acceleration, and jerk at time t = p&gt;4 sec .
46. s = sin t + cos t
45. s = 2 - 2 sin t
B
f(x h) f(x)
h
A
Slope Theory and Examples
f(x h) f(x h)
2h
y f (x)
47. Is there a value of c that will make
sin2 3x
,
x2
ƒsxd = L
c,
Slope C
x Z 0
x = 0
h
0
xh
h
x
xh
x
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
a. To see how rapidly the centered difference quotient for
ƒsxd = sin x converges to ƒ&iquest;sxd = cos x , graph y = cos x
together with
y =
sin sx + hd - sin sx - hd
2h
over the interval [- p, 2p] for h = 1, 0.5 , and 0.3. Compare
the results with those obtained in Exercise 51 for the same
values of h.
b. To see how rapidly the centered difference quotient for
ƒsxd = cos x converges to ƒ&iquest;sxd = - sin x , graph y = - sin x
together with
y =
T 57. Exploring (sin kx) / x Graph y = ssin xd&gt;x , y = ssin 2xd&gt;x , and
y = ssin 4xd&gt;x together over the interval -2 … x … 2 . Where
does each graph appear to cross the y-axis? Do the graphs really
intersect the axis? What would you expect the graphs of
y = ssin 5xd&gt;x and y = ssin s - 3xdd&gt;x to do as x : 0 ? Why?
What about the graph of y = ssin kxd&gt;x for other values of k?
T 58. Radians versus degrees: degree mode derivatives What happens to the derivatives of sin x and cos x if x is measured in degrees instead of radians? To find out, take the following steps.
cos sx + hd - cos sx - hd
2h
over the interval [- p, 2p] for h = 1, 0.5 , and 0.3. Compare
the results with those obtained in Exercise 52 for the same
values of h.
54. A caution about centered difference quotients
of Exercise 53.) The quotient
T 56. Slopes on the graph of the cotangent function Graph
y = cot x and its derivative together for 0 6 x 6 p . Does the
graph of the cotangent function appear to have a smallest slope?
A largest slope? Is the slope ever positive? Give reasons for your
(Continuation
ƒsx + hd - ƒsx - hd
2h
may have a limit as h : 0 when ƒ has no derivative at x. As a case
in point, take ƒsxd = ƒ x ƒ and calculate
ƒ0 + hƒ - ƒ0 - hƒ
lim
.
2h
h :0
As you will see, the limit exists even though ƒsxd = ƒ x ƒ has no derivative at x = 0 . Moral: Before using a centered difference quotient, be sure the derivative exists.
T 55. Slopes on the graph of the tangent function Graph y = tan x
and its derivative together on s -p&gt;2, p&gt;2d . Does the graph of the
tangent function appear to have a smallest slope? a largest slope?
a. With your graphing calculator or computer grapher in degree
mode, graph
sin h
ƒshd =
h
and estimate limh:0 ƒshd . Compare your estimate with p&gt;180 .
Is there any reason to believe the limit should be p&gt;180 ?
b. With your grapher still in degree mode, estimate
cos h - 1
lim
.
h
h:0
c. Now go back to the derivation of the formula for the
derivative of sin x in the text and carry out the steps of the
derivation using degree-mode limits. What formula do you
obtain for the derivative?
d. Work through the derivation of the formula for the derivative
of cos x using degree-mode limits. What formula do you
obtain for the derivative?
e. The disadvantages of the degree-mode formulas become
apparent as you start taking derivatives of higher order. Try it.
What are the second and third degree-mode derivatives of
sin x and cos x?
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
3.5
The Chain Rule and Parametric Equations
We know how to differentiate y = ƒsud = sin u and u = gsxd = x 2 - 4, but how do we
differentiate a composite like Fsxd = ƒsgsxdd = sin sx 2 - 4d ? The differentiation formulas we have studied so far do not tell us how to calculate F&iquest;sxd. So how do we find the derivative of F = ƒ g? The answer is, with the Chain Rule, which says that the derivative
of the composite of two differentiable functions is the product of their derivatives evaluated at appropriate points. The Chain Rule is one of the most important and widely used
rules of differentiation. This section describes the rule and how to use it. We then apply the
rule to describe curves in the plane and their tangent lines in another way.
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3.5 The Chain Rule and Parametric Equations
191
Derivative of a Composite Function
We begin with examples.
EXAMPLE 1
Relating Derivatives
3
1
1
x = s3xd is the composite of the functions y = u and u = 3x.
2
2
2
How are the derivatives of these functions related?
The function y =
Solution
2
dy
3
= ,
2
dx
3
Since
1
C: y turns
We have
B: u turns
and
du
= 3.
dx
3
1
= # 3, we see that
2
2
dy
dy du
# .
=
dx
du dx
A: x turns
FIGURE 3.26 When gear A makes x
turns, gear B makes u turns and gear C
makes y turns. By comparing circumferences
or counting teeth, we see that y = u&gt;2
(C turns one-half turn for each B turn)
and u = 3x (B turns three times for A’s
one), so y = 3x&gt;2 . Thus, dy&gt;dx = 3&gt;2 =
s1&gt;2ds3d = sdy&gt;dudsdu&gt;dxd .
dy
1
= ,
2
du
Is it an accident that
dy du
dy
# ?
=
dx
du dx
If we think of the derivative as a rate of change, our intuition allows us to see that this relationship is reasonable. If y = ƒsud changes half as fast as u and u = gsxd changes three
times as fast as x, then we expect y to change 3&gt;2 times as fast as x. This effect is much like
that of a multiple gear train (Figure 3.26).
EXAMPLE 2
The function
y = 9x 4 + 6x 2 + 1 = s3x 2 + 1d2
is the composite of y = u 2 and u = 3x 2 + 1. Calculating derivatives, we see that
dy du
# = 2u # 6x
du dx
= 2s3x 2 + 1d # 6x
= 36x 3 + 12x.
Calculating the derivative from the expanded formula, we get
dy
d
=
A 9x 4 + 6x 2 + 1 B
dx
dx
= 36x 3 + 12x.
Once again,
dy du
# = dy .
du dx
dx
The derivative of the composite function ƒ(g (x)) at x is the derivative of ƒ at g(x)
times the derivative of g at x. This is known as the Chain Rule (Figure 3.27).
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
Composite f ˚ g
Rate of change at
x is f'(g(x)) • g'(x).
x
g
f
Rate of change
at x is g'(x).
Rate of change
at g(x) is f '( g(x)).
u g(x)
y f (u) f(g(x))
FIGURE 3.27 Rates of change multiply: The derivative of ƒ g at x is the
derivative of ƒ at g (x) times the derivative of g at x.
THEOREM 3
The Chain Rule
If ƒ(u) is differentiable at the point u = gsxd and g(x) is differentiable at x, then
the composite function sƒ gdsxd = ƒsgsxdd is differentiable at x, and
sƒ gd&iquest;sxd = ƒ&iquest;sgsxdd # g&iquest;sxd.
In Leibniz’s notation, if y = ƒsud and u = gsxd, then
dy du
dy
# ,
=
dx
du dx
where dy&gt;du is evaluated at u = gsxd .
Intuitive “Proof” of the Chain Rule:
Let &cent;u be the change in u corresponding to a change of &cent;x in x, that is
&cent;u = gsx + &cent;xd - gsxd
Then the corresponding change in y is
&cent;y = ƒsu + &cent;ud - ƒsud.
It would be tempting to write
&cent;y
&cent;y &cent;u
#
=
&cent;x
&cent;u &cent;x
(1)
and take the limit as &cent;x : 0:
dy
&cent;y
= lim
dx
&cent;x :0 &cent;x
&cent;y &cent;u
#
= lim
&cent;x :0 &cent;u &cent;x
&cent;y
# lim &cent;u
= lim
&cent;x :0 &cent;u &cent;x :0 &cent;x
&cent;y
# lim &cent;u
= lim
&cent;u:0 &cent;u &cent;x :0 &cent;x
dy du
.
=
du dx
(Note that &cent;u : 0 as &cent;x : 0
since g is continuous.)
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3.5 The Chain Rule and Parametric Equations
193
The only flaw in this reasoning is that in Equation (1) it might happen that &cent;u = 0 (even
when &cent;x Z 0) and, of course, we can’t divide by 0. The proof requires a different approach to overcome this flaw, and we give a precise proof in Section 3.8.
EXAMPLE 3
Applying the Chain Rule
An object moves along the x-axis so that its position at any time t &Uacute; 0 is given by
xstd = cos st 2 + 1d . Find the velocity of the object as a function of t.
We know that the velocity is dx&gt;dt. In this instance, x is a composite function:
x = cos sud and u = t 2 + 1. We have
Solution
dx
= - sin sud
du
x = cossud
du
= 2t.
dt
u = t2 + 1
By the Chain Rule,
dx # du
dx
=
dt
du dt
= - sin sud # 2t
= - sin st 2 + 1d # 2t
= - 2t sin st 2 + 1d .
dx
evaluated at u
du
As we see from Example 3, a difficulty with the Leibniz notation is that it doesn’t state
specifically where the derivatives are supposed to be evaluated.
“Outside-Inside” Rule
It sometimes helps to think about the Chain Rule this way: If y = ƒsgsxdd , then
dy
= ƒ&iquest;sgsxdd # g&iquest;sxd.
dx
In words, differentiate the “outside” function ƒ and evaluate it at the “inside” function g(x)
left alone; then multiply by the derivative of the “inside function.”
EXAMPLE 4
Differentiating from the Outside In
Differentiate sin sx 2 + xd with respect to x.
Solution
d
sin (x 2 + x) = cos (x 2 + x) # (2x + 1)
dx
(+)+*
(+)+* (+)+*
inside
inside
derivative of
left alone the inside
Repeated Use of the Chain Rule
We sometimes have to use the Chain Rule two or more times to find a derivative. Here is
an example.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
EXAMPLE 5
Johann Bernoulli
(1667–1748)
Find the derivative of gstd = tan s5 - sin 2td.
Solution Notice here that the tangent is a function of 5 - sin 2t, whereas the sine is a
function of 2t, which is itself a function of t. Therefore, by the Chain Rule,
g&iquest;std =
d
A tan A 5 - sin 2t B B
dt
d
A 5 - sin 2t B
dt
d
= sec2 s5 - sin 2td # a0 - cos 2t # A 2t B b
dt
= sec2 s5 - sin 2td #
Derivative of tan u with
u = 5 - sin 2t
Derivative of 5 - sin u
with u = 2t
= sec2 s5 - sin 2td # s - cos 2td # 2
= - 2scos 2td sec2 s5 - sin 2td.
The Chain Rule with Powers of a Function
If ƒ is a differentiable function of u and if u is a differentiable function of x, then substituting y = ƒsud into the Chain Rule formula
dy
dy du
#
=
dx
du dx
du
d
ƒsud = ƒ&iquest;sud .
dx
dx
Here’s an example of how it works: If n is a positive or negative integer and ƒsud = u n ,
the Power Rules (Rules 2 and 7) tell us that ƒ&iquest;sud = nu n - 1 . If u is a differentiable function
of x, then we can use the Chain Rule to extend this to the Power Chain Rule:
d n
du
u = nu n - 1 .
dx
dx
EXAMPLE 6
(a)
d
A u n B = nu n - 1
du
Applying the Power Chain Rule
d
d
s5x 3 - x 4 d7 = 7s5x 3 - x 4 d6
A 5x 3 - x 4 B
dx
dx
= 7s5x 3 - x 4 d6s5 # 3x 2 - 4x 3 d
= 7s5x 3 - x 4 d6s15x 2 - 4x 3 d
(b)
Power Chain Rule with
u = 5x 3 - x 4, n = 7
d
d
1
b = s3x - 2d-1
a
dx 3x - 2
dx
= - 1s3x - 2d-2
d
s3x - 2d
dx
Power Chain Rule with
u = 3x - 2, n = - 1
= - 1s3x - 2d-2s3d
3
= s3x - 2d2
In part (b) we could also have found the derivative with the Quotient Rule.
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3.5 The Chain Rule and Parametric Equations
sinn x means ssin xdn, n Z - 1 .
EXAMPLE 7
195
Finding Tangent Slopes
(a) Find the slope of the line tangent to the curve y = sin5 x at the point where x = p&gt;3.
(b) Show that the slope of every line tangent to the curve y = 1&gt;s1 - 2xd3 is positive.
Solution
(a)
dy
d
= 5 sin4 x #
sin x
dx
dx
Power Chain Rule with u = sin x, n = 5
= 5 sin4 x cos x
The tangent line has slope
dy
23 4 1
45
b a b =
.
`
= 5a
2
2
32
dx x = p&gt;3
(b)
dy
d
=
s1 - 2xd-3
dx
dx
= - 3s1 - 2xd-4 #
d
s1 - 2xd
dx
Power Chain Rule with u = s1 - 2xd, n = - 3
= - 3s1 - 2xd-4 # s - 2d
=
6
s1 - 2xd4
At any point (x, y) on the curve, x Z 1&gt;2 and the slope of the tangent line is
dy
6
=
,
dx
s1 - 2xd4
the quotient of two positive numbers.
EXAMPLE 8
It is important to remember that the formulas for the derivatives of both sin x and cos x
were obtained under the assumption that x is measured in radians, not degrees. The Chain
Rule gives us new insight into the difference between the two. Since 180&deg; = p radians,
x&deg; = px&gt;180 radians where x&deg; means the angle x measured in degrees.
By the Chain Rule,
d
d
px
px
p
p
b =
b =
sin sx&deg;d =
sin a
cos a
cos sx&deg;d.
180
180
180
180
dx
dx
See Figure 3.28. Similarly, the derivative of cos sx&deg;d is -sp&gt;180d sin sx&deg;d.
The factor p&gt;180, annoying in the first derivative, would compound with repeated
differentiation. We see at a glance the compelling reason for the use of radian measure.
Parametric Equations
Instead of describing a curve by expressing the y-coordinate of a point P(x, y) on the curve
as a function of x, it is sometimes more convenient to describe the curve by expressing
both coordinates as functions of a third variable t. Figure 3.29 shows the path of a moving
particle described by a pair of equations, x = ƒstd and y = gstd. For studying motion,
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
y sin(x&deg;) sin x
180
y
1
x
y sin x
180
FIGURE 3.28 Sin sx&deg;d oscillates only p/180 times as often as sin x oscillates. Its maximum
slope is p/180 at x = 0 (Example 8).
t usually denotes time. Equations like these are better than a Cartesian formula because
they tell us the particle’s position sx, yd = sƒstd, g stdd at any time t.
Position of particle
at time t
( f (t), g(t))
DEFINITION
Parametric Curve
If x and y are given as functions
x = ƒstd,
y = gstd
over an interval of t-values, then the set of points sx, yd = sƒstd, gstdd defined by
these equations is a parametric curve. The equations are parametric equations
for the curve.
FIGURE 3.29 The path traced by a
particle moving in the xy-plane is not
always the graph of a function of x or a
function of y.
The variable t is a parameter for the curve, and its domain I is the parameter interval. If I is a closed interval, a … t … b, the point (ƒ(a), g(a)) is the initial point of the
curve. The point (ƒ(b), g(b)) is the terminal point. When we give parametric equations
and a parameter interval for a curve, we say that we have parametrized the curve. The
equations and interval together constitute a parametrization of the curve.
y
t 2
x2 y2 1
P(cos t, sin t)
EXAMPLE 9
t
t
0
Moving Counterclockwise on a Circle
Graph the parametric curves
t0
(1, 0)
x
(a) x = cos t,
(b) x = a cos t,
y = sin t,
y = a sin t,
0 … t … 2p.
0 … t … 2p.
Solution
t 3
2
FIGURE 3.30 The equations x = cos t
and y = sin t describe motion on the circle
x 2 + y 2 = 1 . The arrow shows the
direction of increasing t (Example 9).
(a) Since x 2 + y 2 = cos2 t + sin2 t = 1, the parametric curve lies along the unit circle
x 2 + y 2 = 1. As t increases from 0 to 2p, the point sx, yd = scos t, sin td starts at
(1, 0) and traces the entire circle once counterclockwise (Figure 3.30).
(b) For x = a cos t, y = a sin t, 0 … t … 2p, we have x 2 + y 2 = a 2 cos2 t + a 2 sin2 t = a 2 .
The parametrization describes a motion that begins at the point (a, 0) and traverses the
circle x 2 + y 2 = a 2 once counterclockwise, returning to (a, 0) at t = 2p.
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3.5 The Chain Rule and Parametric Equations
y
EXAMPLE 10
y x 2, x ⱖ 0
197
Moving Along a Parabola
The position P(x, y) of a particle moving in the xy-plane is given by the equations and parameter interval
P(兹t, t)
x = 1t,
t1
t &Uacute; 0.
Identify the path traced by the particle and describe the motion.
(1, 1)
0 Starts at
t0
y = t,
x
FIGURE 3.31 The equations x = 1t
and y = t and the interval t &Uacute; 0 describe
the motion of a particle that traces the
right-hand half of the parabola y = x 2
(Example 10).
We try to identify the path by eliminating t between the equations x = 1t and
y = t. With any luck, this will produce a recognizable algebraic relation between x and y.
We find that
Solution
y = t =
A 1t B 2 = x 2 .
Thus, the particle’s position coordinates satisfy the equation y = x 2 , so the particle moves
along the parabola y = x 2 .
It would be a mistake, however, to conclude that the particle’s path is the entire
parabola y = x 2 ; it is only half the parabola. The particle’s x-coordinate is never negative.
The particle starts at (0, 0) when t = 0 and rises into the first quadrant as t increases
(Figure 3.31). The parameter interval is [0, q d and there is no terminal point.
EXAMPLE 11
Parametrizing a Line Segment
Find a parametrization for the line segment with endpoints s -2, 1d and (3, 5).
Solution
Using s -2, 1d we create the parametric equations
x = - 2 + at,
y = 1 + bt.
These represent a line, as we can see by solving each equation for t and equating to obtain
y - 1
x + 2
a = b .
This line goes through the point s -2, 1d when t = 0. We determine a and b so that the line
goes through (3, 5) when t = 1.
3 = -2 + a
5 = 1 + b
Q
Q
a = 5
b = 4
x = 3 when t = 1 .
y = 5 when t = 1 .
Therefore,
x = - 2 + 5t,
y = 1 + 4t,
0 … t … 1
is a parametrization of the line segment with initial point s - 2, 1d and terminal point (3, 5).
Slopes of Parametrized Curves
A parametrized curve x = ƒstd and y = gstd is differentiable at t if ƒ and g are differentiable at t. At a point on a differentiable parametrized curve where y is also a differentiable
function of x, the derivatives dy&gt;dt, dx&gt;dt, and dy&gt;dx are related by the Chain Rule:
dy dx
dy
# .
=
dt
dx dt
If dx&gt;dt Z 0, we may divide both sides of this equation by dx&gt;dt to solve for dy&gt;dx.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
Parametric Formula for dy/dx
If all three derivatives exist and dx&gt;dt Z 0,
dy&gt;dt
dy
=
.
dx
dx&gt;dt
EXAMPLE 12
(2)
Differentiating with a Parameter
If x = 2t + 3 and y = t 2 - 1, find the value of dy&gt;dx at t = 6.
Solution
Equation (2) gives dy&gt;dx as a function of t:
dy&gt;dt
dy
x - 3
2t
=
= t =
.
=
2
2
dx
dx&gt;dt
When t = 6, dy&gt;dx = 6. Notice that we are also able to find the derivative dy&gt;dx as a
function of x.
EXAMPLE 13
Moving Along the Ellipse x2&gt;a2 + y2&gt;b2 = 1
Describe the motion of a particle whose position P(x, y) at time t is given by
x = a cos t,
y = b sin t,
0 … t … 2p.
Find the line tangent to the curve at the point A a&gt; 22, b&gt; 22 B , where t = p&gt;4. (The constants a and b are both positive.)
We find a Cartesian equation for the particle’s coordinates by eliminating t between the equations
Solution
x
cos t = a ,
sin t =
y
.
b
The identity cos2 t + sin2 t = 1, yields
2
y2
x2
+
= 1.
a2
b2
2
y
x
a a b + a b = 1,
b
or
The particle’s coordinates (x, y) satisfy the equation sx 2&gt;a 2 d + sy 2&gt;b 2 d = 1, so the particle moves along this ellipse. When t = 0, the particle’s coordinates are
x = a cos s0d = a,
y = b sin s0d = 0,
so the motion starts at (a, 0). As t increases, the particle rises and moves toward the left,
moving counterclockwise. It traverses the ellipse once, returning to its starting position
(a, 0) at t = 2p.
The slope of the tangent line to the ellipse when t = p&gt;4 is
dy&gt;dt
dy
`
=
`
dx t = p&gt;4
dx&gt;dt t = p&gt;4
=
b cos t
`
-a sin t t = p&gt;4
b&gt; 22
=
-a&gt; 22
b
= -a.
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3.5 The Chain Rule and Parametric Equations
The tangent line is
y -
b
22
b
= - a ax -
y =
b
22
a
22
b
b
- a ax -
a
22
b
or
b
y = - a x + 22b.
If parametric equations define y as a twice-differentiable function of x, we can apply
Equation (2) to the function dy&gt;dx = y&iquest; to calculate d 2y&gt;dx 2 as a function of t:
d 2y
dx
2
=
dy&iquest;&gt;dt
d
s y&iquest;d =
.
dx
dx&gt;dt
Eq. (2) with y&iquest; in place of y
Parametric Formula for d 2y/dx2
If the equations x = ƒstd, y = gstd define y as a twice-differentiable function of
x, then at any point where dx&gt;dt Z 0,
d 2y
dx
2
=
dy&iquest;&gt;dt
.
dx&gt;dt
(3)
Finding d 2y&gt;dx2 for a Parametrized Curve
EXAMPLE 14
Find d 2y&gt;dx 2 as a function of t if x = t - t 2, y = t - t 3 .
Finding d 2y&gt;dx 2 in Terms of t
1. Express y&iquest; = dy&gt;dx in terms of t.
2. Find dy&iquest;&gt;dt .
3. Divide dy&iquest;&gt;dt by dx&gt;dt.
Solution
1.
Express y&iquest; = dy&gt;dx in terms of t.
y&iquest; =
dy&gt;dt
dy
1 - 3t 2
=
=
1 - 2t
dx
dx&gt;dt
2.
Differentiate y&iquest; with respect to t.
3.
dy&iquest;
2 - 6t + 6t 2
d 1 - 3t 2
=
b =
a
dt
dt 1 - 2t
s1 - 2td2
Divide dy&iquest;&gt;dt by dx&gt;dt.
d 2y
dx 2
EXAMPLE 15
=
Quotient Rule
dy&iquest;&gt;dt
s2 - 6t + 6t 2 d&gt;s1 - 2td2
2 - 6t + 6t 2
=
=
1 - 2t
dx&gt;dt
s1 - 2td3
Eq. (3)
Dropping Emergency Supplies
A Red Cross aircraft is dropping emergency food and medical supplies into a disaster area.
If the aircraft releases the supplies immediately above the edge of an open field 700 ft long
and if the cargo moves along the path
x = 120t
and
y = - 16t 2 + 500,
t &Uacute; 0
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200
y
Chapter 3: Differentiation
Position of aircraft at release
500
Path of dropped cargo
does the cargo land in the field? The coordinates x and y are measured in feet, and the parameter t (time since release) in seconds. Find a Cartesian equation for the path of the
falling cargo (Figure 3.32) and the cargo’s rate of descent relative to its forward motion
when it hits the ground.
Solution
0
Open field
? 700
x
The cargo hits the ground when y = 0, which occurs at time t when
-16t 2 + 500 = 0
525
500
=
sec.
2
A 16
t =
FIGURE 3.32 The path of the dropped
cargo of supplies in Example 15.
Set y = 0 .
t &Uacute; 0
The x-coordinate at the time of the release is x = 0. At the time the cargo hits the ground,
the x-coordinate is
x = 120t = 120 a
525
b = 30025 ft.
2
Since 30025 L 670.8 6 700, the cargo does land in the field.
We find a Cartesian equation for the cargo’s coordinates by eliminating t between the
parametric equations:
y = - 16t 2 + 500
= - 16 a
= -
2
x
b + 500
120
1 2
x + 500.
900
Parametric equation for y
Substitute for t from the
equation x = 120t .
A parabola
The rate of descent relative to its forward motion when the cargo hits the ground is
dy&gt;dt
dy
`
=
`
dx t = 525&gt;2
dx&gt;dt t = 525&gt;2
=
-32t
`
120 t = 525&gt;2
= -
225
L - 1.49.
3
Thus, it is falling about 1.5 feet for every foot of forward motion when it hits the ground.
USING TECHNOLOGY
Simulation of Motion on a Vertical Line
The parametric equations
xstd = c,
x (t ) = 2
y (t ) = 160t –16t 2
and
x (t ) = t
y (t ) = 160t –16t 2
in dot mode
ystd = ƒstd
will illuminate pixels along the vertical line x = c. If ƒ(t) denotes the height of a moving
body at time t, graphing sxstd, ystdd = sc, ƒstdd will simulate the actual motion. Try it for
the rock in Example 5, Section 3.3 with xstd = 2, say, and ystd = 160t - 16t 2 , in dot
mode with t Step = 0.1. Why does the spacing of the dots vary? Why does the grapher seem
to stop after it reaches the top? (Try the plots for 0 … t … 5 and 5 … t … 10 separately.)
For a second experiment, plot the parametric equations
xstd = t,
ystd = 160t - 16t 2
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3.5 The Chain Rule and Parametric Equations
201
together with the vertical line simulation of the motion, again in dot mode. Use what you
know about the behavior of the rock from the calculations of Example 5 to select a window size that will display all the interesting behavior.
Standard Parametrizations and Derivative Rules
CIRCLE
x2 + y2 = a2 :
ELLIPSE
x = a cos t
y = a sin t
0 … t … 2p
FUNCTION
y2
x2
+ 2 = 1:
2
a
b
x = a cos t
y = b sin t
0 … t … 2p
y = ƒsxd :
DERIVATIVES
x = t
y = ƒstd
y&iquest; =
dy&gt;dt
dy
=
,
dx
dx&gt;dt
d 2y
dx
2
=
dy&iquest;&gt;dt
dx&gt;dt
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3.5 The Chain Rule and Parametric Equations
EXERCISES 3.5
Derivative Calculations
In Exercises 1–8, given y = ƒsud and u = gsxd , find dy&gt;dx =
ƒ&iquest;sgsxddg&iquest;sxd .
u = s1&gt;2dx
1. y = 6u - 9,
4
3
2. y = 2u ,
u = 8x - 1
3. y = sin u,
u = 3x + 1
4. y = cos u,
u = - x&gt;3
5. y = cos u,
u = sin x
6. y = sin u,
u = x - cos x
7. y = tan u,
u = 10x - 5
8. y = - sec u,
u = x 2 + 7x
In Exercises 9–18, write the function in the form y = ƒsud and
u = gsxd . Then find dy&gt;dx as a function of x.
9. y = s2x + 1d5
11. y = a1 -
x
b
7
10. y = s4 - 3xd9
12. y = a
-7
x2
1
13. y = a + x - x b
8
4
x
- 1b
2
-10
x
1
b
14. y = a +
5
5x
5
22. s = sin a
3pt
3pt
b + cos a
b
2
2
23. r = scsc u + cot ud-1
24. r = - ssec u + tan ud-1
25. y = x 2 sin4 x + x cos-2 x
x
1
26. y = x sin-5 x - cos3 x
3
27. y =
1
1
s3x - 2d7 + a4 b
21
2x 2
1 2
a + 1b
8 x
28. y = s5 - 2xd-3 +
-1
4
29. y = s4x + 3d4sx + 1d-3
30. y = s2x - 5d-1sx 2 - 5xd6
31. hsxd = x tan A 21x B + 7
1
32. k sxd = x 2 sec a x b
33. ƒsud = a
sin u
b
1 + cos u
2
34. g std = a
1 + cos t
b
sin t
15. y = sec stan xd
1
16. y = cot ap - x b
35. r = sin su2 d cos s2ud
1
36. r = sec 2u tan a b
u
17. y = sin3 x
18. y = 5 cos-4 x
37. q = sin a
sin t
38. q = cot a t b
Find the derivatives of the functions in Exercises 19–38.
20. q = 22r - r 2
19. p = 23 - t
21. s =
4
4
sin 3t +
cos 5t
5p
3p
t
2t + 1
b
-1
In Exercises 39–48, find dy&gt;dt.
39. y = sin2 spt - 2d
40. y = sec2 pt
41. y = s1 + cos 2td
42. y = s1 + cot st&gt;2dd-2
-4
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
t
44. y = cos a5 sin a b b
3
43. y = sin scos s2t - 5dd
45. y = a1 + tan4 a
t
bb
12
47. y = 21 + cos st 2 d
Find the derivatives with respect to x of the following combinations at the given value of x,
1
A 1 + cos2 A 7t B B 3
6
3
46. y =
48. y = 4 sin A 21 + 1t B
50. y = A 1 - 1x B
3
Choices in Composition
What happens if you can write a function as a composite in different
ways? Do you get the same derivative each time? The Chain Rule says
you should. Try it with the functions in Exercises 63 and 64.
In Exercises 53–58, find the value of sƒ gd&iquest; at the given value of x.
53. ƒsud = u 5 + 1,
u = g sxd = 1x,
1
54. ƒsud = 1 - u ,
u = g sxd =
2u
,
57. ƒsud = 2
u + 1
58. ƒsud = a
x = 1
1
,
1 - x
u = g sxd = 5 1x,
x = -1
u = g sxd = px,
u = g sxd = 10x + x + 1,
g(x)
ƒ(x)
g(x)
2
3
8
3
2
-4
1&gt;3
2p
-3
5
u = 1&gt;sx - 1d .
and
and
u = 1x
u = x3 .
b. ƒsxd + g sxd,
x = 2
x = 3
d. ƒsxd&gt;g sxd,
x = 3
x = 2
x = 2
f. 2ƒsxd,
x = 3
h. 2f sxd + g 2sxd,
2
x = 2
x = 2
60. Suppose that the functions ƒ and g and their derivatives with respect to x have the following values at x = 0 and x = 1 .
x
ƒ(x)
g(x)
ƒ(x)
g(x)
0
1
1
3
1
-4
5
- 1&gt;3
1&gt;3
- 8&gt;3
b. Slopes on a tangent curve What is the smallest value the
slope of the curve can ever have on the interval
- 2 6 x 6 2 ? Give reasons for your answer.
66. Slopes on sine curves
a. Find equations for the tangents to the curves y = sin 2x and
y = - sin sx&gt;2d at the origin. Is there anything special about
b. Can anything be said about the tangents to the curves
y = sin mx and y = - sin sx&gt;md at the origin
Find the derivatives with respect to x of the following combinations at the given value of x.
g. 1&gt;g sxd,
and
65. a. Find the tangent to the curve y = 2 tan spx&gt;4d at x = 1 .
x = 0
u = g sxd =
ƒ(x)
2
b. y = 1 + s1&gt;ud
Tangents and Slopes
x
e. ƒsg sxdd,
u = 5x - 35
x = 1&gt;4
2
c. ƒsxd # g sxd,
and
a. y = u 3
1
- 1, x = - 1
x2
59. Suppose that functions ƒ and g and their derivatives with respect
to x have the following values at x = 2 and x = 3 .
a. 2ƒsxd,
a. y = su&gt;5d + 7
64. Find dy&gt;dx if y = x 3&gt;2 by using the Chain Rule with y as a composite of
x = 1
2
u - 1
b ,
u + 1
63. Find dy&gt;dx if y = x by using the Chain Rule with y as a composite of
b. y = 1u
1
,
cos2 u
x = 1
x = 0
62. Find dy&gt;dt when x = 1 if y = x 2 + 7x - 5 and dx&gt;dt = 1&gt;3 .
Finding Numerical Values of Derivatives
56. ƒsud = u +
f. sx 11 + ƒsxdd-2,
x = 0
x = 0
-1
x
52. y = 9 tan a b
3
1
51. y = cot s3x - 1d
9
pu
,
10
e. g sƒsxdd,
d. ƒsg sxdd,
x = 0
61. Find ds&gt;dt when u = 3p&gt;2 if s = cos u and d u&gt;dt = 5 .
Find y– in Exercises 49–52.
55. ƒsud = cot
b. ƒsxdg 3sxd,
g. ƒsx + g sxdd,
Second Derivatives
1
49. y = a1 + x b
a. 5ƒsxd - g sxd, x = 1
ƒsxd
, x = 1
c.
g sxd + 1
c. For a given m, what are the largest values the slopes of the
curves y = sin mx and y = - sin sx&gt;md can ever have? Give
d. The function y = sin x completes one period on the interval
[0, 2p] , the function y = sin 2x completes two periods, the
function y = sin sx&gt;2d completes half a period, and so on. Is
there any relation between the number of periods y = sin mx
completes on [0, 2p] and the slope of the curve y = sin mx at
Finding Cartesian Equations from
Parametric Equations
Exercises 67–78 give parametric equations and parameter intervals for
the motion of a particle in the xy-plane. Identify the particle’s path by
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203
3.5 The Chain Rule and Parametric Equations
finding a Cartesian equation for it. Graph the Cartesian equation. (The
graphs will vary with the equation used.) Indicate the portion of the
graph traced by the particle and the direction of motion.
0 … t … p
68. x = cos sp - td,
y = sin sp - td,
0 … t … p
69. x = 4 cos t,
y = 2 sin t,
70. x = 4 sin t,
y = 5 cos t, 0 … t … 2p
-q 6 t 6 q
71. x = 3t,
0 … t … 2p
y = 9t 2,
72. x = - 1t,
y = t,
t &Uacute; 0
73. x = 2t - 5,
y = 4t - 7,
74. x = 3 - 3t,
y = 2t,
75. x = t,
76. x = 2t + 1,
78. x = - sec t,
-1 … t … 0
y = 1t,
77. x = sec2 t - 1,
t &Uacute; 0
y = tan t,
y = tan t,
- p&gt;2 6 t 6 p&gt;2
- p&gt;2 6 t 6 p&gt;2
Determining Parametric Equations
79. Find parametric equations and a parameter interval for the motion
of a particle that starts at (a, 0) and traces the circle x 2 + y 2 = a 2
a. once clockwise.
b. once counterclockwise.
c. twice clockwise.
d. twice counterclockwise.
(There are many ways to do these, so your answers may not be the
same as the ones in the back of the book.)
80. Find parametric equations and a parameter interval for the motion
of a particle that starts at (a, 0) and traces the ellipse
sx 2&gt;a 2 d + sy 2&gt;b 2 d = 1
a. once clockwise.
b. once counterclockwise.
c. twice clockwise.
d. twice counterclockwise.
(As in Exercise 79, there are many correct answers.)
In Exercises 81–86, find a parametrization for the curve.
81. the line segment with endpoints s - 1, -3d and (4, 1)
82. the line segment with endpoints s - 1, 3d and s3, - 2d
83. the lower half of the parabola x - 1 = y 2
84. the left half of the parabola y = x 2 + 2x
85. the ray (half line) with initial point (2, 3) that passes through the
point s - 1, -1d
86. the ray (half line) with initial point s - 1, 2d that passes through
the point (0, 0)
Tangents to Parametrized Curves
In Exercises 87–94, find an equation for the line tangent to the curve
at the point defined by the given value of t. Also, find the value of
d 2y&gt;dx 2 at this point.
87. x = 2 cos t,
88. x = cos t,
89. x = t,
y = 2 sin t,
y = 23 cos t,
y = 1t,
4
t = 1&gt;4
t = p&gt;4
t = 2p&gt;3
t = 3
91. x = 2t + 3,
y = t ,
92. x = t - sin t,
y = 1 - cos t,
93. x = cos t,
t = -1
y = 1 + sin t,
94. x = sec2 t - 1,
y = tan t,
t = p&gt;3
t = p&gt;2
t = - p&gt;4
Theory, Examples, and Applications
95. Running machinery too fast Suppose that a piston is moving
straight up and down and that its position at time t sec is
-q 6 t 6 q
0 … t … 1
y = 21 - t 2,
y = 23t,
s = A cos s2pbtd ,
with A and b positive. The value of A is the amplitude of the motion, and b is the frequency (number of times the piston moves up
and down each second). What effect does doubling the frequency
have on the piston’s velocity, acceleration, and jerk? (Once you find
out, you will know why machinery breaks when you run it too fast.)
96. Temperatures in Fairbanks, Alaska The graph in Figure 3.33
shows the average Fahrenheit temperature in Fairbanks, Alaska,
during a typical 365-day year. The equation that approximates the
temperature on day x is
y = 37 sin c
2p
sx - 101d d + 25 .
365
a. On what day is the temperature increasing the fastest?
b. About how many degrees per day is the temperature
increasing when it is increasing at its fastest?
y
60
40
20
0
..
......
.
..
.. ..
...
....
....
....... .... . ........
.. .
....
....
...
.
....
.
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
.
...
....
............
..... .
.
....
....
x
–20
Ja
n
Fe
b
M
ar
A
pr
M
ay
Ju
n
Ju
l
A
ug
Se
p
O
ct
N
ov
D
ec
Ja
n
Fe
b
M
ar
y = sin 2t,
2
Temperature (˚F)
67. x = cos 2t,
90. x = - 2t + 1,
FIGURE 3.33 Normal mean air temperatures at Fairbanks,
Alaska, plotted as data points, and the approximating sine
function (Exercise 96).
97. Particle motion The position of a particle moving along a coordinate line is s = 21 + 4t , with s in meters and t in seconds.
Find the particle’s velocity and acceleration at t = 6 sec.
98. Constant acceleration Suppose that the velocity of a falling
body is y = k 1s m&gt;sec (k a constant) at the instant the body has
fallen s m from its starting point. Show that the body’s acceleration is constant.
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204
Chapter 3: Differentiation
99. Falling meteorite The velocity of a heavy meteorite entering
Earth’s atmosphere is inversely proportional to 1s when it is s
km from Earth’s center. Show that the meteorite’s acceleration is
inversely proportional to s 2 .
100. Particle acceleration A particle moves along the x-axis with
velocity dx&gt;dt = ƒsxd . Show that the particle’s acceleration is
ƒsxdƒ&iquest;sxd .
101. Temperature and the period of a pendulum For oscillations
of small amplitude (short swings), we may safely model the relationship between the period T and the length L of a simple pendulum with the equation
L
T = 2p g ,
A
dL
= kL .
du
107.
y
108.
x sin t
y sin 2t
1
y
1
x
x sin 2t
y sin 3t
–1
x
1
–1
Using the Chain Rule, show that the power rule sd&gt;dxdx n = nx n - 1
holds for the functions x n in Exercises 109 and 110.
109. x 1&gt;4 = 2 1x
110. x 3&gt;4 = 2x 1x
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
Assuming this to be the case, show that the rate at which the period changes with respect to temperature is kT&gt;2.
102. Chain Rule Suppose that ƒsxd = x 2 and g sxd = ƒ x ƒ . Then the
composites
and
T The curves in Exercises 107 and 108 are called Bowditch curves or
Lissajous figures. In each case, find the point in the interior of the first
quadrant where the tangent to the curve is horizontal, and find the
equations of the two tangents at the origin.
–1
where g is the constant acceleration of gravity at the pendulum’s location. If we measure g in centimeters per second squared, we measure L in centimeters and T in seconds. If the pendulum is made of
metal, its length will vary with temperature, either increasing or decreasing at a rate that is roughly proportional to L. In symbols, with
u being temperature and k the proportionality constant,
sƒ gdsxd = ƒ x ƒ 2 = x 2
for h = 1.0, 0.7, and 0.3 . Experiment with other values of h.
What do you see happening as h : 0 ? Explain this behavior.
sg ƒdsxd = ƒ x 2 ƒ = x 2
are both differentiable at x = 0 even though g itself is not differentiable at x = 0 . Does this contradict the Chain Rule? Explain.
103. Tangents Suppose that u = g sxd is differentiable at x = 1 and
that y = ƒsud is differentiable at u = g s1d . If the graph of
y = ƒsg sxdd has a horizontal tangent at x = 1 , can we conclude
anything about the tangent to the graph of g at x = 1 or the tangent to the graph of f at u = g s1d ? Give reasons for your answer.
104. Suppose that u = g sxd is differentiable at x = - 5, y = ƒsud is
differentiable at u = g s -5d , and sƒ gd&iquest;s - 5d is negative.
What, if anything, can be said about the values of g&iquest;s - 5d and
ƒ&iquest;sg s - 5dd ?
Trigonometric Polynomials
111. As Figure 3.34 shows, the trigonometric “polynomial”
s = ƒstd = 0.78540 - 0.63662 cos 2t - 0.07074 cos 6t
-0.02546 cos 10t - 0.01299 cos 14t
gives a good approximation of the sawtooth function s = g std
on the interval [-p, p] . How well does the derivative of ƒ approximate the derivative of g at the points where dg&gt;dt is defined? To find out, carry out the following steps.
a. Graph dg&gt;dt (where defined) over [ -p, p] .
b. Find dƒ&gt;dt.
c. Graph dƒ&gt;dt. Where does the approximation of dg&gt;dt by
dƒ&gt;dt seem to be best? Least good? Approximations by
trigonometric polynomials are important in the theories of
heat and oscillation, but we must not expect too much of
them, as we see in the next exercise.
T 105. The derivative of sin 2x Graph the function y = 2 cos 2x for
-2 … x … 3.5 . Then, on the same screen, graph
y =
s
sin 2sx + hd - sin 2x
h
for h = 1.0, 0.5 , and 0.2. Experiment with other values of h, including negative values. What do you see happening as h : 0 ?
Explain this behavior.
2
2
T 106. The derivative of cos sx d Graph y = - 2x sin sx d for
-2 … x … 3 . Then, on the same screen, graph
cos ssx + hd2 d - cos sx 2 d
y =
h
2
–
0
s g(t)
s f(t)
FIGURE 3.34 The approximation of a
sawtooth function by a trigonometric
“polynomial” (Exercise 111).
t
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3.5 The Chain Rule and Parametric Equations
112. (Continuation of Exercise 111.) In Exercise 111, the trigonometric polynomial ƒ(t) that approximated the sawtooth function g(t)
on [- p, p] had a derivative that approximated the derivative of
the sawtooth function. It is possible, however, for a trigonometric
polynomial to approximate a function in a reasonable way without its derivative approximating the function’s derivative at all
well. As a case in point, the “polynomial”
s = hstd = 1.2732 sin 2t + 0.4244 sin 6t + 0.25465 sin 10t
+ 0.18189 sin 14t + 0.14147 sin 18t
s
s k(t)
–
–
2
2
–1
b. Find dh&gt;dt.
c. Graph dh&gt;dt to see how badly the graph fits the graph of
dk&gt;dt. Comment on what you see.
Parametrized Curves
Use a CAS to perform the following steps on the parametrized curves
in Exercises 113–116.
b. Find dy&gt;dx and d 2y&gt;dx 2 at the point t0 .
c. Find an equation for the tangent line to the curve at the point
defined by the given value t0 . Plot the curve together with
the tangent line on a single graph.
113. x =
s h(t)
0
a. Graph dk&gt;dt (where defined) over [- p, p] .
a. Plot the curve for the given interval of t values.
graphed in Figure 3.35 approximates the step function s = kstd
shown there. Yet the derivative of h is nothing like the derivative
of k.
1
205
t
1 3
t ,
3
y =
1 2
t ,
2
0 … t … 1,
114. x = 2t 3 - 16t 2 + 25t + 5,
t0 = 3&gt;2
115. x = t - cos t,
t
116. x = e cos t,
y = t 2 + t - 3,
y = 1 + sin t,
t
y = e sin t,
t0 = 1&gt;2
-p … t … p,
0 … t … p,
FIGURE 3.35 The approximation of a
step function by a trigonometric
“polynomial” (Exercise 112).
0 … t … 6,
t0 = p&gt;4
t0 = p&gt;2
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3.6 Implicit Differentiation
Implicit Differentiation
3.6
y
y1 兹25 x 2
Most of the functions we have dealt with so far have been described by an equation of the
form y = ƒsxd that expresses y explicitly in terms of the variable x. We have learned rules
for differentiating functions defined in this way. In Section 3.5 we also learned how to find
the derivative dy&gt;dx when a curve is defined parametrically by equations x = xstd and
y = ystd . A third situation occurs when we encounter equations like
x 2 + y 2 - 25 = 0,
–5
0
5
x
(3, – 4)
y2 –兹25 x 2
205
Slope – xy 3
4
FIGURE 3.36 The circle combines the
graphs of two functions. The graph of y2 is
the lower semicircle and passes through
s3, -4d .
y 2 - x = 0,
or
x 3 + y 3 - 9xy = 0.
(See Figures 3.36, 3.37, and 3.38.) These equations define an implicit relation between the
variables x and y. In some cases we may be able to solve such an equation for y as an explicit function (or even several functions) of x. When we cannot put an equation
Fsx, yd = 0 in the form y = ƒsxd to differentiate it in the usual way, we may still be able
to find dy&gt;dx by implicit differentiation. This consists of differentiating both sides of the
equation with respect to x and then solving the resulting equation for y&iquest; . This section describes the technique and uses it to extend the Power Rule for differentiation to include rational exponents. In the examples and exercises of this section it is always assumed that the
given equation determines y implicitly as a differentiable function of x.
Implicitly Defined Functions
We begin with an example.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:17 AM Page 206
206
y
Chapter 3: Differentiation
EXAMPLE 1
y2 x
Differentiating Implicitly
2
Slope 1 1
2y1 2兹x
Find dy&gt;dx if y = x.
y1 兹x
The equation y 2 = x defines two differentiable functions of x that we can actually find, namely y1 = 1x and y2 = - 1x (Figure 3.37). We know how to calculate the
derivative of each of these for x 7 0:
Solution
P(x, 兹x )
x
0
dy1
1
=
dx
21x
Q(x, 兹x )
y 2 兹x
Slope 1 1
2y 2
2兹x
FIGURE 3.37 The equation y 2 - x = 0 ,
or y 2 = x as it is usually written, defines
two differentiable functions of x on the
interval x &Uacute; 0 . Example 1 shows how to
find the derivatives of these functions
without solving the equation y 2 = x for y.
and
dy2
1
= .
dx
21x
But suppose that we knew only that the equation y 2 = x defined y as one or more differentiable functions of x for x 7 0 without knowing exactly what these functions were.
Could we still find dy&gt;dx?
The answer is yes. To find dy&gt;dx, we simply differentiate both sides of the equation
y 2 = x with respect to x, treating y = ƒsxd as a differentiable function of x:
y2 = x
dy
= 1
2y
dx
dy
1
=
.
2y
dx
d 2
Ay B =
dx
dy
d
C ƒ A x B D 2 = 2ƒsxdƒ&iquest;sxd = 2y dx .
dx
The Chain Rule gives
y
5
This one formula gives the derivatives we calculated for both explicit solutions y1 = 1x
and y2 = - 1x:
y f1(x)
(x 0, y 1)
dy1
1
1
=
=
2y1
dx
21x
A
and
x 3 y 3 9xy 0
y f2(x)
(x 0, y 2)
x0
0
5
EXAMPLE 2
x
dy2
1
1
1
=
=
= .
2y2
dx
21x
2 A - 1x B
Slope of a Circle at a Point
Find the slope of circle x 2 + y 2 = 25 at the point s3, - 4d.
The circle is not the graph of a single function of x. Rather it is the combined
graphs of two differentiable functions, y1 = 225 - x 2 and y2 = - 225 - x 2 (Figure
3.36). The point s3, -4d lies on the graph of y2 , so we can find the slope by calculating
explicitly:
Solution
(x 0, y3)
y f3 (x)
FIGURE 3.38 The curve
x 3 + y 3 - 9xy = 0 is not the graph
of any one function of x. The curve can,
however, be divided into separate arcs that
are the graphs of functions of x. This
particular curve, called a folium, dates to
Descartes in 1638.
dy2
-6
3
- 2x
`
= `
= = .
2 x=3
4
dx x = 3
2225 - x
2225 - 9
But we can also solve the problem more easily by differentiating the given equation of the
circle implicitly with respect to x:
d 2
d
d
A x B + dx A y 2 B = dx A 25 B
dx
dy
= 0
2x + 2y
dx
dy
x
= -y.
dx
x
The slope at s3, -4d is - y `
= s3, -4d
3
3
= .
-4
4
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3.6 Implicit Differentiation
207
Notice that unlike the slope formula for dy2&gt;dx, which applies only to points below the
x-axis, the formula dy&gt;dx = - x&gt;y applies everywhere the circle has a slope. Notice also
that the derivative involves both variables x and y, not just the independent variable x.
To calculate the derivatives of other implicitly defined functions, we proceed as in Examples 1 and 2: We treat y as a differentiable implicit function of x and apply the usual
rules to differentiate both sides of the defining equation.
y
EXAMPLE 3
y2 x2 sin xy
4
Differentiating Implicitly
2
Find dy&gt;dx if y = x 2 + sin xy (Figure 3.39).
Solution
2
y 2 = x 2 + sin xy
–4
–2
0
4
2
x
d 2
d
d
A y B = dx A x 2 B + dx A sin xy B
dx
–2
2y
dy
d
= 2x + scos xyd A xy B
dx
dx
&Aacute; treating y as a function of
x and using the Chain Rule.
2y
dy
dy
= 2x + scos xyd ay + x b
dx
dx
Treat xy as a product.
–4
FIGURE 3.39 The graph of
y 2 = x 2 + sin xy in Example 3. The
example shows how to find slopes on this
implicitly defined curve.
2y
Differentiate both sides with
respect to x &Aacute;
dy
dy
- scos xyd ax b = 2x + scos xydy
dx
dx
s2y - x cos xyd
Collect terms with dy&gt;dx &Aacute;
dy
= 2x + y cos xy
dx
&Aacute; and factor out dy&gt;dx .
2x + y cos xy
dy
=
2y - x cos xy
dx
Solve for dy&gt;dx by dividing.
Notice that the formula for dy&gt;dx applies everywhere that the implicitly defined curve has
a slope. Notice again that the derivative involves both variables x and y, not just the independent variable x.
Light ray
Tangent
Curve of lens
surface
Normal line
A
Point of entry
P
Implicit Differentiation
1. Differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to x, treating y as a differentiable function of x.
2. Collect the terms with dy&gt;dx on one side of the equation.
3. Solve for dy&gt;dx.
B
Lenses, Tangents, and Normal Lines
FIGURE 3.40 The profile of a lens,
showing the bending (refraction) of a ray
of light as it passes through the lens
surface.
In the law that describes how light changes direction as it enters a lens, the important angles are the angles the light makes with the line perpendicular to the surface of the lens at
the point of entry (angles A and B in Figure 3.40). This line is called the normal to the surface at the point of entry. In a profile view of a lens like the one in Figure 3.40, the normal
is the line perpendicular to the tangent to the profile curve at the point of entry.
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208
Chapter 3: Differentiation
y
EXAMPLE 4
t
en
g
an
Tangent and Normal to the Folium of Descartes
Show that the point (2, 4) lies on the curve x 3 + y 3 - 9xy = 0. Then find the tangent and
normal to the curve there (Figure 3.41).
T
4
No
al
rm
x 3 y 3 9xy 0
0
2
x
FIGURE 3.41 Example 4 shows how to
find equations for the tangent and normal
to the folium of Descartes at (2, 4).
Solution The point (2, 4) lies on the curve because its coordinates satisfy the equation
given for the curve: 23 + 43 - 9s2ds4d = 8 + 64 - 72 = 0.
To find the slope of the curve at (2, 4), we first use implicit differentiation to find a
formula for dy&gt;dx:
x 3 + y 3 - 9xy
d 3
d
d
A x B + dx A y 3 B - dx A 9xy B
dx
dy
dy
dx
- 9 ax
+ y b
3x 2 + 3y 2
dx
dx
dx
dy
+ 3x 2 - 9y
s3y 2 - 9xd
dx
dy
3sy 2 - 3xd
dx
dy
dx
= 0
d
=
A0B
dx
Differentiate both sides
with respect to x.
Treat xy as a product and y
as a function of x.
= 0
= 0
= 9y - 3x 2
3y - x 2
=
y 2 - 3x
.
Solve for dy&gt;dx.
We then evaluate the derivative at sx, yd = s2, 4d:
dy
3y - x 2
3s4d - 22
8
4
= .
`
= 2
`
= 2
=
5
10
dx s2, 4d
y - 3x s2, 4d
4 - 3s2d
The tangent at (2, 4) is the line through (2, 4) with slope 4&gt;5:
y = 4 +
y =
4
x - 2B
5A
4
12
.
x +
5
5
The normal to the curve at (2, 4) is the line perpendicular to the tangent there, the line
through (2, 4) with slope -5&gt;4:
5
sx - 2d
4
5
13
.
y = - x +
4
2
y = 4 -
The quadratic formula enables us to solve a second-degree equation like
y 2 - 2xy + 3x 2 = 0 for y in terms of x. There is a formula for the three roots of a cubic
equation that is like the quadratic formula but much more complicated. If this formula is
used to solve the equation x 3 + y 3 = 9xy for y in terms of x, then three functions determined by the equation are
y = ƒsxd =
x3
x6
x3
x6
+
- 27x 3 + 3 - 27x 3
C 2
C 2
B4
B4
3
-
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3.6 Implicit Differentiation
209
and
y =
x6
x6
x3
x3
1
+
- 27x 3 - 3 - 27x 3 b d .
c-ƒsxd ; 2 - 3 a 3 2
C 2
C 2
B4
B4
Using implicit differentiation in Example 4 was much simpler than calculating dy&gt;dx directly from any of the above formulas. Finding slopes on curves defined by higher-degree
equations usually requires implicit differentiation.
Derivatives of Higher Order
Implicit differentiation can also be used to find higher derivatives. Here is an example.
EXAMPLE 5
2
Finding a Second Derivative Implicitly
2
Find d y&gt;dx if 2x 3 - 3y 2 = 8.
Solution To start, we differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to x in order to
find y&iquest; = dy&gt;dx.
d
d
A 2x 3 - 3y 2 B = dx s8d
dx
6x 2 - 6yy&iquest; = 0
x 2 - yy&iquest; = 0
x2
y&iquest; = y ,
Treat y as a function of x.
when y Z 0
Solve for y&iquest; .
We now apply the Quotient Rule to find y– .
y– =
2xy - x 2y&iquest;
x2 #
d x2
2x
ay b =
=
y&iquest;
y
dx
y2
y2
Finally, we substitute y&iquest; = x 2&gt;y to express y– in terms of x and y.
x2 x2
2x
x4
2x
y– = y - 2 a y b = y - 3 ,
y
y
when y Z 0
Rational Powers of Differentiable Functions
We know that the rule
d n
x = nx n - 1
dx
holds when n is an integer. Using implicit differentiation we can show that it holds when n
is any rational number.
THEOREM 4
Power Rule for Rational Powers
If p&gt;q is a rational number, then x p&gt;q is differentiable at every interior point of the
domain of x sp&gt;qd - 1 , and
p
d p&gt;q
x
= q x sp&gt;qd - 1 .
dx
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
EXAMPLE 6
(a)
(b)
(c)
Using the Rational Power Rule
d 1&gt;2
A x B = 21 x -1&gt;2 = 1
dx
21x
d 2&gt;3
A x B = 32 x -1&gt;3
dx
d -4&gt;3
A x B = - 34 x -7&gt;3
dx
Proof of Theorem 4
x p&gt;q . Then
for x 7 0
for x Z 0
for x Z 0
q
Let p and q be integers with q 7 0 and suppose that y = 2x p =
yq = xp.
Since p and q are integers (for which we already have the Power Rule), and assuming that
y is a differentiable function of x, we can differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to x and get
qy q - 1
dy
= px p - 1 .
dx
If y Z 0, we can divide both sides of the equation by qy q - 1 to solve for dy&gt;dx, obtaining
dy
px p - 1
=
dx
qy q - 1
p
xp-1
= q # p&gt;q q - 1
sx d
p xp-1
= q # p - p&gt;q
x
p
= q # x s p - 1d - s p - p&gt;qd
y = x p&gt;q
p
p
q sq - 1d = p - q
A law of exponents
p
= q # x s p&gt;qd - 1,
which proves the rule.
We will drop the assumption of differentiability used in the proof of Theorem 4 in
Chapter 7, where we prove the Power Rule for any nonzero real exponent. (See Section
7.3.)
By combining the result of Theorem 4 with the Chain Rule, we get an extension of the
Power Chain Rule to rational powers of u: If p&gt;q is a rational number and u is a differentiable function of x, then u p&gt;q is a differentiable function of x and
p
d p&gt;q
du
u
= q u s p&gt;qd - 1
,
dx
dx
provided that u Z 0 if s p&gt;qd 6 1. This restriction is necessary because 0 might be in the
domain of u p&gt;q but not in the domain of u s p&gt;qd - 1 , as we see in the next example.
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3.6 Implicit Differentiation
EXAMPLE 7
Using the Rational Power and Chain Rules
function defined on [ -1, 1]
\$++%++&amp;
(a)
d
A 1 - x 2 B 1&gt;4 = 41 A 1 - x 2 B -3&gt;4(- 2x)
dx
=
Power Chain Rule with u = 1 - x 2
-x
2 A 1 - x 2 B 3&gt;4
(+++)+++*
derivative defined only on s -1, 1d
(b)
d
d
1
scos xd-1&gt;5 = - scos xd-6&gt;5 scos xd
5
dx
dx
= =
1
scos xd-6&gt;5 s - sin xd
5
1
ssin xdscos xd-6&gt;5
5
211
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3.6 Implicit Differentiation
211
EXERCISES 3.6
Derivatives of Rational Powers
Find dr&gt;du in Exercises 33-36.
Find dy&gt;dx in Exercises 1-10.
33. u1&gt;2 + r 1&gt;2 = 1
1. y = x 9&gt;4
2. y = x -3&gt;5
3. y = 22x
4. y = 25x
5. y = 72x + 6
6. y = - 2 2x - 1
7. y = s2x + 5d-1&gt;2
8. y = s1 - 6xd2&gt;3
9. y = xsx 2 + 1d1&gt;2
10. y = xsx 2 + 1d-1&gt;2
4
3
35. sin sr ud =
Find the first derivatives of the functions in Exercises 11-18.
7
1
2
12. r = 2u-3
3 2&gt;3
4
u + u3&gt;4
2
3
36. cos r + cot u = r u
Second Derivatives
In Exercises 37-42, use implicit differentiation to find dy&gt;dx and then
d 2y&gt;dx 2 .
37. x 2 + y 2 = 1
4
11. s = 2t 2
34. r - 22u =
38. x 2&gt;3 + y 2&gt;3 = 1
13. y = sin [s2t + 5d-2&gt;3]
14. z = cos [s1 - 6td2&gt;3]
39. y = x + 2x
40. y 2 - 2x = 1 - 2y
15. ƒsxd = 21 - 1x
16. gsxd = 2s2x -1&gt;2 + 1d-1&gt;3
41. 2 1y = x - y
42. xy + y 2 = 1
3
1 + cos s2ud
17. hsud = 2
18. ksud = ssin su + 5dd5&gt;4
2
2
3
3
43. If x + y = 16 , find the value of d 2y&gt;dx 2 at the point (2, 2).
44. If xy + y 2 = 1 , find the value of d 2y&gt;dx 2 at the point s0, -1d .
Differentiating Implicitly
Use implicit differentiation to find dy&gt;dx in Exercises 19-32.
Slopes, Tangents, and Normals
19. x 2y + xy 2 = 6
In Exercises 45 and 46, find the slope of the curve at the given points.
20. x 3 + y 3 = 18xy
2
3
21. 2xy + y = x + y
2
2
2
23. x sx - yd = x - y
x - 1
x + 1
3
22. x - xy + y = 1
2
2
24. s3xy + 7d = 6y
x - y
26. x 2 =
x + y
45. y 2 + x 2 = y 4 - 2x
at
46. sx 2 + y 2 d2 = sx - yd2
s - 2, 1d and s - 2, - 1d
at
s1, 0d and s1, -1d
27. x = tan y
28. xy = cot sxyd
In Exercises 47-56, verify that the given point is on the curve and find
the lines that are (a) tangent and (b) normal to the curve at the given
point.
29. x + tan sxyd = 0
30. x + sin y = xy
47. x 2 + xy - y 2 = 1,
1
32. y 2 cos a y b = 2x + 2y
48. x 2 + y 2 = 25,
25. y 2 =
1
31. y sin a y b = 1 - xy
49. x 2y 2 = 9,
s2, 3d
s3, - 4d
s - 1, 3d
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
50. y 2 - 2x - 4y - 1 = 0,
2
51. 6x + 3xy + 2y + 17y - 6 = 0,
A 23, 2 B
52. x - 23xy + 2y = 5,
2
2
54. x sin 2y = y cos 2x,
sp&gt;4, p&gt;2d
55. y = 2 sin spx - yd,
s1, 0d
2
s -1, 0d
y
y 4 4y 2 x 4 9x 2
s1, p&gt;2d
53. 2xy + p sin y = 2p,
2
61. The devil’s curve (Gabriel Cramer [the Cramer of Cramer’s
rule], 1750) Find the slopes of the devil’s curve y 4 - 4y 2 =
x 4 - 9x 2 at the four indicated points.
s - 2, 1d
2
56. x cos y - sin y = 0,
57. Parallel tangents Find the two points where the curve
x 2 + xy + y 2 = 7 crosses the x-axis, and show that the tangents
to the curve at these points are parallel. What is the common
slope of these tangents?
58. Tangents parallel to the coordinate axes Find points on the
curve x 2 + xy + y 2 = 7 (a) where the tangent is parallel to the
x-axis and (b) where the tangent is parallel to the y-axis. In the
latter case, dy&gt;dx is not defined, but dx&gt;dy is. What value does
dx&gt;dy have at these points?
59. The eight curve Find the slopes of the curve y 4 = y 2 - x 2 at
the two points shown here.
y
–3
x
3
(–3, –2)
(3, –2)
–2
62. The folium of Descartes (See Figure 3.38)
a. Find the slope of the folium of Descartes, x 3 + y 3 - 9xy = 0
at the points (4, 2) and (2, 4).
b. At what point other than the origin does the folium have a
horizontal tangent?
Implicitly Defined Parametrizations
兹3 , 1 
 4 2
y4 y2 x2
(3, 2)
c. Find the coordinates of the point A in Figure 3.38, where the
folium has a vertical tangent.
兹3 , 兹3 
 4
2 
1
2
(–3, 2)
s0, pd
Assuming that the equations in Exercises 63–66 define x and y implicitly as differentiable functions x = ƒstd, y = g std , find the slope of
the curve x = ƒstd, y = g std at the given value of t.
x
0
63. x 2 - 2tx + 2t 2 = 4,
64. x = 25 - 1t,
y st - 1d = 1t,
65. x + 2x 3&gt;2 = t 2 + t,
66. x sin t + 2x = t,
–1
2y 3 - 3t 2 = 4,
t = 2
t = 4
y 2t + 1 + 2t1y = 4,
t sin t - 2t = y,
Theory and Examples
60. The cissoid of Diocles (from about 200 B.C.) Find equations for
the tangent and normal to the cissoid of Diocles y 2s2 - xd = x 3
at (1, 1).
y
y 2(2 x) x 3
67. Which of the following could be true if ƒ–sxd = x -1&gt;3 ?
3 2&gt;3
x
- 3
2
1
c. ƒ‡sxd = - x -4&gt;3
3
a. ƒsxd =
9 5&gt;3
x
- 7
10
3
d. ƒ&iquest;sxd = x 2&gt;3 + 6
2
b. ƒsxd =
68. Is there anything special about the tangents to the curves y 2 = x 3 and
2x 2 + 3y 2 = 5 at the points s1, ; 1d ? Give reasons for your answer.
y
y2 x3
(1, 1)
1
2x 2 3y 2 5
0
t = 0
t = p
1
(1, 1)
x
x
0
(1, –1)
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3.6 Implicit Differentiation
69. Intersecting normal The line that is normal to the curve
x 2 + 2xy - 3y 2 = 0 at (1, 1) intersects the curve at what other
point?
213
70. Normals parallel to a line Find the normals to the curve
xy + 2x - y = 0 that are parallel to the line 2x + y = 0 .
predicted the general behavior of the derivative graphs from
looking at the graph of x 4 + 4y 2 = 1 ? Could you have
predicted the general behavior of the graph of x 4 + 4y 2 = 1
by looking at the derivative graphs? Give reasons for your
71. Normals to a parabola Show that if it is possible to draw three
normals from the point (a, 0) to the parabola x = y 2 shown here,
then a must be greater than 1&gt;2. One of the normals is the x-axis.
For what value of a are the other two normals perpendicular?
76. a. Given that sx - 2d2 + y 2 = 4 find dy&gt;dx two ways: (1) by
solving for y and differentiating the resulting functions with
respect to x and (2) by implicit differentiation. Do you get the
same result each way?
y
x y2
(a, 0)
0
x
b. Solve the equation sx - 2d2 + y 2 = 4 for y and graph the
resulting functions together to produce a complete graph
of the equation sx - 2d2 + y 2 = 4 . Then add the graphs
of the functions’ first derivatives to your picture. Could
you have predicted the general behavior of the derivative
graphs from looking at the graph of sx - 2d2 + y 2 = 4 ?
Could you have predicted the general behavior of the graph
of sx - 2d2 + y 2 = 4 by looking at the derivative graphs?
Use a CAS to perform the following steps in Exercises 77–84.
a. Plot the equation with the implicit plotter of a CAS. Check to
see that the given point P satisfies the equation.
72. What is the geometry behind the restrictions on the domains of
the derivatives in Example 6(b) and Example 7(a)?
T In Exercises 73 and 74, find both dy&gt;dx (treating y as a differentiable
function of x) and dx&gt;dy (treating x as a differentiable function of y).
How do dy&gt;dx and dx&gt;dy seem to be related? Explain the relationship
geometrically in terms of the graphs.
73. xy 3 + x 2y = 6
74. x 3 + y 2 = sin2 y
b. Using implicit differentiation, find a formula for the
derivative dy&gt;dx and evaluate it at the given point P.
c. Use the slope found in part (b) to find an equation for the
tangent line to the curve at P. Then plot the implicit curve and
tangent line together on a single graph.
77. x 3 - xy + y 3 = 7,
5
3
2
Ps2, 1d
4
78. x + y x + yx + y = 4,
Ps1, 1d
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
2 + x
,
79. y 2 + y =
1 - x
75. a. Given that x 4 + 4y 2 = 1 , find dy&gt;dx two ways: (1) by
solving for y and differentiating the resulting functions in
the usual way and (2) by implicit differentiation. Do you
get the same result each way?
80. y 3 + cos xy = x 2, Ps1, 0d
y
p
81. x + tan a x b = 2, P a1, b
4
b. Solve the equation x 4 + 4y 2 = 1 for y and graph the
resulting functions together to produce a complete graph of
the equation x 4 + 4y 2 = 1 . Then add the graphs of the first
derivatives of these functions to your display. Could you have
Ps0, 1d
82. xy 3 + tan (x + yd = 1,
83. 2y 2 + sxyd1&gt;3 = x 2 + 2,
84. x 21 + 2y + y = x 2,
p
P a , 0b
4
Ps1, 1d
P s1, 0d
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3.7 Related Rates
3.7
213
Related Rates
In this section we look at problems that ask for the rate at which some variable changes. In
each case the rate is a derivative that has to be computed from the rate at which some other
variable (or perhaps several variables) is known to change. To find it, we write an equation
that relates the variables involved and differentiate it to get an equation that relates the rate
we seek to the rates we know. The problem of finding a rate you cannot measure easily
from some other rates that you can is called a related rates problem.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
Related Rates Equations
Suppose we are pumping air into a spherical balloon. Both the volume and radius of the
balloon are increasing over time. If V is the volume and r is the radius of the balloon at an
instant of time, then
V =
4 3
pr .
3
Using the Chain Rule, we differentiate to find the related rates equation
dV
dV dr
dr
=
= 4pr 2 .
dt
dr dt
dt
So if we know the radius r of the balloon and the rate dV&gt;dt at which the volume is increasing at a given instant of time, then we can solve this last equation for dr&gt;dt to find
how fast the radius is increasing at that instant. Note that it is easier to measure directly the
rate of increase of the volume than it is to measure the increase in the radius. The related
rates equation allows us to calculate dr&gt;dt from dV&gt;dt.
Very often the key to relating the variables in a related rates problem is drawing a picture
that shows the geometric relations between them, as illustrated in the following example.
EXAMPLE 1
r
Pumping Out a Tank
How rapidly will the fluid level inside a vertical cylindrical tank drop if we pump the fluid
out at the rate of 3000 L&gt; min?
dh ?
dt
h
Solution We draw a picture of a partially filled vertical cylindrical tank, calling its radius r and the height of the fluid h (Figure 3.42). Call the volume of the fluid V.
As time passes, the radius remains constant, but V and h change. We think of V and h
as differentiable functions of time and use t to represent time. We are told that
dV –3000 L/min
dt
FIGURE 3.42 The rate of change of fluid
volume in a cylindrical tank is related to
the rate of change of fluid level in the tank
(Example 1).
dV
= - 3000.
dt
We pump out at the rate of
3000 L&gt; min. The rate is negative
because the volume is decreasing.
dh
.
dt
How fast will the fluid level drop?
To find dh&gt;dt, we first write an equation that relates h to V. The equation depends on
the units chosen for V, r, and h. With V in liters and r and h in meters, the appropriate
equation for the cylinder’s volume is
V = 1000pr 2h
because a cubic meter contains 1000 L.
Since V and h are differentiable functions of t, we can differentiate both sides of the
equation V = 1000pr 2h with respect to t to get an equation that relates dh&gt;dt to dV&gt;dt:
dV
dh
= 1000pr 2
.
dt
dt
r is a constant.
We substitute the known value dV&gt;dt = - 3000 and solve for dh&gt;dt:
- 3000
3
dh
=
= - 2.
2
dt
1000pr
pr
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3.7 Related Rates
215
The fluid level will drop at the rate of 3&gt;spr 2 d m&gt;min.
The equation dh&gt;dt = - 3&gt;pr 2 shows how the rate at which the fluid level drops depends on the tank’s radius. If r is small, dh&gt;dt will be large; if r is large, dh&gt;dt will be
small.
If r = 1 m:
If r = 10 m:
3
dh
= - p L - 0.95 m&gt;min = - 95 cm&gt;min.
dt
3
dh
= L - 0.0095 m&gt;min = - 0.95 cm&gt;min.
100p
dt
Related Rates Problem Strategy
1. Draw a picture and name the variables and constants. Use t for time. Assume
that all variables are differentiable functions of t.
2. Write down the numerical information (in terms of the symbols you have
chosen).
3. Write down what you are asked to find (usually a rate, expressed as a derivative).
4. Write an equation that relates the variables. You may have to combine two or
more equations to get a single equation that relates the variable whose rate
you want to the variables whose rates you know.
5. Differentiate with respect to t. Then express the rate you want in terms of the
rate and variables whose values you know.
6. Evaluate. Use known values to find the unknown rate.
EXAMPLE 2
Balloon
d
dt
when /4
Range
finder
A Rising Balloon
A hot air balloon rising straight up from a level field is tracked by a range finder 500 ft
from the liftoff point. At the moment the range finder’s elevation angle is p&gt;4, the angle is
increasing at the rate of 0.14 rad&gt; min. How fast is the balloon rising at that moment?
dy
?
y dt
when /4
500 ft
FIGURE 3.43 The rate of change of the
balloon’s height is related to the rate of
change of the angle the range finder makes
with the ground (Example 2).
We answer the question in six steps.
1. Draw a picture and name the variables and constants (Figure 3.43). The variables in
the picture are
u = the angle in radians the range finder makes with the ground.
y = the height in feet of the balloon.
We let t represent time in minutes and assume that u and y are differentiable functions of t.
The one constant in the picture is the distance from the range finder to the liftoff point
(500 ft). There is no need to give it a special symbol.
2. Write down the additional numerical information.
Solution
du
dt
3.
when
u =
p
4
Write down what we are to find. We want dy&gt;dt when u = p&gt;4.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
4.
Write an equation that relates the variables y and u.
y
= tan u
500
5.
y = 500 tan u
or
Differentiate with respect to t using the Chain Rule. The result tells how dy&gt;dt (which
we want) is related to du&gt;dt (which we know).
dy
du
= 500 ssec2 ud
dt
dt
6.
Evaluate with u = p&gt;4 and du&gt;dt = 0.14 to find dy&gt;dt.
dy
= 500 A 22 B 2s0.14d = 140
dt
sec
p
= 22
4
At the moment in question, the balloon is rising at the rate of 140 ft&gt; min.
EXAMPLE 3
y
A police cruiser, approaching a right-angled intersection from the north, is chasing a
speeding car that has turned the corner and is now moving straight east. When the cruiser
is 0.6 mi north of the intersection and the car is 0.8 mi to the east, the police determine
with radar that the distance between them and the car is increasing at 20 mph. If the cruiser
is moving at 60 mph at the instant of measurement, what is the speed of the car?
Situation when
x 0.8, y 0.6
y
dy
–60
dt
0
ds
20
dt
dx ?
dt
A Highway Chase
x
x
FIGURE 3.44 The speed of the car is
related to the speed of the police cruiser
and the rate of change of the distance
between them (Example 3).
Solution We picture the car and cruiser in the coordinate plane, using the positive x-axis
as the eastbound highway and the positive y-axis as the southbound highway (Figure 3.44).
We let t represent time and set
x = position of car at time t
y = position of cruiser at time t
s = distance between car and cruiser at time t.
We assume that x, y, and s are differentiable functions of t.
We want to find dx&gt;dt when
x = 0.8 mi,
dy
= - 60 mph,
dt
y = 0.6 mi,
ds
= 20 mph.
dt
Note that dy&gt;dt is negative because y is decreasing.
We differentiate the distance equation
s2 = x2 + y2
(we could also use s = 2x 2 + y 2), and obtain
2s
dy
ds
dx
= 2x
+ 2y
dt
dt
dt
dy
ds
dx
1
= s ax
+ y b
dt
dt
dt
=
1
2x + y
2
2
ax
dy
dx
+ y b.
dt
dt
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3.7 Related Rates
217
Finally, use x = 0.8, y = 0.6, dy&gt;dt = - 60, ds&gt;dt = 20, and solve for dx&gt;dt.
20 =
dx
1
+ A 0.6 B A -60 B b
a0.8
dt
2s0.8d2 + s0.6d2
202s0.8d2 + s0.6d2 + s0.6ds60d
dx
=
= 70
0.8
dt
At the moment in question, the car’s speed is 70 mph.
EXAMPLE 4
dV
9 ft 3/min
dt
Water runs into a conical tank at the rate of 9 ft3&gt;min. The tank stands point down and has
a height of 10 ft and a base radius of 5 ft. How fast is the water level rising when the water
is 6 ft deep?
5 ft
x
dy
?
dt
when y 6 ft
Filling a Conical Tank
Solution
10 ft
V = volume sft3 d of the water in the tank at time t smind
x = radius sftd of the surface of the water at time t
y = depth sftd of water in tank at time t .
y
FIGURE 3.45 The geometry of the
conical tank and the rate at which water
fills the tank determine how fast the water
level rises (Example 4).
Figure 3.45 shows a partially filled conical tank. The variables in the problem are
We assume that V, x, and y are differentiable functions of t. The constants are the dimensions of the tank. We are asked for dy&gt;dt when
y = 6 ft
dV
= 9 ft3&gt;min.
dt
and
The water forms a cone with volume
V =
1 2
px y.
3
This equation involves x as well as V and y. Because no information is given about x and
dx&gt;dt at the time in question, we need to eliminate x. The similar triangles in Figure 3.45
give us a way to express x in terms of y:
5
x
y = 10
or
x =
y
.
2
Therefore,
V =
y 2
p 3
1
pa b y =
y
3
2
12
to give the derivative
dV
p # 2 dy
p dy
=
= y2 .
3y
12
4
dt
dt
dt
Finally, use y = 6 and dV&gt;dt = 9 to solve for dy&gt;dt.
9 =
dy
p
6B2
A
4
dt
dy
1
= p L 0.32
dt
At the moment in question, the water level is rising at about 0.32 ft&gt; min.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
EXERCISES 3.7
1. Area Suppose that the radius r and area A = pr 2 of a circle are
differentiable functions of t. Write an equation that relates dA&gt;dt
to dr&gt;dt.
b. How is ds&gt;dt related to dx&gt;dt and dy&gt;dt if neither x nor y is
constant?
2. Surface area Suppose that the radius r and surface area
S = 4pr 2 of a sphere are differentiable functions of t. Write an
equation that relates dS&gt;dt to dr&gt;dt.
8. Diagonals If x, y, and z are lengths of the edges of a rectangular
box, the common length of the box’s diagonals is s =
2x 2 + y 2 + z 2 .
3. Volume The radius r and height h of a right circular cylinder are
related to the cylinder’s volume V by the formula V = pr 2h .
a. How is dV&gt;dt related to dh&gt;dt if r is constant?
b. How is dV&gt;dt related to dr&gt;dt if h is constant?
c. How is dV&gt;dt related to dr&gt;dt and dh&gt;dt if neither r nor h is
constant?
c. How is dx&gt;dt related to dy&gt;dt if s is constant?
a. Assuming that x, y, and z are differentiable functions of t, how
is ds&gt;dt related to dx&gt;dt, dy&gt;dt, and dz&gt;dt?
b. How is ds&gt;dt related to dy&gt;dt and dz&gt;dt if x is constant?
c. How are dx&gt;dt, dy&gt;dt, and dz&gt;dt related if s is constant?
9. Area The area A of a triangle with sides of lengths a and b enclosing an angle of measure u is
4. Volume The radius r and height h of a right circular cone are related to the cone’s volume V by the equation V = s1&gt;3dpr 2h .
A =
a. How is dV&gt;dt related to dh&gt;dt if r is constant?
1
ab sin u .
2
b. How is dV&gt;dt related to dr&gt;dt if h is constant?
a. How is dA&gt;dt related to du&gt;dt if a and b are constant?
c. How is dV&gt;dt related to dr&gt;dt and dh&gt;dt if neither r nor h is
constant?
b. How is dA&gt;dt related to du&gt;dt and da&gt;dt if only b is constant?
5. Changing voltage The voltage V (volts), current I (amperes),
and resistance R (ohms) of an electric circuit like the one shown
here are related by the equation V = IR . Suppose that V is increasing at the rate of 1 volt&gt; sec while I is decreasing at the rate
of 1&gt; 3 amp&gt; sec. Let t denote time in seconds.
V
I
R
a. What is the value of dV&gt;dt?
c. How is dA&gt;dt related to du&gt;dt, da&gt;dt , and db&gt;dt if none of a,
b, and u are constant?
10. Heating a plate When a circular plate of metal is heated in an
oven, its radius increases at the rate of 0.01 cm&gt; min. At what rate
is the plate’s area increasing when the radius is 50 cm?
11. Changing dimensions in a rectangle The length l of a rectangle is decreasing at the rate of 2 cm&gt; sec while the width w is increasing at the rate of 2 cm&gt; sec. When l = 12 cm and w = 5 cm ,
find the rates of change of (a) the area, (b) the perimeter, and (c)
the lengths of the diagonals of the rectangle. Which of these
quantities are decreasing, and which are increasing?
12. Changing dimensions in a rectangular box Suppose that the
edge lengths x, y, and z of a closed rectangular box are changing
at the following rates:
b. What is the value of dI&gt;dt?
c. What equation relates dR&gt;dt to dV&gt;dt and dI&gt;dt?
d. Find the rate at which R is changing when V = 12 volts and
I = 2 amp. Is R increasing, or decreasing?
6. Electrical power The power P (watts) of an electric circuit is
related to the circuit’s resistance R (ohms) and current I (amperes)
by the equation P = RI 2 .
a. How are dP&gt;dt, dR&gt;dt, and dI&gt;dt related if none of P, R, and I
are constant?
b. How is dR&gt;dt related to dI&gt;dt if P is constant?
7. Distance Let x and y be differentiable functions of t and let
s = 2x 2 + y 2 be the distance between the points (x, 0) and
(0, y) in the xy-plane.
a. How is ds&gt;dt related to dx&gt;dt if y is constant?
dx
= 1 m&gt;sec,
dt
dy
= - 2 m&gt;sec,
dt
dz
= 1 m&gt;sec .
dt
Find the rates at which the box’s (a) volume, (b) surface area, and
(c) diagonal length s = 2x 2 + y 2 + z 2 are changing at the instant when x = 4, y = 3 , and z = 2 .
13. A sliding ladder A 13-ft ladder is leaning against a house when
its base starts to slide away. By the time the base is 12 ft from the
house, the base is moving at the rate of 5 ft&gt; sec.
a. How fast is the top of the ladder sliding down the wall then?
b. At what rate is the area of the triangle formed by the ladder,
wall, and ground changing then?
c. At what rate is the angle u between the ladder and the ground
changing then?
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3.7 Related Rates
219
a. At what rate is the water level changing when the water is 8 m
deep?
y
b. What is the radius r of the water’s surface when the water is
y m deep?
y(t)
c. At what rate is the radius r changing when the water is 8 m
deep?
0
x(t)
x
14. Commercial air traffic Two commercial airplanes are flying at
40,000 ft along straight-line courses that intersect at right angles.
Plane A is approaching the intersection point at a speed of 442
knots (nautical miles per hour; a nautical mile is 2000 yd). Plane
B is approaching the intersection at 481 knots. At what rate is the
distance between the planes changing when A is 5 nautical miles
from the intersection point and B is 12 nautical miles from the intersection point?
15. Flying a kite A girl flies a kite at a height of 300 ft, the wind carrying the kite horizontally away from her at a rate of 25 ft&gt; sec. How
fast must she let out the string when the kite is 500 ft away from her?
16. Boring a cylinder The mechanics at Lincoln Automotive are
reboring a 6-in.-deep cylinder to fit a new piston. The machine
they are using increases the cylinder’s radius one-thousandth of
an inch every 3 min. How rapidly is the cylinder volume increasing when the bore (diameter) is 3.800 in.?
17. A growing sand pile Sand falls from a conveyor belt at the rate
of 10 m3&gt;min onto the top of a conical pile. The height of the pile
is always three-eighths of the base diameter. How fast are the (a)
height and (b) radius changing when the pile is 4 m high? Answer
in centimeters per minute.
18. A draining conical reservoir Water is flowing at the rate of
50 m3&gt;min from a shallow concrete conical reservoir (vertex
down) of base radius 45 m and height 6 m.
a. How fast (centimeters per minute) is the water level falling
when the water is 5 m deep?
20. A growing raindrop Suppose that a drop of mist is a perfect
sphere and that, through condensation, the drop picks up moisture
at a rate proportional to its surface area. Show that under these
circumstances the drop’s radius increases at a constant rate.
21. The radius of an inflating balloon A spherical balloon is inflated with helium at the rate of 100p ft3&gt;min . How fast is the
balloon’s radius increasing at the instant the radius is 5 ft? How
fast is the surface area increasing?
22. Hauling in a dinghy A dinghy is pulled toward a dock by a
rope from the bow through a ring on the dock 6 ft above the bow.
The rope is hauled in at the rate of 2 ft&gt; sec.
a. How fast is the boat approaching the dock when 10 ft of rope
are out?
b. At what rate is the angle u changing then (see the figure)?
Ring at edge
of dock
6'
23. A balloon and a bicycle A balloon is rising vertically above a
level, straight road at a constant rate of 1 ft&gt; sec. Just when the
balloon is 65 ft above the ground, a bicycle moving at a constant
rate of 17 ft&gt; sec passes under it. How fast is the distance s(t) between the bicycle and balloon increasing 3 sec later?
y
b. How fast is the radius of the water’s surface changing then?
19. A draining hemispherical reservoir Water is flowing at the rate
of 6 m3&gt;min from a reservoir shaped like a hemispherical bowl of
radius 13 m, shown here in profile. Answer the following questions, given that the volume of water in a hemispherical bowl of radius R is V = sp&gt;3dy 2s3R - yd when the water is y meters deep.
y(t)
Center of sphere
s(t)
13
Water level
r
y
0
x(t)
x
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
24. Making coffee Coffee is draining from a conical filter into a
cylindrical coffeepot at the rate of 10 in3&gt;min .
a. How fast is the level in the pot rising when the coffee in the
cone is 5 in. deep?
b. How fast is the level in the cone falling then?
a. r sxd = 9x, c sxd = x 3 - 6x 2 + 15x,
when x = 2
b. r sxd = 70x, c sxd = x 3 - 6x 2 + 45&gt;x,
when x = 1.5
6&quot;
6&quot;
How fast
is this
level falling?
How fast
is this
level rising?
6&quot;
25. Cardiac output In the late 1860s, Adolf Fick, a professor of
physiology in the Faculty of Medicine in W&uuml;rzberg, Germany, developed one of the methods we use today for measuring how
much blood your heart pumps in a minute. Your cardiac output as
you read this sentence is probably about 7 L&gt; min. At rest it is
likely to be a bit under 6 L&gt; min. If you are a trained marathon
runner running a marathon, your cardiac output can be as high as
30 L&gt; min.
Your cardiac output can be calculated with the formula
Q
y = ,
D
where Q is the number of milliliters of CO2 you exhale in a
minute and D is the difference between the CO2 concentration
(ml&gt; L) in the blood pumped to the lungs and the CO2 concentration in the blood returning from the lungs. With Q = 233 ml&gt;min
and D = 97 - 56 = 41 ml&gt;L ,
y =
26. Cost, revenue, and profit A company can manufacture x items
at a cost of c(x) thousand dollars, a sales revenue of r(x) thousand
dollars, and a profit of psxd = r sxd - c sxd thousand dollars .
Find dc&gt;dt, dr&gt;dt, and dp&gt;dt for the following values of x and
dx&gt;dt.
233 ml&gt;min
L 5.68 L&gt;min ,
41 ml&gt;L
fairly close to the 6 L&gt; min that most people have at basal (resting)
conditions. (Data courtesy of J. Kenneth Herd, M.D., Quillan College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University.)
Suppose that when Q = 233 and D = 41 , we also know
that D is decreasing at the rate of 2 units a minute but that Q remains unchanged. What is happening to the cardiac output?
and
and
dx&gt;dt = 0.1
dx&gt;dt = 0.05
27. Moving along a parabola A particle moves along the parabola
y = x 2 in the first quadrant in such a way that its x-coordinate
(measured in meters) increases at a steady 10 m&gt; sec. How fast is
the angle of inclination u of the line joining the particle to the origin changing when x = 3 m ?
28. Moving along another parabola A particle moves from right to
left along the parabolic curve y = 1- x in such a way that its
x-coordinate (measured in meters) decreases at the rate of 8 m&gt; sec.
How fast is the angle of inclination u of the line joining the particle to the origin changing when x = - 4 ?
29. Motion in the plane The coordinates of a particle in the metric
xy-plane are differentiable functions of time t with dx&gt;dt =
-1 m&gt;sec and dy&gt;dt = - 5 m&gt;sec . How fast is the particle’s distance from the origin changing as it passes through the point
(5, 12)?
30. A moving shadow A man 6 ft tall walks at the rate of 5 ft&gt; sec
toward a streetlight that is 16 ft above the ground. At what rate is
the tip of his shadow moving? At what rate is the length of his
shadow changing when he is 10 ft from the base of the light?
31. Another moving shadow A light shines from the top of a pole
50 ft high. A ball is dropped from the same height from a point 30
ft away from the light. (See accompanying figure.) How fast is the
shadow of the ball moving along the ground 1&gt;2 sec later? (Assume the ball falls a distance s = 16t 2 ft in t sec .)
Light
Ball at time t 0
1/2 sec later
50-ft
pole
0
x(t)
30
x
NOT TO SCALE
32. Videotaping a moving car You are videotaping a race from a
stand 132 ft from the track, following a car that is moving at 180
mi&gt; h (264 ft&gt; sec). How fast will your camera angle u be changing
when the car is right in front of you? A half second later?
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3.7 Related Rates
Camera
221
36. Walkers A and B are walking on straight streets that meet at
right angles. A approaches the intersection at 2 m&gt; sec; B moves
away from the intersection 1 m&gt; sec. At what rate is the angle u
changing when A is 10 m from the intersection and B is 20 m
to the nearest degree.
132'
A
Car
33. A melting ice layer A spherical iron ball 8 in. in diameter is
coated with a layer of ice of uniform thickness. If the ice melts at
the rate of 10 in3&gt;min , how fast is the thickness of the ice decreasing when it is 2 in. thick? How fast is the outer surface area
of ice decreasing?
34. Highway patrol A highway patrol plane flies 3 mi above a level,
straight road at a steady 120 mi&gt;h. The pilot sees an oncoming car
and with radar determines that at the instant the line-of-sight distance from plane to car is 5 mi, the line-of-sight distance is decreasing at the rate of 160 mi&gt;h. Find the car’s speed along the highway.
35. A building’s shadow On a morning of a day when the sun will
ground is 60 ft long. At the moment in question, the angle u the
sun makes with the ground is increasing at the rate of 0.27&deg; &gt;min.
O
B
37. Baseball players A baseball diamond is a square 90 ft on a
side. A player runs from first base to second at a rate of 16 ft&gt; sec.
a. At what rate is the player’s distance from third base changing
when the player is 30 ft from first base?
b. At what rates are angles u1 and u2 (see the figure) changing at
that time?
c. The player slides into second base at the rate of 15 ft&gt; sec. At
what rates are angles u1 and u2 changing as the player touches
base?
Second base
90'
Third
base
1
2
Player
30'
First
base
Home
80'
38. Ships Two ships are steaming straight away from a point O
along routes that make a 120&deg; angle. Ship A moves at 14 knots
(nautical miles per hour; a nautical mile is 2000 yd). Ship B
moves at 21 knots. How fast are the ships moving apart when
OA = 5 and OB = 3 nautical miles?
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3.8 Linearization and Differentials
3.8
221
Linearization and Differentials
Sometimes we can approximate complicated functions with simpler ones that give the accuracy we want for specific applications and are easier to work with. The approximating
functions discussed in this section are called linearizations, and they are based on tangent
lines. Other approximating functions, such as polynomials, are discussed in Chapter 11.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
We introduce new variables dx and dy, called differentials, and define them in a way
that makes Leibniz’s notation for the derivative dy&gt;dx a true ratio. We use dy to estimate
error in measurement and sensitivity of a function to change. Application of these ideas
then provides for a precise proof of the Chain Rule (Section 3.5).
Linearization
As you can see in Figure 3.46, the tangent to the curve y = x 2 lies close to the curve near
the point of tangency. For a brief interval to either side, the y-values along the tangent line
give good approximations to the y-values on the curve. We observe this phenomenon by
zooming in on the two graphs at the point of tangency or by looking at tables of values for
the difference between ƒ(x) and its tangent line near the x-coordinate of the point of tangency. Locally, every differentiable curve behaves like a straight line.
4
2
y x2
y x2
y 2x 1
y 2x 1
(1, 1)
(1, 1)
–1
3
0
0
2
0
y x 2 and its tangent y 2x 1 at (1, 1).
1.2
Tangent and curve very close near (1, 1).
1.003
y x2
y x2
y 2x 1
(1, 1)
(1, 1)
y 2x 1
0.8
1.2
0.8
Tangent and curve very close throughout
entire x-interval shown.
y
0.997
0.997
1.003
Tangent and curve closer still. Computer
screen cannot distinguish tangent from
curve on this x-interval.
FIGURE 3.46 The more we magnify the graph of a function near a point where the
function is differentiable, the flatter the graph becomes and the more it resembles its
tangent.
y f (x)
Slope f '(a)
In general, the tangent to y = ƒsxd at a point x = a, where ƒ is differentiable (Figure
3.47), passes through the point (a, ƒ(a)), so its point-slope equation is
(a, f(a))
0
x
a
FIGURE 3.47 The tangent to the
curve y = ƒsxd at x = a is the line
Thus, this tangent line is the graph of the linear function
For as long as this line remains close to the graph of ƒ, L(x) gives a good approximation to
ƒ(x).
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223
DEFINITIONS
Linearization, Standard Linear Approximation
If ƒ is differentiable at x = a, then the approximating function
is the linearization of ƒ at a. The approximation
ƒsxd L Lsxd
of ƒ by L is the standard linear approximation of ƒ at a. The point x = a is the
center of the approximation.
EXAMPLE 1
Finding a Linearization
Find the linearization of ƒsxd = 21 + x at x = 0 (Figure 3.48).
y
y 5 x
4
4
y1 x
2
2
y 兹1 x
1
–1
0
1
2
3
4
x
FIGURE 3.48 The graph of y = 21 + x and its
linearizations at x = 0 and x = 3 . Figure 3.49 shows a
magnified view of the small window about 1 on the y-axis.
Solution
Since
y1 x
2
1.1
ƒ&iquest;sxd =
y 兹1 x
1.0
1
A 1 + x B -1&gt;2 ,
2
we have ƒs0d = 1 and ƒ&iquest;s0d = 1&gt;2, giving the linearization
x
1
Ax - 0B = 1 + 2 .
2
See Figure 3.49.
0.9
–0.1
0
0.1
0.2
FIGURE 3.49 Magnified view of the
window in Figure 3.48.
Look at how accurate the approximation 21 + x L 1 + sx&gt;2d from Example 1 is
for values of x near 0.
As we move away from zero, we lose accuracy. For example, for x = 2, the linearization gives 2 as the approximation for 23 , which is not even accurate to one decimal place.
Do not be misled by the preceding calculations into thinking that whatever we do with
a linearization is better done with a calculator. In practice, we would never use a linearization to find a particular square root. The utility of a linearization is its ability to replace a
complicated formula by a simpler one over an entire interval of values. If we have to work
with 21 + x for x close to 0 and can tolerate the small amount of error involved, we can
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
True value
ƒ True value approximation ƒ
0.2
= 1.10
2
1.095445
610 -2
0.05
= 1.025
2
1.024695
610 -3
0.005
= 1.00250
2
1.002497
610 -5
Approximation
21.2 L 1 +
21.05 L 1 +
21.005 L 1 +
work with 1 + sx&gt;2d instead. Of course, we then need to know how much error there is.
We have more to say on the estimation of error in Chapter 11.
A linear approximation normally loses accuracy away from its center. As Figure 3.48
suggests, the approximation 21 + x L 1 + sx&gt;2d will probably be too crude to be useful near x = 3. There, we need the linearization at x = 3.
EXAMPLE 2
Finding a Linearization at Another Point
Find the linearization of ƒsxd = 21 + x at x = 3.
Solution
We evaluate the equation defining Lsxd at a = 3. With
ƒs3d = 2,
ƒ&iquest;s3d =
1
1
= ,
A 1 + x B -1&gt;2 `
2
4
x=3
we have
Lsxd = 2 +
5
x
1
Ax - 3B = 4 + 4 .
4
At x = 3.2, the linearization in Example 2 gives
21 + x = 21 + 3.2 L
3.2
5
+
= 1.250 + 0.800 = 2.050,
4
4
which differs from the true value 24.2 L 2.04939 by less than one one-thousandth. The
linearization in Example 1 gives
21 + x = 21 + 3.2 L 1 +
y
3.2
= 1 + 1.6 = 2.6,
2
a result that is off by more than 25%.
EXAMPLE 3
Finding a Linearization for the Cosine Function
Find the linearization of ƒsxd = cos x at x = p&gt;2 (Figure 3.50).
0
2
x
y cos x
y –x 2
FIGURE 3.50 The graph of ƒsxd = cos x
and its linearization at x = p&gt;2 . Near
x = p&gt;2, cos x L - x + sp&gt;2d
(Example 3).
Since ƒsp&gt;2d = cos sp&gt;2d = 0, ƒ&iquest;sxd = - sin x, and ƒ&iquest;sp&gt;2d = - sin sp&gt;2d =
-1, we have
Solution
p
= 0 + s - 1d ax - b
2
p
= -x + .
2
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225
An important linear approximation for roots and powers is
s1 + xdk L 1 + kx
sx near 0; any number kd
(Exercise 15). This approximation, good for values of x sufficiently close to zero, has
broad application. For example, when x is small,
21 + x L 1 +
1
x
2
k = 1&gt;2
1
= s1 - xd-1 L 1 + s - 1ds -xd = 1 + x
1 - x
5
1
3
2
1 + 5x 4 = s1 + 5x 4 d1&gt;3 L 1 + A 5x 4 B = 1 + x 4
3
3
1
1
1
= s1 - x 2 d-1&gt;2 L 1 + a- bs - x 2 d = 1 + x 2
2
2
21 - x 2
k = - 1; replace x by -x .
k = 1&gt;3; replace x by 5x 4 .
k = - 1&gt;2;
replace x by -x 2 .
Differentials
We sometimes use the Leibniz notation dy&gt;dx to represent the derivative of y with respect
to x. Contrary to its appearance, it is not a ratio. We now introduce two new variables dx
and dy with the property that if their ratio exists, it will be equal to the derivative.
DEFINITION
Differential
Let y = ƒsxd be a differentiable function. The differential dx is an independent
variable. The differential dy is
dy = ƒ&iquest;sxd dx.
Unlike the independent variable dx, the variable dy is always a dependent variable. It
depends on both x and dx. If dx is given a specific value and x is a particular number in the
domain of the function ƒ, then the numerical value of dy is determined.
EXAMPLE 4
Finding the Differential dy
(a) Find dy if y = x 5 + 37x.
(b) Find the value of dy when x = 1 and dx = 0.2.
Solution
(a) dy = s5x 4 + 37d dx
(b) Substituting x = 1 and dx = 0.2 in the expression for dy, we have
dy = s5 # 14 + 37d 0.2 = 8.4.
The geometric meaning of differentials is shown in Figure 3.51. Let x = a and set
dx = &cent;x. The corresponding change in y = ƒsxd is
&cent;y = ƒsa + dxd - ƒsad.
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
y
y f (x)
y f (a dx) f (a)
L f '(a)dx
(a, f (a))
dx x
When dx is a small change in x,
the corresponding change in
the linearization is precisely dy.
Tangent
line
x
a dx
a
0
FIGURE 3.51 Geometrically, the differential dy is the change
&cent;L in the linearization of ƒ when x = a changes by an amount
dx = &cent;x .
The corresponding change in the tangent line L is
&cent;L = L(a + dx) - L(a)
= ƒ(a) + ƒ&iquest;(a)[(a + dx) - a] - ƒ(a)
(++++++)++++++*
L(a dx)
()*
L(a)
= ƒ&iquest;(a) dx.
That is, the change in the linearization of ƒ is precisely the value of the differential dy
when x = a and dx = &cent;x. Therefore, dy represents the amount the tangent line rises or
falls when x changes by an amount dx = &cent;x.
If dx Z 0, then the quotient of the differential dy by the differential dx is equal to the
derivative ƒ&iquest;sxd because
dy
ƒ&iquest;sxd dx
= ƒ&iquest;sxd =
.
dx
dx
dy , dx =
We sometimes write
df = ƒ&iquest;sxd dx
in place of dy = ƒ&iquest;sxd dx, calling dƒ the differential of ƒ. For instance, if ƒsxd = 3x 2 - 6,
then
df = ds3x 2 - 6d = 6x dx.
Every differentiation formula like
dsu + yd
du
dy
=
+
dx
dx
dx
or
dssin ud
du
= cos u
dx
dx
or
dssin ud = cos u du.
has a corresponding differential form like
dsu + yd = du + dy
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EXAMPLE 5
227
Finding Differentials of Functions
(a) dstan 2xd = sec2s2xd ds2xd = 2 sec2 2x dx
sx + 1d dx - x dsx + 1d
x
x dx + dx - x dx
dx
b =
(b) d a
=
=
2
2
x + 1
sx + 1d
sx + 1d
sx + 1d2
Estimating with Differentials
Suppose we know the value of a differentiable function ƒ(x) at a point a and want to predict how much this value will change if we move to a nearby point a + dx. If dx is small,
then we can see from Figure 3.51 that &cent;y is approximately equal to the differential dy.
Since
ƒsa + dxd = ƒsad + &cent;y ,
the differential approximation gives
ƒsa + dxd L ƒsad + dy
where dx = &cent;x. Thus the approximation &cent;y L dy can be used to calculate ƒsa + dxd
when ƒ(a) is known and dx is small.
EXAMPLE 6
dr 0.1
Estimating with Differentials
The radius r of a circle increases from a = 10 m to 10.1 m (Figure 3.52). Use dA to estimate the increase in the circle’s area A. Estimate the area of the enlarged circle and compare your estimate to the true area.
a 10
Solution
dA = A&iquest;sad dr = 2pa dr = 2ps10ds0.1d = 2p m2 .
A ≈ dA 2 a dr
FIGURE 3.52 When dr is
small compared with a, as it is
when dr = 0.1 and a = 10 , the
differential dA = 2pa dr gives
a way to estimate the area of the
circle with radius r = a + dr
(Example 6).
Since A = pr 2 , the estimated increase is
Thus,
As10 + 0.1d L As10d + 2p
= ps10d2 + 2p = 102p.
The area of a circle of radius 10.1 m is approximately 102p m2 .
The true area is
As10.1d = ps10.1d2
= 102.01p m2 .
The error in our estimate is 0.01p m2 , which is the difference &cent;A - dA.
Error in Differential Approximation
Let ƒ(x) be differentiable at x = a and suppose that dx = &cent;x is an increment of x. We
have two ways to describe the change in ƒ as x changes from a to a + &cent;x:
The true change:
The differential estimate:
&cent;ƒ = ƒsa + &cent;xd - ƒsad
How well does dƒ approximate &cent;ƒ?
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
We measure the approximation error by subtracting dƒ from &cent;f:
Approximation error = &cent;ƒ - dƒ
= ƒ(a + &cent;x) - ƒ(a) - ƒ&iquest;(a)&cent;x
(++++)++++*
ƒ
= a
ƒ(a + &cent;x) - ƒ(a)
- ƒ&iquest;(a)b # &cent;x
&cent;x
(+++++++)+++++++*
Call this part P
= P # &cent;x.
As &cent;x : 0, the difference quotient
&cent;x
approaches ƒ&iquest;sad (remember the definition of ƒ&iquest;sad), so the quantity in parentheses becomes a very small number (which is why we called it P). In fact, P : 0 as &cent;x : 0. When
&cent;x is small, the approximation error P &cent;x is smaller still.
&cent;ƒ = ƒ&iquest;(a)&cent;x + P &cent;x
()*
true
change
(+)+*
estimated
change
()*
error
Although we do not know exactly how small the error is and will not be able to make much
progress on this front until Chapter 11, there is something worth noting here, namely the
form taken by the equation.
Change in y ƒsxd near x a
If y = ƒsxd is differentiable at x = a and x changes from a to a + &cent;x, the
change &cent;y in ƒ is given by an equation of the form
&cent;y = ƒ&iquest;sad &cent;x + P &cent;x
(1)
in which P : 0 as &cent;x : 0.
In Example 6 we found that
&cent;A = p(10.1) 2 - p(10) 2 = (102.01 - 100)p = (2p + 0.01p) m2
()*
dA
()*
error
so the approximation error is &cent;A - dA = P &cent;r = 0.01p and P = 0.01p&gt; &cent;r =
0.01p&gt;0.1 = 0.1p m.
Equation (1) enables us to bring the proof of the Chain Rule to a successful conclusion.
Proof of the Chain Rule
Our goal is to show that if ƒ(u) is a differentiable function of u and u = gsxd is a differentiable function of x, then the composite y = ƒsgsxdd is a differentiable function of x.
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3.8 Linearization and Differentials
229
More precisely, if g is differentiable at x0 and ƒ is differentiable at gsx0 d, then the composite is differentiable at x0 and
dy
`
= ƒ&iquest;s gsx0 dd # g&iquest;sx0 d.
dx x = x0
Let &cent;x be an increment in x and let &cent;u and &cent;y be the corresponding increments in u
and y. Applying Equation (1) we have,
&cent;u = g&iquest;sx0 d&cent;x + P1 &cent;x = sg&iquest;sx0 d + P1 d&cent;x,
where P1 : 0 as &cent;x : 0. Similarly,
&cent;y = ƒ&iquest;su0 d&cent;u + P2 &cent;u = sƒ&iquest;su0 d + P2 d&cent;u,
where P2 : 0 as &cent;u : 0. Notice also that &cent;u : 0 as &cent;x : 0. Combining the equations
for &cent;u and &cent;y gives
&cent;y = sƒ&iquest;su0 d + P2 dsg&iquest;sx0 d + P1 d&cent;x ,
so
&cent;y
= ƒ&iquest;su0 dg&iquest;sx0 d + P2 g&iquest;sx0 d + ƒ&iquest;su0 dP1 + P2P1 .
&cent;x
Since P1 and P2 go to zero as &cent;x goes to zero, three of the four terms on the right vanish in
the limit, leaving
dy
&cent;y
`
= ƒ&iquest;su0 dg&iquest;sx0 d = ƒ&iquest;sgsx0 dd # g&iquest;sx0 d.
= lim
dx x = x0
&cent;x :0 &cent;x
This concludes the proof.
Sensitivity to Change
The equation df = ƒ&iquest;sxd dx tells how sensitive the output of ƒ is to a change in input at different values of x. The larger the value of ƒ&iquest; at x, the greater the effect of a given change dx.
As we move from a to a nearby point a + dx, we can describe the change in ƒ in three ways:
Absolute change
Relative change
Percentage change
EXAMPLE 7
True
Estimated
&cent;f = ƒsa + dxd - ƒsad
&cent;f
&cent;f
* 100
df
df
* 100
Finding the Depth of a Well
You want to calculate the depth of a well from the equation s = 16t 2 by timing how long it
takes a heavy stone you drop to splash into the water below. How sensitive will your calculations be to a 0.1-sec error in measuring the time?
Solution
The size of ds in the equation
ds = 32t dt
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
depends on how big t is. If t = 2 sec, the change caused by dt = 0.1 is about
ds = 32s2ds0.1d = 6.4 ft.
Three seconds later at t = 5 sec, the change caused by the same dt is
ds = 32s5ds0.1d = 16 ft.
The estimated depth of the well differs from its true depth by a greater distance the longer
the time it takes the stone to splash into the water below, for a given error in measuring the
time.
Opaque
dye
Blockage
EXAMPLE 8
Unclogging Arteries
In the late 1830s, French physiologist Jean Poiseuille (“pwa-ZOY”) discovered the formula we use today to predict how much the radius of a partially clogged artery has to be
expanded to restore normal flow. His formula,
Angiography
V = kr 4 ,
An opaque dye is injected into a partially
blocked artery to make the inside visible under
X-rays. This reveals the location and severity of
the blockage.
says that the volume V of fluid flowing through a small pipe or tube in a unit of time at a
fixed pressure is a constant times the fourth power of the tube’s radius r. How will a 10%
increase in r affect V?
Solution
Inflatable
balloon on
catheter
The differentials of r and V are related by the equation
dV =
dV
dr = 4kr 3 dr.
dr
The relative change in V is
dV
4kr 3 dr
dr
=
= 4 r .
V
kr 4
Angioplasty
A balloon-tipped catheter is inflated inside the
artery to widen it at the blockage site.
The relative change in V is 4 times the relative change in r, so a 10% increase in r will produce a 40% increase in the flow.
EXAMPLE 9
Converting Mass to Energy
Newton’s second law,
F =
d
dy
= ma ,
smyd = m
dt
dt
is stated with the assumption that mass is constant, but we know this is not strictly true because the mass of a body increases with velocity. In Einstein’s corrected formula, mass has
the value
m =
m0
21 - y2&gt;c 2
,
where the “rest mass” m0 represents the mass of a body that is not moving and c is the
speed of light, which is about 300,000 km&gt; sec. Use the approximation
1
1
L 1 + x2
2
2
21 - x
to estimate the increase &cent;m in mass resulting from the added velocity y.
(2)
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3.8 Linearization and Differentials
231
When y is very small compared with c, y2&gt;c 2 is close to zero and it is safe to
use the approximation
Solution
1
1 y2
L 1 + a 2b
2 c
21 - y2&gt;c 2
y
Eq. (2) with x = c
to obtain
m =
m0
21 - y2&gt;c 2
L m0 c1 +
1 y2
1
1
a b d = m0 + m0 y2 a 2 b ,
2 c2
2
c
m L m0 +
1
1
m y2 a 2 b .
2 0
c
or
(3)
Equation (3) expresses the increase in mass that results from the added velocity y.
Energy Interpretation
In Newtonian physics, s1&gt;2dm0 y2 is the kinetic energy (KE) of the body, and if we rewrite
Equation (3) in the form
sm - m0 dc 2 L
1
m y2 ,
2 0
we see that
sm - m0 dc 2 L
1
1
1
m y2 = m0 y2 - m0s0d2 = &cent;sKEd,
2 0
2
2
or
s&cent;mdc 2 L &cent;sKEd.
So the change in kinetic energy &cent;sKEd in going from velocity 0 to velocity y is approximately equal to s &cent;mdc 2 , the change in mass times the square of the speed of light. Using
c L 3 * 10 8 m&gt;sec, we see that a small change in mass can create a large change in
energy.
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EXERCISES 3.8
Finding Linearizations
In Exercises 1–4, find the linearization L(x) of ƒ(x) at x = a .
1. ƒsxd = x 3 - 2x + 3,
2. ƒsxd = 2x + 9,
2
1
3. ƒsxd = x + x ,
3
x,
4. ƒsxd = 2
a = 2
a = -4
a = 1
subsequent work as simple as possible, you want to center each linearization not at x0 but at a nearby integer x = a at which the given
function and its derivative are easy to evaluate. What linearization do
you use in each case?
5. ƒsxd = x 2 + 2x,
6. ƒsxd = x -1,
x0 = 0.1
x0 = 0.9
7. ƒsxd = 2x 2 + 4x - 3,
a = -8
Linearization for Approximation
You want linearizations that will replace the functions in Exercises
5–10 over intervals that include the given points x0 . To make your
8. ƒsxd = 1 + x,
3
9. ƒsxd = 2
x,
10. ƒsxd =
x
,
x + 1
x0 = - 0.9
x0 = 8.1
x0 = 8.5
x0 = 1.3
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
Linearizing Trigonometric Functions
y
y f (x)
In Exercises 11–14, find the linearization of ƒ at x = a . Then graph
the linearization and ƒ together.
11. ƒsxd = sin x
at
sbd x = p
f f(x 0 dx) f(x 0)
12. ƒsxd = cos x
at
sbd x = - p&gt;2
13. ƒsxd = sec x
at
sbd x = - p&gt;3
14. ƒsxd = tan x
at
(x 0, f (x 0 ))
dx
Tangent
sbd x = p&gt;4
0
The Approximation s1 xdk &laquo; 1 kx
15. Show that the linearization of ƒsxd = s1 + xdk at x = 0 is
Lsxd = 1 + kx .
16. Use the linear approximation s1 + xdk L 1 + kx to find an approximation for the function ƒ(x) for values of x near zero.
a. ƒsxd = s1 - xd6
c. ƒsxd =
b. ƒsxd =
1
e. ƒsxd = s4 + 3xd1&gt;3
f. ƒsxd =
3
a1 -
1
b
2 + x
Derivatives in Differential Form
In Exercises 19–30, find dy.
21. y =
20. y = x21 - x
2x
1 + x2
22. y =
2
21x
3s1 + 1xd
23. 2y 3&gt;2 + xy - x = 0
24. xy 2 - 4x 3&gt;2 - y = 0
25. y = sin s51xd
26. y = cos sx 2 d
27. y = 4 tan sx 3&gt;3d
29. y = 3 csc s1 - 2 1xd
3
33. ƒsxd = x - x,
34. ƒsxd = x 4,
x0 = 1,
x0 = 1,
dx = 0.1
x0 = - 1,
dx = 0.1
dx = 0.1
dx = 0.1
x0 = 0.5,
dx = 0.1
x0 = 2,
dx = 0.1
Differential Estimates of Change
2
18. Find the linearization of ƒsxd = 2x + 1 + sin x at x = 0 . How
is it related to the individual linearizations of 2x + 1 and sin x
at x = 0 ?
19. y = x - 31x
x0 = 1,
32. ƒsxd = 2x 2 + 4x - 3,
36. ƒsxd = x 3 - 2x + 3,
B
17. Faster than a calculator Use the approximation s1 + xdk L
1 + kx to estimate the following.
3
a. s1.0002d50
b. 2
1.009
3
31. ƒsxd = x 2 + 2x,
x
x 0 dx
x0
35. ƒsxd = x -1,
2
1 - x
d. ƒsxd = 22 + x 2
21 + x
df f '(x 0 ) dx
In Exercises 37–42, write a differential formula that estimates the
given change in volume or surface area.
37. The change in the volume V = s4&gt;3dpr 3 of a sphere when the radius changes from r0 to r0 + dr
38. The change in the volume V = x 3 of a cube when the edge
lengths change from x0 to x0 + dx
39. The change in the surface area S = 6x 2 of a cube when the edge
lengths change from x0 to x0 + dx
40. The change in the lateral surface area S = pr 2r 2 + h 2 of a
right circular cone when the radius changes from r0 to r0 + dr
and the height does not change
41. The change in the volume V = pr 2h of a right circular cylinder
when the radius changes from r0 to r0 + dr and the height does
not change
42. The change in the lateral surface area S = 2prh of a right circular
cylinder when the height changes from h0 to h0 + dh and the radius does not change
28. y = sec sx 2 - 1d
Applications
30. y = 2 cot a
43. The radius of a circle is increased from 2.00 to 2.02 m.
1
b
1x
Approximation Error
In Exercises 31–36, each function ƒ(x) changes value when x changes
from x0 to x0 + dx . Find
a. the change &cent;ƒ = ƒsx0 + dxd - ƒsx0 d ;
b. the value of the estimate df = ƒ&iquest;sx0 d dx ; and
c. the approximation error ƒ &cent;ƒ - dƒ ƒ .
a. Estimate the resulting change in area.
b. Express the estimate as a percentage of the circle’s original
area.
44. The diameter of a tree was 10 in. During the following year, the
circumference increased 2 in. About how much did the tree’s diameter increase? The tree’s cross-section area?
45. Estimating volume Estimate the volume of material in a cylindrical shell with height 30 in., radius 6 in., and shell thickness
0.5 in.
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3.8 Linearization and Differentials
233
d (“delta”) is the weight density of the blood, y is the average velocity of the exiting blood, and g is the acceleration of gravity.
When P, V, d , and y remain constant, W becomes a function
of g, and the equation takes the simplified form
0.5 in.
b
W = a + g sa, b constantd .
30 in.
6 in.
46. Estimating height of a building A surveyor, standing 30 ft
from the base of a building, measures the angle of elevation to the
top of the building to be 75&deg;. How accurately must the angle be
measured for the percentage error in estimating the height of the
building to be less than 4%?
47. Tolerance The height and radius of a right circular cylinder are
equal, so the cylinder’s volume is V = ph 3 . The volume is to be
calculated with an error of no more than 1% of the true value.
Find approximately the greatest error that can be tolerated in the
measurement of h, expressed as a percentage of h.
48. Tolerance
a. About how accurately must the interior diameter of a 10-m-high
cylindrical storage tank be measured to calculate the tank’s
volume to within 1% of its true value?
b. About how accurately must the tank’s exterior diameter be
measured to calculate the amount of paint it will take to paint
the side of the tank to within 5% of the true amount?
49. Minting coins A manufacturer contracts to mint coins for the
federal government. How much variation dr in the radius of the
coins can be tolerated if the coins are to weigh within 1&gt;1000 of
their ideal weight? Assume that the thickness does not vary.
50. Sketching the change in a cube’s volume The volume V = x 3
of a cube with edges of length x increases by an amount &cent;V when
x increases by an amount &cent;x . Show with a sketch how to represent &cent;V geometrically as the sum of the volumes of
a. three slabs of dimensions x by x by &cent;x
b. three bars of dimensions x by &cent;x by &cent;x
c. one cube of dimensions &cent; x by &cent; x by &cent; x .
The differential formula dV = 3x 2 dx estimates the change in V
with the three slabs.
51. The effect of flight maneuvers on the heart The amount of
work done by the heart’s main pumping chamber, the left ventricle, is given by the equation
2
W = PV +
Vdy
,
2g
where W is the work per unit time, P is the average blood pressure, V is the volume of blood pumped out during the unit of time,
As a member of NASA’s medical team, you want to know how sensitive W is to apparent changes in g caused by flight maneuvers,
and this depends on the initial value of g. As part of your investigation, you decide to compare the effect on W of a given change
dg on the moon, where g = 5.2 ft&gt;sec2 , with the effect the same
change dg would have on Earth, where g = 32 ft&gt;sec2 . Use the
simplified equation above to find the ratio of dWmoon to dWEarth .
52. Measuring acceleration of gravity When the length L of a
clock pendulum is held constant by controlling its temperature,
the pendulum’s period T depends on the acceleration of gravity g.
The period will therefore vary slightly as the clock is moved from
place to place on the earth’s surface, depending on the change in
g. By keeping track of &cent;T , we can estimate the variation in g
from the equation T = 2psL&gt;gd1&gt;2 that relates T, g, and L.
a. With L held constant and g as the independent variable,
calculate dT and use it to answer parts (b) and (c).
b. If g increases, will T increase or decrease? Will a pendulum
clock speed up or slow down? Explain.
c. A clock with a 100-cm pendulum is moved from a location
where g = 980 cm&gt;sec2 to a new location. This increases the
period by dT = 0.001 sec . Find dg and estimate the value of
g at the new location.
53. The edge of a cube is measured as 10 cm with an error of 1%. The
cube’s volume is to be calculated from this measurement. Estimate the percentage error in the volume calculation.
54. About how accurately should you measure the side of a square to
be sure of calculating the area within 2% of its true value?
55. The diameter of a sphere is measured as 100 ; 1 cm and the volume is calculated from this measurement. Estimate the percentage error in the volume calculation.
56. Estimate the allowable percentage error in measuring the diameter D
of a sphere if the volume is to be calculated correctly to within 3%.
57. (Continuation of Example 7.) Show that a 5% error in measuring t
will cause about a 10% error in calculating s from the equation
s = 16t 2 .
58. (Continuation of Example 8.) By what percentage should r be increased to increase V by 50%?
Theory and Examples
59. Show that the approximation of 21 + x by its linearization at
the origin must improve as x : 0 by showing that
lim
x :0
21 + x
= 1.
1 + sx&gt;2d
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
60. Show that the approximation of tan x by its linearization at the
origin must improve as x : 0 by showing that
lim
x:0
tan x
x = 1.
61. The linearization is the best linear approximation (This is
why we use the linearization.) Suppose that y = ƒsxd is differentiable at x = a and that g sxd = msx - ad + c is a linear function
in which m and c are constants. If the error Esxd = ƒsxd - g sxd
were small enough near x = a , we might think of using g as a
linear approximation of ƒ instead of the linearization Lsxd =
The approximation error is zero at x = a .
Esxd
2. lim x - a = 0
x:a
The error is negligible when compared
with x - a .
gives the only linear approximation whose error is both zero at
x = a and negligible in comparison with x - a .
The linearization, L(x):
y f (a) f '(a)(x a)
Some other linear
approximation, g(x):
y m(x a) c
y f (x)
T 63. Reading derivatives from graphs The idea that differentiable
curves flatten out when magnified can be used to estimate the values of the derivatives of functions at particular points. We magnify
the curve until the portion we see looks like a straight line through
the point in question, and then we use the screen’s coordinate grid
to read the slope of the curve as the slope of the line it resembles.
a. To see how the process works, try it first with the function
y = x 2 at x = 1 . The slope you read should be 2.
b. Then try it with the curve y = e x at x = 1, x = 0, and x =
1. In each case, compare your estimate of the derivative
with the value of e x at the point. What pattern do you see?
Test it with other values of x. Chapter 7 will explain what is
going on.
64. Suppose that the graph of a differentiable function ƒ(x) has a horizontal tangent at x = a . Can anything be said about the linearization of ƒ at x = a ? Give reasons for your answer.
65. To what relative speed should a body at rest be accelerated to increase its mass by 1%?
T 66. Repeated root-taking
a. Enter 2 in your calculator and take successive square roots by
pressing the square root key repeatedly (or raising the
displayed number repeatedly to the 0.5 power). What pattern
do you see emerging? Explain what is going on. What
happens if you take successive tenth roots instead?
b. Repeat the procedure with 0.5 in place of 2 as the original
entry. What happens now? Can you use any positive number x
in place of 2? Explain what is going on.
(a, f (a))
a
x
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
approximation to ƒ(x) at x = a with the properties:
b. Find the linearization L of the function at the point a.
Determine the coefficients b0 , b1 , and b2 .
b. Find the quadratic approximation to ƒsxd = 1&gt;s1 - xd at
x = 0.
c. Graph ƒsxd = 1&gt;s1 - xd and its quadratic approximation at
x = 0 . Then zoom in on the two graphs at the point (0, 1).
Comment on what you see.
T d. Find the quadratic approximation to gsxd = 1&gt;x at x = 1 .
Graph g and its quadratic approximation together. Comment
on what you see.
T
In Exercises 67–70, use a CAS to estimate the magnitude of the error
in using the linearization in place of the function over a specified interval I. Perform the following steps:
a. Plot the function ƒ over I.
T
Comparing Functions with Their Linearizations
e. Find the quadratic approximation to hsxd = 21 + x at
x = 0 . Graph h and its quadratic approximation together.
Comment on what you see.
f. What are the linearizations of ƒ, g, and h at the respective
points in parts (b), (d), and (e)?
c. Plot ƒ and L together on a single graph.
d. Plot the absolute error ƒ ƒsxd - Lsxd ƒ over I and find its maximum
value.
e. From your graph in part (d), estimate as large a d 7 0 as you can,
satisfying
ƒx - aƒ 6 d
Q
ƒ ƒsxd - Lsxd ƒ 6 P
for P = 0.5, 0.1, and 0.01 . Then check graphically to see if your
d-estimate holds true.
67. ƒsxd = x 3 + x 2 - 2x,
[- 1, 2],
a = 1
3
x - 1
1
, c- , 1 d, a =
4
2
4x 2 + 1
69. ƒsxd = x 2&gt;3sx - 2d, [- 2, 3], a = 2
68. ƒsxd =
70. ƒsxd = 1x - sin x,
[0, 2p],
a = 2
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Chapter 3
Chapter 3
235
1. What is the derivative of a function ƒ? How is its domain related
to the domain of ƒ? Give examples.
13. What is the relationship between a function’s average and instantaneous rates of change? Give an example.
2. What role does the derivative play in defining slopes, tangents,
and rates of change?
14. How do derivatives arise in the study of motion? What can you
learn about a body’s motion along a line by examining the derivatives of the body’s position function? Give examples.
3. How can you sometimes graph the derivative of a function when
all you have is a table of the function’s values?
4. What does it mean for a function to be differentiable on an open
interval? On a closed interval?
5. How are derivatives and one-sided derivatives related?
6. Describe geometrically when a function typically does not have a
derivative at a point.
7. How is a function’s differentiability at a point related to its continuity there, if at all?
16. Give examples of still other applications of derivatives.
17. What do the limits limh:0 sssin hd&gt;hd and limh:0 sscos h - 1d&gt;hd
have to do with the derivatives of the sine and cosine functions?
What are the derivatives of these functions?
18. Once you know the derivatives of sin x and cos x, how can you
find the derivatives of tan x, cot x, sec x, and csc x? What are the
derivatives of these functions?
19. At what points are the six basic trigonometric functions continuous? How do you know?
8. Could the unit step function
Usxd = e
15. How can derivatives arise in economics?
0,
1,
x 6 0
x &Uacute; 0
possibly be the derivative of some other function on [- 1, 1] ?
Explain.
9. What rules do you know for calculating derivatives? Give some
examples.
10. Explain how the three formulas
20. What is the rule for calculating the derivative of a composite of
two differentiable functions? How is such a derivative evaluated?
Give examples.
21. What is the formula for the slope dy&gt;dx of a parametrized curve
x = ƒstd, y = g std ? When does the formula apply? When can
you expect to be able to find d 2y&gt;dx 2 as well? Give examples.
22. If u is a differentiable function of x, how do you find sd&gt;dxdsu n d if
n is an integer? If n is a rational number? Give examples.
a.
d n
sx d = nx n - 1
dx
23. What is implicit differentiation? When do you need it? Give examples.
du
d
scud = c
dx
dx
24. How do related rates problems arise? Give examples.
b.
du1
du2 &Aacute; dun
d
su + u2 + &Aacute; + un d =
+
+
+
dx 1
dx
dx
dx
enable us to differentiate any polynomial.
c.
11. What formula do we need, in addition to the three listed in Question 10, to differentiate rational functions?
12. What is a second derivative? A third derivative? How many derivatives do the functions you know have? Give examples.
25. Outline a strategy for solving related rates problems. Illustrate
with an example.
26. What is the linearization L(x) of a function ƒ(x) at a point x = a ?
What is required of ƒ at a for the linearization to exist? How are
linearizations used? Give examples.
27. If x moves from a to a nearby value a + dx , how do you estimate
the corresponding change in the value of a differentiable function
ƒ(x)? How do you estimate the relative change? The percentage
change? Give an example.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:17 AM Page 235
Chapter 3 Practice Exercises
Chapter 3
235
Practice Exercises
Derivatives of Functions
5. y = sx + 1d2sx 2 + 2xd
6. y = s2x - 5ds4 - xd-1
Find the derivatives of the functions in Exercises 1-40.
7. y = su2 + sec u + 1d3
8. y = a- 1 -
1. y = x 5 - 0.125x 2 + 0.25x
2. y = 3 - 0.7x 3 + 0.3x 7
3. y = x 3 - 3sx 2 + p2 d
4. y = x 7 + 27x -
1
p + 1
9. s =
1t
1 + 1t
10. s =
1
1t - 1
csc u
u2
- b
2
4
2
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
1
2
sin x
sin2 x
11. y = 2 tan2 x - sec2 x
12. y =
13. s = cos4 s1 - 2td
2
14. s = cot3 a t b
15. s = ssec t + tan td5
16. s = csc5 s1 - t + 3t 2 d
17. r = 22u sin u
18. r = 2u 2cos u
ƒ(x)
g (x)
ƒ(x)
g(x)
0
1
1
3
1
5
-3
1&gt;2
1&gt;2
-4
Find the first derivatives of the following combinations at the
given value of x.
20. r = sin A u + 2u + 1 B
19. r = sin 22u
x
23. y = x -1&gt;2 sec s2xd2
24. y = 1x csc sx + 1d3
a. 6ƒsxd - g sxd, x = 1
ƒsxd
, x = 1
c.
g sxd + 1
25. y = 5 cot x 2
26. y = x 2 cot 5x
e. g sƒsxdd,
2
1 2
x csc x
2
21. y =
22. y = 2 1x sin 1x
27. y = x 2 sin2 s2x 2 d
29. s = a
4t
b
t + 1
31. y = a
33. y =
30. s =
1x 2
b
1 + x
x2 + x
B x2
35. r = a
sin u
b
cos u - 1
36. r = a
1 + sin u
b
1 - cos u
3
2
s5x + sin 2xd3&gt;2
40. y = s3 + cos3 3xd-1&gt;3
x
ƒ(x)
ƒ(x)
0
1
9
-3
-2
1&gt;5
Find the first derivatives of the following combinations at the
given value of x.
a. 1x ƒsxd,
b. 2ƒsxd,
x = 1
x = 0
d. ƒs1 - 5 tan xd,
x = 0
px
f. 10 sin a b ƒ 2sxd,
2
x=1
57. Find the value of dy&gt;dt at t = 0 if y = 3 sin 2x and x = t 2 + p .
In Exercises 41–48, find dy&gt;dx.
41. xy + 2x + 3y = 1
42. x 2 + xy + y 2 - 5x = 2
43. x 3 + 4xy - 3y 4&gt;3 = 2x
44. 5x 4&gt;5 + 10y 6&gt;5 = 15
45. 1xy = 1
46. x 2y 2 = 1
x
x + 1
x = 1
x = 0
c. ƒs 1xd, x = 1
ƒsxd
, x = 0
e.
2 + cos x
Implicit Differentiation
47. y 2 =
x = 0
2
38. y = 20s3x - 4d1&gt;4s3x - 4d-1&gt;5
37. y = s2x + 1d22x + 1
39. y =
2
2 1x
b
2 1x + 1
34. y = 4x2x + 1x
2
x = 0
56. Suppose that the function ƒ(x) and its first derivative have the following values at x = 0 and x = 1 .
-1
15s15t - 1d3
32. y = a
f. sx + ƒsxdd3&gt;2,
d. ƒsg sxdd,
x = 0
g. ƒsx + g sxdd,
28. y = x -2 sin2 sx 3 d
-2
b. ƒsxdg 2sxd,
58. Find the value of ds&gt;du at u = 2 if s = t 2 + 5t and t =
su 2 + 2ud1&gt;3 .
59. Find the value of dw&gt;ds at s = 0 if w = sin A 1r - 2 B and
r = 8 sin ss + p&gt;6d .
60. Find the value of dr&gt;dt at t = 0 if r = su2 + 7d1&gt;3 and
u2t + u = 1 .
1 + x
A1 - x
48. y 2 =
In Exercises 49 and 50, find dp&gt;dq.
61. If y 3 + y = 2 cos x , find the value of d 2y&gt;dx 2 at the point (0, 1).
49. p 3 + 4pq - 3q 2 = 2
62. If x 1&gt;3 + y 1&gt;3 = 4 , find d 2y&gt;dx 2 at the point (8, 8).
50. q = s5p 2 + 2pd-3&gt;2
In Exercises 51 and 52, find dr&gt;ds.
51. r cos 2s + sin2 s = p
2
Derivative Definition
52. 2rs - r - s + s 2 = - 3
In Exercises 63 and 64, find the derivative using the definition.
2
53. Find d y&gt;dx by implicit differentiation:
3
3
a. x + y = 1
54. a. By differentiating
dy&gt;dx = x&gt;y .
2
b. y = 1 - x
x 2 - y 2 = 1 implicitly,
2
63. ƒstd =
show
that
1
2t + 1
64. g sxd = 2x 2 + 1
65. a. Graph the function
b. Then show that d 2y&gt;dx 2 = - 1&gt;y 3 .
ƒsxd = e
x 2,
-x 2,
Numerical Values of Derivatives
b. Is ƒ continuous at x = 0 ?
55. Suppose that functions ƒ(x) and g(x) and their first derivatives
have the following values at x = 0 and x = 1 .
c. Is ƒ differentiable at x = 0 ?
-1 … x 6 0
0 … x … 1.
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237
Chapter 3 Practice Exercises
66. a. Graph the function
ƒsxd = e
x,
tan x,
-1 … x 6 0
0 … x … p&gt;4.
b. Is ƒ continuous at x = 0 ?
c. Is ƒ differentiable at x = 0 ?
67. a. Graph the function
x,
0 … x … 1
2 - x, 1 6 x … 2.
80. Normal to a circle Show that the normal line at any point of the
circle x 2 + y 2 = a 2 passes through the origin.
Tangents and Normals to Implicitly
Defined Curves
b. Is ƒ continuous at x = 1 ?
c. Is ƒ differentiable at x = 1 ?
In Exercises 81–86, find equations for the lines that are tangent and
normal to the curve at the given point.
68. For what value or values of the constant m, if any, is
sin 2x,
ƒsxd = e
mx,
78. Slope of tangent Show that the tangent to the curve y = x 3 at
any point sa, a 3 d meets the curve again at a point where the slope
is four times the slope at sa, a 3 d .
79. Tangent curve For what value of c is the curve y = c&gt;sx + 1d
tangent to the line through the points s0, 3d and s5, - 2d ?
ƒsxd = e
77. Tangent parabola The parabola y = x 2 + C is to be tangent
to the line y = x . Find C.
x … 0
x 7 0
81. x 2 + 2y 2 = 9,
3
2
82. x + y = 2,
s1, 2d
s1, 1d
83. xy + 2x - 5y = 2,
2
a. continuous at x = 0 ?
84. s y - xd = 2x + 4,
b. differentiable at x = 0 ?
85. x + 1xy = 6,
86. x 3&gt;2 + 2y 3&gt;2 = 17,
Slopes, Tangents, and Normals
69. Tangents with specified slope Are there any points on the
curve y = sx&gt;2d + 1&gt;s2x - 4d where the slope is - 3&gt;2 ? If so,
find them.
s6, 2d
s4, 1d
s1, 4d
87. Find the slope of the curve x 3y 3 + y 2 = x + y at the points (1, 1)
and s1, - 1d .
88. The graph shown suggests that the curve y = sin sx - sin xd
might have horizontal tangents at the x-axis. Does it? Give reasons for your answer.
70. Tangents with specified slope Are there any points on the
curve y = x - 1&gt;s2xd where the slope is 3? If so, find them.
71. Horizontal tangents Find the points on the curve y =
2x 3 - 3x 2 - 12x + 20 where the tangent is parallel to the xaxis.
s3, 2d
y
y sin (x sin x)
1
–2
0
–
72. Tangent intercepts Find the x- and y-intercepts of the line that
is tangent to the curve y = x 3 at the point s -2, - 8d .
2
x
–1
73. Tangents perpendicular or parallel to lines Find the points on
the curve y = 2x 3 - 3x 2 - 12x + 20 where the tangent is
a. perpendicular to the line y = 1 - sx&gt;24d .
Tangents to Parametrized Curves
b. parallel to the line y = 22 - 12x .
In Exercises 89 and 90, find an equation for the line in the xy-plane
that is tangent to the curve at the point corresponding to the given
value of t. Also, find the value of d 2y&gt;dx 2 at this point.
74. Intersecting tangents Show that the tangents to the curve
y = sp sin xd&gt;x at x = p and x = - p intersect at right angles.
75. Normals parallel to a line Find the points on the curve
y = tan x, -p&gt;2 6 x 6 p&gt;2 , where the normal is parallel to the
line y = - x&gt;2 . Sketch the curve and normals together, labeling
each with its equation.
76. Tangent and normal lines Find equations for the tangent and
normal to the curve y = 1 + cos x at the point sp&gt;2, 1d . Sketch
the curve, tangent, and normal together, labeling each with its
equation.
89. x = s1&gt;2d tan t,
90. x = 1 + 1&gt;t 2,
y = s1&gt;2d sec t,
y = 1 - 3&gt;t,
t = p&gt;3
t = 2
Analyzing Graphs
Each of the figures in Exercises 91 and 92 shows two graphs, the
graph of a function y = ƒsxd together with the graph of its derivative
ƒ&iquest;sxd . Which graph is which? How do you know?
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
91.
92.
y
A
y
4
2
A
Number
of rabbits
2000
Initial no. rabbits 1000
Initial no. foxes 40
3
2
1
(20, 1700)
B
1
–1
0
x
1
0
1
2
1000
x
Number
of foxes
–1
0
50
150
200
100
150
Time (days)
Derivative of the rabbit population
(b)
200
B
–2
93. Use the following information to graph the function y = ƒsxd for
-1 … x … 6 .
i. The graph of ƒ is made of line segments joined end to end.
ii. The graph starts at the point s -1, 2d .
100
Time (days)
(a)
100
50
(20, 40)
iii. The derivative of ƒ, where defined, agrees with the step function shown here.
0
–50
y
–100
y f '(x)
0
50
1
–1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
–1
FIGURE 3.53 Rabbits and foxes in an arctic predator-prey food chain.
–2
94. Repeat Exercise 93, supposing that the graph starts at s - 1, 0d instead of s -1, 2d .
Exercises 95 and 96 are about the graphs in Figure 3.53 (right-hand
column). The graphs in part (a) show the numbers of rabbits and foxes
in a small arctic population. They are plotted as functions of time for
200 days. The number of rabbits increases at first, as the rabbits reproduce. But the foxes prey on rabbits and, as the number of foxes increases, the rabbit population levels off and then drops. Figure 3.53b
shows the graph of the derivative of the rabbit population. We made it
by plotting slopes.
95. a. What is the value of the derivative of the rabbit population in
Figure 3.53 when the number of rabbits is largest? Smallest?
b. What is the size of the rabbit population in Figure 3.53 when
its derivative is largest? Smallest (negative value)?
96. In what units should the slopes of the rabbit and fox population
curves be measured?
Trigonometric Limits
97. lim
x: 0
sin x
2x 2 - x
3x - tan 7x
2x
x: 0
98. lim
99. lim
r:0
101.
sin r
tan 2r
lim
u :sp&gt;2d -
sin ssin ud
u
u :0
100. lim
4 tan2 u + tan u + 1
tan2 u + 5
102. lim+
1 - 2 cot2 u
5 cot u - 7 cot u - 8
103. lim
x sin x
2 - 2 cos x
u :0
x :0
2
104. lim
u :0
1 - cos u
u2
Show how to extend the functions in Exercises 105 and 106 to be continuous at the origin.
105. g sxd =
tan stan xd
tan x
106. ƒsxd =
tan stan xd
sin ssin xd
Related Rates
107. Right circular cylinder The total surface area S of a right circular cylinder is related to the base radius r and height h by the
equation S = 2pr 2 + 2prh .
a. How is dS&gt;dt related to dr&gt;dt if h is constant?
b. How is dS&gt;dt related to dh&gt;dt if r is constant?
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:17 AM Page 239
Chapter 3 Practice Exercises
c. How is dS&gt;dt related to dr&gt;dt and dh&gt;dt if neither r nor h is
constant?
239
4'
d. How is dr&gt;dt related to dh&gt;dt if S is constant?
108. Right circular cone The lateral surface area S of a right circular cone is related to the base radius r and height h by the equation S = pr 2r 2 + h 2 .
r
a. How is dS&gt;dt related to dr&gt;dt if h is constant?
10'
b. How is dS&gt;dt related to dh&gt;dt if r is constant?
c. How is dS&gt;dt related to dr&gt;dt and dh&gt;dt if neither r nor h is
constant?
109. Circle’s changing area The radius of a circle is changing at
the rate of - 2&gt;p m&gt;sec. At what rate is the circle’s area changing when r = 10 m ?
110. Cube’s changing edges The volume of a cube is increasing at
the rate of 1200 cm3&gt;min at the instant its edges are 20 cm long.
At what rate are the lengths of the edges changing at that instant?
111. Resistors connected in parallel If two resistors of R1 and R2
ohms are connected in parallel in an electric circuit to make an
R-ohm resistor, the value of R can be found from the equation
h
Exit rate: 5 ft3 /min
116. Rotating spool As television cable is pulled from a large spool
to be strung from the telephone poles along a street, it unwinds
from the spool in layers of constant radius (see accompanying
figure). If the truck pulling the cable moves at a steady 6 ft&gt; sec
(a touch over 4 mph), use the equation s = r u to find how fast
(radians per second) the spool is turning when the layer of radius
1.2 ft is being unwound.
1
1
1
+
.
=
R
R1
R2
1.2'
R1
R2 R
If R1 is decreasing at the rate of 1 ohm&gt; sec and R2 is increasing
at the rate of 0.5 ohm&gt; sec, at what rate is R changing when
R1 = 75 ohms and R2 = 50 ohms ?
112. Impedance in a series circuit The impedance Z (ohms) in a
series circuit is related to the resistance R (ohms) and reactance
X (ohms) by the equation Z = 2R 2 + X 2 . If R is increasing at
3 ohms&gt; sec and X is decreasing at 2 ohms&gt; sec, at what rate is Z
changing when R = 10 ohms and X = 20 ohms ?
113. Speed of moving particle The coordinates of a particle moving in the metric xy-plane are differentiable functions of time t
with dx&gt;dt = 10 m/sec and dy&gt;dt = 5 m/sec . How fast is the
particle moving away from the origin as it passes through the
point s3, -4d ?
114. Motion of a particle A particle moves along the curve y = x 3&gt;2
in the first quadrant in such a way that its distance from the origin increases at the rate of 11 units per second. Find dx&gt;dt when x = 3 .
115. Draining a tank Water drains from the conical tank shown in
the accompanying figure at the rate of 5 ft3&gt;min .
a. What is the relation between the variables h and r in the figure?
b. How fast is the water level dropping when h = 6 ft ?
117. Moving searchlight beam The figure shows a boat 1 km offshore, sweeping the shore with a searchlight. The light turns at a
constant rate, du&gt;dt = - 0.6 rad/sec.
a. How fast is the light moving along the shore when it reaches
point A?
b. How many revolutions per minute is 0.6 rad&gt; sec?
x
A
1 km
118. Points moving on coordinate axes Points A and B move along
the x- and y-axes, respectively, in such a way that the distance r
(meters) along the perpendicular from the origin to the line AB
remains constant. How fast is OA changing, and is it increasing,
or decreasing, when OB = 2r and B is moving toward O at the
rate of 0.3r m&gt; sec?
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:17 AM Page 240
240
Chapter 3: Differentiation
Linearization
124. Controlling error
119. Find the linearizations of
a. tan x at x = - p&gt;4
b. sec x at x = - p&gt;4 .
Graph the curves and linearizations together.
120. We can obtain a useful linear approximation of the function
ƒsxd = 1&gt;s1 + tan xd at x = 0 by combining the approximations
1
L 1 - x
1 + x
and
tan x L x
to get
1
L 1 - x.
1 + tan x
Show that this result is the standard linear approximation of
1&gt;s1 + tan xd at x = 0 .
121. Find the linearization of ƒsxd = 21 + x + sin x - 0.5 at x = 0 .
122. Find the linearization of ƒsxd = 2&gt;s1 - xd + 21 + x - 3.1
at x = 0 .
Differential Estimates of Change
123. Surface area of a cone Write a formula that estimates the
change that occurs in the lateral surface area of a right circular
cone when the height changes from h0 to h0 + dh and the radius
does not change.
a. How accurately should you measure the edge of a cube to be
reasonably sure of calculating the cube’s surface area with an
error of no more than 2%?
b. Suppose that the edge is measured with the accuracy
required in part (a). About how accurately can the cube’s
volume be calculated from the edge measurement? To find
out, estimate the percentage error in the volume calculation
that might result from using the edge measurement.
125. Compounding error The circumference of the equator of a
sphere is measured as 10 cm with a possible error of 0.4 cm.
is then used to calculate the surface area and volume of the
sphere. Estimate the percentage errors in the calculated values of
b. the surface area.
c. the volume.
126. Finding height To find the height of a lamppost (see accompanying figure), you stand a 6 ft pole 20 ft from the lamp and
measure the length a of its shadow, finding it to be 15 ft, give or
take an inch. Calculate the height of the lamppost using the
value a = 15 and estimate the possible error in the result.
h
h
6 ft
r
20 ft
a
V 1 r 2h
3
S r 兹r 2 h 2
(Lateral surface area)
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:17 AM Page 240
240
Chapter 3: Differentiation
Chapter 3
1. An equation like sin2 u + cos2 u = 1 is called an identity because
it holds for all values of u . An equation like sin u = 0.5 is not an
identity because it holds only for selected values of u , not all. If
you differentiate both sides of a trigonometric identity in u with
respect to u , the resulting new equation will also be an identity.
Differentiate the following to show that the resulting equations hold for all u .
a. sin 2u = 2 sin u cos u
b. cos 2u = cos2 u - sin2 u
2. If the identity sin sx + ad = sin x cos a + cos x sin a is differentiated with respect to x, is the resulting equation also an identity? Does
this principle apply to the equation x 2 - 2x - 8 = 0 ? Explain.
3. a. Find values for the constants a, b, and c that will make
ƒsxd = cos x
and
g sxd = a + bx + cx 2
satisfy the conditions
ƒs0d = g s0d,
ƒ&iquest;s0d = g&iquest;s0d,
and
ƒ–s0d = g–s0d .
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:17 AM Page 241
b. Find values for b and c that will make
ƒsxd = sin sx + ad
and
g sxd = b sin x + c cos x
satisfy the conditions
ƒs0d = g s0d
and
ƒ&iquest;s0d = g&iquest;s0d .
8. Designing a gondola The designer of a 30-ft-diameter spherical hot air balloon wants to suspend the gondola 8 ft below the
bottom of the balloon with cables tangent to the surface of the
balloon, as shown. Two of the cables are shown running from the
top edges of the gondola to their points of tangency, s - 12, - 9d
and s12, - 9d . How wide should the gondola be?
c. For the determined values of a, b, and c, what happens for the
third and fourth derivatives of ƒ and g in each of parts (a)
and (b)?
4. Solutions to differential equations
241
y
x 2 y 2 225
a. Show that y = sin x, y = cos x , and y = a cos x + b sin x
(a and b constants) all satisfy the equation
y– + y = 0 .
b. How would you modify the functions in part (a) to satisfy the
equation
y– + 4y = 0 ?
Generalize this result.
5. An osculating circle Find the values of h, k, and a that make
the circle sx - hd2 + s y - kd2 = a 2 tangent to the parabola
y = x 2 + 1 at the point (1, 2) and that also make the second derivatives d 2y&gt;dx 2 have the same value on both curves there. Circles like this one that are tangent to a curve and have the same
second derivative as the curve at the point of tangency are called
osculating circles (from the Latin osculari, meaning “to kiss”).
We encounter them again in Chapter 13.
x
0
(–12, –9)
(12, –9)
Suspension
cables
Gondola
15 ft
8 ft
Width
NOT TO SCALE
9. Pisa by parachute The photograph shows Mike McCarthy
parachuting from the top of the Tower of Pisa on August 5, 1988.
Make a rough sketch to show the shape of the graph of his speed
during the jump.
6. Marginal revenue A bus will hold 60 people. The number x of
people per trip who use the bus is related to the fare charged
( p dollars) by the law p = [3 - sx&gt;40d]2 . Write an expression
for the total revenue r (x) per trip received by the bus company.
What number of people per trip will make the marginal revenue
dr&gt;dx equal to zero? What is the corresponding fare? (This fare is
the one that maximizes the revenue, so the bus company should
probably rethink its fare policy.)
7. Industrial production
a. Economists often use the expression “rate of growth” in
relative rather than absolute terms. For example, let u = ƒstd
be the number of people in the labor force at time t in a given
industry. (We treat this function as though it were
differentiable even though it is an integer-valued step
function.)
Let y = g std be the average production per person in the
labor force at time t. The total production is then y = uy .
If the labor force is growing at the rate of 4% per year
sdu&gt;dt = 0.04ud and the production per worker is growing
at the rate of 5% per year sdy&gt;dt = 0.05yd , find the rate of
growth of the total production, y.
b. Suppose that the labor force in part (a) is decreasing at
the rate of 2% per year while the production per person is
increasing at the rate of 3% per year. Is the total production
increasing, or is it decreasing, and at what rate?
Photograph is not available.
Mike McCarthy of London jumped from the Tower of Pisa and then
opened his parachute in what he said was a world record low-level
parachute jump of 179 ft. (Source: Boston Globe, Aug. 6, 1988.)
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:17 AM Page 242
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Chapter 3: Differentiation
10. Motion of a particle The position at time t &Uacute; 0 of a particle
moving along a coordinate line is
have a derivative at x = 0 ? Explain.
17. a. For what values of a and b will
s = 10 cos st + p&gt;4d .
ƒsxd = e
a. What is the particle’s starting position st = 0d ?
b. What are the points farthest to the left and right of the origin
reached by the particle?
c. Find the particle’s velocity and acceleration at the points in
part (b).
ax,
ax 2 - bx + 3,
be differentiable for all values of x?
b. Discuss the geometry of the resulting graph of ƒ.
18. a. For what values of a and b will
d. When does the particle first reach the origin? What are its
velocity, speed, and acceleration then?
g sxd = e
11. Shooting a paper clip On Earth, you can easily shoot a paper
clip 64 ft straight up into the air with a rubber band. In t sec after
firing, the paper clip is s = 64t - 16t 2 ft above your hand.
be differentiable for all values of x?
a. How long does it take the paper clip to reach its maximum
height? With what velocity does it leave your hand?
b. On the moon, the same acceleration will send the paper clip
to a height of s = 64t - 2.6t 2 ft in t sec. About how long will
it take the paper clip to reach its maximum height, and how
high will it go?
12. Velocities of two particles At time t sec, the positions of two
particles on a coordinate line are s1 = 3t 3 - 12t 2 + 18t + 5 m
and s2 = - t 3 + 9t 2 - 12t m . When do the particles have the
same velocities?
13. Velocity of a particle A particle of constant mass m moves
along the x-axis. Its velocity y and position x satisfy the equation
1
1
msy 2 - y0 2 d = k sx0 2 - x 2 d ,
2
2
where k, y0 , and x0 are constants. Show that whenever y Z 0 ,
m
dy
= - kx .
dt
x 6 2
x &Uacute; 2
ax + b,
ax 3 + x + 2b,
x … -1
x 7 -1
b. Discuss the geometry of the resulting graph of g.
19. Odd differentiable functions Is there anything special about
the derivative of an odd differentiable function of x ? Give reasons
20. Even differentiable functions Is there anything special about
the derivative of an even differentiable function of x? Give reasons for your answer.
21. Suppose that the functions ƒ and g are defined throughout an
open interval containing the point x0 , that ƒ is differentiable at x0 ,
that ƒsx0 d = 0 , and that g is continuous at x0 . Show that the product ƒg is differentiable at x0 . This process shows, for example,
that although ƒ x ƒ is not differentiable at x = 0 , the product x ƒ x ƒ is
differentiable at x = 0 .
22. (Continuation of Exercise 21.) Use the result of Exercise 21 to
show that the following functions are differentiable at x = 0 .
b. x 2&gt;3 sin x
a. ƒ x ƒ sin x
d. hsxd = e
3
x s1 - cos xd
c. 2
2
x sin s1&gt;xd, x Z 0
0,
x = 0
23. Is the derivative of
14. Average and instantaneous velocity
a. Show that if the position x of a moving point is given by a
quadratic function of t, x = At 2 + Bt + C , then the average
velocity over any time interval [t1, t2] is equal to the
instantaneous velocity at the midpoint of the time interval.
b. What is the geometric significance of the result in part (a)?
15. Find all values of the constants m and b for which the function
sin x,
x 6 p
y = e
mx + b, x &Uacute; p
hsxd = e
x 2 sin s1&gt;xd, x Z 0
0,
x = 0
continuous at x = 0 ? How about the derivative of k sxd = xhsxd ?
24. Suppose that a function ƒ satisfies the following conditions for all
real values of x and y:
i. ƒsx + yd = ƒsxd # ƒs yd .
ii. ƒsxd = 1 + xg sxd , where limx:0 g sxd = 1 .
Show that the derivative ƒ&iquest;sxd exists at every value of x and that
ƒ&iquest;sxd = ƒsxd .
is
a. continuous at x = p .
25. The generalized product rule Use mathematical induction to
prove that if y = u1 u2 &Aacute; un is a finite product of differentiable
functions, then y is differentiable on their common domain and
b. differentiable at x = p .
16. Does the function
ƒsxd = L
1 - cos x
,
x
x Z 0
0,
x = 0
dy
dun
du2 &Aacute;
du1 &Aacute;
u
un + u1
=
un + &Aacute; + u1 u2 &Aacute; un - 1
.
dx
dx 2
dx
dx
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch03p147-243 8/19/04 11:17 AM Page 243
26. Leibniz’s rule for higher-order derivatives of products Leibniz’s rule for higher-order derivatives of products of differentiable
functions says that
a.
b.
d 2suyd
2
=
du dy
d 2y
d 2u
y + 2
+ u 2
2
dx
dx
dx
dx
=
d 2u dy
du d 2y
d 3y
d 3u
y
+
3
+
u
+
3
dx dx 2
dx 3
dx 2 dx
dx 3
dx
d 3suyd
dx 3
n
d suyd
d n - 1u dy &Aacute;
d nu
=
+
c.
n
n y + n
dx
dx
dx n - 1 dx
nsn - 1d &Aacute; sn - k + 1d d n - ku d ky
+
k!
dx n - k dx k
n
d y
+ &Aacute; + u n.
dx
The equations in parts (a) and (b) are special cases of the
equation in part (c). Derive the equation in part (c) by
mathematical induction, using
m
m
m!
m!
a b + a
b =
+
.
k!sm - kd!
sk + 1d!sm - k - 1d!
k
k + 1
27. The period of a clock pendulum The period T of a clock pendulum (time for one full swing and back) is given by the formula
T 2 = 4p2L&gt;g , where T is measured in seconds, g = 32.2 ft&gt;sec2 ,
and L, the length of the pendulum, is measured in feet. Find approximately
243
a. the length of a clock pendulum whose period is T = 1 sec .
b. the change dT in T if the pendulum in part (a) is lengthened
0.01 ft.
c. the amount the clock gains or loses in a day as a result of the
period’s changing by the amount dT found in part (b).
28. The melting ice cube Assume an ice cube retains its cubical
shape as it melts. If we call its edge length s, its volume is V = s 3
and its surface area is 6s 2 . We assume that V and s are differentiable functions of time t. We assume also that the cube’s volume
decreases at a rate that is proportional to its surface area. (This
latter assumption seems reasonable enough when we think that
the melting takes place at the surface: Changing the amount of
surface changes the amount of ice exposed to melt.) In mathematical terms,
dV
= - k s6s 2 d,
dt
k 7 0.
The minus sign indicates that the volume is decreasing. We assume that the proportionality factor k is constant. (It probably depends on many things, such as the relative humidity of the surrounding air, the air temperature, and the incidence or absence of
sunlight, to name only a few.) Assume a particular set of conditions in which the cube lost 1&gt; 4 of its volume during the first
hour, and that the volume is V0 when t = 0 . How long will it take
the ice cube to melt?
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Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Technology Application Projects
243
Technology Application Projects
Mathematica/Maple Module
Convergence of Secant Slopes to the Derivative Function
You will visualize the secant line between successive points on a curve and observe what happens as the distance between them becomes small.
The function, sample points, and secant lines are plotted on a single graph, while a second graph compares the slopes of the secant lines with the
derivative function.
Mathematica/Maple Module
Derivatives, Slopes, Tangent Lines, and Making Movies
Parts I–III. You will visualize the derivative at a point, the linearization of a function, and the derivative of a function. You learn how to plot the
function and selected tangents on the same graph.
Part IV (Plotting Many Tangents)
Part V (Making Movies). Parts IV and V of the module can be used to animate tangent lines as one moves along the graph of a function.
Mathematica/Maple Module
Convergence of Secant Slopes to the Derivative Function
You will visualize right-hand and left-hand derivatives.
Mathematica/Maple Module
Motion Along a Straight Line: Position : Velocity : Acceleration
Observe dramatic animated visualizations of the derivative relations among the position, velocity, and acceleration functions. Figures in the text
can be animated.
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Chapter
4
APPLICATIONS OF
DERIVATIVES
OVERVIEW This chapter studies some of the important applications of derivatives. We
learn how derivatives are used to find extreme values of functions, to determine and analyze the shapes of graphs, to calculate limits of fractions whose numerators and denominators both approach zero or infinity, and to find numerically where a function equals zero.
We also consider the process of recovering a function from its derivative. The key to many
of these accomplishments is the Mean Value Theorem, a theorem whose corollaries provide the gateway to integral calculus in Chapter 5.
Extreme Values of Functions
4.1
This section shows how to locate and identify extreme values of a continuous function
from its derivative. Once we can do this, we can solve a variety of optimization problems
in which we find the optimal (best) way to do something in a given situation.
DEFINITIONS
Absolute Maximum, Absolute Minimum
Let ƒ be a function with domain D. Then ƒ has an absolute maximum value on
D at a point c if
ƒsxd … ƒscd
y
and an absolute minimum value on D at c if
1
y sin x
y cos x
–␲
2
for all x in D
0
␲
2
ƒsxd &Uacute; ƒscd
for all x in D .
x
–1
FIGURE 4.1 Absolute extrema for
the sine and cosine functions on
[ -p&gt;2, p&gt;2] . These values can depend
on the domain of a function.
Absolute maximum and minimum values are called absolute extrema (plural of the Latin
extremum). Absolute extrema are also called global extrema, to distinguish them from
local extrema defined below.
For example, on the closed interval [- p&gt;2, p&gt;2] the function ƒsxd = cos x takes on
an absolute maximum value of 1 (once) and an absolute minimum value of 0 (twice). On
the same interval, the function gsxd = sin x takes on a maximum value of 1 and a minimum value of -1 (Figure 4.1).
Functions with the same defining rule can have different extrema, depending on the
domain.
244
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4.1 Extreme Values of Functions
EXAMPLE 1
245
Exploring Absolute Extrema
The absolute extrema of the following functions on their domains can be seen in Figure 4.2.
y
y
y x2
D (– , )
y x2
D [0, 2]
2
x
2
(a) abs min only
(b) abs max and min
y
y
y x2
D (0, 2]
x
y x2
D (0, 2)
2
x
2
(c) abs max only
x
(d) no max or min
FIGURE 4.2 Graphs for Example 1.
Function rule
Domain D
Absolute extrema on D
(a) y = x 2
s - q, q d
No absolute maximum.
Absolute minimum of 0 at x = 0.
(b) y = x 2
[0, 2]
Absolute maximum of 4 at x = 2.
Absolute minimum of 0 at x = 0.
(c) y = x 2
(0, 2]
Absolute maximum of 4 at x = 2.
No absolute minimum.
(d) y = x 2
(0, 2)
No absolute extrema.
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
Daniel Bernoulli
(1700–1789)
The following theorem asserts that a function which is continuous at every point of a
closed interval [a, b] has an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum value on the interval. We always look for these values when we graph a function.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
THEOREM 1
The Extreme Value Theorem
If ƒ is continuous on a closed interval [a, b], then ƒ attains both an absolute maximum value M and an absolute minimum value m in [a, b]. That is, there are
numbers x1 and x2 in [a, b] with ƒsx1 d = m, ƒsx2 d = M, and m … ƒsxd … M for
every other x in [a, b] (Figure 4.3).
(x2, M)
y f (x)
y f (x)
M
M
x1
a
x2
b
m
m
x
b
a
x
Maximum and minimum
at endpoints
(x1, m)
Maximum and minimum
at interior points
y f (x)
y f (x)
M
m
m
a
M
x2
b
x
Maximum at interior point,
minimum at endpoint
a
x1
b
x
Minimum at interior point,
maximum at endpoint
FIGURE 4.3 Some possibilities for a continuous function’s maximum and
minimum on a closed interval [a, b].
y
No largest value
1
yx
0 x1
0
1
Smallest value
x
FIGURE 4.4 Even a single point of
discontinuity can keep a function from
having either a maximum or minimum
value on a closed interval. The function
y = e
x, 0 … x 6 1
0, x = 1
is continuous at every point of [0, 1]
except x = 1 , yet its graph over [0, 1]
does not have a highest point.
The proof of The Extreme Value Theorem requires a detailed knowledge of the real
number system (see Appendix 4) and we will not give it here. Figure 4.3 illustrates possible locations for the absolute extrema of a continuous function on a closed interval [a, b].
As we observed for the function y = cos x, it is possible that an absolute minimum (or absolute maximum) may occur at two or more different points of the interval.
The requirements in Theorem 1 that the interval be closed and finite, and that the
function be continuous, are key ingredients. Without them, the conclusion of the theorem
need not hold. Example 1 shows that an absolute extreme value may not exist if the interval fails to be both closed and finite. Figure 4.4 shows that the continuity requirement cannot be omitted.
Local (Relative) Extreme Values
Figure 4.5 shows a graph with five points where a function has extreme values on its domain
[a, b]. The function’s absolute minimum occurs at a even though at e the function’s value is
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247
4.1 Extreme Values of Functions
Absolute maximum
No greater value of f anywhere.
Also a local maximum.
Local maximum
No greater value of
f nearby.
Local minimum
No smaller value
of f nearby.
y f (x)
Absolute minimum
No smaller value of
f anywhere. Also a
local minimum.
Local minimum
No smaller value of
f nearby.
a
c
e
d
b
x
FIGURE 4.5 How to classify maxima and minima.
smaller than at any other point nearby. The curve rises to the left and falls to the right
around c, making ƒ(c) a maximum locally. The function attains its absolute maximum at d.
DEFINITIONS
Local Maximum, Local Minimum
A function ƒ has a local maximum value at an interior point c of its domain if
ƒsxd … ƒscd
for all x in some open interval containing c.
A function ƒ has a local minimum value at an interior point c of its domain if
ƒsxd &Uacute; ƒscd
for all x in some open interval containing c.
We can extend the definitions of local extrema to the endpoints of intervals by defining ƒ
to have a local maximum or local minimum value at an endpoint c if the appropriate inequality holds for all x in some half-open interval in its domain containing c. In Figure 4.5,
the function ƒ has local maxima at c and d and local minima at a, e, and b. Local extrema
are also called relative extrema.
An absolute maximum is also a local maximum. Being the largest value overall, it is
also the largest value in its immediate neighborhood. Hence, a list of all local maxima will
automatically include the absolute maximum if there is one. Similarly, a list of all local
minima will include the absolute minimum if there is one.
Finding Extrema
The next theorem explains why we usually need to investigate only a few values to find a
function’s extrema.
THEOREM 2
The First Derivative Theorem for Local Extreme Values
If ƒ has a local maximum or minimum value at an interior point c of its domain,
and if ƒ&iquest; is defined at c, then
ƒ&iquest;scd = 0.
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248
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Proof To prove that ƒ&iquest;scd is zero at a local extremum, we show first that ƒ&iquest;scd cannot be
positive and second that ƒ&iquest;scd cannot be negative. The only number that is neither positive
nor negative is zero, so that is what ƒ&iquest;scd must be.
To begin, suppose that ƒ has a local maximum value at x = c (Figure 4.6) so that
ƒsxd - ƒscd … 0 for all values of x near enough to c. Since c is an interior point of ƒ’s domain, ƒ&iquest;scd is defined by the two-sided limit
Local maximum value
y f (x)
ƒsxd - ƒscd
x - c .
x:c
lim
Secant slopes 0
(never negative)
x
Secant slopes 0
(never positive)
c
x
This means that the right-hand and left-hand limits both exist at x = c and equal ƒ&iquest;scd.
When we examine these limits separately, we find that
x
FIGURE 4.6 A curve with a local
maximum value. The slope at c,
simultaneously the limit of nonpositive
numbers and nonnegative numbers, is zero.
ƒ&iquest;scd = lim+
ƒsxd - ƒscd
… 0.
x - c
ƒ&iquest;scd = lim-
ƒsxd - ƒscd
&Uacute; 0.
x - c
x:c
Because sx - cd 7 0
and ƒsxd … ƒscd
(1)
Because sx - cd 6 0
and ƒsxd … ƒscd
(2)
Similarly,
x:c
Together, Equations (1) and (2) imply ƒ&iquest;scd = 0.
This proves the theorem for local maximum values. To prove it for local minimum values, we simply use ƒsxd &Uacute; ƒscd, which reverses the inequalities in Equations (1)
and (2).
Theorem 2 says that a function’s first derivative is always zero at an interior point
where the function has a local extreme value and the derivative is defined. Hence the only
places where a function ƒ can possibly have an extreme value (local or global) are
1.
2.
3.
interior points where ƒ&iquest; = 0,
interior points where ƒ&iquest; is undefined,
endpoints of the domain of ƒ.
The following definition helps us to summarize.
DEFINITION
Critical Point
An interior point of the domain of a function ƒ where ƒ&iquest; is zero or undefined is a
critical point of ƒ.
Thus the only domain points where a function can assume extreme values are critical
points and endpoints.
Be careful not to misinterpret Theorem 2 because its converse is false. A differentiable function may have a critical point at x = c without having a local extreme value
there. For instance, the function ƒsxd = x 3 has a critical point at the origin and zero value
there, but is positive to the right of the origin and negative to the left. So it cannot have a
local extreme value at the origin. Instead, it has a point of inflection there. This idea is defined and discussed further in Section 4.4.
Most quests for extreme values call for finding the absolute extrema of a continuous
function on a closed and finite interval. Theorem 1 assures us that such values exist; Theorem 2 tells us that they are taken on only at critical points and endpoints. Often we can
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:01 AM Page 249
4.1 Extreme Values of Functions
249
simply list these points and calculate the corresponding function values to find what the
largest and smallest values are, and where they are located.
How to Find the Absolute Extrema of a Continuous Function ƒ on a
Finite Closed Interval
1. Evaluate ƒ at all critical points and endpoints.
2. Take the largest and smallest of these values.
EXAMPLE 2
Finding Absolute Extrema
Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of ƒsxd = x 2 on [- 2, 1].
Solution The function is differentiable over its entire domain, so the only critical point is
where ƒ&iquest;sxd = 2x = 0, namely x = 0. We need to check the function’s values at x = 0
and at the endpoints x = - 2 and x = 1:
Critical point value: ƒs0d = 0
Endpoint values:
ƒs -2d = 4
ƒs1d = 1
y
7
–2
–1
(1, 7)
t
1
y 8t t
4
The function has an absolute maximum value of 4 at x = - 2 and an absolute minimum
value of 0 at x = 0.
EXAMPLE 3
Absolute Extrema at Endpoints
Find the absolute extrema values of gstd = 8t - t 4 on [ -2, 1].
(–2, –32)
Solution The function is differentiable on its entire domain, so the only critical points
occur where g&iquest;std = 0. Solving this equation gives
– 32
8 - 4t 3 = 0
FIGURE 4.7 The extreme values of
g std = 8t - t 4 on [- 2, 1] (Example 3).
or
3
t = 2
2 7 1,
a point not in the given domain. The function’s absolute extrema therefore occur at the
endpoints, g s -2d = - 32 (absolute minimum), and gs1d = 7 (absolute maximum). See
Figure 4.7.
EXAMPLE 4
Finding Absolute Extrema on a Closed Interval
Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of ƒsxd = x 2&gt;3 on the interval [-2, 3].
Solution We evaluate the function at the critical points and endpoints and take the
largest and smallest of the resulting values.
The first derivative
2 -1&gt;3
2
x
=
3
3
32
x
has no zeros but is undefined at the interior point x = 0. The values of ƒ at this one critical point and at the endpoints are
ƒ&iquest;sxd =
Critical point value: ƒs0d = 0
3
Endpoint values:
ƒs - 2d = s - 2d2&gt;3 = 2
4
3
2&gt;3
ƒs3d = s3d = 29.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
y
3
9 L 2.08, and it
We can see from this list that the function’s absolute maximum value is 2
occurs at the right endpoint x = 3. The absolute minimum value is 0, and it occurs at the
interior point x = 0. (Figure 4.8).
y x 2/3, –2 ≤ x ≤ 3
Absolute maximum;
also a local maximum
Local
maximum 2
1
–2
–1
0
1
2
3
Absolute minimum;
also a local minimum
x
FIGURE 4.8 The extreme values of
ƒsxd = x 2&gt;3 on [ - 2, 3] occur at x = 0 and
x = 3 (Example 4).
While a function’s extrema can occur only at critical points and endpoints, not every
critical point or endpoint signals the presence of an extreme value. Figure 4.9 illustrates
this for interior points.
We complete this section with an example illustrating how the concepts we studied
are used to solve a real-world optimization problem.
EXAMPLE 5
Piping Oil from a Drilling Rig to a Refinery
A drilling rig 12 mi offshore is to be connected by pipe to a refinery onshore, 20 mi
straight down the coast from the rig. If underwater pipe costs \$500,000 per mile and landbased pipe costs \$300,000 per mile, what combination of the two will give the least expensive connection?
y
Solution
y x3
1
–1
We try a few possibilities to get a feel for the problem:
(a) Smallest amount of underwater pipe
0
1
x
–1
Rig
12
(a)
Refinery
20
y
Underwater pipe is more expensive, so we use as little as we can. We run straight to
shore (12 mi) and use land pipe for 20 mi to the refinery.
1
y x1/3
–1
0
1
x
Dollar cost = 12s500,000d + 20s300,000d
= 12,000,000
(b) All pipe underwater (most direct route)
–1
Rig
(b)
FIGURE 4.9 Critical points without
extreme values. (a) y&iquest; = 3x 2 is 0 at
x = 0 , but y = x 3 has no extremum there.
(b) y&iquest; = s1&gt;3dx -2&gt;3 is undefined at x = 0 ,
but y = x 1&gt;3 has no extremum there.

12
Refinery
20
We go straight to the refinery underwater.
Dollar cost = 2544 s500,000d
L 11,661,900
This is less expensive than plan (a).
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4.1 Extreme Values of Functions
251
(c) Something in between
Rig
x
12 mi
Refinery
y
20 – y
20 mi
Now we introduce the length x of underwater pipe and the length y of land-based pipe
as variables. The right angle opposite the rig is the key to expressing the relationship between x and y, for the Pythagorean theorem gives
x 2 = 122 + s20 - yd2
x = 2144 + s20 - yd2 .
(3)
Only the positive root has meaning in this model.
The dollar cost of the pipeline is
c = 500,000x + 300,000y.
To express c as a function of a single variable, we can substitute for x, using Equation (3):
cs yd = 500,0002144 + s20 - yd2 + 300,000y.
Our goal now is to find the minimum value of c(y) on the interval 0 … y … 20. The
first derivative of c( y) with respect to y according to the Chain Rule is
1 # 2s20 - yds - 1d
+ 300,000
2 2144 + s20 - yd2
20 - y
= - 500,000
+ 300,000.
2144 + s20 - yd2
c&iquest;s yd = 500,000 #
Setting c&iquest; equal to zero gives
500,000 s20 - yd = 300,0002144 + s20 - yd2
5
A 20 - y B = 2144 + s20 - yd2
3
25
A 20 - y B 2 = 144 + s20 - yd2
9
16
A 20 - y B 2 = 144
9
3
s20 - yd = ; # 12 = ; 9
4
y = 20 ; 9
y = 11
or
y = 29.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Only y = 11 lies in the interval of interest. The values of c at this one critical point and at
the endpoints are
cs11d = 10,800,000
cs0d = 11,661,900
cs20d = 12,000,000
The least expensive connection costs \$10,800,000, and we achieve it by running the line
underwater to the point on shore 11 mi from the refinery.
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252
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
EXERCISES 4.1
Finding Extrema from Graphs
9.
In Exercises 1–6, determine from the graph whether the function has
any absolute extreme values on [a, b]. Then explain how your answer
is consistent with Theorem 1.
y
1.
2.
10.
y
y
5
(1, 2)
2
–3
y
y h(x)
x
2
–1
y f (x)
–2
x
2
0
In Exercises 11-14, match the table with a graph.
0
a
c1
c2
b
x
0
y
3.
4.
a
c
x
b
11.
y
y f (x)
y h(x)
13.
0
a
c
b
x
y
5.
a
0
c
y g(x)
0
a
c
b
ƒ(x)
a
b
c
0
0
5
x
ƒ(x)
a
b
c
does not exist
0
2
b
x
0
a
c
8.
y
ƒ(x)
a
b
c
0
0
5
x
ƒ(x)
a
b
c
does not exist
does not exist
1.7
y g(x)
x
b
a
In Exercises 7–10, find the extreme values and where they occur.
7.
14.
x
x
y
6.
12.
x
b c
(a)
a
b
c
(b)
y
2
1
–1
1
–1
x
–2
0
2
x
a
b
c
(c)
a
(d)
b
c
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4.1 Extreme Values of Functions
253
Absolute Extrema on Finite Closed Intervals
Local Extrema and Critical Points
In Exercises 15–30, find the absolute maximum and minimum values
of each function on the given interval. Then graph the function. Identify the points on the graph where the absolute extrema occur, and include their coordinates.
In Exercises 45–52, find the derivative at each critical point and determine the local extreme values.
15. ƒsxd =
2
x - 5,
3
-2 … x … 3
16. ƒsxd = - x - 4,
-4 … x … 1
17. ƒsxd = x 2 - 1,
-1 … x … 2
18. ƒsxd = 4 - x 2,
-3 … x … 1
45. y = x 2&gt;3sx + 2d
46. y = x 2&gt;3sx 2 - 4d
47. y = x 24 - x
48. y = x 2 23 - x
2
49. y = e
4 - 2x,
x + 1,
51. y = e
- x 2 - 2x + 4,
-x 2 + 6x - 4,
52. y = •
-
50. y = e
x … 1
x 7 1
3 - x,
x 6 0
3 + 2x - x 2, x &Uacute; 0
x … 1
x 7 1
15
1 2
1
x - x +
,
4
2
4
x … 1
1
19. Fsxd = - 2 ,
x
0.5 … x … 2
1
20. Fsxd = - x ,
-2 … x … -1
21. hsxd = 2x,
-1 … x … 8
53. Let ƒsxd = sx - 2d2&gt;3 .
3
22. hsxd = - 3x 2&gt;3,
23. g sxd = 24 - x ,
24. g sxd = - 25 - x 2,
- 25 … x … 0
-
5p
p
… u …
2
6
26. ƒsud = tan u,
-
p
p
… u …
3
4
27. g sxd = csc x,
p
2p
… x …
3
3
28. g sxd = sec x,
p
p
- … x …
3
6
29. ƒstd = 2 - ƒ t ƒ ,
30. ƒstd = ƒ t - 5 ƒ ,
d. Repeat parts (a) and (b) for ƒsxd = sx - ad2&gt;3 , replacing 2
by a.
54. Let ƒsxd = ƒ x 3 - 9x ƒ .
a. Does ƒ&iquest;s0d exist?
b. Does ƒ&iquest;s3d exist?
c. Does ƒ&iquest;s -3d exist?
d. Determine all extrema of ƒ.
Optimization Applications
4 … t … 7
In Exercises 31–34, find the function’s absolute maximum and minimum values and say where they are assumed.
-1 … x … 8
32. ƒsxd = x 5&gt;3,
-1 … x … 8
3&gt;5
33. g sud = u ,
34. hsud = 3u2&gt;3,
- 32 … u … 1
- 27 … u … 8
Finding Extreme Values
In Exercises 35–44, find the extreme values of the function and where
they occur.
35. y = 2x 2 - 8x + 9
3
38. y = x 3 - 3x 2 + 3x - 2
39. y = 2x 2 - 1
40. y =
1
3
2
1 - x2
x
43. y = 2
x + 1
Whenever you are maximizing or minimizing a function of a single
variable, we urge you to graph the function over the domain that is appropriate to the problem you are solving. The graph will provide insight before you begin to calculate and will furnish a visual context for
55. Constructing a pipeline Supertankers off-load oil at a docking
facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery is 9 mi east of the
shore point nearest the docking facility. A pipeline must be constructed connecting the docking facility with the refinery. The
pipeline costs \$300,000 per mile if constructed underwater and
\$200,000 per mile if overland.
36. y = x 3 - 2x + 4
37. y = x + x - 8x + 5
41. y =
2
x 7 1
c. Does the result in part (b) contradict the Extreme Value
Theorem?
-1 … t … 3
31. ƒsxd = x 4&gt;3,
x - 6x + 8x,
b. Show that the only local extreme value of ƒ occurs at x = 2 .
-2 … x … 1
25. ƒsud = sin u,
2
a. Does ƒ&iquest;s2d exist?
-1 … x … 1
2
3
1
4 mi
21 - x 2
42. y = 23 + 2x - x 2
44. y =
Docking Facility
x + 1
x 2 + 2x + 2
Shore
A
B
Refinery
9 mi
a. Locate Point B to minimize the cost of the construction.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
b. The cost of underwater construction is expected to increase,
whereas the cost of overland construction is expected to stay
constant. At what cost does it become optimal to construct the
pipeline directly to Point A?
56. Upgrading a highway A highway must be constructed to connect Village A with Village B. There is a rudimentary roadway
that can be upgraded 50 mi south of the line connecting the two
per mile, whereas the cost of constructing a new highway is
\$500,000 per mile. Find the combination of upgrading and new
construction that minimizes the cost of connecting the two villages. Clearly define the location of the proposed highway.
150 mi
A
B
50 mi
50 mi
60. The function
Psxd = 2x +
200
x ,
0 6 x 6 q,
models the perimeter of a rectangle of dimensions x by 100&gt;x.
a. Find any extreme values of P.
b. Give an interpretation in terms of perimeter of the rectangle
for any values found in part (a).
61. Area of a right triangle What is the largest possible area for a
right triangle whose hypotenuse is 5 cm long?
62. Area of an athletic field An athletic field is to be built in the shape
of a rectangle x units long capped by semicircular regions of radius r
at the two ends. The field is to be bounded by a 400-m racetrack.
a. Express the area of the rectangular portion of the field as a
function of x alone or r alone (your choice).
b. What values of x and r give the rectangular portion the largest
possible area?
57. Locating a pumping station Two towns lie on the south side of
a river. A pumping station is to be located to serve the two towns.
A pipeline will be constructed from the pumping station to each
of the towns along the line connecting the town and the pumping
station. Locate the pumping station to minimize the amount of
pipeline that must be constructed.
63. Maximum height of a vertically moving body
body moving vertically is given by
s = -
1 2
gt + y0 t + s0,
2
The height of a
g 7 0,
with s in meters and t in seconds. Find the body’s maximum height.
64. Peak alternating current Suppose that at any given time t (in
seconds) the current i (in amperes) in an alternating current circuit is i = 2 cos t + 2 sin t . What is the peak current for this circuit (largest magnitude)?
10 mi
P
2 mi
b. Interpret any values found in part (a) in terms of volume of
the box.
5 mi
A
Theory and Examples
B
58. Length of a guy wire One tower is 50 ft high and another tower
is 30 ft high. The towers are 150 ft apart. A guy wire is to run
from Point A to the top of each tower.
50'
A
30'
150'
a. Locate Point A so that the total length of guy wire is minimal.
b. Show in general that regardless of the height of the towers, the
length of guy wire is minimized if the angles at A are equal.
59. The function
65. A minimum with no derivative The function ƒsxd = ƒ x ƒ has
an absolute minimum value at x = 0 even though ƒ is not differentiable at x = 0 . Is this consistent with Theorem 2? Give reasons for your answer.
66. Even functions If an even function ƒ(x) has a local maximum
value at x = c , can anything be said about the value of ƒ at
67. Odd functions If an odd function g (x) has a local minimum
value at x = c , can anything be said about the value of g at
68. We know how to find the extreme values of a continuous function
ƒ(x) by investigating its values at critical points and endpoints. But
what if there are no critical points or endpoints? What happens
69. Cubic functions Consider the cubic function
ƒsxd = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d .
V sxd = xs10 - 2xds16 - 2xd,
0 6 x 6 5,
models the volume of a box.
a. Show that ƒ can have 0, 1, or 2 critical points. Give examples
and graphs to support your argument.
a. Find the extreme values of V.
b. How many local extreme values can ƒ have?
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4.1 Extreme Values of Functions
T 70. Functions with no extreme values at endpoints
a. Graph the function
ƒ(x) = •
1
sin x ,
x 7 0
0,
x = 0.
Explain why ƒs0d = 0 is not a local extreme value of ƒ.
b. Construct a function of your own that fails to have an extreme
value at a domain endpoint.
T Graph the functions in Exercises 71–74. Then find the extreme values
of the function on the interval and say where they occur.
71. ƒsxd = ƒ x - 2 ƒ + ƒ x + 3 ƒ ,
72. gsxd = ƒ x - 1 ƒ - ƒ x - 5 ƒ ,
73. hsxd = ƒ x + 2 ƒ - ƒ x - 3 ƒ ,
74. ksxd = ƒ x + 1 ƒ + ƒ x - 3 ƒ ,
-5 … x … 5
-2 … x … 7
-q 6 x 6 q
a. Plot the function over the interval to see its general behavior there.
b. Find the interior points where ƒ&iquest; = 0 . (In some exercises, you
may have to use the numerical equation solver to approximate a
solution.) You may want to plot ƒ&iquest; as well.
c. Find the interior points where ƒ&iquest; does not exist.
d. Evaluate the function at all points found in parts (b) and (c) and
at the endpoints of the interval.
e. Find the function’s absolute extreme values on the interval and
identify where they occur.
75. ƒsxd = x 4 - 8x 2 + 4x + 2,
76. ƒsxd = - x 4 + 4x 3 - 4x + 1,
77. ƒsxd = x
2&gt;3
s3 - xd,
[- 20&gt;25, 64&gt;25]
[- 3&gt;4, 3]
[- 2, 2]
78. ƒsxd = 2 + 2x - 3x 2&gt;3,
[- 1, 10&gt;3]
79. ƒsxd = 2x + cos x,
[0, 2p]
80. ƒsxd = x 3&gt;4 - sin x +
1
,
2
-q 6 x 6 q
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
255
[0, 2p]
In Exercises 75–80, you will use a CAS to help find the absolute extrema of the given function over the specified closed interval. Perform
the following steps.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:01 AM Page 255
4.2 The Mean Value Theorem
The Mean Value Theorem
4.2
We know that constant functions have zero derivatives, but could there be a complicated
function, with many terms, the derivatives of which all cancel to give zero? What is the relationship between two functions that have identical derivatives over an interval? What we
are really asking here is what functions can have a particular kind of derivative. These and
many other questions we study in this chapter are answered by applying the Mean Value
Theorem. To arrive at this theorem we first need Rolle’s Theorem.
y
f '(c) 0
y f (x)
0
a
c
x
b
Rolle’s Theorem
(a)
Drawing the graph of a function gives strong geometric evidence that between any two points
where a differentiable function crosses a horizontal line there is at least one point on the curve
where the tangent is horizontal (Figure 4.10). More precisely, we have the following theorem.
y
f '(c1 ) 0
0
a
c1
255
f '(c3 ) 0
y f (x)
f '(c2 ) 0
c2
c3
b
x
THEOREM 3
Rolle’s Theorem
Suppose that y = ƒsxd is continuous at every point of the closed interval [a, b]
and differentiable at every point of its interior (a, b). If
(b)
FIGURE 4.10 Rolle’s Theorem says that
a differentiable curve has at least one
horizontal tangent between any two points
where it crosses a horizontal line. It may
have just one (a), or it may have more (b).
then there is at least one number c in (a, b) at which
ƒ&iquest;scd = 0.
Proof Being continuous, ƒ assumes absolute maximum and minimum values on [a, b].
These can occur only
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
1.
2.
3.
Michel Rolle
(1652–1719)
at interior points where ƒ&iquest; is zero,
at interior points where ƒ&iquest; does not exist,
at the endpoints of the function’s domain, in this case a and b.
By hypothesis, ƒ has a derivative at every interior point. That rules out possibility (2), leaving us with interior points where ƒ&iquest; = 0 and with the two endpoints a and b.
If either the maximum or the minimum occurs at a point c between a and b, then
ƒ&iquest;scd = 0 by Theorem 2 in Section 4.1, and we have found a point for Rolle’s theorem.
If both the absolute maximum and the absolute minimum occur at the endpoints, then
because ƒsad = ƒsbd it must be the case that ƒ is a constant function with
ƒsxd = ƒsad = ƒsbd for every x H [a, b]. Therefore ƒ&iquest;sxd = 0 and the point c can be taken
anywhere in the interior (a, b).
The hypotheses of Theorem 3 are essential. If they fail at even one point, the graph
may not have a horizontal tangent (Figure 4.11).
y
y
y
y f (x)
y f (x)
b
a
x
(a) Discontinuous at an
endpoint of [a, b]
a
x0 b
y f(x)
x
(b) Discontinuous at an
interior point of [a, b]
a
x0
b
x
(c) Continuous on [a, b] but not
differentiable at an interior
point
FIGURE 4.11 There may be no horizontal tangent if the hypotheses of Rolle’s Theorem do not hold.
y
(– 兹3, 2兹3 )
EXAMPLE 1
3
y x 3x
3
Horizontal Tangents of a Cubic Polynomial
The polynomial function
ƒsxd =
–3
0
3
x
(兹3, –2兹3 )
graphed in Figure 4.12 is continuous at every point of [-3, 3] and is differentiable at every
point of s - 3, 3d. Since ƒs -3d = ƒs3d = 0, Rolle’s Theorem says that ƒ&iquest; must be zero at
least once in the open interval between a = - 3 and b = 3. In fact, ƒ&iquest;sxd = x 2 - 3 is
zero twice in this interval, once at x = - 23 and again at x = 23.
EXAMPLE 2
FIGURE 4.12 As predicted by Rolle’s
Theorem, this curve has horizontal
tangents between the points where it
crosses the x-axis (Example 1).
x3
- 3x
3
Solution of an Equation ƒsxd = 0
Show that the equation
x 3 + 3x + 1 = 0
has exactly one real solution.
Solution
Let
y = ƒsxd = x 3 + 3x + 1.
Then the derivative
ƒ&iquest;sxd = 3x 2 + 3
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4.2 The Mean Value Theorem
is never zero (because it is always positive). Now, if there were even two points x = a and
x = b where ƒ(x) was zero, Rolle’s Theorem would guarantee the existence of a point
x = c in between them where ƒ&iquest; was zero. Therefore, ƒ has no more than one zero. It does
in fact have one zero, because the Intermediate Value Theorem tells us that the graph of
y = ƒsxd crosses the x-axis somewhere between x = - 1 (where y = - 3) and x = 0
(where y = 1). (See Figure 4.13.)
y
(1, 5)
y x 3 3x 1
1
–1
0
1
Our main use of Rolle’s Theorem is in proving the Mean Value Theorem.
x
The Mean Value Theorem
The Mean Value Theorem, which was first stated by Joseph-Louis Lagrange, is a slanted
version of Rolle’s Theorem (Figure 4.14). There is a point where the tangent is parallel to
chord AB.
(–1, –3)
FIGURE 4.13 The only real zero of the
polynomial y = x 3 + 3x + 1 is the one
shown here where the curve crosses the
x-axis between - 1 and 0 (Example 2).
THEOREM 4
The Mean Value Theorem
Suppose y = ƒsxd is continuous on a closed interval [a, b] and differentiable on
the interval’s interior (a, b). Then there is at least one point c in (a, b) at which
= ƒ&iquest;scd.
b - a
Tangent parallel to chord
y
Slope f '(c)
B
Slope
(2)
hsxd = ƒsxd - gsxd
a
y f(x)
c
x
b
y f (x)
B(b, f(b))
A(a, f(a))
b
h&iquest;sxd = ƒ&iquest;sxd -
b - a
Derivative of Eq. (3) p
h&iquest;scd = ƒ&iquest;scd -
b - a
p with x = c
0 = ƒ&iquest;scd -
b - a
h&iquest;scd = 0
x
ƒ&iquest;scd =
FIGURE 4.15 The graph of ƒ and the
chord AB over the interval [a, b].
b - a
(3)
Figure 4.16 shows the graphs of ƒ, g, and h together.
The function h satisfies the hypotheses of Rolle’s Theorem on [a, b]. It is continuous
on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b) because both ƒ and g are. Also, hsad = hsbd = 0 because the graphs of ƒ and g both pass through A and B. Therefore h&iquest;scd = 0 at some point
c H sa, bd . This is the point we want for Equation (1).
To verify Equation (1), we differentiate both sides of Equation (3) with respect to x
and then set x = c:
FIGURE 4.14 Geometrically, the Mean
Value Theorem says that somewhere
between A and B the curve has at least
one tangent parallel to chord AB.
a
b - a
(point-slope equation). The vertical difference between the graphs of ƒ and g at x is
A
0
Proof We picture the graph of ƒ as a curve in the plane and draw a line through the points
A(a, ƒ(a)) and B(b, ƒ(b)) (see Figure 4.15). The line is the graph of the function
f (b) f (a)
ba
(1)
,
b - a
which is what we set out to prove.
Rearranged
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
y f (x)
Joseph-Louis Lagrange
(1736–1813)
B
h(x)
y
y g(x)
A
y 兹1 x 2, –1 x 1
1
h(x) f (x) g(x)
a
x
b
x
FIGURE 4.16 The chord AB is the graph
of the function g (x). The function hsxd =
ƒsxd - g sxd gives the vertical distance
between the graphs of ƒ and g at x.
y
0
1
x
FIGURE 4.17 The function ƒsxd =
21 - x 2 satisfies the hypotheses (and
conclusion) of the Mean Value Theorem
on [- 1, 1] even though ƒ is not
differentiable at - 1 and 1.
The hypotheses of the Mean Value Theorem do not require ƒ to be differentiable at either a or b. Continuity at a and b is enough (Figure 4.17).
B(2, 4)
4
–1
The function ƒsxd = x 2 (Figure 4.18) is continuous for 0 … x … 2 and
differentiable for 0 6 x 6 2. Since ƒs0d = 0 and ƒs2d = 4, the Mean Value Theorem
says that at some point c in the interval, the derivative ƒ&iquest;sxd = 2x must have the value
s4 - 0d&gt;s2 - 0d = 2. In this (exceptional) case we can identify c by solving the equation
2c = 2 to get c = 1.
EXAMPLE 3
3
y x2
2
1
(1, 1)
A Physical Interpretation
1
A(0, 0)
x
2
FIGURE 4.18 As we find in Example 3,
c = 1 is where the tangent is parallel to
the chord.
If we think of the number sƒsbd - ƒsadd&gt;sb - ad as the average change in ƒ over [a, b] and
ƒ&iquest;scd as an instantaneous change, then the Mean Value Theorem says that at some interior
point the instantaneous change must equal the average change over the entire interval.
EXAMPLE 4 If a car accelerating from zero takes 8 sec to go 352 ft, its average velocity for the 8-sec interval is 352&gt;8 = 44 ft&gt;sec. At some point during the acceleration, the
Mean Value Theorem says, the speedometer must read exactly 30 mph (44 ft&gt;sec) (Figure
4.19).
s
Distance (ft)
400
s f (t)
(8, 352)
320
At the beginning of the section, we asked what kind of function has a zero derivative over
an interval. The first corollary of the Mean Value Theorem provides the answer.
240
160
80
0
Mathematical Consequences
At this point,
the car’s speed
was 30 mph.
t
5
Time (sec)
FIGURE 4.19 Distance versus elapsed
time for the car in Example 4.
COROLLARY 1
Functions with Zero Derivatives Are Constant
If ƒ&iquest;sxd = 0 at each point x of an open interval (a, b), then ƒsxd = C for all
x H sa, bd, where C is a constant.
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4.2 The Mean Value Theorem
259
Proof We want to show that ƒ has a constant value on the interval (a, b). We do so by
showing that if x1 and x2 are any two points in (a, b), then ƒsx1 d = ƒsx2 d. Numbering x1
and x2 from left to right, we have x1 6 x2 . Then ƒ satisfies the hypotheses of the Mean
Value Theorem on [x1 , x2]: It is differentiable at every point of [x1, x2] and hence continuous at every point as well. Therefore,
y
y x2 C
ƒsx2 d - ƒsx1 d
= ƒ&iquest;scd
x2 - x1
C2
at some point c between x1 and x2 . Since ƒ&iquest; = 0 throughout (a, b), this equation translates
successively into
C1
ƒsx2 d - ƒsx1 d
= 0,
x2 - x1
C0
C –2
1
0
and
ƒsx1 d = ƒsx2 d.
At the beginning of this section, we also asked about the relationship between two
functions that have identical derivatives over an interval. The next corollary tells us that
their values on the interval have a constant difference.
C –1
2
ƒsx2 d - ƒsx1 d = 0,
x
–1
–2
COROLLARY 2
Functions with the Same Derivative Differ by a Constant
If ƒ&iquest;sxd = g&iquest;sxd at each point x in an open interval (a, b), then there exists a constant C such that ƒsxd = gsxd + C for all x H sa, bd. That is, ƒ - g is a constant
on (a, b).
Proof At each point x H sa, bd the derivative of the difference function h = ƒ - g is
FIGURE 4.20 From a geometric point of
view, Corollary 2 of the Mean Value
Theorem says that the graphs of functions
with identical derivatives on an interval
can differ only by a vertical shift there.
The graphs of the functions with derivative
2x are the parabolas y = x 2 + C , shown
here for selected values of C.
h&iquest;sxd = ƒ&iquest;sxd - g&iquest;sxd = 0.
Thus, hsxd = C on (a, b) by Corollary 1. That is, ƒsxd - gsxd = C on (a, b), so ƒsxd =
gsxd + C.
Corollaries 1 and 2 are also true if the open interval (a, b) fails to be finite. That is, they remain true if the interval is sa, q d, s - q , bd, or s - q , q d.
Corollary 2 plays an important role when we discuss antiderivatives in Section 4.8. It
tells us, for instance, that since the derivative of ƒsxd = x 2 on s - q , q d is 2x, any other
function with derivative 2x on s - q , q d must have the formula x 2 + C for some value of
C (Figure 4.20).
EXAMPLE 5 Find the function ƒ(x) whose derivative is sin x and whose graph passes
through the point (0, 2).
Since ƒ(x) has the same derivative as g sxd = - cos x, we know that ƒsxd =
- cos x + C for some constant C. The value of C can be determined from the condition
that ƒs0d = 2 (the graph of ƒ passes through (0, 2)):
Solution
ƒs0d = - cos s0d + C = 2,
so
C = 3.
The function is ƒsxd = - cos x + 3.
Finding Velocity and Position from Acceleration
Here is how to find the velocity and displacement functions of a body falling freely from
rest with acceleration 9.8 m&gt;sec2 .
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
We know that y(t) is some function whose derivative is 9.8. We also know that the derivative of gstd = 9.8t is 9.8. By Corollary 2,
ystd = 9.8t + C
for some constant C. Since the body falls from rest, ys0d = 0. Thus
9.8s0d + C = 0,
and
C = 0.
The velocity function must be ystd = 9.8t . How about the position function s(t)?
We know that s(t) is some function whose derivative is 9.8t. We also know that the derivative of ƒstd = 4.9t 2 is 9.8t. By Corollary 2,
sstd = 4.9t 2 + C
for some constant C. If the initial height is ss0d = h, measured positive downward from
the rest position, then
4.9s0d2 + C = h,
and
C = h.
The position function must be sstd = 4.9t 2 + h.
The ability to find functions from their rates of change is one of the very powerful
tools of calculus. As we will see, it lies at the heart of the mathematical developments in
Chapter 5.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
EXERCISES 4.2
Finding c in the Mean Value Theorem
9. The function
Find the value or values of c that satisfy the equation
= ƒ&iquest;scd
b - a
in the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem for the functions and intervals in Exercises 1–4.
1. ƒsxd = x 2 + 2x - 1,
2. ƒsxd = x 2&gt;3,
[0, 1]
4. ƒsxd = 2x - 1,
1
c , 2d
2
[1, 3]
Checking and Using Hypotheses
Which of the functions in Exercises 5–8 satisfy the hypotheses of the
Mean Value Theorem on the given interval, and which do not? Give
5. ƒsxd = x 2&gt;3,
[- 1, 8]
6. ƒsxd = x 4&gt;5,
[0, 1]
7. ƒsxd = 2xs1 - xd,
8. ƒsxd =
L
x, 0 … x 6 1
0, x = 1
is zero at x = 0 and x = 1 and differentiable on (0, 1), but its derivative on (0, 1) is never zero. How can this be? Doesn’t Rolle’s
Theorem say the derivative has to be zero somewhere in (0, 1)?
10. For what values of a, m and b does the function
[0, 1]
1
3. ƒsxd = x + x ,
ƒsxd = e
3,
ƒsxd = • -x 2 + 3x + a,
mx + b,
x = 0
0 6 x 6 1
1 … x … 2
satisfy the hypotheses of the Mean Value Theorem on the interval
[0, 2]?
Roots (Zeros)
11. a. Plot the zeros of each polynomial on a line together with the
zeros of its first derivative.
[0, 1]
sin x
x ,
-p … x 6 0
0,
x = 0
i) y = x 2 - 4
ii) y = x 2 + 8x + 15
iii) y = x 3 - 3x 2 + 4 = sx + 1dsx - 2d2
iv) y = x 3 - 33x 2 + 216x = xsx - 9dsx - 24d
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4.2 The Mean Value Theorem
b. Use Rolle’s Theorem to prove that between every two zeros of
x n + an - 1x n - 1 + &Aacute; + a1 x + a0 there lies a zero of
In Exercises 33–36, find the function with the given derivative whose
graph passes through the point P.
33. ƒ&iquest;sxd = 2x - 1,
nx n - 1 + sn - 1dan - 1x n - 2 + &Aacute; + a1 .
12. Suppose that ƒ– is continuous on [a, b] and that ƒ has three zeros
in the interval. Show that ƒ– has at least one zero in (a, b). Generalize this result.
13. Show that if ƒ– 7 0 throughout an interval [a, b], then ƒ&iquest; has at
most one zero in [a, b]. What if ƒ– 6 0 throughout [a, b] instead?
261
Ps0, 0d
1
34. g&iquest;sxd = 2 + 2x,
x
Ps -1, 1d
35. r&iquest;sud = 8 - csc2 u,
p
P a , 0b
4
36. r&iquest;std = sec t tan t - 1,
Ps0, 0d
14. Show that a cubic polynomial can have at most three real zeros.
Show that the functions in Exercises 15–22 have exactly one zero in
the given interval.
15. ƒsxd = x 4 + 3x + 1,
[- 2, - 1]
4
+ 7,
x2
s - q , 0d
16. ƒsxd = x 3 +
Exercises 37–40 give the velocity y = ds&gt;dt and initial position of a
body moving along a coordinate line. Find the body’s position at time t.
37. y = 9.8t + 5,
39. y = sin pt,
17. g std = 2t + 21 + t - 4,
18. g std =
Finding Position from Velocity
u
19. r sud = u + sin a b - 8,
3
2
2t
2
40. y = p cos p ,
ssp2 d = 1
ss0d = 0
Finding Position from Acceleration
s -1, 1d
Exercises 41–44 give the acceleration a = d 2s&gt;dt 2 , initial velocity,
and initial position of a body moving on a coordinate line. Find the
body’s position at time t.
s - q, q d
20. r sud = 2u - cos2 u + 22,
s - q, q d
s0, p&gt;2d
22. r sud = tan u - cot u - u,
ss0.5d = 4
s0, q d
1
+ 21 + t - 3.1,
1 - t
1
21. r sud = sec u - 3 + 5,
u
ss0d = 10 38. y = 32t - 2,
41. a = 32,
ys0d = 20,
42. a = 9.8,
ys0d = - 3,
ss0d = 5
ss0d = 0
43. a = - 4 sin 2t,
ys0d = 2,
ss0d = - 3
3t
9
cos p ,
p2
ys0d = 0,
ss0d = - 1
s0, p&gt;2d
44. a =
Finding Functions from Derivatives
23. Suppose that ƒs -1d = 3 and that ƒ&iquest;sxd = 0 for all x. Must
24. Suppose that ƒs0d = 5 and that ƒ&iquest;sxd = 2 for all x. Must ƒsxd =
25. Suppose that ƒ&iquest;sxd = 2x for all x. Find ƒ(2) if
a. ƒs0d = 0
b. ƒs1d = 0
c. ƒs - 2d = 3 .
26. What can be said about functions whose derivatives are constant?
In Exercises 27–32, find all possible functions with the given derivative.
27. a. y&iquest; = x
b. y&iquest; = x 2
c. y&iquest; = x 3
28. a. y&iquest; = 2x
b. y&iquest; = 2x - 1
c. y&iquest; = 3x 2 + 2x - 1
1
29. a. y&iquest; = - 2
x
1
b. y&iquest; = 1 - 2
x
1
c. y&iquest; = 5 + 2
x
30. a. y&iquest; =
1
2 2x
b. y&iquest; =
1
2x
c. y&iquest; = 4x -
Applications
45. Temperature change It took 14 sec for a mercury thermometer
to rise from -19&deg;C to 100&deg;C when it was taken from a freezer
and placed in boiling water. Show that somewhere along the way
the mercury was rising at the rate of 8.5&deg;C&gt;sec.
46. A trucker handed in a ticket at a toll booth showing that in 2 hours
she had covered 159 mi on a toll road with speed limit 65 mph.
The trucker was cited for speeding. Why?
47. Classical accounts tell us that a 170-oar trireme (ancient Greek or
Roman warship) once covered 184 sea miles in 24 hours. Explain
why at some point during this feat the trireme’s speed exceeded
7.5 knots (sea miles per hour).
48. A marathoner ran the 26.2-mi New York City Marathon in 2.2
hours. Show that at least twice the marathoner was running at exactly 11 mph.
49. Show that at some instant during a 2-hour automobile trip the
car’s speedometer reading will equal the average speed for the
trip.
1
2x
31. a. y&iquest; = sin 2t
t
b. y&iquest; = cos
2
c. y&iquest; = sin 2t + cos
t
2
32. a. y&iquest; = sec2 u
b. y&iquest; = 2u
c. y&iquest; = 2u - sec2 u
50. Free fall on the moon On our moon, the acceleration of gravity
is 1.6 m&gt;sec2 . If a rock is dropped into a crevasse, how fast will it
be going just before it hits bottom 30 sec later?
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Theory and Examples
51. The geometric mean of a and b The geometric mean of two
positive numbers a and b is the number 2ab . Show that the value
of c in the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem for ƒsxd = 1&gt;x
on an interval of positive numbers [a, b] is c = 2ab .
52. The arithmetic mean of a and b The arithmetic mean of two
numbers a and b is the number sa + bd&gt;2 . Show that the value of
c in the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem for ƒsxd = x 2 on
any interval [a, b] is c = sa + bd&gt;2 .
T 53. Graph the function
ƒsxd = sin x sin sx + 2d - sin2 sx + 1d .
What does the graph do? Why does the function behave this way?
54. Rolle’s Theorem
a. Construct a polynomial ƒ(x) that has zeros at x = - 2, -1, 0,
1, and 2 .
b. Graph ƒ and its derivative ƒ&iquest; together. How is what you see
related to Rolle’s Theorem?
c. Do gsxd = sin x and its derivative g&iquest; illustrate the same
phenomenon?
55. Unique solution Assume that ƒ is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b). Also assume that ƒ(a) and ƒ(b) have opposite
signs and that ƒ&iquest; Z 0 between a and b. Show that ƒsxd = 0 exactly once between a and b.
56. Parallel tangents Assume that ƒ and g are differentiable on
[a, b] and that ƒsad = g sad and ƒsbd = g sbd . Show that there is
at least one point between a and b where the tangents to the graphs
of ƒ and g are parallel or the same line. Illustrate with a sketch.
57. If the graphs of two differentiable functions ƒ(x) and g(x) start at
the same point in the plane and the functions have the same rate
of change at every point, do the graphs have to be identical? Give
58. Show that for any numbers a and b, the inequality
ƒ sin b - sin a ƒ … ƒ b - a ƒ is true.
59. Assume that ƒ is differentiable on a … x … b and that ƒsbd 6 ƒsad .
Show that ƒ&iquest; is negative at some point between a and b.
60. Let ƒ be a function defined on an interval [a, b]. What conditions
could you place on ƒ to guarantee that
min ƒ&iquest; …
… max ƒ&iquest; ,
b - a
where min ƒ&iquest; and max ƒ&iquest; refer to the minimum and maximum
T 61. Use the inequalities in Exercise 60 to estimate ƒs0.1d if ƒ&iquest;sxd =
1&gt;s1 + x 4 cos xd for 0 … x … 0.1 and ƒs0d = 1 .
T 62. Use the inequalities in Exercise 60 to estimate ƒs0.1d if ƒ&iquest;sxd =
1&gt;s1 - x 4 d for 0 … x … 0.1 and ƒs0d = 2 .
63. Let ƒ be differentiable at every value of x and suppose that
ƒs1d = 1 , that ƒ&iquest; 6 0 on s - q , 1d , and that ƒ&iquest; 7 0 on s1, q d .
a. Show that ƒsxd &Uacute; 1 for all x.
b. Must ƒ&iquest;s1d = 0 ? Explain.
64. Let ƒsxd = px 2 + qx + r be a quadratic function defined on a
closed interval [a, b]. Show that there is exactly one point c in
(a, b) at which ƒ satisfies the conclusion of the Mean Value
Theorem.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
4.3
Monotonic Functions and The First Derivative Test
In sketching the graph of a differentiable function it is useful to know where it increases
(rises from left to right) and where it decreases (falls from left to right) over an interval.
This section defines precisely what it means for a function to be increasing or decreasing
over an interval, and gives a test to determine where it increases and where it decreases.
We also show how to test the critical points of a function for the presence of local extreme
values.
Increasing Functions and Decreasing Functions
What kinds of functions have positive derivatives or negative derivatives? The answer, provided by the Mean Value Theorem’s third corollary, is this: The only functions with positive derivatives are increasing functions; the only functions with negative derivatives are
decreasing functions.
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4.3 Monotonic Functions and The First Derivative Test
263
DEFINITIONS
Increasing, Decreasing Function
Let ƒ be a function defined on an interval I and let x1 and x2 be any two points in I.
1.
2.
If ƒsx1 d 6 ƒsx2 d whenever x1 6 x2 , then ƒ is said to be increasing on I.
If ƒsx2 d 6 ƒsx1 d whenever x1 6 x2 , then ƒ is said to be decreasing on I.
A function that is increasing or decreasing on I is called monotonic on I.
y
4
y x2
3
Function
decreasing
Function
increasing
2
y' 0
y' 0
1
–2
–1
0
1
y' 0
It is important to realize that the definitions of increasing and decreasing functions
must be satisfied for every pair of points x1 and x2 in I with x1 6 x2 . Because of the inequality 6 comparing the function values, and not … , some books say that ƒ is strictly
increasing or decreasing on I. The interval I may be finite or infinite.
The function ƒsxd = x 2 decreases on s - q , 0] and increases on [0, q d as can be seen
from its graph (Figure 4.21). The function ƒ is monotonic on s - q , 0] and [0, q d, but it
is not monotonic on s - q , q d. Notice that on the interval s - q , 0d the tangents have
negative slopes, so the first derivative is always negative there; for s0, q d the tangents
have positive slopes and the first derivative is positive. The following result confirms these
observations.
x
2
2
FIGURE 4.21 The function ƒsxd = x is
monotonic on the intervals s - q , 0] and
[0, q d , but it is not monotonic on
s - q, q d.
COROLLARY 3
First Derivative Test for Monotonic Functions
Suppose that ƒ is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b).
If ƒ&iquest;sxd 7 0 at each point x H sa, bd, then ƒ is increasing on [a, b].
If ƒ&iquest;sxd 6 0 at each point x H sa, bd, then ƒ is decreasing on [a, b].
Proof Let x1 and x2 be any two points in [a, b] with x1 6 x2 . The Mean Value Theorem
applied to ƒ on [x1, x2] says that
ƒsx2 d - ƒsx1 d = ƒ&iquest;scdsx2 - x1 d
for some c between x1 and x2 . The sign of the right-hand side of this equation is the same
as the sign of ƒ&iquest;scd because x2 - x1 is positive. Therefore, ƒsx2 d 7 ƒsx1 d if ƒ&iquest; is positive
on (a, b) and ƒsx2 d 6 ƒsx1 d if ƒ&iquest; is negative on (a, b).
Here is how to apply the First Derivative Test to find where a function is increasing
and decreasing. If a 6 b are two critical points for a function ƒ, and if ƒ&iquest; exists but is not
zero on the interval (a, b), then ƒ&iquest; must be positive on (a, b) or negative there (Theorem 2,
Section 3.1). One way we can determine the sign of ƒ&iquest; on the interval is simply by evaluating ƒ&iquest; for some point x in (a, b). Then we apply Corollary 3.
EXAMPLE 1
Using the First Derivative Test for Monotonic Functions
Find the critical points of ƒsxd = x 3 - 12x - 5 and identify the intervals on which ƒ is
increasing and decreasing.
Solution
The function ƒ is everywhere continuous and differentiable. The first derivative
ƒ&iquest;sxd = 3x 2 - 12 = 3sx 2 - 4d
= 3sx + 2dsx - 2d
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
is zero at x = - 2 and x = 2. These critical points subdivide the domain of ƒ into intervals
s - q , -2d, s - 2, 2d, and s2, q d on which ƒ&iquest; is either positive or negative. We determine
the sign of ƒ&iquest; by evaluating ƒ at a convenient point in each subinterval. The behavior of ƒ
is determined by then applying Corollary 3 to each subinterval. The results are summarized in the following table, and the graph of ƒ is given in Figure 4.22.
y y x3 – 12x – 5
20
(–2, 11)
10
–4 –3 –2 –1 0
1
2
3
x
4
- q 6 x 6 -2
ƒ&iquest;s - 3d = 15
+
increasing
Intervals
ƒ œ Evaluated
Sign of ƒ œ
Behavior of ƒ
–10
–20
-2 6 x 6 2
ƒ&iquest;s0d = - 12
decreasing
2 6 x 6 q
ƒ&iquest;s3d = 15
+
increasing
(2, –21)
FIGURE 4.22 The function ƒsxd =
x 3 - 12x - 5 is monotonic on three
separate intervals (Example 1).
Corollary 3 is valid for infinite as well as finite intervals, and we used that fact in our
analysis in Example 1.
Knowing where a function increases and decreases also tells us how to test for the nature of local extreme values.
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
First Derivative Test for Local Extrema
Edmund Halley
(1656–1742)
In Figure 4.23, at the points where ƒ has a minimum value, ƒ&iquest; 6 0 immediately to the left
and ƒ&iquest; 7 0 immediately to the right. (If the point is an endpoint, there is only one side to
consider.) Thus, the function is decreasing on the left of the minimum value and it is increasing on its right. Similarly, at the points where ƒ has a maximum value, ƒ&iquest; 7 0 immediately to the left and ƒ&iquest; 6 0 immediately to the right. Thus, the function is increasing on
the left of the maximum value and decreasing on its right. In summary, at a local extreme
point, the sign of ƒ&iquest;sxd changes.
Absolute max
f ' undefined
Local max
f'0
No extreme
f'0
f'0
y f(x)
No extreme
f'0
f'0
f'0
f'0
f'0
Local min
Local min
f'0
f'0
Absolute min
a
FIGURE 4.23
c1
c2
c3
c4
c5
b
x
A function’s first derivative tells how the graph rises and falls.
These observations lead to a test for the presence and nature of local extreme values
of differentiable functions.
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4.3 Monotonic Functions and The First Derivative Test
265
First Derivative Test for Local Extrema
Suppose that c is a critical point of a continuous function ƒ, and that ƒ is differentiable at every point in some interval containing c except possibly at c itself.
Moving across c from left to right,
1.
2.
3.
if ƒ&iquest; changes from negative to positive at c, then ƒ has a local minimum at c;
if ƒ&iquest; changes from positive to negative at c, then ƒ has a local maximum at c;
if ƒ&iquest; does not change sign at c (that is, ƒ&iquest; is positive on both sides of c or
negative on both sides), then ƒ has no local extremum at c.
The test for local extrema at endpoints is similar, but there is only one side to consider.
Proof Part (1). Since the sign of ƒ&iquest; changes from negative to positive at c, these are numbers a and b such that ƒ&iquest; 6 0 on (a, c) and ƒ&iquest; 7 0 on (c, b). If x H sa, cd, then
ƒscd 6 ƒsxd because ƒ&iquest; 6 0 implies that ƒ is decreasing on [a, c]. If x H sc, bd, then
ƒscd 6 ƒsxd because ƒ&iquest; 7 0 implies that ƒ is increasing on [c, b]. Therefore, ƒsxd &Uacute; ƒscd
for every x H sa, bd. By definition, ƒ has a local minimum at c.
Parts (2) and (3) are proved similarly.
EXAMPLE 2
Using the First Derivative Test for Local Extrema
Find the critical points of
ƒsxd = x 1&gt;3sx - 4d = x 4&gt;3 - 4x 1&gt;3 .
Identify the intervals on which ƒ is increasing and decreasing. Find the function’s local and
absolute extreme values.
The function ƒ is continuous at all x since it is the product of two continuous
functions, x 1&gt;3 and sx - 4d. The first derivative
Solution
ƒ&iquest;sxd =
=
d 4&gt;3
4
4
x
- 4x 1&gt;3R = x 1&gt;3 - x -2&gt;3
3
3
dx Q
4sx - 1d
4 -2&gt;3
x
Qx - 1R =
3
3x 2&gt;3
is zero at x = 1 and undefined at x = 0. There are no endpoints in the domain, so the critical points x = 0 and x = 1 are the only places where ƒ might have an extreme value.
The critical points partition the x-axis into intervals on which ƒ&iquest; is either positive or
negative. The sign pattern of ƒ&iquest; reveals the behavior of ƒ between and at the critical points.
We can display the information in a table like the following:
Intervals
Sign of ƒ&iquest;
Behavior of ƒ
x 6 0
decreasing
0 6 x 6 1
decreasing
x 7 1
+
increasing
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
y
4
y x1/3(x 4)
2
1
–1 0
–1
1
2
3
4
x
Corollary 3 to the Mean Value Theorem tells us that ƒ decreases on s - q , 0d, decreases on (0, 1), and increases on s1, q d . The First Derivative Test for Local Extrema
tells us that ƒ does not have an extreme value at x = 0 (ƒ&iquest; does not change sign) and that ƒ
has a local minimum at x = 1 (ƒ&iquest; changes from negative to positive).
The value of the local minimum is ƒs1d = 11&gt;3s1 - 4d = - 3. This is also an absolute minimum because the function’s values fall toward it from the left and rise away
from it on the right. Figure 4.24 shows this value in relation to the function’s graph.
Note that limx:0 ƒ&iquest;sxd = - q , so the graph of ƒ has a vertical tangent at the origin.
–2
–3
(1, 3)
FIGURE 4.24 The function ƒsxd =
x 1/3 sx - 4d decreases when x 6 1 and
increases when x 7 1 (Example 2).
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
EXERCISES 4.3
Analyzing ƒ Given ƒ
17. ƒsxd = x 4 - 8x 2 + 16
are given in Exercises 1–8:
19. Hstd =
b. On what intervals is ƒ increasing or decreasing?
2. ƒ&iquest;sxd = sx - 1dsx + 2d
3. ƒ&iquest;sxd = sx - 1d sx + 2d
2
25. ƒsxd = x 1&gt;3sx + 8d
27. hsxd = x 1&gt;3sx 2 - 4d
28. k sxd = x 2&gt;3sx 2 - 4d
2
Extreme Values on Half-Open Intervals
In Exercises 29–36:
8. ƒ&iquest;sxd = x -1&gt;2sx - 3d
a. Identify the function’s local extreme values in the given domain,
and say where they are assumed.
Extremes of Given Functions
b. Which of the extreme values, if any, are absolute?
In Exercises 9–28:
a. Find the intervals on which the function is increasing and
decreasing.
b. Then identify the function’s local extreme values, if any, saying
where they are taken on.
c. Which, if any, of the extreme values are absolute?
T
c. Support your findings with a graphing calculator or computer
grapher.
29. ƒsxd = 2x - x 2, - q 6 x … 2
30. ƒsxd = sx + 1d2,
-q 6 x … 0
2
31. g sxd = x - 4x + 4,
2
d. Support your findings with a graphing calculator or computer
grapher.
32. g sxd = - x - 6x - 9,
9. g std = - t 2 - 3t + 3
34. ƒstd = t 3 - 3t 2,
3
11. hsxd = - x + 2x
2
24. ƒsxd =
x Z 2
4. ƒ&iquest;sxd = sx - 1d sx + 2d
6. ƒ&iquest;sxd = sx - 7dsx + 1dsx + 5d
T
x2 - 3
,
x - 2
22. g sxd = x 2 25 - x
2
5. ƒ&iquest;sxd = sx - 1dsx + 2dsx - 3d
7. ƒ&iquest;sxd = x -1&gt;3sx + 2d
20. Kstd = 15t 3 - t 5
x3
3x + 1
26. g sxd = x 2&gt;3sx + 5d
23. ƒsxd =
c. At what points, if any, does ƒ assume local maximum and
minimum values?
2
3 4
t - t6
2
21. g sxd = x 28 - x 2
a. What are the critical points of ƒ?
1. ƒ&iquest;sxd = xsx - 1d
18. g sxd = x 4 - 4x 3 + 4x 2
2
3
10. g std = - 3t 2 + 9t + 5
3
33. ƒstd = 12t - t ,
3
12. hsxd = 2x - 18x
3
13. ƒsud = 3u - 4u
14. ƒsud = 6u - u
15. ƒsrd = 3r 3 + 16r
16. hsrd = sr + 7d3
35. hsxd =
1 … x 6 q
-4 … x 6 q
-3 … t 6 q
-q 6 t … 3
x3
- 2x 2 + 4x,
3
0 … x 6 q
36. k sxd = x 3 + 3x 2 + 3x + 1,
-q 6 x … 0
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4.3 Monotonic Functions and The First Derivative Test
Graphing Calculator or Computer Grapher
c. ƒ&iquest;sxd 7 0 for x Z 1 ;
In Exercises 37–40:
d. ƒ&iquest;sxd 6 0 for x Z 1 .
a. Find the local extrema of each function on the given interval, and
say where they are assumed.
T b. Graph the function and its derivative together. Comment on the
behavior of ƒ in relation to the signs and values of ƒ&iquest; .
x
x
37. ƒsxd = - 2 sin ,
2
2
0 … x … 2p
38. ƒsxd = - 2 cos x - cos2 x,
2
267
44. Sketch the graph of a differentiable function y = ƒsxd that has
a. a local minimum at (1, 1) and a local maximum at (3, 3);
b. a local maximum at (1, 1) and a local minimum at (3, 3);
c. local maxima at (1, 1) and (3, 3);
d. local minima at (1, 1) and (3, 3).
45. Sketch the graph of a continuous function y = g sxd such that
-p … x … p
39. ƒsxd = csc x - 2 cot x,
0 6 x 6 p
40. ƒsxd = sec2 x - 2 tan x,
-p
p
6 x 6
2
2
Theory and Examples
Show that the functions in Exercises 41 and 42 have local extreme values at the given values of u , and say which kind of local extreme the
function has.
41. hsud = 3 cos
u
,
2
0 … u … 2p,
42. hsud = 5 sin
u
,
2
0 … u … p,
at u = 0 and u = 2p
at u = 0 and u = p
43. Sketch the graph of a differentiable function y = ƒsxd through
the point (1, 1) if ƒ&iquest;s1d = 0 and
a. ƒ&iquest;sxd 7 0 for x 6 1 and ƒ&iquest;sxd 6 0 for x 7 1 ;
a. g s2d = 2, 0 6 g&iquest; 6 1 for x 6 2, g&iquest;sxd : 1- as
x : 2-, -1 6 g&iquest; 6 0 for x 7 2, and g&iquest;sxd : - 1+ as
x : 2+ ;
b. g s2d = 2, g&iquest; 6 0 for x 6 2, g&iquest;sxd : - q as
x : 2-, g&iquest; 7 0 for x 7 2, and g&iquest;sxd : q as x : 2+ .
46. Sketch the graph of a continuous function y = hsxd such that
a. hs0d = 0, -2 … hsxd … 2 for all x, h&iquest;sxd : q as x : 0 -,
and h&iquest;sxd : q as x : 0 + ;
b. hs0d = 0, - 2 … hsxd … 0 for all x, h&iquest;sxd : q as x : 0 -,
and h&iquest;sxd : - q as x : 0 + .
47. As x moves from left to right through the point c = 2 , is the
graph of ƒsxd = x 3 - 3x + 2 rising, or is it falling? Give reasons
48. Find the intervals on which the function ƒsxd = ax 2 + bx + c,
a Z 0 , is increasing and decreasing. Describe the reasoning behind your answer.
b. ƒ&iquest;sxd 6 0 for x 6 1 and ƒ&iquest;sxd 7 0 for x 7 1 ;
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4.4 Concavity and Curve Sketching
Concavity and Curve Sketching
4.4
In Section 4.3 we saw how the first derivative tells us where a function is increasing and
where it is decreasing. At a critical point of a differentiable function, the First Derivative
Test tells us whether there is a local maximum or a local minimum, or whether the graph
just continues to rise or fall there.
In this section we see how the second derivative gives information about the way the
graph of a differentiable function bends or turns. This additional information enables us to
capture key aspects of the behavior of a function and its graph, and then present these features in a sketch of the graph.
y
CA
VE
UP
y x3
CO
N
W
0
N
f ' increases
x
Concavity
CO
NC
AV
E
DO
f ' decreases
267
FIGURE 4.25 The graph of ƒsxd = x 3 is
concave down on s - q , 0d and concave up
on s0, q d (Example 1a).
As you can see in Figure 4.25, the curve y = x 3 rises as x increases, but the portions defined on the intervals s - q , 0d and s0, q d turn in different ways. As we approach the origin from the left along the curve, the curve turns to our right and falls below its tangents.
The slopes of the tangents are decreasing on the interval s - q , 0d. As we move away from
the origin along the curve to the right, the curve turns to our left and rises above its tangents. The slopes of the tangents are increasing on the interval s0, q d. This turning or
bending behavior defines the concavity of the curve.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
DEFINITION
Concave Up, Concave Down
The graph of a differentiable function y = ƒsxd is
(a) concave up on an open interval I if ƒ&iquest; is increasing on I
(b) concave down on an open interval I if ƒ&iquest; is decreasing on I.
If y = ƒsxd has a second derivative, we can apply Corollary 3 of the Mean Value Theorem
to conclude that ƒ&iquest; increases if ƒ– 7 0 on I, and decreases if ƒ– 6 0.
The Second Derivative Test for Concavity
Let y = ƒsxd be twice-differentiable on an interval I.
1.
2.
If y = ƒsxd is twice-differentiable, we will use the notations ƒ– and y– interchangeably
when denoting the second derivative.
y
4
y x2
EXAMPLE 1
3
P
–2
–1
P
EU
AV
CO
EU
y'' 0
1
y'' 0
0
1
x
2
Applying the Concavity Test
(a) The curve y = x 3 (Figure 4.25) is concave down on s - q , 0d where y– = 6x 6 0
and concave up on s0, q d where y– = 6x 7 0.
(b) The curve y = x 2 (Figure 4.26) is concave up on s - q , q d because its second derivative y– = 2 is always positive.
NC
CA V
CON
2
If ƒ– 7 0 on I, the graph of ƒ over I is concave up.
If ƒ– 6 0 on I, the graph of ƒ over I is concave down.
EXAMPLE 2
Determining Concavity
Determine the concavity of y = 3 + sin x on [0, 2p].
FIGURE 4.26 The graph of ƒsxd = x 2 is
concave up on every interval (Example
1b).
Solution The graph of y = 3 + sin x is concave down on s0, pd, where y– = - sin x is
negative. It is concave up on sp, 2pd, where y– = - sin x is positive (Figure 4.27).
Points of Inflection
The curve y = 3 + sin x in Example 2 changes concavity at the point sp, 3d. We call
sp, 3d a point of inflection of the curve.
y
4
y 3 sin x
3
2
1
0
–1
–2
␲
2␲
x
DEFINITION
Point of Inflection
A point where the graph of a function has a tangent line and where the concavity
changes is a point of inflection.
y'' – sin x
FIGURE 4.27 Using the graph of y– to
determine the concavity of y (Example 2).
A point on a curve where y– is positive on one side and negative on the other is a
point of inflection. At such a point, y– is either zero (because derivatives have the Intermediate Value Property) or undefined. If y is a twice-differentiable function, y– = 0 at a
point of inflection and y&iquest; has a local maximum or minimum.
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4.4 Concavity and Curve Sketching
EXAMPLE 3
y
y x4
1
EXAMPLE 4
y'' 0
0
1
y
0
An Inflection Point May Occur Where y– Does Not Exist
The curve y = x 1&gt;3 has a point of inflection at x = 0 (Figure 4.29), but y– does not exist
there.
x
FIGURE 4.28 The graph of y = x 4 has
no inflection point at the origin, even
though y– = 0 there (Example 3).
y'' does not
exist.
An Inflection Point May Not Exist Where y– = 0
The curve y = x 4 has no inflection point at x = 0 (Figure 4.28). Even though y– = 12x 2
is zero there, it does not change sign.
2
–1
269
y x1/3
x
y– =
We see from Example 3 that a zero second derivative does not always produce a point
of inflection. From Example 4, we see that inflection points can also occur where there is
no second derivative.
To study the motion of a body moving along a line as a function of time, we often are
interested in knowing when the body’s acceleration, given by the second derivative, is positive or negative. The points of inflection on the graph of the body’s position function reveal where the acceleration changes sign.
EXAMPLE 5
FIGURE 4.29 A point where y– fails
to exist can be a point of inflection
(Example 4).
d2
d 1 -2&gt;3
2
ax 1&gt;3 b =
a x
b = - x -5&gt;3 .
9
dx 3
dx 2
Studying Motion Along a Line
A particle is moving along a horizontal line with position function
sstd = 2t 3 - 14t 2 + 22t - 5,
t &Uacute; 0.
Find the velocity and acceleration, and describe the motion of the particle.
Solution
The velocity is
ystd = s&iquest;std = 6t 2 - 28t + 22 = 2st - 1ds3t - 11d,
and the acceleration is
astd = y&iquest;std = s–std = 12t - 28 = 4s3t - 7d.
When the function s(t) is increasing, the particle is moving to the right; when s(t) is decreasing, the particle is moving to the left.
Notice that the first derivative sy = s&iquest;d is zero when t = 1 and t = 11&gt;3.
Intervals
Sign of Y s œ
Behavior of s
Particle motion
0 6 t 6 1
+
increasing
right
1 6 t 6 11&gt;3
decreasing
left
11&gt;3 6 t
+
increasing
right
The particle is moving to the right in the time intervals [0, 1) and s11&gt;3, q d, and moving
to the left in (1, 11&gt;3). It is momentarily stationary (at rest), at t = 1 and t = 11&gt;3.
The acceleration astd = s–std = 4s3t - 7d is zero when t = 7&gt;3.
Intervals
Sign of a s ﬂ
Graph of s
0 6 t 6 7&gt;3
concave down
7&gt;3 6 t
+
concave up
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
The accelerating force is directed toward the left during the time interval [0, 7&gt;3], is momentarily zero at t = 7&gt;3, and is directed toward the right thereafter.
Second Derivative Test for Local Extrema
Instead of looking for sign changes in ƒ&iquest; at critical points, we can sometimes use the following test to determine the presence and character of local extrema.
THEOREM 5
Second Derivative Test for Local Extrema
Suppose ƒ– is continuous on an open interval that contains x = c.
1.
2.
3.
f ' 0, f '' 0
⇒ local max
f ' 0, f '' 0
⇒ local min
If ƒ&iquest;scd = 0 and ƒ–scd 6 0, then ƒ has a local maximum at x = c.
If ƒ&iquest;scd = 0 and ƒ–scd 7 0, then ƒ has a local minimum at x = c.
If ƒ&iquest;scd = 0 and ƒ–scd = 0, then the test fails. The function ƒ may have a
local maximum, a local minimum, or neither.
Proof Part (1). If ƒ–scd 6 0, then ƒ–sxd 6 0 on some open interval I containing the
point c, since ƒ– is continuous. Therefore, ƒ&iquest; is decreasing on I. Since ƒ&iquest;scd = 0, the sign
of ƒ&iquest; changes from positive to negative at c so ƒ has a local maximum at c by the First Derivative Test.
The proof of Part (2) is similar.
For Part (3), consider the three functions y = x 4, y = - x 4 , and y = x 3 . For each
function, the first and second derivatives are zero at x = 0. Yet the function y = x 4 has a
local minimum there, y = - x 4 has a local maximum, and y = x 3 is increasing in any
open interval containing x = 0 (having neither a maximum nor a minimum there). Thus
the test fails.
This test requires us to know ƒ– only at c itself and not in an interval about c. This
makes the test easy to apply. That’s the good news. The bad news is that the test is inconclusive if ƒ– = 0 or if ƒ– does not exist at x = c. When this happens, use the First Derivative Test for local extreme values.
Together ƒ&iquest; and ƒ– tell us the shape of the function’s graph, that is, where the critical
points are located and what happens at a critical point, where the function is increasing
and where it is decreasing, and how the curve is turning or bending as defined by its concavity. We use this information to sketch a graph of the function that captures its key features.
EXAMPLE 6
Using ƒ&iquest; and ƒ– to Graph ƒ
Sketch a graph of the function
ƒsxd = x 4 - 4x 3 + 10
using the following steps.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Identify where the extrema of ƒ occur.
Find the intervals on which ƒ is increasing and the intervals on which ƒ is decreasing.
Find where the graph of ƒ is concave up and where it is concave down.
Sketch the general shape of the graph for ƒ.
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4.4 Concavity and Curve Sketching
271
(e) Plot some specific points, such as local maximum and minimum points, points of inflection, and intercepts. Then sketch the curve.
ƒ is continuous since ƒ&iquest;sxd = 4x 3 - 12x 2 exists. The domain of ƒ is
q
q
s - , d , and the domain of ƒ&iquest; is also s - q , q d. Thus, the critical points of ƒ occur
only at the zeros of ƒ&iquest; . Since
Solution
ƒ&iquest;sxd = 4x 3 - 12x 2 = 4x 2sx - 3d
the first derivative is zero at x = 0 and x = 3.
Intervals
Sign of ƒ œ
Behavior of ƒ
x 6 0
decreasing
0 6 x 6 3
decreasing
3 6 x
+
increasing
(a) Using the First Derivative Test for local extrema and the table above, we see that there
is no extremum at x = 0 and a local minimum at x = 3.
(b) Using the table above, we see that ƒ is decreasing on s - q , 0] and [0, 3], and increasing on [3, q d .
(c) ƒ–sxd = 12x 2 - 24x = 12xsx - 2d is zero at x = 0 and x = 2.
Intervals
Sign of ƒ œ
Behavior of ƒ
x 6 0
+
concave up
0 6 x 6 2
concave down
2 6 x
+
concave up
We see that ƒ is concave up on the intervals s - q , 0d and s2, q d, and concave down on
(0, 2).
(d) Summarizing the information in the two tables above, we obtain
x&lt;0
0&lt;x&lt;2
2&lt;x&lt;3
3&lt;x
decreasing
concave up
decreasing
concave down
decreasing
concave up
increasing
concave up
The general shape of the curve is
decr
decr
decr
incr
conc
up
conc
down
conc
up
conc
up
0
2
3
infl
point
infl
point
local
min
General shape.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
(e) Plot the curve’s intercepts (if possible) and the points where y&iquest; and y– are zero. Indicate
any local extreme values and inflection points. Use the general shape as a guide to sketch
the curve. (Plot additional points as needed.) Figure 4.30 shows the graph of ƒ.
y
y x 4 4x 3 10
20
15
The steps in Example 6 help in giving a procedure for graphing to capture the key features of a function and its graph.
(0, 10)
Inflection 10
point
5
–1
0
–5
–10
1
Inflection
point
2
3
4
x
Strategy for Graphing y ƒ(x)
1. Identify the domain of ƒ and any symmetries the curve may have.
2. Find y&iquest; and y– .
3. Find the critical points of ƒ, and identify the function’s behavior at each one.
4. Find where the curve is increasing and where it is decreasing.
5. Find the points of inflection, if any occur, and determine the concavity of the
curve.
6. Identify any asymptotes.
7. Plot key points, such as the intercepts and the points found in Steps 3–5, and
sketch the curve.
(2, – 6)
–15
–20
(3, –17)
Local
minimum
FIGURE 4.30 The graph of ƒsxd =
x 4 - 4x 3 + 10 (Example 6).
EXAMPLE 7
Using the Graphing Strategy
Sketch the graph of ƒsxd =
sx + 1d2
.
1 + x2
Solution
1.
2.
The domain of ƒ is s - q , q d and there are no symmetries about either axis or the
origin (Section 1.4).
Find ƒ&iquest; and ƒ– .
sx + 1d2
1 + x2
s1 + x 2 d # 2sx + 1d - sx + 1d2 # 2x
ƒ&iquest;sxd =
s1 + x 2 d2
2
2s1 - x d
=
s1 + x 2 d2
s1 + x 2 d2 # 2s - 2xd - 2s1 - x 2 d[2s1 + x 2 d # 2x]
ƒ–sxd =
s1 + x 2 d4
4xsx 2 - 3d
=
s1 + x 2 d3
ƒsxd =
3.
x-intercept at x = - 1,
y-intercept sy = 1d at
x = 0
Critical points:
x = - 1, x = 1
After some algebra
Behavior at critical points. The critical points occur only at x = ; 1 where ƒ&iquest;sxd = 0
(Step 2) since ƒ&iquest; exists everywhere over the domain of ƒ. At x = - 1,
ƒ–(- 1) = 1 7 0 yielding a relative minimum by the Second Derivative Test. At
x = 1, ƒ–s1d = - 1 6 0 yielding a relative maximum by the Second Derivative Test.
We will see in Step 6 that both are absolute extrema as well.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:02 AM Page 273
4.4 Concavity and Curve Sketching
4.
5.
6.
Increasing and decreasing. We see that on the interval s - q , - 1d the derivative
ƒ&iquest;sxd 6 0, and the curve is decreasing. On the interval s -1, 1d, ƒ&iquest;sxd 7 0 and the
curve is increasing; it is decreasing on s1, q d where ƒ&iquest;sxd 6 0 again.
Inflection points. Notice that the denominator of the second derivative (Step 2) is
always positive. The second derivative ƒ– is zero when x = - 23, 0, and 23. The
second derivative changes sign at each of these points: negative on A - q , - 23 B ,
positive on A - 23, 0 B , negative on A 0, 23 B , and positive again on A 23, q B . Thus
each point is a point of inflection. The curve is concave down on the interval
A - q , - 23 B , concave up on A - 23, 0 B , concave down on A 0, 23 B , and concave
up again on A 23, q B .
Asymptotes. Expanding the numerator of ƒ(x) and then dividing both numerator and
denominator by x 2 gives
ƒsxd =
y
(1, 2)
=
2
y1
1
Horizontal
asymptote
–1
Point of inflection
where x 兹3
FIGURE 4.31
(Example 7).
x
1
The graph of y =
sx + 1d2
1 + x2
sx + 1d2
x 2 + 2x + 1
=
2
1 + x
1 + x2
1 + s2&gt;xd + s1&gt;x 2 d
Point of inflection
where x 兹3
7.
273
s1&gt;x 2 d + 1
.
Expanding numerator
Dividing by x 2
We see that ƒsxd : 1+ as x : q and that ƒsxd : 1- as x : - q . Thus, the line
y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.
Since ƒ decreases on s - q , - 1d and then increases on s -1, 1d, we know that
ƒs - 1d = 0 is a local minimum. Although ƒ decreases on s1, q d, it never crosses the
horizontal asymptote y = 1 on that interval (it approaches the asymptote from
above). So the graph never becomes negative, and ƒs -1d = 0 is an absolute minimum as well. Likewise, ƒs1d = 2 is an absolute maximum because the graph never
crosses the asymptote y = 1 on the interval s - q , -1d, approaching it from below.
Therefore, there are no vertical asymptotes (the range of ƒ is 0 … y … 2).
The graph of ƒ is sketched in Figure 4.31. Notice how the graph is concave down as it
approaches the horizontal asymptote y = 1 as x : - q , and concave up in its approach to y = 1 as x : q .
As we saw in Examples 6 and 7, we can learn almost everything we need to know about a
twice-differentiable function y = ƒsxd by examining its first derivative. We can find
where the function’s graph rises and falls and where any local extrema are assumed. We
can differentiate y&iquest; to learn how the graph bends as it passes over the intervals of rise and
fall. We can determine the shape of the function’s graph. Information we cannot get from
the derivative is how to place the graph in the xy-plane. But, as we discovered in Section
4.2, the only additional information we need to position the graph is the value of ƒ at one
point. The derivative does not give us information about the asymptotes, which are found
using limits (Sections 2.4 and 2.5).
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:02 AM Page 274
274
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
y f (x)
y f (x)
Differentiable ⇒
smooth, connected; graph
may rise and fall
y' 0 ⇒ rises from
left to right;
may be wavy
or
y'' 0 ⇒ concave up
throughout; no waves; graph
may rise or fall
y f (x)
y' 0 ⇒ falls from
left to right;
may be wavy
or
y'' 0 ⇒ concave down
throughout; no waves;
graph may rise or fall
y'' changes sign
Inflection point
or
y' changes sign ⇒ graph
has local maximum or local
minimum
y' 0 and y'' 0
at a point; graph has
local maximum
y' 0 and y'' 0
at a point; graph has
local minimum
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:02 AM Page 274
274
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
EXERCISES 4.4
Analyzing Graphed Functions
3.
Identify the inflection points and local maxima and minima of the
functions graphed in Exercises 1–8. Identify the intervals on which
the functions are concave up and concave down.
1.
3
2
y x x 2x 1
3
3
2
y
0
2.
4
y x 2x2 4
4
y
4.
y 3 (x 2 1)2/3
4
y
0
y 9 x1/3(x 2 7)
14
y
x
x
0
x
0
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:02 AM Page 275
275
4.4 Concavity and Curve Sketching
5.
6. y tan x 4x, – ␲ x ␲
y x sin 2x, – 2␲ x 2␲
3
3
y
– 2␲
3
2␲
3
0
y
x
2
2
Sketching the General Shape Knowing y
Each of Exercises 41–62 gives the first derivative of a continuous
function y = ƒsxd . Find y– and then use steps 2–4 of the graphing
procedure on page 272 to sketch the general shape of the graph of ƒ.
41. y&iquest; = 2 + x - x 2
x
0
42. y&iquest; = x 2 - x - 6
2
44. y&iquest; = x 2s2 - xd
43. y&iquest; = xsx - 3d
45. y&iquest; = xsx 2 - 12d
46. y&iquest; = sx - 1d2s2x + 3d
2
7. y sin x , – 2␲ x 2␲
8.
y
x
0
47. y&iquest; = s8x - 5x ds4 - xd
3␲
y 2 cos x 兹2 x, – ␲ x 2
y
–␲
0
3␲
2
x
NOT TO SCALE
Graphing Equations
Use the steps of the graphing procedure on page 272 to graph the
equations in Exercises 9–40. Include the coordinates of any local extreme points and inflection points.
9. y = x 2 - 4x + 3
10. y = 6 - 2x - x 2
12. y = xs6 - 2xd2
13. y = - 2x 3 + 6x 2 - 3
14. y = 1 - 9x - 6x 2 - x 3
3
16. y = 1 - sx + 1d
15. y = sx - 2d + 1
17. y = x 4 - 2x 2 = x 2sx 2 - 2d
18. y = - x 4 + 6x 2 - 4 = x 2s6 - x 2 d - 4
19. y = 4x 3 - x 4 = x 3s4 - xd
4
x
- 5b
2
4
23. y = x + sin x,
0 … x … 2p
24. y = x - sin x,
0 … x … 2p
25. y = x 1&gt;5
50. y&iquest; = tan x,
-
p
p
6 x 6
2
2
u
51. y&iquest; = cot ,
2
u
0 6 u 6 2p 52. y&iquest; = csc2 ,
2
-
54. y&iquest; = 1 - cot2 u,
0 6 u 6 p
55. y&iquest; = cos t,
0 … t … 2p
56. y&iquest; = sin t,
0 … t … 2p
58. y&iquest; = sx - 2d-1&gt;3
57. y&iquest; = sx + 1d-2&gt;3
-2&gt;3
sx - 1d
61. y&iquest; = 2 ƒ x ƒ = e
62. y&iquest; = e
0 6 u 6 2p
p
p
6 u 6
2
2
53. y&iquest; = tan2 u - 1,
60. y&iquest; = x -4&gt;5sx + 1d
-2x, x … 0
2x, x 7 0
-x 2, x … 0
x 2, x 7 0
63.
y
64.
y
y f '(x)
y f'(x)
P
26. y = x 3&gt;5
27. y = x 2&gt;5
28. y = x 4&gt;5
2&gt;3
30. y = 5x 2&gt;5 - 2x
5
- xb
2
32. y = x 2&gt;3sx - 5d
29. y = 2x - 3x
31. y = x 2&gt;3 a
p
p
6x6
2
2
Each of Exercises 63–66 shows the graphs of the first and second derivatives of a function y = ƒsxd . Copy the picture and add to it a
sketch of the approximate graph of ƒ, given that the graph passes
through the point P.
4
21. y = x - 5x = x sx - 5d
22. y = x a
-
Sketching y from Graphs of y and y
20. y = x 4 + 2x 3 = x 3sx + 2d
5
48. y&iquest; = sx 2 - 2xdsx - 5d2
49. y&iquest; = sec2 x,
59. y&iquest; = x
11. y = x 3 - 3x + 3
3
2
33. y = x 28 - x 2
34. y = s2 - x 2 d3&gt;2
2
x - 3
,
35. y =
x - 2
x Z 2
37. y = ƒ x 2 - 1 ƒ
39. y = 2 ƒ x ƒ = e
2 -x,
2x,
x3
36. y =
2
3x + 1
38. y = ƒ x 2 - 2x ƒ
x … 0
x 7 0
x
x
P
y f ''(x)
65.
y
P
y f '(x)
x
0
y f ''(x)
40. y = 2 ƒ x - 4 ƒ
y f''(x)
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:02 AM Page 276
276
Motion Along a Line The graphs in Exercises 71 and 72 show the
position s = ƒstd of a body moving back and forth on a coordinate
line. (a) When is the body moving away from the origin? Toward the
origin? At approximately what times is the (b) velocity equal to zero?
(c) Acceleration equal to zero? (d) When is the acceleration positive?
Negative?
y
y f '(x)
x
0
y f ''(x)
71.
P
s
Displacement
66.
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Theory and Examples
67. The accompanying figure shows a portion of the graph of a twicedifferentiable function y = ƒsxd . At each of the five labeled
points, classify y&iquest; and y– as positive, negative, or zero.
s f (t)
0
5
10
Time (sec)
y
S
T
Q
x
0
0
68. Sketch a smooth connected curve y = ƒsxd with
ƒs - 2d = 8,
ƒs0d = 4,
ƒ&iquest;sxd 6 0
for
ƒ–sxd 6 0
for
ƒ x ƒ 6 2,
x 6 0,
ƒ–sxd 7 0
for
x 7 0.
for
ƒ x ƒ 7 2,
69. Sketch the graph of a twice-differentiable function y = ƒsxd with
the following properties. Label coordinates where possible.
x
s f (t)
5
10
Time (sec)
ƒ&iquest;s2d = ƒ&iquest;s - 2d = 0,
ƒs2d = 0,
ƒ&iquest;sxd 7 0
y
t
s
72.
R
P
Displacement
y f (x)
15
15
t
73. Marginal cost The accompanying graph shows the hypothetical cost c = ƒsxd of manufacturing x items. At approximately
what production level does the marginal cost change from decreasing to increasing?
c
Derivatives
2
1
2 6 x 6 4
4
4
4 6 x 6 6
6
7
x 7 6
y&iquest; 6 0,
y– 7 0
y&iquest; = 0,
y– 7 0
y&iquest; 7 0,
y– 7 0
y&iquest; 7 0,
y– = 0
y&iquest; 7 0,
y– 6 0
y&iquest; = 0,
y– 6 0
y&iquest; 6 0,
y– 6 0
Cost
c f (x)
x 6 2
20 40 60 80 100 120
Thousands of units produced
74. The accompanying graph shows the monthly revenue of the Widget Corporation for the last 12 years. During approximately what
time intervals was the marginal revenue increasing? decreasing?
70. Sketch the graph of a twice-differentiable function y = ƒsxd that
passes through the points s - 2, 2d, s - 1, 1d, s0, 0d, s1, 1d and
(2, 2) and whose first two derivatives have the following sign
patterns:
y&iquest;:
+
y–:
-
-2
+
0
+
-1
y
y r(t)
2
1
x
0
5
10
t
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:02 AM Page 277
4.4 Concavity and Curve Sketching
75. Suppose the derivative of the function y = ƒsxd is
y&iquest; = sx - 1d2sx - 2d .
At what points, if any, does the graph of ƒ have a local minimum,
local maximum, or point of inflection? (Hint: Draw the sign pattern for y&iquest; .)
76. Suppose the derivative of the function y = ƒsxd is
y&iquest; = sx - 1d2sx - 2dsx - 4d .
277
x-axis related to the graph of the function? In what other ways are the
graphs of the derivatives related to the graph of the function?
85. y = x 5 - 5x 4 - 240
86. y = x 3 - 12x 2
87. y =
4 5
x + 16x 2 - 25
5
88. y =
x4
x3
- 4x 2 + 12x + 20
4
3
At what points, if any, does the graph of ƒ have a local minimum,
local maximum, or point of inflection?
89. Graph ƒsxd = 2x 4 - 4x 2 + 1 and its first two derivatives together. Comment on the behavior of ƒ in relation to the signs and
values of ƒ&iquest; and ƒ– .
77. For x 7 0 , sketch a curve y = ƒsxd that has ƒs1d = 0 and
ƒ&iquest;sxd = 1&gt;x . Can anything be said about the concavity of such a
90. Graph ƒsxd = x cos x and its second derivative together for
0 … x … 2p . Comment on the behavior of the graph of ƒ in relation to the signs and values of ƒ– .
78. Can anything be said about the graph of a function y = ƒsxd that
has a continuous second derivative that is never zero? Give reasons for your answer.
91. a. On a common screen, graph ƒsxd = x 3 + k x for k = 0 and
nearby positive and negative values of k. How does the value
of k seem to affect the shape of the graph?
79. If b, c, and d are constants, for what value of b will the curve
y = x 3 + bx 2 + cx + d have a point of inflection at x = 1 ?
80. Horizontal tangents
True, or false? Explain.
a. The graph of every polynomial of even degree (largest
exponent even) has at least one horizontal tangent.
b. The graph of every polynomial of odd degree (largest
exponent odd) has at least one horizontal tangent.
81. Parabolas
a. Find the coordinates of the vertex of the parabola
y = ax 2 + bx + c, a Z 0 .
b. When is the parabola concave up? Concave down? Give
82. Is it true that the concavity of the graph of a twice-differentiable
function y = ƒsxd changes every time ƒ–sxd = 0 ? Give reasons
of a quadratic curve y = ax 2 + bx + c, a Z 0 ? Give reasons for
84. Cubic curves What can you say about the inflection points of a
cubic curve y = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d, a Z 0 ? Give reasons for
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
In Exercises 85–88, find the inflection points (if any) on the graph of
the function and the coordinates of the points on the graph where the
function has a local maximum or local minimum value. Then graph
the function in a region large enough to show all these points simultaneously. Add to your picture the graphs of the function’s first and second derivatives. How are the values at which these graphs intersect the
b. Find ƒ&iquest;sxd . As you will see, ƒ&iquest;sxd is a quadratic function of x.
Find the discriminant of the quadratic (the discriminant of
ax 2 + bx + c is b 2 - 4ac). For what values of k is the
discriminant positive? Zero? Negative? For what values of k
does ƒ&iquest; have two zeros? One or no zeros? Now explain what
the value of k has to do with the shape of the graph of ƒ.
c. Experiment with other values of k. What appears to happen as
k : - q ? as k : q ?
92. a. On a common screen, graph ƒsxd = x 4 + kx 3 + 6x 2,
-2 … x … 2 for k = - 4 , and some nearby integer values of k.
How does the value of k seem to affect the shape of the graph?
b. Find ƒ–sxd . As you will see, ƒ–sxd is a quadratic function of x.
What is the discriminant of this quadratic (see Exercise
91(b))? For what values of k is the discriminant positive?
Zero? Negative? For what values of k does ƒ–sxd have two
zeros? One or no zeros? Now explain what the value of k has
to do with the shape of the graph of ƒ.
93. a. Graph y = x 2&gt;3sx 2 - 2d for -3 … x … 3 . Then use calculus
to confirm what the screen shows about concavity, rise, and
fall. (Depending on your grapher, you may have to enter x 2&gt;3
as sx 2 d1&gt;3 to obtain a plot for negative values of x.)
b. Does the curve have a cusp at x = 0 , or does it just have a
corner with different right-hand and left-hand derivatives?
94. a. Graph y = 9x 2&gt;3sx - 1d for -0.5 … x … 1.5 . Then use calculus to confirm what the screen shows about concavity, rise,
and fall. What concavity does the curve have to the left of the
origin? (Depending on your grapher, you may have to enter
x 2&gt;3 as sx 2 d1&gt;3 to obtain a plot for negative values of x.)
b. Does the curve have a cusp at x = 0 , or does it just have a
corner with different right-hand and left-hand derivatives?
95. Does the curve y = x 2 + 3 sin 2x have a horizontal tangent near
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278
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Applied Optimization Problems
4.5
To optimize something means to maximize or minimize some aspect of it. What are the dimensions of a rectangle with fixed perimeter having maximum area? What is the least expensive shape for a cylindrical can? What is the size of the most profitable production
run? The differential calculus is a powerful tool for solving problems that call for maximizing or minimizing a function. In this section we solve a variety of optimization problems from business, mathematics, physics, and economics.
x
12
EXAMPLE 1
x
x
An open-top box is to be made by cutting small congruent squares from the corners of a
12-in.-by-12-in. sheet of tin and bending up the sides. How large should the squares cut
from the corners be to make the box hold as much as possible?
x
12
Fabricating a Box
(a)
We start with a picture (Figure 4.32). In the figure, the corner squares are x in.
on a side. The volume of the box is a function of this variable:
Solution
Vsxd = xs12 - 2xd2 = 144x - 48x 2 + 4x 3 .
V = hlw
x
Since the sides of the sheet of tin are only 12 in. long, x … 6 and the domain of V is the interval 0 … x … 6.
A graph of V (Figure 4.33) suggests a minimum value of 0 at x = 0 and x = 6 and a
maximum near x = 2. To learn more, we examine the first derivative of V with respect to x:
12 2x
12
12 2x
x
x
dV
= 144 - 96x + 12x 2 = 12s12 - 8x + x 2 d = 12s2 - xds6 - xd.
dx
(b)
FIGURE 4.32 An open box made by
cutting the corners from a square sheet of
tin. What size corners maximize the box’s
volume (Example 1)?
Of the two zeros, x = 2 and x = 6, only x = 2 lies in the interior of the function’s domain
and makes the critical-point list. The values of V at this one critical point and two endpoints are
Critical-point value:
Endpoint values:
Maximum
y
Vs6d = 0.
3
The maximum volume is 128 in. . The cutout squares should be 2 in. on a side.
Volume
y x(12 – 2x)2,
0x6
EXAMPLE 2
min
min
0
Vs2d = 128
Vs0d = 0,
2
6
NOT TO SCALE
Designing an Efficient Cylindrical Can
You have been asked to design a 1-liter can shaped like a right circular cylinder (Figure
4.34). What dimensions will use the least material?
x
Volume of can: If r and h are measured in centimeters, then the volume of the
can in cubic centimeters is
Solution
FIGURE 4.33 The volume of the box in
Figure 4.32 graphed as a function of x.
pr 2h = 1000.
Surface area of can:
1 liter = 1000 cm3
2
+ 2prh
A = 2pr
()*
()*
circular
ends
circular
wall
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:02 AM Page 279
4.5 Applied Optimization Problems
279
How can we interpret the phrase “least material”? First, it is customary to ignore the thickness
of the material and the waste in manufacturing. Then we ask for dimensions r and h that make
the total surface area as small as possible while satisfying the constraint pr 2h = 1000.
To express the surface area as a function of one variable, we solve for one of the variables in pr 2h = 1000 and substitute that expression into the surface area formula. Solving
for h is easier:
2r
h
h =
1000
.
pr 2
Thus,
A = 2pr 2 + 2prh
FIGURE 4.34 This 1-L can uses the least
material when h = 2r (Example 2).
= 2pr 2 + 2pr a
= 2pr 2 +
1000
b
pr 2
2000
r .
Our goal is to find a value of r 7 0 that minimizes the value of A. Figure 4.35 suggests
that such a value exists.
A
Tall and
thin can
Short and
wide can
—— , r 0
A 2␲r 2 2000
r
Tall and thin
min
r
0
3
Short and wide
500
␲
FIGURE 4.35 The graph of A = 2pr 2 + 2000&gt;r is concave up.
Notice from the graph that for small r (a tall thin container, like a piece of pipe), the
term 2000&gt;r dominates and A is large. For large r (a short wide container, like a pizza
pan), the term 2pr 2 dominates and A again is large.
Since A is differentiable on r 7 0, an interval with no endpoints, it can have a minimum value only where its first derivative is zero.
2000
dA
= 4pr dr
r2
0 = 4pr -
2000
r2
4pr 3 = 2000
r =
3 500 L 5.42
A p
3
500&gt;p?
What happens at r = 2
Set dA&gt;dr = 0 .
Multiply by r 2 .
Solve for r.
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280
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
The second derivative
4000
d 2A
= 4p +
2
dr
r3
is positive throughout the domain of A. The graph is therefore everywhere concave up and
3
500&gt;p an absolute minimum.
the value of A at r = 2
The corresponding value of h (after a little algebra) is
h =
500
1000
= 2 3 p = 2r .
A
pr 2
The 1-L can that uses the least material has height equal to the diameter, here with
r L 5.42 cm and h L 10.84 cm.
Solving Applied Optimization Problems
1. Read the problem. Read the problem until you understand it. What is given?
What is the unknown quantity to be optimized?
2. Draw a picture. Label any part that may be important to the problem.
3. Introduce variables. List every relation in the picture and in the problem as
an equation or algebraic expression, and identify the unknown variable.
4. Write an equation for the unknown quantity. If you can, express the unknown as a function of a single variable or in two equations in two unknowns. This may require considerable manipulation.
5. Test the critical points and endpoints in the domain of the unknown. Use
what you know about the shape of the function’s graph. Use the first and second derivatives to identify and classify the function’s critical points.
Examples from Mathematics and Physics
EXAMPLE 3
Inscribing Rectangles
A rectangle is to be inscribed in a semicircle of radius 2. What is the largest area the rectangle can have, and what are its dimensions?
y
Let sx, 24 - x 2 d be the coordinates of the corner of the rectangle obtained by
placing the circle and rectangle in the coordinate plane (Figure 4.36). The length, height,
and area of the rectangle can then be expressed in terms of the position x of the lower
right-hand corner:
Solution
x 2 y2 4
x, 兹4 x 2


Length: 2x,
2
–2 –x
0
x 2
FIGURE 4.36 The rectangle inscribed in
the semicircle in Example 3.
x
Height: 24 - x 2,
Area: 2x # 24 - x 2 .
Notice that the values of x are to be found in the interval 0 … x … 2, where the selected
corner of the rectangle lies.
Our goal is to find the absolute maximum value of the function
Asxd = 2x24 - x 2
on the domain [0, 2].
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4.5 Applied Optimization Problems
281
The derivative
-2x 2
dA
=
+ 224 - x 2
dx
24 - x 2
is not defined when x = 2 and is equal to zero when
-2x 2
+ 224 - x 2
24 - x 2
- 2x 2 + 2s4 - x 2 d
8 - 4x 2
x2
= 0
= 0
= 0
= 2 or x = ; 22.
Of the two zeros, x = 22 and x = - 22, only x = 22 lies in the interior of A’s domain and makes the critical-point list. The values of A at the endpoints and at this one critical point are
Critical-point value:
Endpoint values:
A A 22 B = 22224 - 2 = 4
As0d = 0,
As2d = 0.
The area has a maximum value of 4 when the rectangle is 24 - x 2 = 22 units high and
2x = 222 unit long.
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
Willebrord Snell van Royen
(1580–1626)
EXAMPLE 4
Fermat’s Principle and Snell’s Law
The speed of light depends on the medium through which it travels, and is generally slower
in denser media.
Fermat’s principle in optics states that light travels from one point to another along a
path for which the time of travel is a minimum. Find the path that a ray of light will follow
in going from a point A in a medium where the speed of light is c1 to a point B in a second
medium where its speed is c2 .
Since light traveling from A to B follows the quickest route, we look for a path
that will minimize the travel time. We assume that A and B lie in the xy-plane and that the
line separating the two media is the x-axis (Figure 4.37).
In a uniform medium, where the speed of light remains constant, “shortest time”
means “shortest path,” and the ray of light will follow a straight line. Thus the path from A
to B will consist of a line segment from A to a boundary point P, followed by another line
segment from P to B. Distance equals rate times time, so
Solution
y
A
a
␪1
Angle of
incidence
␪1
Medium 1
P
0
x
Medium 2
b
␪2
dx
d
Angle of
refraction
Time =
x
The time required for light to travel from A to P is
2a 2 + x 2
AP
t1 = c1 =
.
c1
B
FIGURE 4.37 A light ray refracted
(deflected from its path) as it passes
from one medium to a denser medium
(Example 4).
distance
rate .
From P to B, the time is
2b 2 + sd - xd2
PB
.
t2 = c2 =
c2
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
The time from A to B is the sum of these:
t = t1 + t2 =
2b 2 + sd - xd2
2a 2 + x 2
+
.
c1
c2
This equation expresses t as a differentiable function of x whose domain is [0, d]. We want
to find the absolute minimum value of t on this closed interval. We find the derivative
x
dt
d - x
=
.
2
2
2
dx
c1 2a + x
c2 2b + sd - xd2
In terms of the angles u1 and u2 in Figure 4.37,
sin u1
sin u2
dt
= c1 - c2 .
dx
dt/dx
negative
0
dt/dx
zero
If we restrict x to the interval 0 … x … d, then t has a negative derivative at x = 0 and a
positive derivative at x = d. By the Intermediate Value Theorem for Derivatives (Section
3.1), there is a point x0 H [0, d] where dt&gt;dx = 0 (Figure 4.38). There is only one such
point because dt&gt;dx is an increasing function of x (Exercise 54). At this point
dt/dx
positive
x0
sin u1
sin u2
c1 = c2 .
x
d
FIGURE 4.38 The sign pattern of dt&gt;dx
in Example 4.
This equation is Snell’s Law or the Law of Refraction, and is an important principle in
the theory of optics. It describes the path the ray of light follows.
Examples from Economics
In these examples we point out two ways that calculus makes a contribution to economics.
The first has to do with maximizing profit. The second has to do with minimizing average
cost.
Suppose that
rsxd = the revenue from selling x items
c sxd = the cost of producing the x items
psxd = rsxd - csxd = the profit from producing and selling x items.
The marginal revenue, marginal cost, and marginal profit when producing and selling x
items are
dr
= marginal revenue,
dx
dc
= marginal cost,
dx
dp
= marginal profit.
dx
The first observation is about the relationship of p to these derivatives.
If r(x) and c(x) are differentiable for all x 7 0, and if psxd = rsxd - csxd has a
maximum value, it occurs at a production level at which p&iquest;sxd = 0. Since p&iquest;sxd =
r&iquest;sxd - c&iquest;sxd, p&iquest;sxd = 0 implies that
r&iquest;sxd - c&iquest;sxd = 0
or
r&iquest;sxd = c&iquest;sxd.
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4.5 Applied Optimization Problems
283
Therefore
At a production level yielding maximum profit, marginal revenue equals marginal cost (Figure 4.39).
y
Dollars
Cost c(x)
Revenue r(x)
Break-even point
Maximum profit, c'(x) r'(x)
B
Local maximum for loss (minimum profit), c'(x) r'(x)
x
Items produced
0
FIGURE 4.39 The graph of a typical cost function starts concave down and later turns concave up. It
crosses the revenue curve at the break-even point B. To the left of B, the company operates at a loss. To
the right, the company operates at a profit, with the maximum profit occurring where c&iquest;sxd = r&iquest;sxd .
Farther to the right, cost exceeds revenue (perhaps because of a combination of rising labor and
material costs and market saturation) and production levels become unprofitable again.
EXAMPLE 5
Maximizing Profit
Suppose that rsxd = 9x and csxd = x 3 - 6x 2 + 15x, where x represents thousands of
units. Is there a production level that maximizes profit? If so, what is it?
y
Solution
Notice that r&iquest;sxd = 9 and c&iquest;sxd = 3x 2 - 12x + 15 .
3x 2 - 12x + 15 = 9
3x 2 - 12x + 6 = 0
c(x) x 3 6x2 15x
Set c&iquest;sxd = r&iquest;sxd .
The two solutions of the quadratic equation are
r(x) 9x
Maximum
for profit
Local maximum for loss
0 2 兹2
2
2 兹2
NOT TO SCALE
FIGURE 4.40 The cost and revenue
curves for Example 5.
x
x1 =
12 - 272
= 2 - 22 L 0.586
6
x2 =
12 + 272
= 2 + 22 L 3.414.
6
and
The possible production levels for maximum profit are x L 0.586 thousand units or x L
3.414 thousand units. The second derivative of psxd = r sxd - csxd is p–sxd = - c–sxd
since r–sxd is everywhere zero. Thus, p–sxd = 6s2 - xd which is negative at x = 2 + 22
and positive at x = 2 - 22. By the Second Derivative Test, a maximum profit occurs at
about x = 3.414 (where revenue exceeds costs) and maximum loss occurs at about
x = 0.586. The graph of r(x) is shown in Figure 4.40.
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284
y
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
EXAMPLE 6
c(x) 5000
x 25x
A cabinetmaker uses plantation-farmed mahogany to produce 5 furnishings each day.
Each delivery of one container of wood is \$5000, whereas the storage of that material is
\$10 per day per unit stored, where a unit is the amount of material needed by her to produce 1 furnishing. How much material should be ordered each time and how often should
the material be delivered to minimize her average daily cost in the production cycle between deliveries?
Cost
y 25x
y 5000
x
x min
Cycle length
Minimizing Costs
x
Solution If she asks for a delivery every x days, then she must order 5x units to have
enough material for that delivery cycle. The average amount in storage is approximately
one-half of the delivery amount, or 5 x&gt;2. Thus, the cost of delivery and storage for each
cycle is approximately
Cost per cycle = delivery costs + storage costs
FIGURE 4.41 The average daily cost c (x)
is the sum of a hyperbola and a linear
function (Example 6).
Cost per cycle = 5000
()*
+
a
5x
b
2
#
()*
average
amount stored
delivery
cost
x
()*
number of
days stored
#
10
()*
storage cost
per day
We compute the average daily cost c(x) by dividing the cost per cycle by the number of
days x in the cycle (see Figure 4.41).
csxd =
5000
x + 25x,
x 7 0.
As x : 0 and as x : q , the average daily cost becomes large. So we expect a minimum
to exist, but where? Our goal is to determine the number of days x between deliveries that
provides the absolute minimum cost.
We find the critical points by determining where the derivative is equal to zero:
5000
+ 25 = 0
x2
x = ; 2200 L ; 14.14.
c&iquest;sxd = -
Of the two critical points, only 2200 lies in the domain of c(x). The critical-point value of
the average daily cost is
c A 2200 B =
5000
2200
+ 25 2200 = 50022 L \$707.11.
We note that c(x) is defined over the open interval s0, q d with c–sxd = 10000&gt;x 3 7 0.
Thus, an absolute minimum exists at x = 2200 L 14.14 days.
The cabinetmaker should schedule a delivery of 5s14d = 70 units of the exotic wood
every 14 days.
In Examples 5 and 6 we allowed the number of items x to be any positive real number.
In reality it usually only makes sense for x to be a positive integer (or zero). If we must
round our answers, should we round up or down?
EXAMPLE 7
Sensitivity of the Minimum Cost
Should we round the number of days between deliveries up or down for the best solution in
Example 6?
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4.5 Applied Optimization Problems
285
Solution The average daily cost will increase by about \$0.03 if we round down from
14.14 to 14 days:
c s14d =
5000
+ 25s14d = \$707.14
14
and
cs14d - cs14.14d = \$707.14 - \$707.11 = \$0.03.
On the other hand, cs15d = \$708.33, and our cost would increase by \$708.33 \$707.11 = \$1.22 if we round up. Thus, it is better that we round x down to 14 days.
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4.5 Applied Optimization Problems
285
EXERCISES 4.5
Whenever you are maximizing or minimizing a function of a single variable, we urge you to graph it over the domain that is appropriate to the
problem you are solving. The graph will provide insight before you calculate and will furnish a visual context for understanding your answer.
Applications in Geometry
1. Minimizing perimeter What is the smallest perimeter possible
for a rectangle whose area is 16 in.2 , and what are its dimensions?
2. Show that among all rectangles with an 8-m perimeter, the one
with largest area is a square.
3. The figure shows a rectangle inscribed in an isosceles right triangle whose hypotenuse is 2 units long.
a. Express the y-coordinate of P in terms of x. (Hint: Write an
equation for the line AB.)
b. Express the area of the rectangle in terms of x.
c. What is the largest area the rectangle can have, and what are
its dimensions?
y
B
the box of largest volume you can make this way, and what is its
volume?
6. You are planning to close off a corner of the first quadrant with a
line segment 20 units long running from (a, 0) to (0, b). Show that
the area of the triangle enclosed by the segment is largest when
a = b.
7. The best fencing plan A rectangular plot of farmland will be
bounded on one side by a river and on the other three sides by a
single-strand electric fence. With 800m of wire at your disposal,
what is the largest area you can enclose, and what are its dimensions?
8. The shortest fence A 216 m2 rectangular pea patch is to be enclosed by a fence and divided into two equal parts by another
fence parallel to one of the sides. What dimensions for the outer
rectangle will require the smallest total length of fence? How
much fence will be needed?
9. Designing a tank Your iron works has contracted to design and
build a 500 ft3 , square-based, open-top, rectangular steel holding
tank for a paper company. The tank is to be made by welding thin
stainless steel plates together along their edges. As the production
engineer, your job is to find dimensions for the base and height
that will make the tank weigh as little as possible.
a. What dimensions do you tell the shop to use?
P(x, ?)
b. Briefly describe how you took weight into account.
A
–1
0
x
1
x
4. A rectangle has its base on the x-axis and its upper two vertices on
the parabola y = 12 - x 2 . What is the largest area the rectangle
can have, and what are its dimensions?
5. You are planning to make an open rectangular box from an 8-in.by-15-in. piece of cardboard by cutting congruent squares from
the corners and folding up the sides. What are the dimensions of
10. Catching rainwater A 1125 ft3 open-top rectangular tank with
a square base x ft on a side and y ft deep is to be built with its top
flush with the ground to catch runoff water. The costs associated
with the tank involve not only the material from which the tank is
made but also an excavation charge proportional to the product xy.
a. If the total cost is
c = 5sx 2 + 4xyd + 10xy ,
what values of x and y will minimize it?
b. Give a possible scenario for the cost function in part (a).
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
11. Designing a poster You are designing a rectangular poster to
contain 50 in.2 of printing with a 4-in. margin at the top and bottom and a 2-in. margin at each side. What overall dimensions will
minimize the amount of paper used?
12. Find the volume of the largest right circular cone that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius 3.
3
c. Use a graphical method to find the maximum volume and the
value of x that gives it.
d. Confirm your result in part (c) analytically.
T 17. Designing a suitcase A 24-in.-by-36-in. sheet of cardboard is
folded in half to form a 24-in.-by-18-in. rectangle as shown in the
accompanying figure. Then four congruent squares of side length
x are cut from the corners of the folded rectangle. The sheet is
unfolded, and the six tabs are folded up to form a box with sides
and a lid.
a. Write a formula V(x) for the volume of the box.
b. Find the domain of V for the problem situation and graph V
over this domain.
3
y
c. Use a graphical method to find the maximum volume and the
value of x that gives it.
x
d. Confirm your result in part (c) analytically.
13. Two sides of a triangle have lengths a and b, and the angle between them is u . What value of u will maximize the triangle’s
area? (Hint: A = s1&gt;2dab sin u .)
e. Find a value of x that yields a volume of 1120 in.3 .
f. Write a paragraph describing the issues that arise in part (b).
14. Designing a can What are the dimensions of the lightest opentop right circular cylindrical can that will hold a volume of
1000 cm3 ? Compare the result here with the result in Example 2.
15. Designing a can You are designing a 1000 cm3 right circular
cylindrical can whose manufacture will take waste into account.
There is no waste in cutting the aluminum for the side, but the top
and bottom of radius r will be cut from squares that measure 2r
units on a side. The total amount of aluminum used up by the can
will therefore be
x
x
x
x
24&quot;
24&quot;
x
x
x
36&quot;
x
18&quot;
The sheet is then unfolded.
A = 8r 2 + 2prh
rather than the A = 2pr 2 + 2prh in Example 2. In Example 2,
the ratio of h to r for the most economical can was 2 to 1. What is
the ratio now?
T 16. Designing a box with a lid A piece of cardboard measures 10
in. by 15 in. Two equal squares are removed from the corners of a
10-in. side as shown in the figure. Two equal rectangles are removed from the other corners so that the tabs can be folded to
form a rectangular box with lid.
NOT TO SCALE
x
Base
36&quot;
x
x
10&quot;
24&quot;
Base
x
18. A rectangle is to be inscribed under the arch of the curve
y = 4 cos s0.5xd from x = - p to x = p . What are the dimensions of the rectangle with largest area, and what is the largest
area?
x
19. Find the dimensions of a right circular cylinder of maximum volume that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius 10 cm. What is the
maximum volume?
Lid
x
x
x
15&quot;
a. Write a formula V(x) for the volume of the box.
b. Find the domain of V for the problem situation and graph V
over this domain.
20. a. The U.S. Postal Service will accept a box for domestic shipment only if the sum of its length and girth (distance around)
does not exceed 108 in. What dimensions will give a box with
a square end the largest possible volume?
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4.5 Applied Optimization Problems
24. The trough in the figure is to be made to the dimensions shown.
Only the angle u can be varied. What value of u will maximize the
trough’s volume?
Girth distance
around here
1' ␪
␪ 1'
1'
Length
287
20'
Square end
T b. Graph the volume of a 108-in. box (length plus girth equals
108 in.) as a function of its length and compare what you see
21. (Continuation of Exercise 20.)
a. Suppose that instead of having a box with square ends you
have a box with square sides so that its dimensions are h by h
by w and the girth is 2h + 2w . What dimensions will give the
box its largest volume now?
Girth
25. Paper folding A rectangular sheet of 8.5-in.-by-11-in. paper is
placed on a flat surface. One of the corners is placed on the opposite longer edge, as shown in the figure, and held there as the paper is smoothed flat. The problem is to make the length of the
crease as small as possible. Call the length L. Try it with paper.
a. Show that L 2 = 2x 3&gt;s2x - 8.5d .
b. What value of x minimizes L 2 ?
c. What is the minimum value of L?
D
C
R
h

L
w
Crease
Q (originally at A)
h
x
T b. Graph the volume as a function of h and compare what you
22. A window is in the form of a rectangle surmounted by a semicircle. The rectangle is of clear glass, whereas the semicircle is of
tinted glass that transmits only half as much light per unit area as
clear glass does. The total perimeter is fixed. Find the proportions
of the window that will admit the most light. Neglect the thickness of the frame.
x
A
P
B
26. Constructing cylinders Compare the answers to the following
two construction problems.
a. A rectangular sheet of perimeter 36 cm and dimensions x cm
by y cm to be rolled into a cylinder as shown in part (a) of the
figure. What values of x and y give the largest volume?
b. The same sheet is to be revolved about one of the sides of
length y to sweep out the cylinder as shown in part (b) of the
figure. What values of x and y give the largest volume?
y
x
23. A silo (base not included) is to be constructed in the form of a
cylinder surmounted by a hemisphere. The cost of construction
per square unit of surface area is twice as great for the hemisphere
as it is for the cylindrical sidewall. Determine the dimensions to
be used if the volume is fixed and the cost of construction is to be
kept to a minimum. Neglect the thickness of the silo and waste in
construction.
Circumference x
x
y
y
(a)
(b)
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
27. Constructing cones A right triangle whose hypotenuse is
23 m long is revolved about one of its legs to generate a right
circular cone. Find the radius, height, and volume of the cone of
greatest volume that can be made this way.
h
a. Find the dimensions of the strongest beam that can be cut
from a 12-in.-diameter cylindrical log.
b. Graph S as a function of the beam’s width w, assuming the
proportionality constant to be k = 1 . Reconcile what you see
c. On the same screen, graph S as a function of the beam’s depth
d, again taking k = 1 . Compare the graphs with one another
and with your answer in part (a). What would be the effect of
changing to some other value of k? Try it.

r
28. What value of a makes ƒsxd = x 2 + sa&gt;xd have
a. a local minimum at x = 2 ?
12&quot;
b. a point of inflection at x = 1 ?
d
29. Show that ƒsxd = x 2 + sa&gt;xd cannot have a local maximum for
any value of a.
30. What values of a and b make ƒsxd = x 3 + ax 2 + bx have
w
a. a local maximum at x = - 1 and a local minimum at x = 3 ?
b. a local minimum at x = 4 and a point of inflection at x = 1 ?
Physical Applications
31. Vertical motion The height of an object moving vertically is
given by
2
s = - 16t + 96t + 112 ,
with s in feet and t in seconds. Find
a. Find the dimensions of the stiffest beam that can be cut from
a 12-in.-diameter cylindrical log.
b. Graph S as a function of the beam’s width w, assuming the
proportionality constant to be k = 1 . Reconcile what you see
c. On the same screen, graph S as a function of the beam’s depth
d, again taking k = 1 . Compare the graphs with one another
and with your answer in part (a). What would be the effect of
changing to some other value of k? Try it.
a. the object’s velocity when t = 0
b. its maximum height and when it occurs
c. its velocity when s = 0 .
32. Quickest route Jane is 2 mi offshore in a boat and wishes to
reach a coastal village 6 mi down a straight shoreline from the
point nearest the boat. She can row 2 mph and can walk 5 mph.
Where should she land her boat to reach the village in the least
amount of time?
33. Shortest beam The 8-ft wall shown here stands 27 ft from the
building. Find the length of the shortest straight beam that will
reach to the side of the building from the ground outside the wall.
Beam
T 35. Stiffness of a beam The stiffness S of a rectangular beam is
proportional to its width times the cube of its depth.
Building
36. Motion on a line The positions of two particles on the s-axis
are s1 = sin t and s2 = sin st + p&gt;3d , with s1 and s2 in meters
and t in seconds.
a. At what time(s) in the interval 0 … t … 2p do the particles meet?
b. What is the farthest apart that the particles ever get?
c. When in the interval 0 … t … 2p is the distance between the
particles changing the fastest?
37. Frictionless cart A small frictionless cart, attached to the wall
by a spring, is pulled 10 cm from its rest position and released at
time t = 0 to roll back and forth for 4 sec. Its position at time t is
s = 10 cos pt .
a. What is the cart’s maximum speed? When is the cart moving
that fast? Where is it then? What is the magnitude of the
acceleration then?
b. Where is the cart when the magnitude of the acceleration is
greatest? What is the cart’s speed then?
8' wall
27'
T 34. Strength of a beam The strength S of a rectangular wooden
beam is proportional to its width times the square of its depth.
(See accompanying figure.)
0
10
s
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4.5 Applied Optimization Problems
38. Two masses hanging side by side from springs have positions
s1 = 2 sin t and s2 = sin 2t , respectively.
289
Normal
Light
a. At what times in the interval 0 6 t do the masses pass each
other? (Hint: sin 2t = 2 sin t cos t .)
Light
source
A
b. When in the interval 0 … t … 2p is the vertical distance
between the masses the greatest? What is this distance? (Hint:
cos 2t = 2 cos2 t - 1 .)
B
Angle of
reflection
␪2
Angle of
incidence
␪1
Plane mirror
m1
s1
0
s2
m2
s
39. Distance between two ships At noon, ship A was 12 nautical
miles due north of ship B. Ship A was sailing south at 12 knots
(nautical miles per hour; a nautical mile is 2000 yd) and continued to do so all day. Ship B was sailing east at 8 knots and continued to do so all day.
41. Tin pest When metallic tin is kept below 13.2&deg;C, it slowly becomes brittle and crumbles to a gray powder. Tin objects eventually crumble to this gray powder spontaneously if kept in a cold
climate for years. The Europeans who saw tin organ pipes in their
churches crumble away years ago called the change tin pest because it seemed to be contagious, and indeed it was, for the gray
powder is a catalyst for its own formation.
A catalyst for a chemical reaction is a substance that controls the rate of reaction without undergoing any permanent
change in itself. An autocatalytic reaction is one whose product is
a catalyst for its own formation. Such a reaction may proceed
slowly at first if the amount of catalyst present is small and slowly
again at the end, when most of the original substance is used up.
But in between, when both the substance and its catalyst product
are abundant, the reaction proceeds at a faster pace.
In some cases, it is reasonable to assume that the rate
y = dx&gt;dt of the reaction is proportional both to the amount of
the original substance present and to the amount of product. That
is, y may be considered to be a function of x alone, and
y = kxsa - xd = kax - kx 2 ,
a. Start counting time with t = 0 at noon and express the
distance s between the ships as a function of t.
b. How rapidly was the distance between the ships changing at
noon? One hour later?
where
c. The visibility that day was 5 nautical miles. Did the ships ever
sight each other?
a = the amount of substance at the beginning
T d. Graph s and ds&gt;dt together as functions of t for - 1 … t … 3 ,
using different colors if possible. Compare the graphs and
reconcile what you see with your answers in parts (b) and (c).
e. The graph of ds&gt;dt looks as if it might have a horizontal
asymptote in the first quadrant. This in turn suggests that
ds&gt;dt approaches a limiting value as t : q . What is
this value? What is its relation to the ships’ individual
speeds?
40. Fermat’s principle in optics Fermat’s principle in optics states
that light always travels from one point to another along a path
that minimizes the travel time. Light from a source A is reflected
by a plane mirror to a receiver at point B, as shown in the figure.
Show that for the light to obey Fermat’s principle, the angle of incidence must equal the angle of reflection, both measured from
the line normal to the reflecting surface. (This result can also be
derived without calculus. There is a purely geometric argument,
which you may prefer.)
x = the amount of product
k = a positive constant .
At what value of x does the rate y have a maximum? What is the
maximum value of y?
42. Airplane landing path An airplane is flying at altitude H when it
begins its descent to an airport runway that is at horizontal ground
distance L from the airplane, as shown in the figure. Assume that
the landing path of the airplane is the graph of a cubic polynomial function y = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d, where y s - Ld = H
and y s0d = 0 .
a. What is dy&gt;dx at x = 0 ?
b. What is dy&gt;dx at x = - L ?
c. Use the values for dy&gt;dx at x = 0 and x = - L together with
y s0d = 0 and y s -Ld = H to show that
3
2
x
x
y sxd = H c2 a b + 3 a b d .
L
L
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
48. Production level Suppose that csxd = x 3 - 20x 2 + 20,000x is
the cost of manufacturing x items. Find a production level that
will minimize the average cost of making x items.
y
Landing path
49. Average daily cost In Example 6, assume for any material that
a cost of d is incurred per delivery, the storage cost is s dollars per
unit stored per day, and the production rate is p units per day.
H = Cruising altitude
Airport
x
L
a. How much should be delivered every x days?
b. Show that
43. It costs you c dollars each to manufacture and distribute backpacks. If the backpacks sell at x dollars each, the number sold is
given by
a
n = x - c + bs100 - xd ,
where a and b are positive constants. What selling price will bring
a maximum profit?
44. You operate a tour service that offers the following rates:
\$200 per person if 50 people (the minimum number to book
the tour) go on the tour.
For each additional person, up to a maximum of 80 people total, the rate per person is reduced by \$2.
It costs \$6000 (a fixed cost) plus \$32 per person to conduct the
tour. How many people does it take to maximize your profit?
cost per cycle = d +
c. Find the time between deliveries x* and the amount to deliver
that minimizes the average daily cost of delivery and storage.
d. Show that x* occurs at the intersection of the hyperbola
y = d&gt;x and the line y = psx&gt;2 .
50. Minimizing average cost Suppose that csxd = 2000 + 96x +
4x 3&gt;2 , where x represents thousands of units. Is there a production
level that minimizes average cost? If so, what is it?
Medicine
51. Sensitivity to medicine (Continuation of Exercise 50, Section
3.2.) Find the amount of medicine to which the body is most sensitive by finding the value of M that maximizes the derivative
dR&gt;dM , where
45. Wilson lot size formula One of the formulas for inventory
management says that the average weekly cost of ordering, paying
for, and holding merchandise is
hq
km
,
Asqd = q + cm +
2
where q is the quantity you order when things run low (shoes, radios, brooms, or whatever the item might be), k is the cost of placing an order (the same, no matter how often you order), c is the
cost of one item (a constant), m is the number of items sold each
week (a constant), and h is the weekly holding cost per item (a
constant that takes into account things such as space, utilities, insurance, and security).
a. Your job, as the inventory manager for your store, is to find
the quantity that will minimize A(q). What is it? (The formula
you get for the answer is called the Wilson lot size formula.)
b. Shipping costs sometimes depend on order size. When they
do, it is more realistic to replace k by k + bq , the sum of k
and a constant multiple of q. What is the most economical
quantity to order now?
px
sx .
2
R = M2 a
C
M
- b
2
3
and C is a constant.
52. How we cough
a. When we cough, the trachea (windpipe) contracts to increase
the velocity of the air going out. This raises the questions of
how much it should contract to maximize the velocity and
whether it really contracts that much when we cough.
Under reasonable assumptions about the elasticity of the
tracheal wall and about how the air near the wall is slowed by
friction, the average flow velocity y can be modeled by the
equation
y = csr0 - rdr 2 cm&gt;sec,
r0
… r … r0 ,
2
46. Production level Prove that the production level (if any) at
which average cost is smallest is a level at which the average cost
equals marginal cost.
where r0 is the rest radius of the trachea in centimeters and
c is a positive constant whose value depends in part on the
length of the trachea.
Show that y is greatest when r = s2&gt;3dr0 , that is, when
the trachea is about 33% contracted. The remarkable fact is
that X-ray photographs confirm that the trachea contracts
47. Show that if rsxd = 6x and csxd = x 3 - 6x 2 + 15x are your revenue and cost functions, then the best you can do is break even
(have revenue equal cost).
T b. Take r0 to be 0.5 and c to be 1 and graph y over the interval
0 … r … 0.5 . Compare what you see with the claim that y is
at a maximum when r = s2&gt;3dr0 .
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4.5 Applied Optimization Problems
Theory and Examples
53. An inequality for positive integers
are positive integers, then
Show that if a, b, c, and d
sa 2 + 1dsb 2 + 1dsc 2 + 1dsd 2 + 1d
&Uacute; 16 .
abcd
291
59. a. How close does the curve y = 2x come to the point (3&gt;2, 0)?
(Hint: If you minimize the square of the distance, you can
avoid square roots.)
T b. Graph the distance function and y = 2x together and
y
54. The derivative dt&gt;dx in Example 4
a. Show that
ƒsxd =
(x, 兹x)
x
2a + x
2
2
y 兹x
is an increasing function of x.
b. Show that
g sxd =
x
 3 , 0
2 
0
d - x
2b 2 + sd - xd2
60. a. How close does the semicircle y = 216 - x 2 come to the
point A 1, 23 B ?
is a decreasing function of x.
c. Show that
dt
d - x
x
=
dx
c1 2a 2 + x 2
c2 2b 2 + sd - xd2
T b. Graph the distance function and y = 216 - x 2 together and
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
is an increasing function of x.
55. Let ƒ(x) and g(x) be the differentiable functions graphed here.
Point c is the point where the vertical distance between the curves
is the greatest. Is there anything special about the tangents to the
In Exercises 61 and 62, you may find it helpful to use a CAS.
61. Generalized cone problem A cone of height h and radius r is
constructed from a flat, circular disk of radius a in. by removing a
sector AOC of arc length x in. and then connecting the edges OA
and OC.
a. Find a formula for the volume V of the cone in terms of x and a.
b. Find r and h in the cone of maximum volume for a = 4, 5, 6, 8 .
y f (x)
c. Find a simple relationship between r and h that is independent
of a for the cone of maximum volume. Explain how you
y g(x)
A
a
c
b
x
56. You have been asked to determine whether the function ƒsxd =
3 + 4 cos x + cos 2x is ever negative.
a. Explain why you need to consider values of x only in the
interval [0, 2p] .
x
a
O
4&quot;
a
C
A
O
r
C
NOT TO SCALE
b. Is ƒ ever negative? Explain.
57. a. The function y = cot x - 22 csc x has an absolute maximum
value on the interval 0 6 x 6 p . Find it.
T b. Graph the function and compare what you see with your
58. a. The function y = tan x + 3 cot x has an absolute minimum
value on the interval 0 6 x 6 p&gt;2 . Find it.
T b. Graph the function and compare what you see with your
h
62. Circumscribing an ellipse Let P(x, a) and Qs - x, ad be two
points on the upper half of the ellipse
sy - 5d2
x2
+
= 1
100
25
centered at (0, 5). A triangle RST is formed by using the tangent
lines to the ellipse at Q and P as shown in the figure.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
where y = ƒsxd is the function representing the upper half of
the ellipse.
y
R
b. What is the domain of A? Draw the graph of A. How are the
asymptotes of the graph related to the problem situation?
P(x, a)
Q(–x, a)
c. Determine the height of the triangle with minimum area. How
is it related to the y coordinate of the center of the ellipse?
5
S
T
a. Show that the area of the triangle is
Asxd = - ƒ&iquest;sxd cx -
ƒsxd 2
d ,
ƒ&iquest;sxd
x
d. Repeat parts (a) through (c) for the ellipse
sy - Bd2
x2
+
= 1
C2
B2
centered at (0, B). Show that the triangle has minimum area
when its height is 3B.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
4.6
Indeterminate Forms and L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
Guillaume Fran&ccedil;ois
Antoine de l’H&ocirc;pital
(1661–1704)
John Bernoulli discovered a rule for calculating limits of fractions whose numerators and
denominators both approach zero or + q . The rule is known today as l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule,
after Guillaume de l’H&ocirc;pital. He was a French nobleman who wrote the first introductory
differential calculus text, where the rule first appeared in print.
Indeterminate Form 0/0
If the continuous functions ƒ(x) and g(x) are both zero at x = a, then
lim
x:a
ƒsxd
gsxd
cannot be found by substituting x = a. The substitution produces 0&gt;0, a meaningless expression, which we cannot evaluate. We use 0&gt;0 as a notation for an expression known as
an indeterminate form. Sometimes, but not always, limits that lead to indeterminate
forms may be found by cancellation, rearrangement of terms, or other algebraic manipulations. This was our experience in Chapter 2. It took considerable analysis in Section 2.4 to
find limx:0 ssin xd&gt;x. But we have had success with the limit
,
x - a
x:a
from which we calculate derivatives and which always produces the equivalent of 0&gt;0
when we substitute x = a. L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule enables us to draw on our success with derivatives to evaluate limits that otherwise lead to indeterminate forms.
THEOREM 6
L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule (First Form)
Then
lim
x:a
ƒsxd
=
.
gsxd
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4.6 Indeterminate Forms and L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
Caution
To apply l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule to ƒ&gt;g, divide
the derivative of ƒ by the derivative of
g. Do not fall into the trap of taking the
derivative of ƒ&gt;g. The quotient to use is
ƒ&iquest;&gt;g&iquest; , not sƒ&gt;gd&iquest; .
293
Proof Working backward from ƒ&iquest;sad and g&iquest;sad, which are themselves limits, we have
=
x - a
x:a
lim
x - a
x:a
lim
= lim
x:a
EXAMPLE 1
(a) lim
x:0
= lim
x:a
x - a
x - a
ƒsxd - 0
ƒsxd
= lim
= lim
.
x:a gsxd - 0
x:a gsxd
Using L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
3 - cos x
3x - sin x
`
=
= 2
x
1
x=0
1
21 + x - 1
221 + x 3
1
=
(b) lim
=
x
2
x:0
1
x=0
Sometimes after differentiation, the new numerator and denominator both equal zero at
x = a, as we see in Example 2. In these cases, we apply a stronger form of l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule.
THEOREM 7
L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule (Stronger Form)
Suppose that ƒsad = gsad = 0, that ƒ and g are differentiable on an open interval I containing a, and that g&iquest;sxd Z 0 on I if x Z a. Then
lim
x:a
ƒsxd
ƒ&iquest;sxd
= lim
,
gsxd
x:a g&iquest;sxd
assuming that the limit on the right side exists.
Before we give a proof of Theorem 7, let’s consider an example.
EXAMPLE 2
(a) lim
Applying the Stronger Form of L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
21 + x - 1 - x&gt;2
0
0
x2
x:0
s1&gt;2ds1 + xd-1&gt;2 - 1&gt;2
2x
x:0
= lim
= lim
x:0
(b) lim
x:0
-s1&gt;4ds1 + xd-3&gt;2
1
= 2
8
x - sin x
x3
Still
0
; differentiate again.
0
Not
0
; limit is found.
0
0
0
= lim
1 - cos x
3x 2
Still
0
0
= lim
sin x
6x
Still
0
0
= lim
cos x
1
=
6
6
0
Not ; limit is found.
0
x:0
x:0
x:0
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
The proof of the stronger form of l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule is based on Cauchy’s Mean Value
Theorem, a Mean Value Theorem that involves two functions instead of one. We prove
Cauchy’s Theorem first and then show how it leads to l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule.
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
THEOREM 8
Cauchy’s Mean Value Theorem
Suppose functions ƒ and g are continuous on [a, b] and differentiable throughout
(a, b) and also suppose g&iquest;sxd Z 0 throughout (a, b). Then there exists a number c
in (a, b) at which
Augustin-Louis Cauchy
(1789–1857)
ƒ&iquest;scd
=
.
g&iquest;scd
Proof We apply the Mean Value Theorem of Section 4.2 twice. First we use it to show
that gsad Z gsbd. For if g(b) did equal g (a), then the Mean Value Theorem would give
g&iquest;scd =
= 0
b - a
for some c between a and b, which cannot happen because g&iquest;sxd Z 0 in (a, b).
We next apply the Mean Value Theorem to the function
Fsxd = ƒsxd - ƒsad -
This function is continuous and differentiable where ƒ and g are, and Fsbd = Fsad = 0.
Therefore, there is a number c between a and b for which F&iquest;scd = 0 . When expressed in
terms of ƒ and g, this equation becomes
F&iquest;scd = ƒ&iquest;scd -
[ g&iquest;scd] = 0
or
ƒ&iquest;scd
=
.
g&iquest;scd
y
(g(b), f (b))
(g(c), f (c))
slope f (b) f (a)
g(b) g(a)
(g(a), f (a))
0
x
FIGURE 4.42 There is at least one value
of the parameter t = c, a 6 c 6 b , for
which the slope of the tangent to the curve
at (g(c), ƒ(c)) is the same as the slope of
the secant line joining the points
(g (a), ƒ(a)) and (g(b), ƒ(b)).
Notice that the Mean Value Theorem in Section 4.2 is Theorem 8 with gsxd = x.
Cauchy’s Mean Value Theorem has a geometric interpretation for a curve C defined
by the parametric equations x = gstd and y = ƒstd. From Equation (2) in Section 3.5, the
slope of the parametric curve at t is given by
dy&gt;dt
ƒ&iquest;std
,
=
dx&gt;dt
g&iquest;std
so ƒ&iquest;scd&gt;g&iquest;scd is the slope of the tangent to the curve when t = c. The secant line joining
the two points (g (a), ƒ(a)) and (g(b), ƒ(b)) on C has slope
.
Theorem 8 says that there is a parameter value c in the interval (a, b) for which the slope of
the tangent to the curve at the point (g (c), ƒ(c)) is the same as the slope of the secant line
joining the points (g (a), ƒ(a)) and (g (b), ƒ(b)). This geometric result is shown in Figure
4.42. Note that more than one such value c of the parameter may exist.
We now prove Theorem 7.
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4.6 Indeterminate Forms and L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
295
Proof of the Stronger Form of l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule We first establish the limit equation for
the case x : a + . The method needs almost no change to apply to x : a -, and the combination of these two cases establishes the result.
Suppose that x lies to the right of a. Then g&iquest;sxd Z 0, and we can apply Cauchy’s
Mean Value Theorem to the closed interval from a to x. This step produces a number c between a and x such that
ƒ&iquest;scd
=
.
g&iquest;scd
ƒ&iquest;scd
ƒsxd
=
.
g&iquest;scd
gsxd
As x approaches a, c approaches a because it always lies between a and x. Therefore,
lim+
x:a
ƒsxd
ƒ&iquest;scd
ƒ&iquest;sxd
= lim+
= lim+
,
gsxd
c:a g&iquest;scd
x:a g&iquest;sxd
which establishes l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule for the case where x approaches a from above. The case
where x approaches a from below is proved by applying Cauchy’s Mean Value Theorem to
the closed interval [x, a], x 6 a.
Most functions encountered in the real world and most functions in this book satisfy
the conditions of l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule.
Using L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
To find
lim
x:a
ƒsxd
gsxd
by l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule, continue to differentiate ƒ and g, so long as we still get the
form 0&gt;0 at x = a. But as soon as one or the other of these derivatives is different from zero at x = a we stop differentiating. L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule does not apply
when either the numerator or denominator has a finite nonzero limit.
EXAMPLE 3
Incorrectly Applying the Stronger Form of L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
lim
x:0
= lim
x:0
1 - cos x
x + x2
0
sin x
= = 0
1 + 2x
1
0
0
0
Not ; limit is found.
0
Up to now the calculation is correct, but if we continue to differentiate in an attempt to apply l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule once more, we get
lim
x:0
1 - cos x
sin x
cos x
1
= lim
= ,
= lim
2
x:0 1 + 2x
x:0 2
x + x2
which is wrong. L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule can only be applied to limits which give indeterminate
forms, and 0&gt;1 is not an indeterminate form.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule applies to one-sided limits as well, which is apparent from the proof of
Theorem 7.
EXAMPLE 4
(a) lim+
x:0
Recall that q and + q mean the same
thing.
Using L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule with One-Sided Limits
sin x
x2
0
0
= lim+
x:0
(b) limx:0
cos x
= q
2x
Positive for x 7 0 .
sin x
x2
0
0
= limx:0
cos x
= -q
2x
Negative for x 6 0 .
Indeterminate Forms ˆ &gt; ˆ , ˆ # 0, ˆ ˆ
Sometimes when we try to evaluate a limit as x : a by substituting x = a we get an ambiguous expression like q &gt; q , q # 0, or q - q , instead of 0&gt;0. We first consider the
form q &gt; q .
In more advanced books it is proved that l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule applies to the indeterminate
form q &gt; q as well as to 0&gt;0. If ƒsxd : ; q and gsxd : ; q as x : a, then
lim
x:a
ƒsxd
ƒ&iquest;sxd
= lim
gsxd
x:a g&iquest;sxd
provided the limit on the right exists. In the notation x : a, a may be either finite or infinite. Moreover x : a may be replaced by the one-sided limits x : a + or x : a - .
EXAMPLE 5
Working with the Indeterminate Form q &gt; q
Find
(a)
lim
x:p&gt;2
(b) lim
x: q
sec x
1 + tan x
x - 2x 2
3x 2 + 5x
Solution
(a) The numerator and denominator are discontinuous at x = p&gt;2, so we investigate the
one-sided limits there. To apply l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule, we can choose I to be any open interval with x = p&gt;2 as an endpoint.
lim
x:sp&gt;2d -
sec x
1 + tan x
=
q
q from the left
lim
x:sp&gt;2d -
sec x tan x
=
sec2 x
lim
x:sp&gt;2d -
sin x = 1
The right-hand limit is 1 also, with s - q d&gt;s - q d as the indeterminate form. Therefore, the two-sided limit is equal to 1.
(b) lim
x: q
x - 2x 2
1 - 4x
2
-4
= lim
= - .
= lim
3
x: q 6x + 5
x: q 6
3x 2 + 5x
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4.6 Indeterminate Forms and L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
Next we turn our attention to the indeterminate forms q # 0 and q - q . Sometimes these forms can be handled by using algebra to convert them to a 0&gt;0 or q &gt; q
form. Here again we do not mean to suggest that q # 0 or q - q is a number. They are
only notations for functional behaviors when considering limits. Here are examples of how
we might work with these indeterminate forms.
EXAMPLE 6
Working with the Indeterminate Form q # 0
Find
1
lim ax sin x b
q
x:
Solution
1
lim ax sin x b
q #0
x: q
1
= lim+ a sin hb
h:0 h
Let h = 1&gt;x .
= 1
EXAMPLE 7
Working with the Indeterminate Form q - q
Find
lim a
x:0
Solution
1
1
- xb.
sin x
If x : 0 + , then sin x : 0 + and
1
1
- x : q - q.
sin x
Similarly, if x : 0 - , then sin x : 0 - and
1
1
- x : - q - s- qd = - q + q .
sin x
Neither form reveals what happens in the limit. To find out, we first combine the fractions:
x - sin x
1
1
- x =
sin x
x sin x
Common denominator is x sin x
Then apply l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule to the result:
lim a
x:0
x - sin x
1
1
- x b = lim
sin x
x:0 x sin x
= lim
1 - cos x
sin x + x cos x
= lim
0
sin x
= = 0.
2
2 cos x - x sin x
x:0
x:0
0
0
Still
0
0
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
EXERCISES 4.6
Finding Limits
In Exercises 1–6, use l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule to evaluate the limit. Then evaluate the limit using a method studied in Chapter 2.
1. lim
x:2
x - 2
x2 - 4
2. lim
x: 0
2
sin 5x
x
3
5x - 3x
7x 2 + 1
4. lim
x - 1
4x 3 - x - 3
1 - cos x
x:0
x2
6. lim
2x 2 + 3x
x3 + x + 1
3. lim
x: q
x: 1
5. lim
x: q
Applying l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
Use l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule to find the limits in Exercises 7–26.
11.
13.
8.
sin u
p - u
u :p
10.
sin x - cos x
x - p&gt;4
x:p&gt;4
lim
lim
x:sp&gt;2d
12.
p
- ax - b tan x
2
2asa + xd - a
,
x
a 7 0
xscos x - 1d
x:0 sin x - x
19. lim
asr n - 1d
,
r: 1 r - 1
21. lim
1
22. lim+ a x x:0
1
2x
lim
1 - sin x
1 + cos 2x
lim
cos x - 0.5
x - p&gt;3
x: p&gt;2
x: p&gt;3
2x
x + 72x
2x 2 + 5 - 3
16. lim
x: 2
x2 - 4
10ssin t - td
18. lim
t :0
t3
sin sa + hd - sin a
20. lim
h
h :0
0
x - 3
= = 0
6
x2 - 3
32. ˆ / ˆ Form Give an example of two differentiable functions
ƒ and g with lim x: q ƒsxd = lim x: q g sxd = q that satisfy the
following.
ƒsxd
ƒsxd
= 3
= 0
a. lim
b. lim
x : q g sxd
x : q g sxd
b. lim
x :3
c. lim
23. lim sx - 2x 2 + xd
x: q
25.
lim
x: ; q
3x - 5
2x 2 - x + 2
Find a value of c that makes the function
9x - 3 sin 3x
,
5x 3
ƒsxd = •
c,
x Z 0
x = 0
continuous at x = 0 . Explain why your value of c works.
34. Let
ƒsxd = e
x + 2,
0,
x Z 0
x = 0
g sxd = e
and
x + 1,
0,
x Z 0
x = 0.
a. Show that
lim
x :0
ƒ&iquest;sxd
= 1
g&iquest;sxd
but
lim
x :0
ƒsxd
= 2.
g sxd
2x 2 - s3x + 1d2x + 2
x - 1
x :1
by graphing. Then confirm your estimate with l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule.
T 36. ˆ ˆ Form
a. Estimate the value of
lim A x - 2x 2 + x B
x: q
L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule does not help with the limits in Exercises 27–30. Try
it; you just keep on cycling. Find the limits some other way.
2x + 1
sec x
29.
lim
x:sp&gt;2d - tan x
33. Continuous extension
lim
Theory and Applications
29x + 1
ƒsxd
= q
g sxd
T 35. 0/0 Form Estimate the value of
b
sin 7x
26. lim
x:0 tan 11x
x: q
x - 3
1
1
= lim
=
2
2x
6
x
:3
x - 3
b. Explain why this does not contradict l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule.
n a positive integer
1
24. lim x tan x
x: q
27. lim
x :3
x: 0
2x 2 - s3x + 1d2x + 2
x - 1
x:1
x:0
2x - p
x: p&gt;2 cos x
lim
14. lim
15. lim
17. lim
a. lim
x: q
sin t 2
t
t:0
7. lim
9. lim
31. Which one is correct, and which one is wrong? Give reasons for
28. lim+
2x
2sin x
cot x
30. lim+ csc x
x: 0
x: 0
by graphing ƒsxd = x - 2x 2 + x over a suitably large
interval of x-values.
b. Now confirm your estimate by finding the limit with
l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule. As the first step, multiply ƒ(x) by the
fraction A x + 2x 2 + x B &gt; A x + 2x 2 + x B and simplify the
new numerator.
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4.6 Indeterminate Forms and L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
T 37. Let
299
Interpret this geometrically.
ƒsxd =
1 - cos x 6
.
x 12
y
C
Explain why some graphs of ƒ may give false information about
limx:0 ƒsxd . (Hint: Try the window [- 1, 1] by [- 0.5, 1] .)
a. ƒsxd = x,
g sxd = x 2,
sa, bd = s -2, 0d
b. ƒsxd = x,
g sxd = x 2,
sa, bd arbitrary
c. ƒsxd = x &gt;3 - 4x,
3
g sxd = x 2,
P(x, 0)
O
D
a. Show that the length of PA is
x
us1 - cos ud
.
u - sin u
40. A right triangle has one leg of length 1, another of length y, and a
hypotenuse of length r. The angle opposite y has radian measure
u . Find the limits as u : p&gt;2 of
a. r - y.
b. r 2 - y 2 .
c. r 3 - y 3 .
r
y
b. Find lim s1 - xd .
u :0
c. Show that lim [s1 - xd - s1 - cos ud] = 0.
u: q
A(1, 0)
sa, bd = s0, 3d
39. In the accompanying figure, the circle has radius OA equal to 1,
and AB is tangent to the circle at A. The arc AC has radian measure u and the segment AB also has length u . The line through B
and C crosses the x-axis at P(x, 0).
1 - x =
␪
␪
38. Find all values of c, that satisfy the conclusion of Cauchy’s Mean
Value Theorem for the given functions and interval.
B(1, ␪)
␪
1
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4.7 Newton’s Method
4.7
Newton’s Method
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
Niels Henrik Abel
(1802–1829)
299
One of the basic problems of mathematics is solving equations. Using the quadratic root
formula, we know how to find a point (solution) where x 2 - 3x + 2 = 0. There are more
complicated formulas to solve cubic or quartic equations (polynomials of degree 3 or 4),
but the Norwegian mathematician Niels Abel showed that no simple formulas exist to
solve polynomials of degree equal to five. There is also no simple formula for solving
equations like sin x = x 2 , which involve transcendental functions as well as polynomials
or other algebraic functions.
In this section we study a numerical method, called Newton’s method or the
Newton–Raphson method, which is a technique to approximate the solution to an equation
ƒsxd = 0. Essentially it uses tangent lines in place of the graph of y = ƒsxd near the
points where ƒ is zero. (A value of x where ƒ is zero is a root of the function ƒ and a
solution of the equation ƒsxd = 0.)
Procedure for Newton’s Method
The goal of Newton’s method for estimating a solution of an equation ƒsxd = 0 is to produce a sequence of approximations that approach the solution. We pick the first number x0
of the sequence. Then, under favorable circumstances, the method does the rest by moving
step by step toward a point where the graph of ƒ crosses the x-axis (Figure 4.43). At each
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
step the method approximates a zero of ƒ with a zero of one of its linearizations. Here is
how it works.
The initial estimate, x0 , may be found by graphing or just plain guessing. The method
then uses the tangent to the curve y = ƒsxd at sx0, ƒsx0 dd to approximate the curve, calling
the point x1 where the tangent meets the x-axis (Figure 4.43). The number x1 is usually a
better approximation to the solution than is x0 . The point x2 where the tangent to the curve
at sx1, ƒsx1 dd crosses the x-axis is the next approximation in the sequence. We continue on,
using each approximation to generate the next, until we are close enough to the root to stop.
We can derive a formula for generating the successive approximations in the following way. Given the approximation xn , the point-slope equation for the tangent to the curve
at sxn, ƒsxn dd is
y
y f (x)
(x0, f (x0))
(x1, f (x1))
(x2, f(x2 ))
Root
sought
y = ƒsxn d + ƒ&iquest;sxn dsx - xn d.
x
0
x3
Fourth
x2
Third
x1
Second
x0
First
We can find where it crosses the x-axis by setting y = 0 (Figure 4.44).
0 = ƒsxn d + ƒ&iquest;sxn dsx - xn d
ƒsxn d
= x - xn
ƒ&iquest;sxn d
ƒsxn d
x = xn ƒ&iquest;sxn d
APPROXIMATIONS
FIGURE 4.43 Newton’s method starts
with an initial guess x0 and (under
favorable circumstances) improves the
guess one step at a time.
If ƒ&iquest;sxn d Z 0
This value of x is the next approximation xn + 1 . Here is a summary of Newton’s method.
y
y f (x)
Point: (xn, f (xn ))
Slope: f'(xn )
Tangent line equation:
y f (xn ) f '(xn )(x xn )
(xn, f (xn))
Tangent line
(graph of
linearization
of f at xn )
Procedure for Newton’s Method
1. Guess a first approximation to a solution of the equation ƒsxd = 0. A graph
of y = ƒsxd may help.
2. Use the first approximation to get a second, the second to get a third, and so
on, using the formula
xn + 1 = xn -
ƒsxn d
,
ƒ&iquest;sxn d
if ƒ&iquest;sxn d Z 0
(1)
Root sought
0
x
xn
xn1 xn f (xn )
f '(xn )
Applying Newton’s Method
FIGURE 4.44 The geometry of the
successive steps of Newton’s method.
From xn we go up to the curve and follow
the tangent line down to find xn + 1 .
Applications of Newton’s method generally involve many numerical computations, making them well suited for computers or calculators. Nevertheless, even when the calculations are done by hand (which may be very tedious), they give a powerful way to find solutions of equations.
In our first example, we find decimal approximations to 22 by estimating the positive root of the equation ƒsxd = x 2 - 2 = 0.
EXAMPLE 1
Finding the Square Root of 2
Find the positive root of the equation
ƒsxd = x 2 - 2 = 0.
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4.7 Newton’s Method
301
With ƒsxd = x 2 - 2 and ƒ&iquest;sxd = 2x, Equation (1) becomes
Solution
xn + 1 = xn -
xn 2 - 2
2xn
= xn -
xn
1
+ xn
2
=
xn
1
+ xn .
2
The equation
xn + 1 =
xn
1
+ xn
2
enables us to go from each approximation to the next with just a few keystrokes. With the
starting value x0 = 1, we get the results in the first column of the following table. (To five
decimal places, 22 = 1.41421.)
y
20
x0
x1
x2
x3
y x3 x 1
15
10
1
0
2
3
x
FIGURE 4.45 The graph of ƒsxd =
x 3 - x - 1 crosses the x-axis once; this is
the root we want to find (Example 2).
Root sought
x1
x
1
1.5
1.3478
(1, –1)
FIGURE 4.46 The first three x-values in
Table 4.1 (four decimal places).
1
1
3
5
EXAMPLE 2
Using Newton’s Method
Find the x-coordinate of the point where the curve y = x 3 - x crosses the horizontal line
y = 1.
The curve crosses the line when x 3 - x = 1 or x 3 - x - 1 = 0. When does
ƒsxd = x - x - 1 equal zero? Since ƒs1d = - 1 and ƒs2d = 5, we know by the Intermediate Value Theorem there is a root in the interval (1, 2) (Figure 4.45).
We apply Newton’s method to ƒ with the starting value x0 = 1. The results are displayed in Table 4.1 and Figure 4.46.
At n = 5, we come to the result x6 = x5 = 1.3247 17957. When xn + 1 = xn , Equation (1) shows that ƒsxn d = 0. We have found a solution ofƒsxd = 0 to nine decimals.
3
(1.5, 0.875)
x2
- 0.41421
0.08579
0.00246
0.00001
Solution
y x3 x 1
x0
1
1.5
1.41667
1.41422
Number of
correct digits
Newton’s method is the method used by most calculators to calculate roots because it
been carried to 13 decimal places instead of 5, then going one step further would have
given 22 correctly to more than 10 decimal places.
5
–1
=
=
=
=
Error
In Figure 4.47 we have indicated that the process in Example 2 might have started at
the point B0s3, 23d on the curve, with x0 = 3. Point B0 is quite far from the x-axis, but the
tangent at B0 crosses the x-axis at about (2.12, 0), so x1 is still an improvement over x0 . If
we use Equation (1) repeatedly as before, with ƒsxd = x 3 - x - 1 and ƒ&iquest;sxd = 3x 2 - 1,
we confirm the nine-place solution x7 = x6 = 1.3247 17957 in seven steps.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
TABLE 4.1 The result of applying Newton’s method to ƒsxd = x3 - x - 1
with x0 = 1
n
xn
ƒ(xn)
ƒ(xn)
xn1 xn 0
1
2
3
4
5
1
1.5
1.3478 26087
1.3252 00399
1.3247 18174
1.3247 17957
-1
0.875
0.1006 82173
0.0020 58362
0.0000 00924
- 1.8672E-13
2
5.75
4.4499 05482
4.2684 68292
4.2646 34722
4.2646 32999
1.5
1.3478 26087
1.3252 00399
1.3247 18174
1.3247 17957
1.3247 17957
ƒsxn d
ƒ&iquest;sxn d
The curve in Figure 4.47 has a local maximum at x = - 1&gt; 23 and a local minimum
at x = 1&gt; 23. We would not expect good results from Newton’s method if we were to
start with x0 between these points, but we can start any place to the right of x = 1&gt; 23
and get the answer. It would not be very clever to do so, but we could even begin far to the
right of B0 , for example with x0 = 10. It takes a bit longer, but the process still converges
to the same answer as before.
y
25
B0(3, 23)
20
y x3 x 1
15
Convergence of Newton’s Method
10
B1(2.12, 6.35)
5
–1兾兹3
Root sought
1兾兹3
0
–1
x2 x1
1
1.6 2.12
x0
x
3
FIGURE 4.47 Any starting value x0 to the
right of x = 1&gt; 23 will lead to the root.
y f (x)
x0
r
In practice, Newton’s method usually converges with impressive speed, but this is not
guaranteed. One way to test convergence is to begin by graphing the function to estimate a
good starting value for x0 . You can test that you are getting closer to a zero of the function
by evaluating ƒ ƒsxn d ƒ and check that the method is converging by evaluating ƒ xn - xn + 1 ƒ .
Theory does provide some help. A theorem from advanced calculus says that if
x'0
x
`
sƒ&iquest;sxdd2
` 6 1
(2)
for all x in an interval about a root r, then the method will converge to r for any starting
value x0 in that interval. Note that this condition is satisfied if the graph of ƒ is not too horizontal near where it crosses the x-axis.
Newton’s method always converges if, between r and x0 , the graph of ƒ is concave up
when ƒsx0 d 7 0 and concave down when ƒsx0 d 6 0. (See Figure 4.48.) In most cases, the
speed of the convergence to the root r is expressed by the advanced calculus formula
ƒ xn + 1 - r ƒ …
(++)++*
error en1
FIGURE 4.48 Newton’s method will
converge to r from either starting point.
ƒsxdƒ–sxd
max ƒ ƒ– ƒ
2
2
ƒ x - r ƒ = constant # ƒ xn - r ƒ ,
2 min ƒ ƒ&iquest; ƒ n
(+)+*
(3)
error en
where max and min refer to the maximum and minimum values in an interval surrounding
r. The formula says that the error in step n + 1 is no greater than a constant times the
square of the error in step n. This may not seem like much, but think of what it says. If the
constant is less than or equal to 1 and ƒ xn - r ƒ 6 10 -3 , then ƒ xn + 1 - r ƒ 6 10 -6 . In a
single step, the method moves from three decimal places of accuracy to six, and the number of decimals of accuracy continues to double with each successive step.
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4.7 Newton’s Method
But Things Can Go Wrong
(xn, f (xn ))
x
xn
FIGURE 4.49 If ƒ&iquest;sxn d = 0 , there is no
intersection point to define xn + 1 .
y
y f (x)
r
0
x0
x1
x
Newton’s method stops if ƒ&iquest;sxn d = 0 (Figure 4.49). In that case, try a new starting point. Of
course, ƒ and ƒ&iquest; may have the same root. To detect whether this is so, you could first find the
solutions of ƒ&iquest;sxd = 0 and check ƒ at those values, or you could graph ƒ and ƒ&iquest; together.
Newton’s method does not always converge. For instance, if
ƒsxd = e
- 2r - x,
2x - r,
x 6 r
x &Uacute; r,
the graph will be like the one in Figure 4.50. If we begin with x0 = r - h, we get
x1 = r + h, and successive approximations go back and forth between these two values.
No amount of iteration brings us closer to the root than our first guess.
If Newton’s method does converge, it converges to a root. Be careful, however. There
are situations in which the method appears to converge but there is no root there. Fortunately, such situations are rare.
When Newton’s method converges to a root, it may not be the root you have in mind.
Figure 4.51 shows two ways this can happen.
y f (x)
Starting
point
FIGURE 4.50 Newton’s method fails to
converge. You go from x0 to x1 and back to
x0 , never getting any closer to r.
Root sought
x0
Root
found
y f (x)
x1
x
x1
Root found
x2
x
x0
Root
sought
Starting
point
FIGURE 4.51 If you start too far away, Newton’s method may miss the root you want.
Fractal Basins and Newton’s Method
The process of finding roots by Newton’s method can be uncertain in the sense that for some
equations, the final outcome can be extremely sensitive to the starting value’s location.
The equation 4x 4 - 4x 2 = 0 is a case in point (Figure 4.52a). Starting values in the
blue zone on the x-axis lead to root A. Starting values in the black lead to root B, and starting values in the red zone lead to root C. The points ; 22&gt;2 give horizontal tangents. The
points ; 221&gt;7 “cycle,” each leading to the other, and back (Figure 4.52b).
The interval between 221&gt;7 and 22&gt;2 contains infinitely many open intervals of
points leading to root A, alternating with intervals of points leading to root C (Figure
4.52c). The boundary points separating consecutive intervals (there are infinitely many)
do not lead to roots, but cycle back and forth from one to another. Moreover, as we select
points that approach 221&gt;7 from the right, it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish which lead to root A and which to root C. On the same side of 221&gt;7, we find arbitrarily close together points whose ultimate destinations are far apart.
If we think of the roots as “attractors” of other points, the coloring in Figure 4.52
shows the intervals of the points they attract (the “intervals of attraction”). You might think
that points between roots A and B would be attracted to either A or B, but, as we see, that is
not the case. Between A and B there are infinitely many intervals of points attracted to C.
Similarly between B and C lie infinitely many intervals of points attracted to A.
We encounter an even more dramatic example of such behavior when we apply Newton’s method to solve the complex-number equation z 6 - 1 = 0. It has six solutions:
1, -1, and the four numbers ;s1&gt;2d ; A 23&gt;2 B i. As Figure 4.53 suggests, each of the
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
y
y 4x 4 – 4x 2
– 兹21
7
Root A
–1
Root B
0
– 兹2
2

7

2
– 兹21
7
Root C
1

7
0
x
x

2
– 兹2
2
–1
(a)
(b)

7

2
(c)
FIGURE 4.52 (a) Starting values in A - q , - 22&gt;2 B , A - 221&gt;7, 221&gt;7 B , and A 22&gt;2, q B lead
respectively to roots A, B, and C. (b) The values x = ; 221&gt;7 lead only to each other. (c) Between
221&gt;7 and 22&gt;2 , there are infinitely many open intervals of points attracted to A alternating with
open intervals of points attracted to C. This behavior is mirrored in the interval A - 22&gt;2, - 221&gt;7 B .
FIGURE 4.53 This computer-generated initial value portrait uses color to show where different
points in the complex plane end up when they are used as starting values in applying Newton’s
method to solve the equation z 6 - 1 = 0 . Red points go to 1, green points to s1&gt;2d + A 23&gt;2 B i ,
dark blue points to s -1&gt;2d + A 23&gt;2 B i , and so on. Starting values that generate sequences that do
not arrive within 0.1 unit of a root after 32 steps are colored black.
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4.7 Newton’s Method
305
six roots has infinitely many “basins” of attraction in the complex plane (Appendix 5).
Starting points in red basins are attracted to the root 1, those in the green basin to the root
s1&gt;2d + A 23&gt;2 B i, and so on. Each basin has a boundary whose complicated pattern repeats without end under successive magnifications. These basins are called fractal basins.
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4.7 Newton’s Method
305
EXERCISES 4.7
Root-Finding
1. Use Newton’s method to estimate the solutions of the equation
x 2 + x - 1 = 0 . Start with x0 = - 1 for the left-hand solution
and with x0 = 1 for the solution on the right. Then, in each case,
find x2 .
2. Use Newton’s method to estimate the one real solution of
x 3 + 3x + 1 = 0 . Start with x0 = 0 and then find x2 .
3. Use Newton’s method to estimate the two zeros of the function
ƒsxd = x 4 + x - 3 . Start with x0 = - 1 for the left-hand zero and
with x0 = 1 for the zero on the right. Then, in each case, find x2 .
4. Use Newton’s method to estimate the two zeros of the function
ƒsxd = 2x - x 2 + 1 . Start with x0 = 0 for the left-hand zero and
with x0 = 2 for the zero on the right. Then, in each case, find x2 .
5. Use Newton’s method to find the positive fourth root of 2 by solving the equation x 4 - 2 = 0 . Start with x0 = 1 and find x2 .
6. Use Newton’s method to find the negative fourth root of 2 by solving the equation x 4 - 2 = 0 . Start with x0 = - 1 and find x2 .
Theory, Examples, and Applications
7. Guessing a root Suppose that your first guess is lucky, in the
sense that x0 is a root of ƒsxd = 0 . Assuming that ƒ&iquest;sx0 d is defined and not 0, what happens to x1 and later approximations?
8. Estimating pi You plan to estimate p&gt;2 to five decimal places
by using Newton’s method to solve the equation cos x = 0 . Does
9. Oscillation Show that if h 7 0 , applying Newton’s method to
ƒsxd = e
2x,
2 - x,
x &Uacute; 0
x 6 0
leads to x1 = - h if x0 = h and to x1 = h if x0 = - h . Draw a
picture that shows what is going on.
iii) Find the x-coordinates of the points where the curve
y = x 3 - 3x crosses the horizontal line y = 1 .
iv) Find the values of x where the derivative of g sxd =
s1&gt;4dx 4 - s3&gt;2dx 2 - x + 5 equals zero.
12. Locating a planet To calculate a planet’s space coordinates, we
have to solve equations like x = 1 + 0.5 sin x . Graphing the
function ƒsxd = x - 1 - 0.5 sin x suggests that the function has
a root near x = 1.5 . Use one application of Newton’s method to
improve this estimate. That is, start with x0 = 1.5 and find x1 .
(The value of the root is 1.49870 to five decimal places.) Remember to use radians.
T 13. A program for using Newton’s method on a grapher Let
ƒsxd = x 3 + 3x + 1 . Here is a home screen program to perform
the computations in Newton’s method.
a. Let y0 = ƒsxd and y1 = NDER ƒsxd .
b. Store x0 = - 0.3 into x .
c. Then store x - sy0&gt;y1 d into x and press the Enter key over
and over. Watch as the numbers converge to the zero of ƒ.
d. Use different values for x0 and repeat steps (b) and (c).
e. Write your own equation and use this approach to solve it
gives zeros of functions.
T 14. (Continuation of Exercise 11.)
a. Use Newton’s method to find the two negative zeros of
ƒsxd = x 3 - 3x - 1 to five decimal places.
b. Graph ƒsxd = x 3 - 3x - 1 for -2 … x … 2.5 . Use the
Zoom and Trace features to estimate the zeros of ƒ to five
decimal places.
c. Graph g sxd = 0.25x 4 - 1.5x 2 - x + 5 . Use the Zoom and
Trace features with appropriate rescaling to find, to five decimal
places, the values of x where the graph has horizontal tangents.
10. Approximations that get worse and worse Apply Newton’s
method to ƒsxd = x 1&gt;3 with x0 = 1 and calculate x1 , x2 , x3 , and x4 .
Find a formula for ƒ xn ƒ . What happens to ƒ xn ƒ as n : q ? Draw
a picture that shows what is going on.
T 15. Intersecting curves The curve y = tan x crosses the line y = 2x
between x = 0 and x = p&gt;2 . Use Newton’s method to find where.
11. Explain why the following four statements ask for the same information:
T 16. Real solutions of a quartic Use Newton’s method to find the
two real solutions of the equation x 4 - 2x 3 - x 2 - 2x + 2 = 0 .
i) Find the roots of ƒsxd = x 3 - 3x - 1 .
ii) Find the x-coordinates of the intersections of the curve
y = x 3 with the line y = 3x + 1 .
T 17. a. How many solutions does the equation sin 3x = 0.99 - x 2
have?
b. Use Newton’s method to find them.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
T 18. Intersection of curves
a. Does cos 3x ever equal x? Give reasons for your answer.
b. Use Newton’s method to find where.
T 19. Find the four real zeros of the function ƒsxd = 2x 4 - 4x 2 + 1 .
T 20. Estimating pi Estimate p to as many decimal places as your
calculator will display by using Newton’s method to solve the
equation tan x = 0 with x0 = 3 .
21. At what values(s) of x does cos x = 2x ?
a. Show that the value of x that minimizes the distance between
the submarine and the buoy is a solution of the equation
x = 1&gt;sx 2 + 1d .
b. Solve the equation x = 1&gt;sx 2 + 1d with Newton’s method.
27. Curves that are nearly flat at the root Some curves are so flat
that, in practice, Newton’s method stops too far from the root to
give a useful estimate. Try Newton’s method on ƒsxd = sx - 1d40
with a starting value of x0 = 2 to see how close your machine
comes to the root x = 1 .
22. At what value(s) of x does cos x = - x ?
23. Use the Intermediate Value Theorem from Section 2.6 to show
that ƒsxd = x 3 + 2x - 4 has a root between x = 1 and x = 2 .
Then find the root to five decimal places.
y
24. Factoring a quartic Find the approximate values of r1 through
r4 in the factorization
8x 4 - 14x 3 - 9x 2 + 11x - 1 = 8sx - r1 dsx - r2 dsx - r3 dsx - r4 d .
y
y 8x 4 14x 3 9x 2 11x 1
2
–1
1
–2
–4
–6
–8
–10
–12
Slope –40
x
2
y (x 1) 40
Slope 40
1
(2, 1)
Nearly flat
0
T 25. Converging to different zeros Use Newton’s method to find
the zeros of ƒsxd = 4x 4 - 4x 2 using the given starting values
(Figure 4.52).
a. x0 = - 2 and x0 = - 0.8 , lying in A - q , - 22&gt;2 B
b. x0 = - 0.5 and x0 = 0.25 , lying in A - 221&gt;7, 221&gt;7 B
c. x0 = 0.8 and x0 = 2 , lying in A 22&gt;2, q B
d. x0 = - 221&gt;7 and x0 = 221&gt;7
26. The sonobuoy problem In submarine location problems, it is
often necessary to find a submarine’s closest point of approach
(CPA) to a sonobuoy (sound detector) in the water. Suppose that
the submarine travels on the parabolic path y = x 2 and that the
buoy is located at the point s2, - 1&gt;2d .
x
2
28. Finding a root different from the one sought All three roots
of ƒsxd = 4x 4 - 4x 2 can be found by starting Newton’s method
near x = 221&gt;7 . Try it. (See Figure 4.52.)
29. Finding an ion concentration While trying to find the acidity
of a saturated solution of magnesium hydroxide in hydrochloric
acid, you derive the equation
3.64 * 10 -11
= [H3 O+] + 3.6 * 10 -4
[H3 O+]2
for the hydronium ion concentration [H3 O+] . To find the value of
[H3 O+] , you set x = 10 4[H3 O+] and convert the equation to
x 3 + 3.6x 2 - 36.4 = 0 .
You then solve this by Newton’s method. What do you get for x?
(Make it good to two decimal places.) For [H3 O+] ?
y
y x2
Submarine track
in two dimensions
1
T 30. Complex roots If you have a computer or a calculator that can
be programmed to do complex-number arithmetic, experiment
with Newton’s method to solve the equation z 6 - 1 = 0 . The recursion relation to use is
CPA
zn + 1 = zn 0
1
1
2
1
Sonobuoy 2, – 
2
x
z n6 - 1
6z n5
or
zn + 1 =
5
1
z +
.
6 n
6z n5
Try these starting values (among others): 2, i, 23 + i .
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4.8 Antiderivatives
4.8
307
Antiderivatives
We have studied how to find the derivative of a function. However, many problems require that we recover a function from its known derivative (from its known rate of change).
For instance, we may know the velocity function of an object falling from an initial
height and need to know its height at any time over some period. More generally, we want
to find a function F from its derivative ƒ. If such a function F exists, it is called an antiderivative of ƒ.
Finding Antiderivatives
DEFINITION
Antiderivative
A function F is an antiderivative of ƒ on an interval I if F&iquest;sxd = ƒsxd
for all x in I.
The process of recovering a function F(x) from its derivative ƒ(x) is called antidifferentiation. We use capital letters such as F to represent an antiderivative of a function ƒ, G
to represent an antiderivative of g, and so forth.
EXAMPLE 1
Finding Antiderivatives
Find an antiderivative for each of the following functions.
(a) ƒsxd = 2x
(b) gsxd = cos x
(c) hsxd = 2x + cos x
Solution
(a) Fsxd = x 2
(b) Gsxd = sin x
(c) Hsxd = x 2 + sin x
Each answer can be checked by differentiating. The derivative of Fsxd = x 2 is 2x. The
derivative of Gsxd = sin x is cos x and the derivative of Hsxd = x 2 + sin x is 2x + cos x.
The function Fsxd = x 2 is not the only function whose derivative is 2x. The function
x + 1 has the same derivative. So does x 2 + C for any constant C. Are there others?
Corollary 2 of the Mean Value Theorem in Section 4.2 gives the answer: Any two antiderivatives of a function differ by a constant. So the functions x 2 + C , where C is an
arbitrary constant, form all the antiderivatives of ƒsxd = 2x. More generally, we have
the following result.
2
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
If F is an antiderivative of ƒ on an interval I, then the most general antiderivative
of ƒ on I is
Fsxd + C
where C is an arbitrary constant.
Thus the most general antiderivative of ƒ on I is a family of functions Fsxd + C
whose graphs are vertical translates of one another. We can select a particular antiderivative from this family by assigning a specific value to C. Here is an example showing how
such an assignment might be made.
EXAMPLE 2
Finding a Particular Antiderivative
Find an antiderivative of ƒsxd = sin x that satisfies Fs0d = 3.
Solution
Since the derivative of - cos x is sin x, the general antiderivative
Fsxd = - cos x + C
gives all the antiderivatives of ƒ(x). The condition Fs0d = 3 determines a specific value
for C. Substituting x = 0 into Fsxd = - cos x + C gives
Fs0d = - cos 0 + C = - 1 + C.
Since Fs0d = 3, solving for C gives C = 4. So
Fsxd = - cos x + 4
is the antiderivative satisfying Fs0d = 3.
By working backward from assorted differentiation rules, we can derive formulas and
rules for antiderivatives. In each case there is an arbitrary constant C in the general expression representing all antiderivatives of a given function. Table 4.2 gives antiderivative formulas for a number of important functions.
TABLE 4.2 Antiderivative formulas
Function
General antiderivative
1.
xn
xn+1
+ C,
n + 1
2.
sin kx
-
3.
cos kx
sin kx
+ C,
k
4.
5.
6.
7.
sec2 x
csc2 x
sec x tan x
csc x cot x
tan x + C
-cot x + C
sec x + C
-csc x + C
cos kx
+ C,
k
n Z - 1, n rational
k a constant, k Z 0
k a constant, k Z 0
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4.8 Antiderivatives
309
The rules in Table 4.2 are easily verified by differentiating the general antiderivative formula to obtain the function to its left. For example, the derivative of tan x + C is sec2 x,
whatever the value of the constant C, and this establishes the formula for the most general
antiderivative of sec2 x.
EXAMPLE 3
Finding Antiderivatives Using Table 4.2
Find the general antiderivative of each of the following functions.
(a) ƒsxd = x 5
1
2x
(c) hsxd = sin 2x
(b) gsxd =
(d) isxd = cos
x
2
Solution
x6
+ C
6
(a) Fsxd =
Formula 1
with n = 5
(b) gsxd = x -1&gt;2 , so
Gsxd =
x 1&gt;2
+ C = 22x + C
1&gt;2
Formula 1
with n = - 1&gt;2
-cos 2x
+ C
2
(c) Hsxd =
Formula 2
with k = 2
sin sx&gt;2d
Formula 3
x
+ C = 2 sin + C
with k = 1&gt;2
2
1&gt;2
Other derivative rules also lead to corresponding antiderivative rules. We can add and
subtract antiderivatives, and multiply them by constants.
The formulas in Table 4.3 are easily proved by differentiating the antiderivatives and
verifying that the result agrees with the original function. Formula 2 is the special case
k = - 1 in Formula 1.
(d) Isxd =
TABLE 4.3 Antiderivative linearity rules
1.
2.
3.
Constant Multiple Rule:
Negative Rule:
Sum or Difference Rule:
EXAMPLE 4
Function
General antiderivative
kƒ(x)
-ƒsxd
ƒsxd ; gsxd
kFsxd + C, k a constant
- Fsxd + C,
Fsxd ; Gsxd + C
Using the Linearity Rules for Antiderivatives
Find the general antiderivative of
ƒsxd =
3
2x
+ sin 2x.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Solution We have that ƒsxd = 3gsxd + hsxd for the functions g and h in Example 3.
Since Gsxd = 22x is an antiderivative of g(x) from Example 3b, it follows from the
Constant Multiple Rule for antiderivatives that 3Gsxd = 3 # 22x = 62x is an antiderivative of 3gsxd = 3&gt; 2x. Likewise, from Example 3c we know that Hsxd = s -1&gt;2d cos 2x
is an antiderivative of hsxd = sin 2x. From the Sum Rule for antiderivatives, we then
get that
Fsxd = 3Gsxd + Hsxd + C
= 62x -
1
cos 2x + C
2
is the general antiderivative formula for ƒ(x), where C is an arbitrary constant.
Antiderivatives play several important roles, and methods and techniques for finding
them are a major part of calculus. (This is the subject of Chapter 8.)
Initial Value Problems and Differential Equations
Finding an antiderivative for a function ƒ(x) is the same problem as finding a function y(x)
that satisfies the equation
dy
= ƒsxd.
dx
This is called a differential equation, since it is an equation involving an unknown function y that is being differentiated. To solve it, we need a function y (x) that satisfies the
equation. This function is found by taking the antiderivative of ƒ(x). We fix the arbitrary
constant arising in the antidifferentiation process by specifying an initial condition
ysx0 d = y0 .
This condition means the function y (x) has the value y0 when x = x0 . The combination of
a differential equation and an initial condition is called an initial value problem. Such
problems play important roles in all branches of science. Here’s an example of solving an
initial value problem.
EXAMPLE 5
Finding a Curve from Its Slope Function and a Point
Find the curve whose slope at the point (x, y) is 3x 2 if the curve is required to pass through
the point s1, - 1d.
Solution In mathematical language, we are asked to solve the initial value problem that
consists of the following.
dy
= 3x 2
dx
The differential equation:
The initial condition:
1.
The curve’s slope is 3x 2 .
ys1d = - 1
Solve the differential equation: The function y is an antiderivative of ƒsxd = 3x 2 , so
y = x 3 + C.
This result tells us that y equals x 3 + C for some value of C. We find that value from
the initial condition ys1d = - 1.
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4.8 Antiderivatives
2.
y
y x3 C
2
1
C2
C1
C0
C –1
C –2
x
0
–1
(1, –1)
–2
311
Evaluate C:
y = x3 + C
-1 = s1d3 + C
C = - 2.
Initial condition ys1d = - 1
The curve we want is y = x 3 - 2 (Figure 4.54).
The most general antiderivative Fsxd + C (which is x 3 + C in Example 5) of the
function ƒ(x) gives the general solution y = Fsxd + C of the differential equation
dy&gt;dx = ƒsxd . The general solution gives all the solutions of the equation (there are infinitely many, one for each value of C ). We solve the differential equation by finding its general solution. We then solve the initial value problem by finding the particular solution
that satisfies the initial condition ysx0 d = y0 .
Antiderivatives and Motion
FIGURE 4.54 The curves y = x 3 + C
fill the coordinate plane without
overlapping. In Example 5, we identify the
curve y = x 3 - 2 as the one that passes
through the given point s1, - 1d .
We have seen that the derivative of the position of an object gives its velocity, and the derivative of its velocity gives its acceleration. If we know an object’s acceleration, then by finding an antiderivative we can recover the velocity, and from an antiderivative of the velocity
we can recover its position function. This procedure was used as an application of Corollary 2 in Section 4.2. Now that we have a terminology and conceptual framework in terms
of antiderivatives, we revisit the problem from the point of view of differential equations.
EXAMPLE 6
Dropping a Package from an Ascending Balloon
A balloon ascending at the rate of 12 ft&gt;sec is at a height 80 ft above the ground when a
package is dropped. How long does it take the package to reach the ground?
Let y (t) denote the velocity of the package at time t, and let s(t) denote its
height above the ground. The acceleration of gravity near the surface of the earth is
32 ft&gt;sec2 . Assuming no other forces act on the dropped package, we have
Solution
dy
= - 32.
dt
Negative because gravity acts in the
direction of decreasing s.
This leads to the initial value problem.
Differential equation:
dy
= - 32
dt
Initial condition:
ys0d = 12,
which is our mathematical model for the package’s motion. We solve the initial value
problem to obtain the velocity of the package.
1.
Solve the differential equation: The general formula for an antiderivative of -32 is
y = - 32t + C.
2.
Having found the general solution of the differential equation, we use the initial condition to find the particular solution that solves our problem.
Evaluate C:
12 = - 32s0d + C
C = 12.
Initial condition ys0d = 12
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
The solution of the initial value problem is
y = - 32t + 12.
Since velocity is the derivative of height and the height of the package is 80 ft at the
time t = 0 when it is dropped, we now have a second initial value problem.
Differential equation:
ds
= - 32t + 12
dt
Initial condition:
ss0d = 80
Set y = ds&gt;dt in
the last equation.
We solve this initial value problem to find the height as a function of t.
1.
Solve the differential equation: Finding the general antiderivative of - 32t + 12 gives
s = - 16t 2 + 12t + C.
2.
Evaluate C:
80 = - 16s0d2 + 12s0d + C
C = 80.
Initial condition ss0d = 80
The package’s height above ground at time t is
s = - 16t 2 + 12t + 80.
Use the solution: To find how long it takes the package to reach the ground, we set s
equal to 0 and solve for t:
- 16t 2 + 12t + 80 = 0
-4t 2 + 3t + 20 = 0
t =
- 3 ; 2329
-8
t L - 1.89,
t L 2.64.
The package hits the ground about 2.64 sec after it is dropped from the balloon. (The negative root has no physical meaning.)
Indefinite Integrals
A special symbol is used to denote the collection of all antiderivatives of a function ƒ.
DEFINITION
Indefinite Integral, Integrand
The set of all antiderivatives of ƒ is the indefinite integral of ƒ with respect to x,
denoted by
L
ƒsxd dx.
The symbol 1 is an integral sign. The function ƒ is the integrand of the integral, and x is the variable of integration.
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4.8 Antiderivatives
313
Using this notation, we restate the solutions of Example 1, as follows:
L
L
L
2x dx = x 2 + C,
cos x dx = sin x + C,
s2x + cos xd dx = x 2 + sin x + C.
This notation is related to the main application of antiderivatives, which will be explored
in Chapter 5. Antiderivatives play a key role in computing limits of infinite sums, an unexpected and wonderfully useful role that is described in a central result of Chapter 5, called
the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
EXAMPLE 7
Indefinite Integration Done Term-by-Term and Rewriting the
Constant of Integration
Evaluate
L
sx 2 - 2x + 5d dx.
If we recognize that sx 3&gt;3d - x 2 + 5x is an antiderivative of x 2 - 2x + 5,
we can evaluate the integral as
Solution
antiderivative
\$++%++&amp;
L
(x 2 - 2x + 5) dx =
x3
- x 2 + 5x + C.
3
()*
arbitrary constant
If we do not recognize the antiderivative right away, we can generate it term-by-term
with the Sum, Difference, and Constant Multiple Rules:
L
sx 2 - 2x + 5d dx =
L
x 2 dx -
L
2x dx +
L
5 dx
x 2 dx - 2
x dx + 5 1 dx
L
L
L
x3
x2
= a + C1 b - 2 a + C2 b + 5sx + C3 d
3
2
=
=
x3
+ C1 - x 2 - 2C2 + 5x + 5C3 .
3
This formula is more complicated than it needs to be. If we combine C1, -2C2 , and 5C3
into a single arbitrary constant C = C1 - 2C2 + 5C3 , the formula simplifies to
x3
- x 2 + 5x + C
3
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
and still gives all the antiderivatives there are. For this reason, we recommend that you go
right to the final form even if you elect to integrate term-by-term. Write
L
sx 2 - 2x + 5d dx =
x 2 dx 2x dx +
5 dx
L
L
L
x3
- x 2 + 5x + C.
=
3
Find the simplest antiderivative you can for each part and add the arbitrary constant of
integration at the end.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
EXERCISES 4.8
Finding Antiderivatives
Finding Indefinite Integrals
In Exercises 1–16, find an antiderivative for each function. Do as
In Exercises 17–54, find the most general antiderivative or indefinite
1. a. 2x
b. x 2
c. x 2 - 2x + 1
2. a. 6x
b. x 7
c. x 7 - 6x + 8
3. a. - 3x -4
b. x -4
c. x -4 + 2x + 3
4. a. 2x -3
b.
1
5. a. 2
x
5
b. 2
x
5
c. 2 - 2
x
2
6. a. - 3
x
3
7. a. 2x
2
1
b.
2x 3
1
b.
2 2x
1
b.
3
32
x
1
c. x - 3
x
4 3
x
8. a. 2
3
x -3
+ x2
2
9. a.
2 -1&gt;3
x
3
b.
10. a.
1 -1&gt;2
x
2
b. -
12. a. p cos px
b.
13. a. sec2 x
c. 2x +
3
1 -3&gt;2
x
2
b. 3 sin x
p
cos
2
2
b. sec2
3
L
px
2
x
3
a3t 2 +
20.
t
b dt
2
1
1
a 2 - x 2 - b dx
3
L x
24.
L
t2
+ 4t 3 b dt
L 2
L
L
L
3
x B dx
A 2x + 2
28.
L
a8y -
30.
27.
1 -4&gt;3
x
3
29.
c. -
L
c. -
3 -5&gt;2
x
2
31.
L
2
b dy
y 1&gt;4
s1 - x 2 - 3x 5 d dx
1
2
a - 3 + 2xb dx
x
L 5
26.
2x
1
s5 - 6xd dx
a
x -1&gt;3 dx
L
x -5&gt;4 dx
a
2x
2
b dx
+
2
2x
1
1
a - 5&gt;4 b dy
y
L 7
2xs1 - x -3 d dx
32.
t2t + 2t
dt
t2
L
34.
L
s - 2 cos td dt
36.
L
s -5 sin td dt
L
7 sin
u
du
3
38.
L
3 cos 5u du
s - 3 csc2 xd dx
40.
csc u cot u
du
41.
2
L
42.
c. sin px - 3 sin 3x
33.
px
+ p cos x
2
3x
c. - sec2
2
35.
L
x -3sx + 1d dx
4 + 2t
dt
t3
L
c. cos
c. 1 - 8 csc 2x
15. a. csc x cot x
b. - csc 5x cot 5x
c. - p csc
b. 4 sec 3x tan 3x
18.
22.
25.
3
2
x
sx + 1d dx
s2x 3 - 5x + 7d dx
1
14. a. csc x
16. a. sec x tan x
21.
23.
3x
3
b. - csc2
2
2
2
L
c. -x -3 + x - 1
c. 2x +
L
19.
3
1 -2&gt;3
x
3
11. a. - p sin px
17.
2
c. sec
px
px
cot
2
2
px
px
tan
2
2
37.
39.
L
L
a-
sec2 x
b dx
3
2
sec u tan u du
L5
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4.8 Antiderivatives
43.
45.
47.
L
L
s4 sec x tan x - 2 sec2 xd dx 44.
ssin 2x - csc2 xd dx
46.
1 + cos 4t
dt
2
L
48.
1
scsc2 x - csc x cot xd dx
L2
L
1 - cos 6t
dt
2
L
49.
s1 + tan2 ud du
L
(Hint: 1 + tan2 u = sec2 u)
50.
L
51.
cot2 x dx
L
(Hint: 1 + cot2 x = csc2 x)
52.
L
cos u stan u + sec ud du
54.
53.
L
s2 cos 2x - 3 sin 3xd dx
s2 + tan2 ud du
63. Right, or wrong? Say which for each formula and give a brief reason for each answer.
a.
L
b.
L
s2x + 1d2 dx =
3s2x + 1d2 dx = s2x + 1d3 + C
6s2x + 1d2 dx = s2x + 1d3 + C
L
64. Right, or wrong? Say which for each formula and give a brief reason for each answer.
c.
s1 - cot2 xd dx
csc u
du
csc
u
- sin u
L
s2x + 1d3
+ C
3
a.
L
b.
L
c.
Checking Antiderivative Formulas
22x + 1 dx = 2x 2 + x + C
22x + 1 dx = 2x 2 + x + C
22x + 1 dx =
L
1
A 22x + 1 B 3 + C
3
Verify the formulas in Exercises 55–60 by differentiation.
Initial Value Problems
s7x - 2d4
s7x - 2d3 dx =
+ C
55.
28
L
s3x + 5d-1
s3x + 5d-2 dx = + C
56.
3
L
65. Which of the following graphs shows the solution of the initial
value problem
57.
L
58.
L
sec2 s5x - 1d dx =
csc2 a
dy
= 2x,
dx
1
tan s5x - 1d + C
5
y
y
4
1
1
dx = + C
2
x
+
1
L sx + 1d
x
1
dx =
+ C
60.
2
x + 1
L sx + 1d
61. Right, or wrong? Say which for each formula and give a brief reason for each answer.
x2
sin x + C
2
a.
L
x sin x dx =
b.
L
x sin x dx = - x cos x + C
3
b.
c.
L
3
2
1
1
1
–1 0
L
x
1
1 2
tan u + C
2
tan u sec2 u du =
1
sec2 u + C
2
–1 0
(a)
(1, 4)
2
1
x
–1 0
(b)
1
x
(c)
66. Which of the following graphs shows the solution of the initial
value problem
dy
= - x,
dx
y = 1 when x = - 1 ?
y
y
sec3 u
+ C
3
tan u sec2 u du =
4
(1, 4)
3
2
x sin x dx = - x cos x + sin x + C
L
62. Right, or wrong? Say which for each formula and give a brief reason for each answer.
tan u sec2 u du =
4
(1, 4)
c.
L
y
x - 1
x - 1
b dx = - 3 cot a
b + C
3
3
59.
a.
y = 4 when x = 1 ?
y
(–1, 1)
(–1, 1)
0
(a)
x
(–1, 1)
0
(b)
x
0
(c)
x
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Solve the initial value problems in Exercises 67–86.
dy
= 2x - 7, y s2d = 0
67.
dx
68.
dy
= 10 - x,
dx
y s0d = - 1
88. a. Find a curve y = ƒsxd with the following properties:
d 2y
= 6x
i)
dx 2
ii) Its graph passes through the point (0, 1), and has a
horizontal tangent there.
b. How many curves like this are there? How do you know?
dy
1
= 2 + x, x 7 0; y s2d = 1
dx
x
dy
= 9x 2 - 4x + 5, y s -1d = 0
70.
dx
69.
dy
= 3x -2&gt;3,
71.
dx
Solution (Integral) Curves
Exercises 89–92 show solution curves of differential equations. In
each exercise, find an equation for the curve through the labeled point.
y s -1d = - 5
89.
dy
1
, y s4d = 0
=
72.
dx
2 2x
ds
= 1 + cos t, s s0d = 4
73.
dt
74.
ds
= cos t + sin t,
dt
2
1
(1, 0.5)
s spd = 1
0
1
2
91.
p
y a b = -7
2
80.
81.
dx 2
y&iquest;s0d = 4,
d 2r
2
= 3;
dt 2
t
2
x
y&iquest;s0d = 2,
1
y s0d = 1
0
2
y s0d = 0
dr
= 1,
`
dt t = 1
r s1d = 1
3t
d 2s
ds
=
;
= 3, s s4d = 4
`
8
dt t = 4
dt 2
d 3y
= 6; y–s0d = - 8, y&iquest;s0d = 0,
83.
dx 3
x
4
2
0
(1, 2)
1
2
3
–2
82.
y s0d = 5
d3 u
1
= 0; u–s0d = - 2, u&iquest;s0d = - , us0d = 22
84.
2
dt 3
85. y s4d = - sin t + cos t ;
y‡s0d = 7, y–s0d = y&iquest;s0d = - 1, y s0d = 0
86. y s4d = - cos x + 8 sin 2x ;
y‡s0d = 0, y–s0d = y&iquest;s0d = 1,
dy
1
␲sin ␲x
dx
2兹x
6
(–␲, –1)
= 0;
92. y
dy
sin x cos x
dx
y
2
dx 2
d 2y
1
0
r s0d = 1
dy
= 8t + csc2 t,
78.
dt
= 2 - 6x;
1
–1
y s0d = 1
d y
x
(–1, 1)
–1
r s0d = 0
dy
1
= sec t tan t,
77.
2
dt
79.
y dy x 1
dx
–1
dr
= - p sin pu,
75.
du
dr
= cos pu,
76.
du
90.
dy
4
1 x1/3
3
dx
y
y s0d = 3
Applications
93. Finding displacement from an antiderivative of velocity
a. Suppose that the velocity of a body moving along the s-axis is
ds
= y = 9.8t - 3 .
dt
i) Find the body’s displacement over the time interval from
t = 1 to t = 3 given that s = 5 when t = 0 .
Finding Curves
ii) Find the body’s displacement from t = 1 to t = 3 given
that s = - 2 when t = 0 .
87. Find the curve y = ƒsxd in the xy-plane that passes through the
point (9, 4) and whose slope at each point is 3 2x .
iii) Now find the body’s displacement from t = 1 to t = 3
given that s = s0 when t = 0 .
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4.8 Antiderivatives
b. Suppose that the position s of a body moving along a
coordinate line is a differentiable function of time t. Is it true
that once you know an antiderivative of the velocity function
ds&gt;dt you can find the body’s displacement from t = a to
t = b even if you do not know the body’s exact position at
94. Liftoff from Earth A rocket lifts off the surface of Earth with a
constant acceleration of 20 m&gt;sec2 . How fast will the rocket be
going 1 min later?
99. Motion with constant acceleration The standard equation for
the position s of a body moving with a constant acceleration a
along a coordinate line is
s =
2
Differential equation:
Initial conditions:
d s
= -k
dt 2
sk constantd
2. Find the value of t that makes ds&gt;dt = 0 . (The answer will involve k.)
3. Find the value of k that makes s = 242 for the value of t you
found in Step 2.
96. Stopping a motorcycle The State of Illinois Cycle Rider Safety
Program requires riders to be able to brake from 30 mph
(44 ft&gt;sec) to 0 in 45 ft. What constant deceleration does it take to
do that?
97. Motion along a coordinate line A particle moves on a coordinate
line with acceleration a = d 2s&gt;dt 2 = 15 2t - A 3&gt; 2t B , subject
to the conditions that ds&gt;dt = 4 and s = 0 when t = 1 . Find
Initial conditions:
T 98. The hammer and the feather When Apollo 15 astronaut David
Scott dropped a hammer and a feather on the moon to demonstrate that in a vacuum all bodies fall with the same (constant) acceleration, he dropped them from about 4 ft above the ground.
The television footage of the event shows the hammer and the
feather falling more slowly than on Earth, where, in a vacuum,
they would have taken only half a second to fall the 4 ft. How
long did it take the hammer and feather to fall 4 ft on the moon?
To find out, solve the following initial value problem for s as a
function of t. Then find the value of t that makes s equal to 0.
Differential equation:
Initial conditions:
d 2s
= - 5.2 ft&gt;sec2
dt 2
ds
= 0 and s = 4 when t = 0
dt
ds
= y0 and s = s0 when t = 0 .
dt
100. Free fall near the surface of a planet For free fall near the
surface of a planet where the acceleration due to gravity has a
constant magnitude of g length-units&gt;sec2 , Equation (1) in Exercise 99 takes the form
s = -
1 2
gt + y0 t + s0 ,
2
(2)
where s is the body’s height above the surface. The equation has
a minus sign because the acceleration acts downward, in the direction of decreasing s. The velocity y0 is positive if the object is
rising at time t = 0 and negative if the object is falling.
Instead of using the result of Exercise 99, you can derive
Equation (2) directly by solving an appropriate initial value
problem. What initial value problem? Solve it to be sure you
have the right one, explaining the solution steps as you go along.
Theory and Examples
101. Suppose that
ƒsxd =
a. the velocity y = ds&gt;dt in terms of t
b. the position s in terms of t.
(1)
d 2s
= a
dt 2
Differential equation:
ds
= 88 and s = 0 when t = 0 .
dt
Measuring time and distance from
when the brakes are applied.
a 2
t + y0 t + s0 ,
2
where y0 and s0 are the body’s velocity and position at time
t = 0 . Derive this equation by solving the initial value problem
95. Stopping a car in time You are driving along a highway at a
steady 60 mph (88 ft&gt;sec) when you see an accident ahead and
slam on the brakes. What constant deceleration is required to stop
your car in 242 ft? To find out, carry out the following steps.
1. Solve the initial value problem
317
d
A 1 - 2x B
dx
and
g sxd =
d
sx + 2d .
dx
Find:
a.
L
ƒsxd dx
b.
L
g sxd dx
c.
L
[-ƒsxd] dx
d.
L
[- g sxd] dx
e.
L
[ƒsxd + g sxd] dx
f.
L
[ƒsxd - g sxd] dx
102. Uniqueness of solutions If differentiable functions y = Fsxd
and y = Gsxd both solve the initial value problem
dy
= ƒsxd,
dx
y sx0 d = y0 ,
on an interval I, must Fsxd = Gsxd for every x in I ? Give reasons for your answer.
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318
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
105. y&iquest; =
Use a CAS to solve the initial problems in Exercises 103–106. Plot the
solution curves.
2
103. y&iquest; = cos x + sin x,
1
104. y&iquest; = x + x,
y spd = 1
1
24 - x 2
2
106. y– = x + 2x,
,
y s0d = 2
y s1d = 0,
y&iquest;s1d = 0
y s1d = - 1
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318
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Chapter 4
1. What can be said about the extreme values of a function that is
continuous on a closed interval?
13. List the steps you would take to graph a polynomial function.
Illustrate with an example.
2. What does it mean for a function to have a local extreme value on
its domain? An absolute extreme value? How are local and absolute extreme values related, if at all? Give examples.
14. What is a cusp? Give examples.
3. How do you find the absolute extrema of a continuous function
on a closed interval? Give examples.
16. Outline a general strategy for solving max-min problems. Give
examples.
4. What are the hypotheses and conclusion of Rolle’s Theorem? Are
the hypotheses really necessary? Explain.
17. Describe l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule. How do you know when to use the rule
and when to stop? Give an example.
5. What are the hypotheses and conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem? What physical interpretations might the theorem have?
18. How can you sometimes handle limits that lead to indeterminate
forms q &gt; q , q # 0 , and q - q . Give examples.
6. State the Mean Value Theorem’s three corollaries.
19. Describe Newton’s method for solving equations. Give an example. What is the theory behind the method? What are some of the
things to watch out for when you use the method?
7. How can you sometimes identify a function ƒ(x) by knowing ƒ&iquest;
and knowing the value of ƒ at a point x = x0 ? Give an example.
8. What is the First Derivative Test for Local Extreme Values? Give
examples of how it is applied.
9. How do you test a twice-differentiable function to determine
where its graph is concave up or concave down? Give examples.
10. What is an inflection point? Give an example. What physical significance do inflection points sometimes have?
11. What is the Second Derivative Test for Local Extreme Values?
Give examples of how it is applied.
12. What do the derivatives of a function tell you about the shape of
its graph?
15. List the steps you would take to graph a rational function. Illustrate with an example.
20. Can a function have more than one antiderivative? If so, how are
the antiderivatives related? Explain.
21. What is an indefinite integral? How do you evaluate one? What
general formulas do you know for finding indefinite integrals?
22. How can you sometimes solve a differential equation of the form
dy&gt;dx = ƒsxd ?
23. What is an initial value problem? How do you solve one? Give an
example.
24. If you know the acceleration of a body moving along a coordinate
line as a function of time, what more do you need to know to find
the body’s position function? Give an example.
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Chapter 4
Practice Exercises
Existence of Extreme Values
1. Does ƒsxd = x 3 + 2x + tan x have any local maximum or minimum values? Give reasons for your answer.
3. Does ƒsxd = s7 + xds11 - 3xd1&gt;3 have an absolute minimum
value? An absolute maximum? If so, find them or give reasons
why they fail to exist. List all critical points of ƒ.
2. Does g sxd = csc x + 2 cot x have any local maximum values?
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:02 AM Page 319
Chapter 4 Practice Exercises
The Mean Value Theorem
4. Find values of a and b such that the function
ƒsxd =
ax + b
x2 - 1
has a local extreme value of 1 at x = 3 . Is this extreme value a local maximum, or a local minimum? Give reasons for your answer.
5. The greatest integer function ƒsxd = : x ; , defined for all values
of x, assumes a local maximum value of 0 at each point of [0, 1).
Could any of these local maximum values also be local minimum
6. a. Give an example of a differentiable function ƒ whose first derivative is zero at some point c even though ƒ has neither a local maximum nor a local minimum at c.
b. How is this consistent with Theorem 2 in Section 4.1? Give
7. The function y = 1&gt;x does not take on either a maximum or a
minimum on the interval 0 6 x 6 1 even though the function is
continuous on this interval. Does this contradict the Extreme
Value Theorem for continuous functions? Why?
8. What are the maximum and minimum values of the function
y = ƒ x ƒ on the interval -1 … x 6 1 ? Notice that the interval is
not closed. Is this consistent with the Extreme Value Theorem for
continuous functions? Why?
T
319
9. A graph that is large enough to show a function’s global behavior
may fail to reveal important local features. The graph of ƒsxd =
sx 8&gt;8d - sx 6&gt;2d - x 5 + 5x 3 is a case in point.
a. Graph ƒ over the interval - 2.5 … x … 2.5 . Where does the
graph appear to have local extreme values or points of inflection?
b. Now factor ƒ&iquest;sxd and show that ƒ has a local maximum at x =
3
2
5 L 1.70998 and local minima at x = ; 23 L ;1.73205 .
11. a. Show that g std = sin2 t - 3t decreases on every interval in its
domain.
b. How many solutions does the equation sin2 t - 3t = 5 have?
12. a. Show that y = tan u increases on every interval in its domain.
b. If the conclusion in part (a) is really correct, how do you explain the fact that tan p = 0 is less than tan sp&gt;4d = 1 ?
13. a. Show that the equation x 4 + 2x 2 - 2 = 0 has exactly one solution on [0, 1].
T b. Find the solution to as many decimal places as you can.
14. a. Show that ƒsxd = x&gt;sx + 1d increases on every interval in its
domain.
b. Show that ƒsxd = x 3 + 2x has no local maximum or minimum values.
15. Water in a reservoir As a result of a heavy rain, the volume of
water in a reservoir increased by 1400 acre-ft in 24 hours. Show
that at some instant during that period the reservoir’s volume was
increasing at a rate in excess of 225,000 gal&gt;min. (An acre-foot is
43,560 ft3 , the volume that would cover 1 acre to the depth of 1 ft.
A cubic foot holds 7.48 gal.)
16. The formula Fsxd = 3x + C gives a different function for each
value of C. All of these functions, however, have the same derivative with respect to x, namely F&iquest;sxd = 3 . Are these the only differentiable functions whose derivative is 3? Could there be any
17. Show that
x
d
d
1
a
ab =
b
x + 1
dx x + 1
dx
even though
c. Zoom in on the graph to find a viewing window that shows the
3
presence of the extreme values at x = 2
5 and x = 23 .
x
1
Z .
x + 1
x + 1
The moral here is that without calculus the existence of two
of the three extreme values would probably have gone unnoticed.
On any normal graph of the function, the values would lie close
enough together to fall within the dimensions of a single pixel on
the screen.
(Source: Uses of Technology in the Mathematics Curriculum,
by Benny Evans and Jerry Johnson, Oklahoma State University,
published in 1990 under National Science Foundation Grant
USE-8950044.)
Doesn’t this contradict Corollary 2 of the Mean Value Theorem?
18. Calculate the first derivatives of ƒsxd = x 2&gt;sx 2 + 1d and
g sxd = -1&gt;sx 2 + 1d . What can you conclude about the graphs
of these functions?
T 10. (Continuation of Exercise 9.)
a. Graph ƒsxd = sx 8&gt;8d - s2&gt;5dx 5 - 5x - s5&gt;x 2 d + 11 over
the interval -2 … x … 2 . Where does the graph appear to
have local extreme values or points of inflection?
Conclusions from Graphs
In Exercises 19 and 20, use the graph to answer the questions.
19. Identify any global extreme values of ƒ and the values of x at
which they occur.
y
y f (x)
7
b. Show that ƒ has a local maximum value at x = 25 L 1.2585
3
and a local minimum value at x = 2
2 L 1.2599 .
c. Zoom in to find a viewing window that shows the presence of
7
3
the extreme values at x = 25 and x = 2
2.
(1, 1)
0
2, 1
 2
x
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
20. Estimate the intervals on which the function y = ƒsxd is
35. y&iquest; = 6xsx + 1dsx - 2d
4
2
36. y&iquest; = x 2s6 - 4xd
38. y&iquest; = 4x 2 - x 4
a. increasing.
37. y&iquest; = x - 2x
b. decreasing.
In Exercises 39–42, graph each function. Then use the function’s first
derivative to explain what you see.
c. Use the given graph of ƒ&iquest; to indicate where any local extreme
values of the function occur, and whether each extreme is a
relative maximum or minimum.
y
39. y = x 2&gt;3 + sx - 1d1&gt;3
41. y = x
y f ' (x)
–1
44. y =
2x
x + 5
45. y =
x2 + 1
x
46. y =
x2 - x + 1
x
47. y =
x3 + 2
2x
48. y =
x4 - 1
x2
49. y =
x2 - 4
x2 - 3
50. y =
x2
x - 4
–2
Each of the graphs in Exercises 21 and 22 is the graph of the position
function s = ƒstd of a body moving on a coordinate line
(t represents time). At approximately what times (if any) is each
body’s (a) velocity equal to zero? (b) Acceleration equal to zero? During approximately what time intervals does the body move (c) forward? (d) Backward?
s
s f (t)
Use l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule to find the limits in Exercises 51–62.
51. lim
x 2 + 3x - 4
x - 1
52. lim
xa - 1
xb - 1
53. lim
tan x
x
54. lim
tan x
x + sin x
56. lim
sin mx
sin nx
x :1
sin2 x
x :0 tan sx 2 d
57. lim - sec 7x cos 3x
55. lim
9
12 14
t
x :p&gt;2
22.
59. lim scsc x - cot xd
s f (t)
s
2
Applying l’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule
x :p
6
42. y = x 2&gt;3 - sx - 1d1&gt;3
x + 1
x - 3
x
3
+ sx - 1d
40. y = x 2&gt;3 + sx - 1d2&gt;3
43. y =
(–3, 1)
0
1&gt;3
Sketch the graphs of the functions in Exercises 43–50.
(2, 3)
21.
1&gt;3
x :0
x :1
x :0
x :0
58. lim+ 2x sec x
x :0
60. lim a
x :0
61. lim A 2x 2 + x + 1 - 2x 2 - x B
1
1
- 2b
x4
x
x: q
0
2
4
6
8
t
x: q
Graphs and Graphing
Graph the curves in Exercises 23–32.
23. y = x 2 - sx 3&gt;6d
24. y = x 3 - 3x 2 + 3
25. y = - x 3 + 6x 2 - 9x + 3
26. y = s1&gt;8dsx 3 + 3x 2 - 9x - 27d
27. y = x 3s8 - xd
28. y = x 2s2x 2 - 9d
29. y = x - 3x 2&gt;3
30. y = x 1&gt;3sx - 4d
31. y = x 23 - x
32. y = x 24 - x 2
Each of Exercises 33–38 gives the first derivative of a function
y = ƒsxd . (a) At what points, if any, does the graph of ƒ have a local
maximum, local minimum, or inflection point? (b) Sketch the general
shape of the graph.
33. y&iquest; = 16 - x 2
62. lim a
34. y&iquest; = x 2 - x - 6
x3
x3
- 2
b
x - 1
x + 1
2
Optimization
63. The sum of two nonnegative numbers is 36. Find the numbers if
a. the difference of their square roots is to be as large as
possible.
b. the sum of their square roots is to be as large as possible.
64. The sum of two nonnegative numbers is 20. Find the numbers
a. if the product of one number and the square root of the other
is to be as large as possible.
b. if one number plus the square root of the other is to be as
large as possible.
65. An isosceles triangle has its vertex at the origin and its base parallel to the x-axis with the vertices above the axis on the curve
y = 27 - x 2 . Find the largest area the triangle can have.
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Chapter 4 Practice Exercises
66. A customer has asked you to design an open-top rectangular
stainless steel vat. It is to have a square base and a volume of
32 ft3 , to be welded from quarter-inch plate, and to weigh no
more than necessary. What dimensions do you recommend?
67. Find the height and radius of the largest right circular cylinder
that can be put in a sphere of radius 23 .
68. The figure here shows two right circular cones, one upside down
inside the other. The two bases are parallel, and the vertex of the
smaller cone lies at the center of the larger cone’s base. What values
of r and h will give the smaller cone the largest possible volume?
Newton’s Method
73. Let ƒsxd = 3x - x 3 . Show that the equation ƒsxd = - 4 has a solution in the interval [2, 3] and use Newton’s method to find it.
74. Let ƒsxd = x 4 - x 3 . Show that the equation ƒsxd = 75 has a solution in the interval [3, 4] and use Newton’s method to find it.
Finding Indefinite Integrals
Find the indefinite integrals (most general antiderivatives) in Exercises 75–90. Check your answers by differentiation.
75.
76.
L
77.
h
6'
69. Manufacturing tires Your company can manufacture x hundred grade A tires and y hundred grade B tires a day, where
0 … x … 4 and
40 - 10x
y =
.
5 - x
L
L
a32t +
70. Particle motion The positions of two particles on the s-axis are
s1 = cos t and s2 = cos st + p&gt;4d .
a. What is the farthest apart the particles ever get?
b. When do the particles collide?
T 71. Open-top box An open-top rectangular box is constructed from
a 10-in.-by-16-in. piece of cardboard by cutting squares of equal
side length from the corners and folding up the sides. Find analytically the dimensions of the box of largest volume and the maximum volume. Support your answers graphically.
72. The ladder problem What is the approximate length (in feet)
of the longest ladder you can carry horizontally around the corner
of the corridor shown here? Round your answer down to the nearest foot.
y
(8, 6)
0
8
4
b dt
t2
3
1
a
- 4 b dt
t
L 22t
dr
79.
2
L sr + 5d
6 dr
80.
L A r - 22 B 3
81.
L
3u2u2 + 1 du
u
du
L 27 + u2
83.
L
85.
L
87.
L
89.
L
90.
L
x 3s1 + x 4 d-1&gt;4 dx
sec2
s
ds
10
csc 22u cot 22u du
84.
L
86.
L
88.
L
csc2 ps ds
sec
u
u
tan du
3
3
sin2
x
dx
4
cos2
1 + cos 2u
x
dx QHint: cos2 u =
R
2
2
Solve the initial value problems in Exercises 91–94.
dy
x2 + 1
, y s1d = - 1
=
91.
dx
x2
2
dy
1
= ax + x b ,
dx
y s1d = 1
3
d 2r
= 152t +
; r&iquest;s1d = 8, r s1d = 0
dt 2
2t
d 3r
94.
= - cos t; r–s0d = r&iquest;s0d = 0, r s0d = - 1
dt 3
93.
x
s2 - xd3&gt;5 dx
Initial Value Problems
92.
6
t2
+ tb dt
2
78.
82.
What is the most profitable number of each kind to make?
sx 3 + 5x - 7d dx
a8t 3 -
12'
r
321
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Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Chapter 4
1. What can you say about a function whose maximum and minimum
a. If ƒ and g are positive, with local maxima at x = a , and if ƒ&iquest;
and g&iquest; change sign at a, does h have a local maximum at a?
2. Is it true that a discontinuous function cannot have both an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum value on a closed interval? Give reasons for your answer.
b. If the graphs of ƒ and g have inflection points at x = a , does
the graph of h have an inflection point at a?
3. Can you conclude anything about the extreme values of a continuous function on an open interval? On a half-open interval? Give
4. Local extrema
Use the sign pattern for the derivative
df
= 6sx - 1dsx - 2d2sx - 3d3sx - 4d4
dx
In either case, if the answer is yes, give a proof. If the answer is
no, give a counterexample.
11. Finding a function Use the following information to find the
values of a, b, and c in the formula ƒsxd = sx + ad&gt;
sbx 2 + cx + 2d .
i) The values of a, b, and c are either 0 or 1.
ii) The graph of ƒ passes through the point s - 1, 0d .
iii) The line y = 1 is an asymptote of the graph of ƒ.
to identify the points where ƒ has local maximum and minimum
values.
5. Local extrema
a. Suppose that the first derivative of y = ƒsxd is
y&iquest; = 6sx + 1dsx - 2d2 .
At what points, if any, does the graph of ƒ have a local
maximum, local minimum, or point of inflection?
b. Suppose that the first derivative of y = ƒsxd is
12. Horizontal tangent For what value or values of the constant k
will the curve y = x 3 + kx 2 + 3x - 4 have exactly one horizontal tangent?
13. Largest inscribed triangle Points A and B lie at the ends of a
diameter of a unit circle and point C lies on the circumference. Is
it true that the area of triangle ABC is largest when the triangle is
isosceles? How do you know?
14. Proving the second derivative test The Second Derivative Test
for Local Maxima and Minima (Section 4.4) says:
y&iquest; = 6x sx + 1dsx - 2d .
a. ƒ has a local maximum value at x = c if ƒ&iquest;scd = 0 and
ƒ–scd 6 0
At what points, if any, does the graph of ƒ have a local
maximum, local minimum, or point of inflection?
b. ƒ has a local minimum value at x = c if ƒ&iquest;scd = 0 and
ƒ–scd 7 0 .
6. If ƒ&iquest;sxd … 2 for all x, what is the most the values of ƒ can increase on [0, 6]? Give reasons for your answer.
7. Bounding a function Suppose that ƒ is continuous on [a, b]
and that c is an interior point of the interval. Show that if
ƒ&iquest;sxd … 0 on [a, c) and ƒ&iquest;sxd &Uacute; 0 on (c, b], then ƒ(x) is never
less than ƒ(c) on [a, b].
To prove statement (a), let P = s1&gt;2d ƒ ƒ–scd ƒ . Then use the fact
that
ƒ–scd = lim
h:0
ƒ&iquest;sc + hd - ƒ&iquest;scd
ƒ&iquest;sc + hd
= lim
h
h
h:0
to conclude that for some d 7 0 ,
8. An inequality
a. Show that - 1&gt;2 … x&gt;s1 + x 2 d … 1&gt;2 for every value of x.
b. Suppose that ƒ is a function whose derivative is ƒ&iquest;sxd =
x&gt;s1 + x 2 d . Use the result in part (a) to show that
1
ƒ ƒsbd - ƒsad ƒ … 2 ƒ b - a ƒ
for any a and b.
9. The derivative of ƒsxd = x 2 is zero at x = 0 , but ƒ is not a constant function. Doesn’t this contradict the corollary of the Mean
Value Theorem that says that functions with zero derivatives are
10. Extrema and inflection points Let h = ƒg be the product of
two differentiable functions of x.
0 6 ƒhƒ 6 d
Q
ƒ&iquest;sc + hd
6 ƒ–scd + P 6 0 .
h
Thus, ƒ&iquest;sc + hd is positive for -d 6 h 6 0 and negative for
0 6 h 6 d . Prove statement (b) in a similar way.
15. Hole in a water tank You want to bore a hole in the side of the
tank shown here at a height that will make the stream of water
coming out hit the ground as far from the tank as possible. If you
drill the hole near the top, where the pressure is low, the water
will exit slowly but spend a relatively long time in the air. If you
drill the hole near the bottom, the water will exit at a higher velocity but have only a short time to fall. Where is the best place, if
any, for the hole? (Hint: How long will it take an exiting particle
of water to fall from height y to the ground?)
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 9/2/04 10:28 AM Page 323
Tank kept full,
top open
323
18. Minimizing a parameter Find the smallest value of the positive constant m that will make mx - 1 + s1&gt;xd greater than or
equal to zero for all positive values of x.
y
19. Evaluate the following limits.
h
Exit velocity ⫽ 兹64(h ⫺ y)
y
a. lim
x :0
2 sin 5x
3x
b. lim sin 5x cot 3x
x :0
c. lim x csc 22x
2
d.
x :0
e. lim
x :0
Ground
0
x
Range
16. Kicking a field goal An American football player wants to kick
a field goal with the ball being on a right hash mark. Assume that
the goal posts are b feet apart and that the hash mark line is a distance a 7 0 feet from the right goal post. (See the accompanying
figure.) Find the distance h from the goal post line that gives the
kicker his largest angle b . Assume that the football field is flat.
Goal posts
b
Goal post line
a
Right hash mark line
h
␤ ␪
x - sin x
x - tan x
lim ssec x - tan xd
x :p&gt;2
f. lim
x :0
sin x 2
x sin x
sec x - 1
x3 - 8
g. lim
h. lim 2
2
x :0
x
:2
x
x - 4
20. L’H&ocirc;pital’s Rule does not help with the following limits. Find
them some other way.
a. lim
x: q
2x + 5
b. lim
2x + 5
x: q
2x
x + 7 2x
21. Suppose that it costs a company y = a + bx dollars to produce x
units per week. It can sell x units per week at a price of
P = c - ex dollars per unit. Each of a, b, c, and e represents a
positive constant. (a) What production level maximizes the
profit? (b) What is the corresponding price? (c) What is the
weekly profit at this level of production? (d) At what price should
each item be sold to maximize profits if the government imposes
a tax of t dollars per item sold? Comment on the difference between this price and the price before the tax.
22. Estimating reciprocals without division You can estimate the
value of the reciprocal of a number a without ever dividing by a if
you apply Newton’s method to the function ƒsxd = s1&gt;xd - a . For
example, if a = 3 , the function involved is ƒsxd = s1&gt;xd - 3 .
a. Graph y = s1&gt;xd - 3 . Where does the graph cross the x-axis?
Football
17. A max-min problem with a variable answer Sometimes the
solution of a max-min problem depends on the proportions of the
shapes involved. As a case in point, suppose that a right circular
cylinder of radius r and height h is inscribed in a right circular
cone of radius R and height H, as shown here. Find the value of r
(in terms of R and H) that maximizes the total surface area of the
cylinder (including top and bottom). As you will see, the solution
depends on whether H … 2R or H 7 2R .
b. Show that the recursion formula in this case is
xn + 1 = xns2 - 3xn d ,
so there is no need for division.
q
23. To find x = 2a , we apply Newton’s method to ƒsxd = x q - a .
Here we assume that a is a positive real number and q is a positive
integer. Show that x1 is a “weighted average” of x0 and a&gt;x 0q - 1 ,
and find the coefficients m0, m1 such that
x1 = m0 x0 + m1 a
q - 1 b,
x0
a
m0 7 0, m1 7 0,
m0 + m1 = 1.
q-1
What conclusion would you reach if x0 and a&gt;x 0
What would be the value of x1 in that case?
r
H
h
were equal?
24. The family of straight lines y = ax + b (a, b arbitrary constants)
can be characterized by the relation y– = 0 . Find a similar relation satisfied by the family of all circles
sx - hd2 + sy - hd2 = r 2 ,
R
where h and r are arbitrary constants. (Hint: Eliminate h and r
from the set of three equations including the given one and two
obtained by successive differentiation.)
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324
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
25. Assume that the brakes of an automobile produce a constant deceleration of k ft&gt;sec2 . (a) Determine what k must be to bring an
automobile traveling 60 mi&gt;hr (88 ft&gt;sec) to rest in a distance of
100 ft from the point where the brakes are applied. (b) With the
same k, how far would a car traveling 30 mi&gt;hr travel before being
brought to a stop?
26. Let ƒ(x), g(x) be two continuously differentiable functions satisfying the relationships ƒ&iquest;sxd = g sxd and ƒ–sxd = - ƒsxd . Let
hsxd = f 2sxd + g 2sxd . If hs0d = 5 , find h(10).
27. Can there be a curve satisfying the following conditions? d 2y&gt;dx 2
is everywhere equal to zero and, when x = 0, y = 0 and
28. Find the equation for the curve in the xy-plane that passes through
the point s1, - 1d if its slope at x is always 3x 2 + 2 .
29. A particle moves along the x-axis. Its acceleration is a = - t 2 . At
t = 0 , the particle is at the origin. In the course of its motion, it
reaches the point x = b , where b 7 0 , but no point beyond b.
Determine its velocity at t = 0 .
a. the velocity y in terms of t.
b. the position s in terms of t.
31. Given ƒsxd = ax 2 + 2bx + c with a 7 0 . By considering the
minimum, prove that ƒsxd &Uacute; 0 for all real x if, and only if,
b 2 - ac … 0 .
32. Schwarz’s inequality
a. In Exercise 31, let
ƒsxd = sa1 x + b1 d2 + sa2 x + b2 d2 + &Aacute; + san x + bn d2 ,
and deduce Schwarz’s inequality:
sa1 b1 + a2 b2 + &Aacute; + an bn d2
… sa12 + a22 + &Aacute; + an2 dsb12 + b 22 + &Aacute; + bn2 d .
b. Show that equality holds in Schwarz’s inequality only if there
exists a real number x that makes ai x equal - bi for every
value of i from 1 to n.
30. A particle moves with acceleration a = 2t - A 1&gt; 2t B . Assuming that the velocity y = 4&gt;3 and the position s = - 4&gt;15 when
t = 0 , find
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch04p244-324 8/20/04 9:03 AM Page 324
324
Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
Chapter 4
Technology Application Projects
Mathematica/Maple Module
Motion Along a Straight Line: Position : Velocity : Acceleration
You will observe the shape of a graph through dramatic animated visualizations of the derivative relations among the position, velocity, and
acceleration. Figures in the text can be animated.
Mathematica/Maple Module
Newton’s Method: Estimate p to How Many Places?
Plot a function, observe a root, pick a starting point near the root, and use Newton’s Iteration Procedure to approximate the root to a desired
accuracy. The numbers p, e , and 22 are approximated.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 325
Chapter
5
INTEGRATION
OVERVIEW One of the great achievements of classical geometry was to obtain formulas
for the areas and volumes of triangles, spheres, and cones. In this chapter we study a
method to calculate the areas and volumes of these and other more general shapes. The
method we develop, called integration, is a tool for calculating much more than areas and
volumes. The integral has many applications in statistics, economics, the sciences, and
engineering. It allows us to calculate quantities ranging from probabilities and averages to
energy consumption and the forces against a dam’s floodgates.
The idea behind integration is that we can effectively compute many quantities by
breaking them into small pieces, and then summing the contributions from each small
part. We develop the theory of the integral in the setting of area, where it most clearly
reveals its nature. We begin with examples involving finite sums. These lead naturally to
the question of what happens when more and more terms are summed. Passing to the limit,
as the number of terms goes to infinity, then gives an integral. While integration and differentiation are closely connected, we will not see the roles of the derivative and antiderivative emerge until Section 5.4. The nature of their connection, contained in the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, is one of the most important ideas in calculus.
Estimating with Finite Sums
5.1
This section shows how area, average values, and the distance traveled by an object over
time can all be approximated by finite sums. Finite sums are the basis for defining the
integral in Section 5.3.
y
1
Area
y 1 x2
The area of a region with a curved boundary can be approximated by summing the areas of
a collection of rectangles. Using more rectangles can increase the accuracy of the approximation.
0.5
R
EXAMPLE 1
0
0.5
1
FIGURE 5.1 The area of the region
R cannot be found by a simple
geometry formula (Example 1).
x
Approximating Area
What is the area of the shaded region R that lies above the x-axis, below the graph of
y = 1 - x 2 , and between the vertical lines x = 0 and x = 1? (See Figure 5.1.) An architect might want to know this area to calculate the weight of a custom window with a shape
described by R. Unfortunately, there is no simple geometric formula for calculating the
areas of shapes having curved boundaries like the region R.
325
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 326
326
Chapter 5: Integration
y
1
y
y 1 x2
(0, 1)
1
(0, 1)
y 1 x2
 1 , 15 
 4 16 
1 , 3
2 4
1 , 3
2 4
0.5
3 , 7 
 4 16 
0.5
R
0
R
0.5
x
1
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
x
(b)
(a)
FIGURE 5.2 (a) We get an upper estimate of the area of R by using two
rectangles containing R. (b) Four rectangles give a better upper estimate. Both
estimates overshoot the true value for the area.
While we do not yet have a method for determining the exact area of R, we can approximate it in a simple way. Figure 5.2a shows two rectangles that together contain the region R. Each rectangle has width 1&gt;2 and they have heights 1 and 3&gt;4, moving from left to
right. The height of each rectangle is the maximum value of the function ƒ, obtained by
evaluating ƒ at the left endpoint of the subinterval of [0, 1] forming the base of the rectangle. The total area of the two rectangles approximates the area A of the region R,
A L 1#
3
1
+
2
4
#
7
1
= = 0.875.
2
8
This estimate is larger than the true area A, since the two rectangles contain R. We say that
0.875 is an upper sum because it is obtained by taking the height of each rectangle as the
maximum (uppermost) value of ƒ(x) for x a point in the base interval of the rectangle. In
Figure 5.2b, we improve our estimate by using four thinner rectangles, each of width 1&gt;4,
which taken together contain the region R. These four rectangles give the approximation
A L 1#
15
1
+
4
16
3
1
+
4
4
#
#
7
1
+
4
16
#
25
1
=
= 0.78125,
4
32
which is still greater than A since the four rectangles contain R.
Suppose instead we use four rectangles contained inside the region R to estimate the
area, as in Figure 5.3a. Each rectangle has width 1&gt;4 as before, but the rectangles are
shorter and lie entirely beneath the graph of ƒ. The function ƒsxd = 1 - x 2 is decreasing
on [0, 1], so the height of each of these rectangles is given by the value of ƒ at the right
endpoint of the subinterval forming its base. The fourth rectangle has zero height and
therefore contributes no area. Summing these rectangles with heights equal to the minimum value of ƒ(x) for x a point in each base subinterval, gives a lower sum approximation
to the area,
A L
15
16
#
3
1
+
4
4
#
7
1
+
4
16
#
17
1
1
+ 0#
=
= 0.53125.
4
4
32
This estimate is smaller than the area A since the rectangles all lie inside of the region R.
The true value of A lies somewhere between these lower and upper sums:
0.53125 6 A 6 0.78125.
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327
5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums
y
y
 1 , 15 
 4 16 
1
y 1 x2
 1 , 63 
 8 64 
1
 3 , 55 
 8 64 
y 1 x2
1 , 3
2 4 
 5 , 39 
 8 64 
3 , 7 
 4 16 
0.5
0.5
 7 , 15 
 8 64 
0
0.25
0.5
(a)
0.75
x
1
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0.125
0.375
0.625
0.875
0
x
(b)
FIGURE 5.3 (a) Rectangles contained in R give an estimate for the area that undershoots
the true value. (b) The midpoint rule uses rectangles whose height is the value of y = ƒsxd
at the midpoints of their bases.
y
1
y 1 x2
1
0
x
(a)
By considering both lower and upper sum approximations we get not only estimates
for the area, but also a bound on the size of the possible error in these estimates since the
true value of the area lies somewhere between them. Here the error cannot be greater than
the difference 0.78125 - 0.53125 = 0.25.
Yet another estimate can be obtained by using rectangles whose heights are the values
of ƒ at the midpoints of their bases (Figure 5.3b). This method of estimation is called the
midpoint rule for approximating the area. The midpoint rule gives an estimate that is between a lower sum and an upper sum, but it is not clear whether it overestimates or underestimates the true area. With four rectangles of width 1&gt;4 as before, the midpoint rule estimates the area of R to be
A L
y
#
55
1
+
4
64
#
39
1
+
4
64
#
15
1
+
4
64
#
172
1
=
4
64
#
1
= 0.671875.
4
In each of our computed sums, the interval [a, b] over which the function ƒ is defined
was subdivided into n subintervals of equal width (also called length) &cent;x = sb - ad&gt;n,
and ƒ was evaluated at a point in each subinterval: c1 in the first subinterval, c2 in the second subinterval, and so on. The finite sums then all take the form
1
y1x
63
64
2
ƒsc1 d &cent;x + ƒsc2 d &cent;x + ƒsc3 d &cent;x + &Aacute; + ƒscn d &cent;x.
1
0
x
(b)
FIGURE 5.4 (a) A lower sum using 16
rectangles of equal width &cent;x = 1&gt;16.
(b) An upper sum using 16 rectangles.
By taking more and more rectangles, with each rectangle thinner than before, it appears
that these finite sums give better and better approximations to the true area of the region R.
Figure 5.4a shows a lower sum approximation for the area of R using 16 rectangles of
equal width. The sum of their areas is 0.634765625, which appears close to the true area,
but is still smaller since the rectangles lie inside R.
Figure 5.4b shows an upper sum approximation using 16 rectangles of equal width.
The sum of their areas is 0.697265625, which is somewhat larger than the true area because the rectangles taken together contain R. The midpoint rule for 16 rectangles gives a
total area approximation of 0.6669921875, but it is not immediately clear whether this estimate is larger or smaller than the true area.
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328
Chapter 5: Integration
TABLE 5.1 Finite approximations for the area of R
Number of
subintervals
Lower sum
Midpoint rule
Upper sum
2
4
16
50
100
1000
.375
.53125
.634765625
.6566
.66165
.6661665
.6875
.671875
.6669921875
.6667
.666675
.66666675
.875
.78125
.697265625
.6766
.67165
.6671665
Table 5.1 shows the values of upper and lower sum approximations to the area of R using up to 1000 rectangles. In Section 5.2 we will see how to get an exact value of the areas
of regions such as R by taking a limit as the base width of each rectangle goes to zero and
the number of rectangles goes to infinity. With the techniques developed there, we will be
able to show that the area of R is exactly 2&gt;3 .
Distance Traveled
Suppose we know the velocity function y(t) of a car moving down a highway, without changing direction, and want to know how far it traveled between times t = a and t = b. If we already know an antiderivative F(t) of y(t) we can find the car’s position function s(t) by setting
sstd = Fstd + C. The distance traveled can then be found by calculating the change in position, ssbd - ssad (see Exercise 93, Section 4.8). If the velocity function is determined by
recording a speedometer reading at various times on the car, then we have no formula from
which to obtain an antiderivative function for velocity. So what do we do in this situation?
When we don’t know an antiderivative for the velocity function y(t), we can approximate the distance traveled in the following way. Subdivide the interval [a, b] into short
time intervals on each of which the velocity is considered to be fairly constant. Then approximate the distance traveled on each time subinterval with the usual distance formula
distance = velocity * time
and add the results across [a, b].
Suppose the subdivided interval looks like
t
a
t1
t
t
t2
t3
b
t (sec)
with the subintervals all of equal length &cent;t. Pick a number t1 in the first interval. If &cent;t is
so small that the velocity barely changes over a short time interval of duration &cent;t, then the
distance traveled in the first time interval is about yst1 d &cent;t. If t2 is a number in the second
interval, the distance traveled in the second time interval is about yst2 d &cent;t. The sum of the
distances traveled over all the time intervals is
D L yst1 d &cent;t + yst2 d &cent;t + &Aacute; + ystn d &cent;t,
where n is the total number of subintervals.
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5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums
EXAMPLE 2
329
Estimating the Height of a Projectile
The velocity function of a projectile fired straight into the air is ƒstd = 160 - 9.8t m&gt;sec.
Use the summation technique just described to estimate how far the projectile rises during
the first 3 sec. How close do the sums come to the exact figure of 435.9 m?
We explore the results for different numbers of intervals and different choices
of evaluation points. Notice that ƒ(t) is decreasing, so choosing left endpoints gives an upper sum estimate; choosing right endpoints gives a lower sum estimate.
Solution
(a) Three subintervals of length 1, with ƒ evaluated at left endpoints giving an upper sum:
t1
t2
t3
0
1
2
t
3
t
With ƒ evaluated at t = 0, 1, and 2, we have
D L ƒst1 d &cent;t + ƒst2 d &cent;t + ƒst3 d &cent;t
= [160 - 9.8s0d]s1d + [160 - 9.8s1d]s1d + [160 - 9.8s2d]s1d
= 450.6.
(b) Three subintervals of length 1, with ƒ evaluated at right endpoints giving a lower sum:
0
t1
t2
t3
1
2
3
t
t
With ƒ evaluated at t = 1, 2, and 3, we have
D L ƒst1 d &cent;t + ƒst2 d &cent;t + ƒst3 d &cent;t
= [160 - 9.8s1d]s1d + [160 - 9.8s2d]s1d + [160 - 9.8s3d]s1d
= 421.2.
(c) With six subintervals of length 1&gt;2, we get
t1 t 2 t 3 t 4 t 5 t 6
0
t
1
2
t1 t 2 t 3 t 4 t 5 t 6
3
t
0
1
2
3
t
t
An upper sum using left endpoints: D L 443.25; a lower sum using right endpoints:
D L 428.55.
These six-interval estimates are somewhat closer than the three-interval estimates.
The results improve as the subintervals get shorter.
As we can see in Table 5.2, the left-endpoint upper sums approach the true value
435.9 from above, whereas the right-endpoint lower sums approach it from below. The true
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330
Chapter 5: Integration
TABLE 5.2 Travel-distance estimates
Number of
subintervals
Length of each
subinterval
Upper
sum
Lower
sum
3
6
12
24
48
96
192
1
1&gt;2
1&gt;4
1&gt;8
1&gt;16
1&gt;32
1&gt;64
450.6
443.25
439.57
437.74
436.82
436.36
436.13
421.2
428.55
432.22
434.06
434.98
435.44
435.67
value lies between these upper and lower sums. The magnitude of the error in the closest
entries is 0.23, a small percentage of the true value.
Error magnitude = ƒ true value - calculated value ƒ
= ƒ 435.9 - 435.67 ƒ = 0.23.
Error percentage =
0.23
L 0.05%.
435.9
It would be reasonable to conclude from the table’s last entries that the projectile rose
about 436 m during its first 3 sec of flight.
Displacement Versus Distance Traveled
If a body with position function s(t) moves along a coordinate line without changing direction, we can calculate the total distance it travels from t = a to t = b by summing the distance traveled over small intervals, as in Example 2. If the body changes direction one or
more times during the trip, then we need to use the body’s speed ƒ ystd ƒ , which is the absolute value of its velocity function, y(t), to find the total distance traveled. Using the velocity itself, as in Example 2, only gives an estimate to the body’s displacement,
ssbd - ssad, the difference between its initial and final positions.
To see why, partition the time interval [a, b] into small enough equal subintervals &cent;t
so that the body’s velocity does not change very much from time tk - 1 to tk . Then ystk d
gives a good approximation of the velocity throughout the interval. Accordingly, the
change in the body’s position coordinate during the time interval is about
ystk d &cent;t .
The change is positive if ystk d is positive and negative if ystk d is negative.
In either case, the distance traveled during the subinterval is about
ƒ ystk d ƒ &cent;t .
The total distance traveled is approximately the sum
ƒ yst1 d ƒ &cent;t + ƒ yst2 d ƒ &cent;t + &Aacute; + ƒ ystn d ƒ &cent;t .
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5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums
y
y
y g(x)
yc
c
0
331
a
(a)
b
c
x
0
a
(b)
b
x
FIGURE 5.5 (a) The average value of ƒsxd = c on [a, b] is the area of
the rectangle divided by b - a . (b) The average value of g (x) on [a, b]
is the area beneath its graph divided by b - a .
Average Value of a Nonnegative Function
The average value of a collection of n numbers x1, x2 , &Aacute; , xn is obtained by adding them
together and dividing by n. But what is the average value of a continuous function ƒ on an
interval [a, b]? Such a function can assume infinitely many values. For example, the temperature at a certain location in a town is a continuous function that goes up and down
each day. What does it mean to say that the average temperature in the town over the
course of a day is 73 degrees?
When a function is constant, this question is easy to answer. A function with constant
value c on an interval [a, b] has average value c. When c is positive, its graph over [a, b]
gives a rectangle of height c. The average value of the function can then be interpreted
geometrically as the area of this rectangle divided by its width b - a (Figure 5.5a).
What if we want to find the average value of a nonconstant function, such as the function g in Figure 5.5b? We can think of this graph as a snapshot of the height of some water
that is sloshing around in a tank, between enclosing walls at x = a and x = b. As the water moves, its height over each point changes, but its average height remains the same. To
get the average height of the water, we let it settle down until it is level and its height is
constant. The resulting height c equals the area under the graph of g divided by b - a. We
are led to define the average value of a nonnegative function on an interval [a, b] to be the
area under its graph divided by b - a. For this definition to be valid, we need a precise
understanding of what is meant by the area under a graph. This will be obtained in Section
5.3, but for now we look at two simple examples.
y
6
f(x) 3x
EXAMPLE 3
4
What is the average value of the function ƒsxd = 3x on the interval [0, 2]?
Solution The average equals the area under the graph divided by the width of the interval. In this case we do not need finite approximation to estimate the area of the region under the graph: a triangle of height 6 and base 2 has area 6 (Figure 5.6). The width of the
interval is b - a = 2 - 0 = 2. The average value of the function is 6&gt;2 = 3.
2
0
The Average Value of a Linear Function
1
2
3
x
EXAMPLE 4
The Average Value of sin x
Estimate the average value of the function ƒsxd = sin x on the interval [0, p].
FIGURE 5.6 The average
value of ƒsxd = 3x over
[0, 2] is 3 (Example 3).
Looking at the graph of sin x between 0 and p in Figure 5.7, we can see
that its average height is somewhere between 0 and 1. To find the average we need to
Solution
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Chapter 5: Integration
y
y
f (x) sin x
f (x) sin x
1
1
␲
2
(a)
0
␲
x
␲
2
(b)
0
x
␲
FIGURE 5.7 Approximating the area under ƒsxd = sin x between 0 and p
to compute the average value of sin x over [0, p] , using (a) four rectangles;
(b) eight rectangles (Example 4).
calculate the area A under the graph and then divide this area by the length of the interval,
p - 0 = p.
We do not have a simple way to determine the area, so we approximate it with finite
sums. To get an upper sum estimate, we add the areas of four rectangles of equal width
p&gt;4 that together contain the region beneath the graph of y = sin x and above the x-axis
on [0, p]. We choose the heights of the rectangles to be the largest value of sin x on each
subinterval. Over a particular subinterval, this largest value may occur at the left endpoint,
the right endpoint, or somewhere between them. We evaluate sin x at this point to get the
height of the rectangle for an upper sum. The sum of the rectangle areas then estimates the
total area (Figure 5.7a):
A L asin
= a
p
b
4
p
p
+ asin b
4
2
#
p
p
+ asin b
4
2
1
1
+ 1 + 1 +
b
22
22
#
p
p
L s3.42d #
L 2.69.
4
4
#
#
3p
p
+ asin
b
4
4
#
p
4
To estimate the average value of sin x we divide the estimated area by p and obtain the approximation 2.69&gt;p L 0.86.
If we use eight rectangles of equal width p&gt;8 all lying above the graph of y = sin x
(Figure 5.7b), we get the area estimate
A L asin
3p
5p
3p
7p # p
p
p
p
p
+ sin + sin
+ sin + sin + sin
+ sin
+ sin
b
8
4
8
2
2
8
4
8
8
p
p
= s6.02d #
L 2.365.
L s.38 + .71 + .92 + 1 + 1 + .92 + .71 + .38d #
8
8
Dividing this result by the length p of the interval gives a more accurate estimate of 0.753
for the average. Since we used an upper sum to approximate the area, this estimate is still
greater than the actual average value of sin x over [0, p]. If we use more and more rectangles, with each rectangle getting thinner and thinner, we get closer and closer to the true
average value. Using the techniques of Section 5.3, we will show that the true average
value is 2&gt;p L 0.64.
As before, we could just as well have used rectangles lying under the graph of
y = sin x and calculated a lower sum approximation, or we could have used the midpoint
rule. In Section 5.3, we will see that it doesn’t matter whether our approximating rectangles are chosen to give upper sums, lower sums, or a sum in between. In each case, the approximations are close to the true area if all the rectangles are sufficiently thin.
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5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums
333
Summary
The area under the graph of a positive function, the distance traveled by a moving object
that doesn’t change direction, and the average value of a nonnegative function over an interval can all be approximated by finite sums. First we subdivide the interval into subintervals, treating the appropriate function ƒ as if it were constant over each particular subinterval. Then we multiply the width of each subinterval by the value of ƒ at some point within
it, and add these products together. If the interval [a, b] is subdivided into n subintervals of
equal widths &cent;x = sb - ad&gt;n, and if ƒsck d is the value of ƒ at the chosen point ck in the
kth subinterval, this process gives a finite sum of the form
ƒsc1 d &cent;x + ƒsc2 d &cent;x + ƒsc3 d &cent;x + &Aacute; + ƒscn d &cent;x.
The choices for the ck could maximize or minimize the value of ƒ in the kth subinterval, or
give some value in between. The true value lies somewhere between the approximations
given by upper sums and lower sums. The finite sum approximations we looked at improved as we took more subintervals of thinner width.
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5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums
EXERCISES 5.1
Area
In Exercises 1–4 use finite approximations to estimate the area under
the graph of the function using
a. a lower sum with two rectangles of equal width.
b. a lower sum with four rectangles of equal width.
c. an upper sum with two rectangles of equal width.
d. an upper sum with four rectangles of equal width.
1. ƒsxd = x 2 between x = 0 and x = 1 .
Time
(sec)
Velocity
(in. / sec)
Time
(sec)
Velocity
(in. / sec)
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
12
22
10
5
13
6
7
8
9
10
11
6
2
6
0
2. ƒsxd = x 3 between x = 0 and x = 1 .
3. ƒsxd = 1&gt;x between x = 1 and x = 5 .
4. ƒsxd = 4 - x 2 between x = - 2 and x = 2 .
Using rectangles whose height is given by the value of the function at the midpoint of the rectangle’s base (the midpoint rule) estimate the area under the graphs of the following functions, using first
two and then four rectangles.
5. ƒsxd = x 2 between x = 0 and x = 1 .
6. ƒsxd = x 3 between x = 0 and x = 1 .
10. Distance traveled upstream You are sitting on the bank of a
tidal river watching the incoming tide carry a bottle upstream.
You record the velocity of the flow every 5 minutes for an hour,
with the results shown in the accompanying table. About how far
upstream did the bottle travel during that hour? Find an estimate
using 12 subintervals of length 5 with
a. left-endpoint values.
b. right-endpoint values.
7. ƒsxd = 1&gt;x between x = 1 and x = 5 .
8. ƒsxd = 4 - x 2 between x = - 2 and x = 2 .
Distance
9. Distance traveled The accompanying table shows the velocity
of a model train engine moving along a track for 10 sec. Estimate
the distance traveled by the engine using 10 subintervals of length
1 with
a. left-endpoint values.
b. right-endpoint values.
Time
(min)
Velocity
(m / sec)
Time
(min)
Velocity
(m / sec)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1
1.2
1.7
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
35
40
45
50
55
60
1.2
1.0
1.8
1.5
1.2
0
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Chapter 5: Integration
11. Length of a road You and a companion are about to drive a
twisty stretch of dirt road in a car whose speedometer works but
whose odometer (mileage counter) is broken. To find out how
long this particular stretch of road is, you record the car’s velocity
at 10-sec intervals, with the results shown in the accompanying
table. Estimate the length of the road using
a. left-endpoint values.
b. right-endpoint values.
Time
(sec)
Velocity
(converted to ft / sec)
(30 mi / h 44 ft / sec)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
44
15
35
30
44
35
Time
(sec)
Velocity
(converted to ft / sec)
(30 mi / h 44 ft / sec)
70
80
90
100
110
120
15
22
35
44
30
35
a. Use rectangles to estimate how far the car traveled during the
36 sec it took to reach 142 mi&gt; h.
b. Roughly how many seconds did it take the car to reach the
halfway point? About how fast was the car going then?
Velocity and Distance
13. Free fall with air resistance An object is dropped straight
down from a helicopter. The object falls faster and faster but its
acceleration (rate of change of its velocity) decreases over time
because of air resistance. The acceleration is measured in ft&gt;sec2
and recorded every second after the drop for 5 sec, as shown:
t
0
1
2
3
4
5
a
32.00
19.41
11.77
7.14
4.33
2.63
a. Find an upper estimate for the speed when t = 5 .
b. Find a lower estimate for the speed when t = 5 .
c. Find an upper estimate for the distance fallen when t = 3 .
14. Distance traveled by a projectile An object is shot straight upward from sea level with an initial velocity of 400 ft&gt; sec.
12. Distance from velocity data The accompanying table gives
data for the velocity of a vintage sports car accelerating from 0 to
142 mi&gt; h in 36 sec (10 thousandths of an hour).
Time
(h)
Velocity
(mi / h)
Time
(h)
Velocity
(mi / h)
0.0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0
40
62
82
96
108
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.010
116
125
132
137
142
a. Assuming that gravity is the only force acting on the object,
give an upper estimate for its velocity after 5 sec have
elapsed. Use g = 32 ft&gt;sec2 for the gravitational acceleration.
b. Find a lower estimate for the height attained after 5 sec.
Average Value of a Function
In Exercises 15–18, use a finite sum to estimate the average value of ƒ
on the given interval by partitioning the interval into four subintervals
of equal length and evaluating ƒ at the subinterval midpoints.
15. ƒsxd = x 3
16. ƒsxd = 1&gt;x on [1, 9]
on [0, 2]
17. ƒstd = s1&gt;2d + sin2 pt
on [0, 2]
y
y 1 sin 2 ␲t
2
1.5
mi/hr
1
160
0.5
140
0
120
18. ƒstd = 1 - acos
100
1
pt
b
4
t
2
4
on [0, 4]
80
y
4
y 1 cos ␲t 

4
60
1
40
20
0
0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01
hours
0
1
2
3
4
t
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5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums
Pollution Control
19. Water pollution Oil is leaking out of a tanker damaged at sea.
The damage to the tanker is worsening as evidenced by the increased leakage each hour, recorded in the following table.
Time (h)
0
1
2
3
4
Leakage (gal&gt; h)
50
70
97
136
190
Time (h)
5
6
7
8
265
369
516
720
Leakage (gal&gt; h)
c. The tanker continues to leak 720 gal&gt; h after the first 8 hours.
If the tanker originally contained 25,000 gal of oil,
approximately how many more hours will elapse in the worst
case before all the oil has spilled? In the best case?
20. Air pollution A power plant generates electricity by burning
oil. Pollutants produced as a result of the burning process are removed by scrubbers in the smokestacks. Over time, the scrubbers
become less efficient and eventually they must be replaced when
the amount of pollution released exceeds government standards.
Measurements are taken at the end of each month determining the
rate at which pollutants are released into the atmosphere,
recorded as follows.
Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Pollutant
Release rate
(tons&gt; day)
0.20
0.25
0.27
0.34
0.45
0.52
Month
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
0.70
0.81
0.85
0.89
b. In the best case, approximately when will a total of 125 tons
of pollutants have been released into the atmosphere?
Area of a Circle
a. 4 (square)
b. Repeat part (a) for the quantity of oil that has escaped after 8
hours.
0.63
a. Assuming a 30-day month and that new scrubbers allow only
0.05 ton&gt; day released, give an upper estimate of the total
tonnage of pollutants released by the end of June. What is a
lower estimate?
21. Inscribe a regular n-sided polygon inside a circle of radius 1 and
compute the area of the polygon for the following values of n:
a. Give an upper and a lower estimate of the total quantity of oil
that has escaped after 5 hours.
Pollutant
Release rate
(tons&gt; day)
335
0.95
b. 8 (octagon)
c. 16
d. Compare the areas in parts (a), (b), and (c) with the area of
the circle.
22. (Continuation of Exercise 21)
a. Inscribe a regular n-sided polygon inside a circle of radius 1
and compute the area of one of the n congruent triangles
formed by drawing radii to the vertices of the polygon.
b. Compute the limit of the area of the inscribed polygon as
n: q.
c. Repeat the computations in parts (a) and (b) for a circle of
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
In Exercises 23–26, use a CAS to perform the following steps.
a. Plot the functions over the given interval.
b. Subdivide the interval into n = 100 , 200, and 1000
subintervals of equal length and evaluate the function at the
midpoint of each subinterval.
c. Compute the average value of the function values generated
in part (b).
d. Solve the equation ƒsxd = saverage valued for x using the
average value calculated in part (c) for the n = 1000
partitioning.
23. ƒsxd = sin x
on [0, p]
1
25. ƒsxd = x sin x
1
26. ƒsxd = x sin2 x
on
on
24. ƒsxd = sin2 x
p
c , pd
4
p
c , pd
4
on [0, p]
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5.2 Sigma Notation and Limits of Finite Sums
5.2
335
Sigma Notation and Limits of Finite Sums
In estimating with finite sums in Section 5.1, we often encountered sums with many terms
(up to 1000 in Table 5.1, for instance). In this section we introduce a notation to write
sums with a large number of terms. After describing the notation and stating several of its
properties, we look at what happens to a finite sum approximation as the number of terms
approaches infinity.
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Chapter 5: Integration
Finite Sums and Sigma Notation
Sigma notation enables us to write a sum with many terms in the compact form
n
&Aacute; + an - 1 + an .
a ak = a1 + a2 + a3 +
k=1
The Greek letter &copy; (capital sigma, corresponding to our letter S), stands for “sum.” The
index of summation k tells us where the sum begins (at the number below the &copy; symbol)
and where it ends (at the number above &copy; ). Any letter can be used to denote the index, but
the letters i, j, and k are customary.
The index k ends at k n.
5
n
The summation symbol
(Greek letter sigma)
ak
a k is a formula for the kth term.
k1
The index k starts at k 1.
Thus we can write
11
12 + 22 + 32 + 42 + 52 + 62 + 72 + 82 + 92 + 10 2 + 112 = a k 2 ,
k=1
and
100
ƒs1d + ƒs2d + ƒs3d + &Aacute; + ƒs100d = a ƒsid.
i=1
The sigma notation used on the right side of these equations is much more compact than
the summation expressions on the left side.
EXAMPLE 1
Using Sigma Notation
The sum in
sigma notation
The sum written out, one
term for each value of k
The value
of the sum
ak
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5
15
k
a s - 1d k
s - 1d1s1d + s - 1d2s2d + s - 1d3s3d
-1 + 2 - 3 = -2
k
a k + 1
k=1
1
2
+
1 + 1
2 + 1
7
2
1
+ =
2
3
6
52
42
+
4 - 1
5 - 1
25
139
16
+
=
3
4
12
5
k=1
3
k=1
2
5
k2
a k - 1
k=4
The lower limit of summation does not have to be 1; it can be any integer.
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5.2 Sigma Notation and Limits of Finite Sums
EXAMPLE 2
337
Using Different Index Starting Values
Express the sum 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 in sigma notation.
Solution The formula generating the terms changes with the lower limit of summation,
but the terms generated remain the same. It is often simplest to start with k = 0 or k = 1.
4
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = a s2k + 1d
Starting with k = 0:
k=0
5
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = a s2k - 1d
Starting with k = 1:
k=1
6
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = a s2k - 3d
Starting with k = 2:
k=2
1
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = a s2k + 7d
Starting with k = - 3:
k = -3
When we have a sum such as
3
2
a sk + k d
k=1
we can rearrange its terms,
3
2
2
2
2
a sk + k d = s1 + 1 d + s2 + 2 d + s3 + 3 d
k=1
= s1 + 2 + 3d + s12 + 22 + 32 d
3
Regroup terms.
3
= a k + a k2
k=1
k=1
This illustrates a general rule for finite sums:
n
n
n
a sak + bk d = a ak + a bk
k=1
k=1
k=1
Four such rules are given below. A proof that they are valid can be obtained using mathematical induction (see Appendix 1).
Algebra Rules for Finite Sums
n
1.
Sum Rule:
n
k=1
n
2.
Difference Rule:
Constant Multiple Rule:
Constant Value Rule:
k=1
n
k=1
#
ac = n c
k=1
n
#
a cak = c a ak
k=1
n
4.
k=1
n
a (ak - bk) = a ak - a bk
k=1
n
3.
n
a (ak + bk) = a ak + a bk
(Any number c)
k=1
(c is any constant value.)
k=1
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Chapter 5: Integration
EXAMPLE 3
Using the Finite Sum Algebra Rules
n
n
n
Difference Rule
and Constant
Multiple Rule
(a) a s3k - k 2 d = 3 a k - a k 2
k=1
k=1
n
k=1
n
n
n
Constant
Multiple Rule
(b) a s - ak d = a s - 1d # ak = - 1 # a ak = - a ak
k=1
k=1
3
k=1
3
k=1
3
(c) a sk + 4d = a k + a 4
k=1
k=1
Sum Rule
k=1
= s1 + 2 + 3d + s3 # 4d
= 6 + 12 = 18
Constant
Value Rule
n
1
1
(d) a n = n # n = 1
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
Carl Friedrich Gauss
(1777–1855)
Constant Value Rule
(1&gt;n is constant)
k=1
Over the years people have discovered a variety of formulas for the values of finite sums. The
most famous of these are the formula for the sum of the first n integers (Gauss may have discovered it at age 8) and the formulas for the sums of the squares and cubes of the first n integers.
EXAMPLE 4
The Sum of the First n Integers
Show that the sum of the first n integers is
n
ak =
k=1
Solution:
nsn + 1d
.
2
The formula tells us that the sum of the first 4 integers is
s4ds5d
= 10.
2
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10.
To prove the formula in general, we write out the terms in the sum twice, once forward and
once backward.
1
n
+
+
2
sn - 1d
+
+
3
sn - 2d
+
+
&Aacute;
&Aacute;
+
+
n
1
If we add the two terms in the first column we get 1 + n = n + 1. Similarly, if we add
the two terms in the second column we get 2 + sn - 1d = n + 1. The two terms in any
column sum to n + 1. When we add the n columns together we get n terms, each equal to
n + 1, for a total of nsn + 1d. Since this is twice the desired quantity, the sum of the first
n integers is sndsn + 1d&gt;2.
Formulas for the sums of the squares and cubes of the first n integers are proved using
mathematical induction (see Appendix 1). We state them here.
n
The first n squares:
2
ak =
k=1
n
The first n cubes:
nsn + 1ds2n + 1d
6
3
ak = a
k=1
nsn + 1d 2
b
2
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5.2 Sigma Notation and Limits of Finite Sums
339
Limits of Finite Sums
The finite sum approximations we considered in Section 5.1 got more accurate as the
number of terms increased and the subinterval widths (lengths) became thinner. The next
example shows how to calculate a limiting value as the widths of the subintervals go to
zero and their number grows to infinity.
EXAMPLE 5
The Limit of Finite Approximations to an Area
Find the limiting value of lower sum approximations to the area of the region R below the
graph of y = 1 - x 2 and above the interval [0, 1] on the x-axis using equal width rectangles whose widths approach zero and whose number approaches infinity. (See Figure 5.4a.)
We compute a lower sum approximation using n rectangles of equal width
&cent;x = s1 - 0d&gt;n, and then we see what happens as n : q . We start by subdividing
[0, 1] into n equal width subintervals
Solution
n - 1
1 2
1
c0, n d, c n , n d, &Aacute; , c n , n d .
Each subinterval has width 1&gt;n. The function 1 - x 2 is decreasing on [0, 1], and its smallest value in a subinterval occurs at the subinterval’s right endpoint. So a lower sum is constructed with rectangles whose height over the subinterval [sk - 1d&gt;n, k&gt;n] is ƒsk&gt;nd =
1 - sk&gt;nd2 , giving the sum
k
n 1
1 1
2 1
1
ƒ an b an b + ƒ an b an b + &Aacute; + ƒ an b an b + &Aacute; + ƒ an b an b .
We write this in sigma notation and simplify,
n
n
k=1
k=1
n
2
k
k
1
1
a ƒ a n b a n b = a a1 - a n b b a n b
k2
1
= a an - 3 b
n
k=1
n
n
k2
1
= a n - a 3
k=1
k=1 n
n
1
1
= n # n - 3 a k2
n k=1
1 sndsn + 1ds2n + 1d
= 1 - a 3b
6
n
= 1 -
2n 3 + 3n 2 + n
.
6n 3
Difference Rule
Constant Value and
Constant Multiple Rules
Sum of the First n Squares
Numerator expanded
We have obtained an expression for the lower sum that holds for any n. Taking the
limit of this expression as n : q , we see that the lower sums converge as the number of
subintervals increases and the subinterval widths approach zero:
lim a1 -
n: q
2n 3 + 3n 2 + n
2
2
b = 1 - = .
3
6
3
6n
The lower sum approximations converge to 2&gt;3. A similar calculation shows that the upper sum approximations also converge to 2&gt;3 (Exercise 35). Any finite sum approximation,
in the sense of our summary at the end of Section 5.1, also converges to the same value
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Chapter 5: Integration
y
y f (x)
a
b
x
FIGURE 5.8 A typical continuous function y = ƒsxd over a closed interval [a, b].
2&gt;3. This is because it is possible to show that any finite sum approximation is trapped between the lower and upper sum approximations. For this reason we are led to define the
area of the region R as this limiting value. In Section 5.3 we study the limits of such finite
approximations in their more general setting.
Riemann Sums
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
Georg Friedrich
Bernhard Riemann
(1826–1866)
The theory of limits of finite approximations was made precise by the German mathematician Bernhard Riemann. We now introduce the notion of a Riemann sum, which underlies
the theory of the definite integral studied in the next section.
We begin with an arbitrary function ƒ defined on a closed interval [a, b]. Like the
function pictured in Figure 5.8, ƒ may have negative as well as positive values. We subdivide the interval [a, b] into subintervals, not necessarily of equal widths (or lengths), and
form sums in the same way as for the finite approximations in Section 5.1. To do so, we
choose n - 1 points 5x1, x2 , x3 , &Aacute; , xn - 16 between a and b and satisfying
a 6 x1 6 x2 6 &Aacute; 6 xn - 1 6 b.
To make the notation consistent, we denote a by x0 and b by xn , so that
a = x0 6 x1 6 x2 6 &Aacute; 6 xn - 1 6 xn = b.
The set
P = 5x0 , x1, x2 , &Aacute; , xn - 1, xn6
is called a partition of [a, b].
The partition P divides [a, b] into n closed subintervals
[x0 , x1], [x1, x2], &Aacute; , [xn - 1, xn].
The first of these subintervals is [x0 , x1], the second is [x1, x2], and the k th subinterval of
P is [xk - 1, xk], for k an integer between 1 and n.
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5.2 Sigma Notation and Limits of Finite Sums
kth subinterval
x0 a
x1
•••
x2
x k1
x
xk
•••
xn b
x n1
The width of the first subinterval [x0 , x1] is denoted &cent;x1 , the width of the second
[x1, x2] is denoted &cent;x2 , and the width of the kth subinterval is &cent;xk = xk - xk - 1 . If all n
subintervals have equal width, then the common width &cent;x is equal to sb - ad&gt;n.
x1
x2
xk
xn
x
x0 a
x1
•••
x2
x k1
xk
•••
xn1
xn b
In each subinterval we select some point. The point chosen in the kth subinterval
[xk - 1, xk] is called ck . Then on each subinterval we stand a vertical rectangle that stretches
from the x-axis to touch the curve at sck , ƒsck dd . These rectangles can be above or below
the x-axis, depending on whether ƒsck d is positive or negative, or on it if ƒsck d = 0 (Figure
5.9).
On each subinterval we form the product ƒsck d # &cent;xk . This product is positive, negative or zero, depending on the sign of ƒsck d. When ƒsck d 7 0, the product ƒsck d # &cent;xk is
the area of a rectangle with height ƒsck d and width &cent;xk . When ƒsck d 6 0, the product
ƒsck d # &cent;xk is a negative number, the negative of the area of a rectangle of width &cent;xk that
drops from the x-axis to the negative number ƒsck d.
Finally we sum all these products to get
n
SP = a ƒsck d &cent;xk .
k=1
y
y f (x)
(cn, f(cn ))
(ck, f (ck ))
kth rectangle
c1
0 x0 a
c2
x1
x2
x k1
ck
xk
cn
x n1
xn b
x
(c1, f (c1))
(c 2, f (c 2))
FIGURE 5.9 The rectangles approximate the region between the graph of the function
y = ƒsxd and the x-axis.
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Chapter 5: Integration
y
y f (x)
0 a
b
x
The sum SP is called a Riemann sum for ƒ on the interval [a, b]. There are many such sums,
depending on the partition P we choose, and the choices of the points ck in the subintervals.
In Example 5, where the subintervals all had equal widths &cent;x = 1&gt;n, we could make
them thinner by simply increasing their number n. When a partition has subintervals of
varying widths, we can ensure they are all thin by controlling the width of a widest
(longest) subinterval. We define the norm of a partition P, written 7P7 , to be the largest of
all the subinterval widths. If 7P7 is a small number, then all of the subintervals in the partition P have a small width. Let’s look at an example of these ideas.
EXAMPLE 6
(a)
The set P = {0, 0.2, 0.6, 1, 1.5, 2} is a partition of [0, 2]. There are five subintervals of P:
[0, 0.2], [0.2, 0.6], [0.6, 1], [1, 1.5], and [1.5, 2]:
y
y f(x)
x1
0
0 a
Partitioning a Closed Interval
b
x 2
0.2
x4
x3
0.6
1
x5
1.5
2
x
x
The lengths of the subintervals are &cent;x1 = 0.2, &cent;x2 = 0.4, &cent;x3 = 0.4, &cent;x4 = 0.5, and
&cent;x5 = 0.5. The longest subinterval length is 0.5, so the norm of the partition is
7P7 = 0.5. In this example, there are two subintervals of this length.
(b)
FIGURE 5.10 The curve of Figure 5.9 with
rectangles from finer partitions of [a, b].
Finer partitions create collections of
rectangles with thinner bases that approximate the region between the graph of ƒ and
the x-axis with increasing accuracy.
Any Riemann sum associated with a partition of a closed interval [a, b] defines rectangles that approximate the region between the graph of a continuous function ƒ and the
x-axis. Partitions with norm approaching zero lead to collections of rectangles that approximate this region with increasing accuracy, as suggested by Figure 5.10. We will see in the
next section that if the function ƒ is continuous over the closed interval [a, b], then no matter how we choose the partition P and the points ck in its subintervals to construct a Riemann sum, a single limiting value is approached as the subinterval widths, controlled by
the norm of the partition, approach zero.
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Chapter 5: Integration
EXERCISES 5.2
Sigma Notation
Write the sums in Exercises 1–6 without sigma notation. Then evaluate them.
2
3
6k
1. a
k=1 k + 1
2. a
k=1
5
4
p
5. a s - 1dk + 1 sin
k
k=1
6. a s -1dk cos kp
k=1
4
k=1
7. Which of the following express 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 in
sigma notation?
6
k=1
5
b. a 2k
k=0
5
b. a s - 1dk 2k
k=0
3
c. a s - 1dk + 1 2k + 2
k = -2
9. Which formula is not equivalent to the other two?
4 s - 1dk - 1
2 s - 1dk
1 s - 1dk
a. a
b. a
c. a
k=2 k - 1
k=0 k + 1
k = -1 k + 2
4. a sin kp
a. a 2k - 1
6
a. a s - 2dk - 1
k=1
k - 1
k
3. a cos kp
k=1
3
8. Which of the following express 1 - 2 + 4 - 8 + 16 - 32 in
sigma notation?
10. Which formula is not equivalent to the other two?
4
a. a sk - 1d2
k=1
3
b. a sk + 1d2
k = -1
4
c. a 2k + 1
k = -1
-1
c. a k 2
k = -3
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5.2 Sigma Notation and Limits of Finite Sums
Express the sums in Exercises 11–16 in sigma notation. The form
summation.
11. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6
13.
12. 1 + 4 + 9 + 16
1
1
1
1
+ + +
2
4
8
16
15. 1 -
14. 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + 10
1
1
1
1
+ - +
5
2
3
4
3
5
1
2
4
+ - + 5
5
5
5
5
16. -
Values of Finite Sums
n
n
17. Suppose that a ak = - 5 and a bk = 6 . Find the values of
k=1
n
k=1
n
n
bk
b. a
k=1 6
a. a 3ak
k=1
n
c. a sak + bk d
k=1
n
d. a sak - bk d
k=1
e. a sbk - 2ak d
n
18. Suppose that a ak = 0 and a bk = 1 . Find the values of
k=1
k=1
n
7
26. a ks2k + 1d
25. a ks3k + 5d
k=1
5
5
k
+ a a kb
27. a
k = 1 225
k=1
3
n
k=1
7
3
2
7
k3
28. a a kb - a
k=1
k=1 4
Rectangles for Riemann Sums
In Exercises 29–32, graph each function ƒ(x) over the given interval.
Partition the interval into four subintervals of equal length. Then add
to your sketch the rectangles associated with the Riemann sum
&copy; 4k = 1ƒsck d &cent;xk , given that ck is the (a) left-hand endpoint, (b) righthand endpoint, (c) midpoint of the kth subinterval. (Make a separate
sketch for each set of rectangles.)
29. ƒsxd = x 2 - 1,
[0, 2]
30. ƒsxd = - x 2,
[0, 1]
31. ƒsxd = sin x,
[- p, p]
32. ƒsxd = sin x + 1,
k=1
n
5
343
[- p, p]
33. Find the norm of the partition P = 50, 1.2, 1.5, 2.3, 2.6, 36 .
34. Find the norm of the partition P = 5- 2, - 1.6, - 0.5, 0, 0.8, 16 .
a. a 8ak
b. a 250bk
Limits of Upper Sums
c. a sak + 1d
d. a sbk - 1d
For the functions in Exercises 35–40 find a formula for the upper sum
obtained by dividing the interval [a, b] into n equal subintervals. Then
take a limit of these sums as n : q to calculate the area under the
curve over [a, b].
k=1
n
k=1
n
k=1
k=1
Evaluate the sums in Exercises 19–28.
10
10
19. a. a k
10
b. a k 2
c. a k 3
20. a. a k
b. a k 2
c. a k 3
k=1
13
k=1
7
k=1
13
k=1
13
k=1
k=1
5
21. a s - 2kd
pk
22. a
k = 1 15
23. a s3 - k 2 d
24. a sk 2 - 5d
k=1
6
k=1
35. ƒsxd = 1 - x 2 over the interval [0, 1].
36. ƒsxd = 2x over the interval [0, 3].
37. ƒsxd = x 2 + 1 over the interval [0, 3].
38. ƒsxd = 3x 2 over the interval [0, 1].
39. ƒsxd = x + x 2 over the interval [0, 1].
40. ƒsxd = 3x + 2x 2 over the interval [0, 1].
6
k=1
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5.3 The Definite Integral
5.3
343
The Definite Integral
In Section 5.2 we investigated the limit of a finite sum for a function defined over a closed
interval [a, b] using n subintervals of equal width (or length), sb - ad&gt;n. In this section
we consider the limit of more general Riemann sums as the norm of the partitions of [a, b]
approaches zero. For general Riemann sums the subintervals of the partitions need not
have equal widths. The limiting process then leads to the definition of the definite integral
of a function over a closed interval [a, b].
Limits of Riemann Sums
The definition of the definite integral is based on the idea that for certain functions, as the
norm of the partitions of [a, b] approaches zero, the values of the corresponding Riemann
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Chapter 5: Integration
sums approach a limiting value I. What we mean by this converging idea is that a Riemann
sum will be close to the number I provided that the norm of its partition is sufficiently
small (so that all of its subintervals have thin enough widths). We introduce the symbol P
as a small positive number that specifies how close to I the Riemann sum must be, and the
symbol d as a second small positive number that specifies how small the norm of a partition must be in order for that to happen. Here is a precise formulation.
DEFINITION
The Definite Integral as a Limit of Riemann Sums
Let ƒ(x) be a function defined on a closed interval [a, b]. We say that a number I
is the definite integral of ƒ over [a, b] and that I is the limit of the Riemann
sums g nk = 1ƒsck d &cent;xk if the following condition is satisfied:
Given any number P 7 0 there is a corresponding number d 7 0 such that
for every partition P = 5x0 , x1, &Aacute; , xn6 of [a, b] with 7P7 6 d and any choice of
ck in [xk - 1, xk], we have
n
` a ƒsck d &cent;xk - I ` 6 P .
k=1
Leibniz introduced a notation for the definite integral that captures its construction as
a limit of Riemann sums. He envisioned the finite sums g nk = 1ƒsck d &cent;xk becoming an infinite sum of function values ƒ(x) multiplied by “infinitesimal” subinterval widths dx. The
sum symbol a is replaced in the limit by the integral symbol 1 , whose origin is in the
letter “S.” The function values ƒsck d are replaced by a continuous selection of function values ƒ(x). The subinterval widths &cent;xk become the differential dx. It is as if we are summing
all products of the form ƒsxd # dx as x goes from a to b. While this notation captures the
process of constructing an integral, it is Riemann’s definition that gives a precise meaning
to the definite integral.
Notation and Existence of the Definite Integral
The symbol for the number I in the definition of the definite integral is
b
La
ƒsxd dx
which is read as “the integral from a to b of ƒ of x dee x” or sometimes as “the integral
from a to b of ƒ of x with respect to x.” The component parts in the integral symbol also
have names:
Upper limit of integration
Integral sign
Lower limit of integration
The function is the integrand.
b
⌠


⌡a
x is the variable of integration.
f(x) dx







344
Integral of f from a to b
When you find the value
of the integral, you have
evaluated the integral.
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5.3 The Definite Integral
345
When the definition is satisfied, we say the Riemann sums of ƒ on [a, b] converge to
b
the definite integral I = 1a ƒsxd dx and that ƒ is integrable over [a, b]. We have many
choices for a partition P with norm going to zero, and many choices of points ck for each
partition. The definite integral exists when we always get the same limit I, no matter what
choices are made. When the limit exists we write it as the definite integral
n
b
lim a ƒsck d &cent;xk = I =
ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0
k=1
ƒsxd dx.
La
When each partition has n equal subintervals, each of width &cent;x = sb - ad&gt;n, we will
also write
n
b
lim a ƒsck d &cent;x = I =
n: q
k=1
La
ƒsxd dx.
The limit is always taken as the norm of the partitions approaches zero and the number of
subintervals goes to infinity.
The value of the definite integral of a function over any particular interval depends on
the function, not on the letter we choose to represent its independent variable. If we decide
to use t or u instead of x, we simply write the integral as
b
La
b
ƒstd dt
or
La
b
ƒsud du
La
ƒsxd dx.
No matter how we write the integral, it is still the same number, defined as a limit of Riemann sums. Since it does not matter what letter we use, the variable of integration is called
a dummy variable.
Since there are so many choices to be made in taking a limit of Riemann sums, it
might seem difficult to show that such a limit exists. It turns out, however, that no matter
what choices are made, the Riemann sums associated with a continuous function converge
to the same limit.
THEOREM 1
The Existence of Definite Integrals
A continuous function is integrable. That is, if a function ƒ is continuous on an
interval [a, b], then its definite integral over [a, b] exists.
By the Extreme Value Theorem (Theorem 1, Section 4.1), when ƒ is continuous we
can choose ck so that ƒsck d gives the maximum value of ƒ on [xk - 1, xk], giving an upper
sum. We can choose ck to give the minimum value of ƒ on [xk - 1, xk], giving a lower sum.
We can pick ck to be the midpoint of [xk - 1, xk], the rightmost point xk , or a random point.
We can take the partitions of equal or varying widths. In each case we get the same limit
for g nk = 1ƒsck d &cent;xk as 7 P7 : 0. The idea behind Theorem 1 is that a Riemann sum associated with a partition is no more than the upper sum of that partition and no less than the
lower sum. The upper and lower sums converge to the same value when 7 P7 : 0. All other
Riemann sums lie between the upper and lower sums and have the same limit. A proof
of Theorem 1 involves a careful analysis of functions, partitions, and limits along this
line of thinking and is left to a more advanced text. An indication of this proof is given in
Exercises 80 and 81.
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Chapter 5: Integration
Theorem 1 says nothing about how to calculate definite integrals. A method of calculation will be developed in Section 5.4, through a connection to the process of taking antiderivatives.
Integrable and Nonintegrable Functions
Theorem 1 tells us that functions continuous over the interval [a, b] are integrable there.
Functions that are not continuous may or may not be integrable. Discontinuous functions
that are integrable include those that are increasing on [a, b] (Exercise 77), and the
piecewise-continuous functions defined in the Additional Exercises at the end of this chapter. (The latter are continuous except at a finite number of points in [a, b].) For integrability to fail, a function needs to be sufficiently discontinuous so that the region between its
graph and the x-axis cannot be approximated well by increasingly thin rectangles. Here is
an example of a function that is not integrable.
EXAMPLE 1
A Nonintegrable Function on [0, 1]
The function
ƒsxd = e
1,
0,
if x is rational
if x is irrational
has no Riemann integral over [0, 1]. Underlying this is the fact that between any two numbers there is both a rational number and an irrational number. Thus the function jumps
up and down too erratically over [0, 1] to allow the region beneath its graph and above the
x-axis to be approximated by rectangles, no matter how thin they are. We show, in fact, that
upper sum approximations and lower sum approximations converge to different limiting
values.
If we pick a partition P of [0, 1] and choose ck to be the maximum value for ƒ on
[xk - 1, xk] then the corresponding Riemann sum is
n
n
U = a ƒsck d &cent;xk = a s1d &cent;xk = 1,
k=1
k=1
since each subinterval [xk - 1, xk] contains a rational number where ƒsck d = 1. Note that the
lengths of the intervals in the partition sum to 1, g nk = 1 &cent;xk = 1. So each such Riemann
sum equals 1, and a limit of Riemann sums using these choices equals 1.
On the other hand, if we pick ck to be the minimum value for ƒ on [xk - 1, xk], then the
Riemann sum is
n
n
L = a ƒsck d &cent;xk = a s0d &cent;xk = 0,
k=1
k=1
since each subinterval [xk - 1, xk] contains an irrational number ck where ƒsck d = 0. The
limit of Riemann sums using these choices equals zero. Since the limit depends on the
choices of ck , the function ƒ is not integrable.
Properties of Definite Integrals
In defining 1a ƒsxd dx as a limit of sums g nk = 1ƒsck d &cent;xk , we moved from left to right
across the interval [a, b]. What would happen if we instead move right to left, starting with
x0 = b and ending at xn = a. Each &cent;xk in the Riemann sum would change its sign, with
xk - xk - 1 now negative instead of positive. With the same choices of ck in each subinterval, the sign of any Riemann sum would change, as would the sign of the limit, the integral
b
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5.3 The Definite Integral
347
a
1b ƒsxd dx . Since we have not previously given a meaning to integrating backward, we are
led to define
a
b
ƒsxd dx = -
Lb
ƒsxd dx .
La
Another extension of the integral is to an interval of zero width, when a = b. Since
ƒsck d &cent;xk is zero when the interval width &cent;xk = 0, we define
a
La
ƒsxd dx = 0.
Theorem 2 states seven properties of integrals, given as rules that they satisfy, including the two above. These rules become very useful in the process of computing integrals.
We will refer to them repeatedly to simplify our calculations.
Rules 2 through 7 have geometric interpretations, shown in Figure 5.11. The graphs in
these figures are of positive functions, but the rules apply to general integrable functions.
THEOREM 2
When ƒ and g are integrable, the definite integral satisfies Rules 1 to 7 in Table 5.3.
TABLE 5.3 Rules satisfied by definite integrals
a
1.
Order of Integration:
2.
Zero Width Interval:
3.
Constant Multiple:
b
ƒsxd dx = -
Lb
ƒsxd dx
La
A Definition
a
ƒsxd dx = 0
La
Also a Definition
b
b
kƒsxd dx = k
La
La
ƒsxd dx
b
b
-ƒsxd dx = -
La
La
ƒsxd dx
b
4.
Sum and Difference:
5.
k = -1
b
sƒsxd ; gsxdd dx =
La
b
6.
Any Number k
b
ƒsxd dx ;
La
c
ƒsxd dx +
gsxd dx
La
c
ƒsxd dx =
ƒsxd dx
Lb
La
La
Max-Min Inequality: If ƒ has maximum value max ƒ and minimum value
min ƒ on [a, b], then
b
min ƒ # sb - ad …
La
ƒsxd dx … max ƒ # sb - ad.
b
7.
Domination:
ƒsxd &Uacute; gsxd on [a, b] Q
La
b
ƒsxd dx &Uacute;
La
gsxd dx
b
ƒsxd &Uacute; 0 on [a, b] Q
La
ƒsxd dx &Uacute; 0
(Special Case)
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Chapter 5: Integration
y
y
y
y 2 f (x)
y f (x) g(x)
y f (x)
y g(x)
y f (x)
y f (x)
0
x
a
0
a
b
x
0 a
(b) Constant Multiple:
(a) Zero Width Interval:
a
b
ƒsxd dx = 0 .
La
La
(Shown for k = 2 .)
La
(The area over a point is 0.)
(c) Sum:
b
kƒsxd dx = k
x
b
b
b
sƒsxd + gsxdd dx =
ƒsxd dx .
La
La
b
ƒsxd dx +
La
gsxd dx
y
y
y f (x)
y
y f (x)
max f
c
b
b
L
f (x) dx
a
L
0
a
y f (x)
f (x) dx
min f
y g(x)
b
c
b
La
ƒsxd dx +
FIGURE 5.11
c
Lb
ƒsxd dx =
x
0 a
b
(e) Max-Min Inequality:
c
La
ƒsxd dx
x
0 a
x
b
(f ) Domination:
b
min ƒ # sb - ad …
ƒsxd dx
La
… max ƒ # sb - ad
ƒsxd &Uacute; gsxd on [a, b]
b
Q
La
b
ƒsxd dx &Uacute;
La
gsxd dx
While Rules 1 and 2 are definitions, Rules 3 to 7 of Table 5.3 must be proved. The
proofs are based on the definition of the definite integral as a limit of Riemann sums. The
following is a proof of one of these rules. Similar proofs can be given to verify the other
properties in Table 5.3.
Proof of Rule 6 Rule 6 says that the integral of ƒ over [a, b] is never smaller than the
minimum value of ƒ times the length of the interval and never larger than the maximum
value of ƒ times the length of the interval. The reason is that for every partition of [a, b]
and for every choice of the points ck ,
n
min ƒ # sb - ad = min ƒ # a &cent;xk
k=1
n
a &cent;xk = b - a
k=1
n
= a min ƒ # &cent;xk
Constant Multiple Rule
… a ƒsck d &cent;xk
min ƒ … ƒsck d
… a max ƒ # &cent;xk
ƒsck d … max f
k=1
n
k=1
n
k=1
n
= max ƒ # a &cent;xk
Constant Multiple Rule
k=1
= max ƒ # sb - ad.
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5.3 The Definite Integral
349
In short, all Riemann sums for ƒ on [a, b] satisfy the inequality
n
min ƒ # sb - ad … a ƒsck d &cent;xk … max ƒ # sb - ad.
k=1
Hence their limit, the integral, does too.
EXAMPLE 2
Using the Rules for Definite Integrals
Suppose that
1
L-1
4
ƒsxd dx = 5,
L1
1
ƒsxd dx = - 2,
L-1
hsxd dx = 7.
Then
1
1.
4
ƒsxd dx = -
L4
L1
ƒsxd dx = - s -2d = 2
1
2.
Rule 1
1
L-1
[2ƒsxd + 3hsxd] dx = 2
L-1
1
ƒsxd dx + 3
L-1
hsxd dx
Rules 3 and 4
= 2s5d + 3s7d = 31
4
3.
L-1
1
ƒsxd dx =
EXAMPLE 3
L-1
4
ƒsxd dx +
L1
ƒsxd dx = 5 + s -2d = 3
Rule 5
Finding Bounds for an Integral
1
Show that the value of 10 21 + cos x dx is less than 3&gt;2.
The Max-Min Inequality for definite integrals (Rule 6) says that min ƒ # sb - ad
b
is a lower bound for the value of 1a ƒsxd dx and that max ƒ # sb - ad is an upper bound.
Solution
The maximum value of 21 + cos x on [0, 1] is 21 + 1 = 22, so
1
L0
21 + cos x dx … 22 # s1 - 0d = 22.
1
Since 10 21 + cos x dx is bounded from above by 22 (which is 1.414 &Aacute; ), the integral
is less than 3&gt;2 .
Area Under the Graph of a Nonnegative Function
We now make precise the notion of the area of a region with curved boundary, capturing
the idea of approximating a region by increasingly many rectangles. The area under the
graph of a nonnegative continuous function is defined to be a definite integral.
DEFINITION
Area Under a Curve as a Definite Integral
If y = ƒsxd is nonnegative and integrable over a closed interval [a, b], then the
area under the curve y = ƒsxd over [a, b] is the integral of ƒ from a to b,
b
A =
La
ƒsxd dx .
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Chapter 5: Integration
For the first time we have a rigorous definition for the area of a region whose boundary is the graph of any continuous function. We now apply this to a simple example, the
area under a straight line, where we can verify that our new definition agrees with our previous notion of area.
y
b
yx
b
EXAMPLE 4
Area Under the Line y = x
b
0
b
x
FIGURE 5.12 The region in
Example 4 is a triangle.
Compute
Solution
L0
x dx and find the area A under y = x over the interval [0, b], b 7 0.
The region of interest is a triangle (Figure 5.12). We compute the area in two ways.
(a) To compute the definite integral as the limit of Riemann sums, we calculate
lim ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0 g nk = 1ƒsck d &cent;xk for partitions whose norms go to zero. Theorem 1 tells us that
it does not matter how we choose the partitions or the points ck as long as the norms
approach zero. All choices give the exact same limit. So we consider the partition P
that subdivides the interval [0, b] into n subintervals of equal width &cent;x = sb - 0d&gt;n =
b&gt;n, and we choose ck to be the right endpoint in each subinterval. The partition is
b 2b 3b
nb
kb
P = e 0, n , n , n , &Aacute; , n f and ck = n . So
n
n
k=1
k=1
n
kb # b
a ƒsck d &cent;x = a n n
ƒsck d = ck
kb 2
= a 2
k=1 n
n
b2
k
n 2 ka
=1
b 2 nsn + 1d
= 2 #
2
n
=
=
Constant Multiple Rule
Sum of First n Integers
b2
1
s1 + n d
2
As n : q and 7P7 : 0, this last expression on the right has the limit b 2&gt;2. Therefore,
b
L0
x dx =
b2
.
2
(b) Since the area equals the definite integral for a nonnegative function, we can quickly
derive the definite integral by using the formula for the area of a triangle having base
length b and height y = b. The area is A = s1&gt;2d b # b = b 2&gt;2. Again we have
b
that 10 x dx = b 2&gt;2.
Example 4 can be generalized to integrate ƒsxd = x over any closed interval
[a, b], 0 6 a 6 b.
b
La
0
x dx =
La
b
x dx +
L0
x dx
a
= -
Rule 5
b
x dx +
L0
L0
2
2
b
a
+
.
= 2
2
x dx
Rule 1
Example 4
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 351
5.3 The Definite Integral
351
In conclusion, we have the following rule for integrating f(x) = x:
b
La
x dx =
y
yx
b
a
a
a
ba
x
b
a 6 b
(1)
This computation gives the area of a trapezoid (Figure 5.13). Equation (1) remains valid
when a and b are negative. When a 6 b 6 0, the definite integral value sb 2 - a 2 d&gt;2 is a
negative number, the negative of the area of a trapezoid dropping down to the line y = x
below the x-axis. When a 6 0 and b 7 0, Equation (1) is still valid and the definite integral gives the difference between two areas, the area under the graph and above [0, b]
minus the area below [a, 0] and over the graph.
The following results can also be established using a Riemann sum calculation similar
to that in Example 4 (Exercises 75 and 76).
b
0
a2
b2
- ,
2
2
FIGURE 5.13 The area of
this trapezoidal region is
A = sb 2 - a 2 d&gt;2 .
b
La
c dx = csb - ad,
b
La
x 2 dx =
c any constant
(2)
a 6 b
(3)
a3
b3
- ,
3
3
Average Value of a Continuous Function Revisited
In Section 5.1 we introduced informally the average value of a nonnegative continuous
function ƒ over an interval [a, b], leading us to define this average as the area under the
graph of y = ƒsxd divided by b - a. In integral notation we write this as
y
y f (x)
(ck, f (ck ))
b
Average =
x1
0 x0 a
ck
x
xn b
FIGURE 5.14 A sample of values of a
function on an interval [a, b].
1
ƒsxd dx .
b - a La
We can use this formula to give a precise definition of the average value of any continuous
(or integrable) function, whether positive, negative or both.
Alternately, we can use the following reasoning. We start with the idea from arithmetic that the average of n numbers is their sum divided by n. A continuous function ƒ on
[a, b] may have infinitely many values, but we can still sample them in an orderly way. We
divide [a, b] into n subintervals of equal width &cent;x = sb - ad&gt;n and evaluate ƒ at a point
ck in each (Figure 5.14). The average of the n sampled values is
n
ƒsc1 d + ƒsc2 d + &Aacute; + ƒscn d
1
=
n
n a ƒsck d
k=1
n
=
&cent;x
ƒsck d
b - a ka
=1
=
1
ƒsck d &cent;x
b - a ka
=1
n
&cent;x =
&cent;x
b-a
1
n , so n = b - a
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352
Chapter 5: Integration
The average is obtained by dividing a Riemann sum for ƒ on [a, b] by sb - ad. As we
increase the size of the sample and let the norm of the partition approach zero, the average
b
approaches (1&gt;(b - a)) 1a ƒsxd dx . Both points of view lead us to the following definition.
DEFINITION
The Average or Mean Value of a Function
If ƒ is integrable on [a, b], then its average value on [a, b], also called its mean
value, is
b
avsƒd =
EXAMPLE 5
y
2 f (x) 兹4 x2
–2
–1
1
2
Finding an Average Value
Find the average value of ƒsxd = 24 - x 2 on [- 2, 2].
y␲
2
1
1
ƒsxd dx .
b - a La
x
FIGURE 5.15 The average value of
ƒsxd = 24 - x 2 on [ -2, 2] is p&gt;2
(Example 5).
We recognize ƒsxd = 24 - x 2 as a function whose graph is the upper semicircle of radius 2 centered at the origin (Figure 5.15).
The area between the semicircle and the x-axis from -2 to 2 can be computed using
the geometry formula
Solution
Area =
1
2
#
pr 2 =
1
2
#
ps2d2 = 2p.
Because ƒ is nonnegative, the area is also the value of the integral of ƒ from - 2 to 2,
2
L-2
24 - x 2 dx = 2p.
Therefore, the average value of ƒ is
2
avsƒd =
p
1
1
24 - x 2 dx = s2pd = .
4
2
2 - s -2d L-2
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352
Chapter 5: Integration
EXERCISES 5.3
Expressing Limits as Integrals
n
5.
1
lim a
&cent;xk , where P is a partition of [2, 3]
ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0 k = 1 1 - ck
6.
lim a 24 - ck2 &cent;xk , where P is a partition of [0, 1]
ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0
Express the limits in Exercises 1–8 as definite integrals.
n
n
1.
2.
lim a ck2
ƒ ƒPƒ ƒ :0 k = 1
n
&cent;xk , where P is a partition of [0, 2]
lim a 2ck3 &cent;xk , where P is a partition of [ -1, 0]
lim a ssec ck d &cent;xk , where P is a partition of [- p&gt;4, 0]
ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0 k = 1
n
lim a sck2 - 3ck d &cent;xk , where P is a partition of [-7, 5]
ƒ ƒPƒ ƒ :0
k=1
n
4.
7.
ƒ ƒPƒ ƒ :0 k = 1
n
3.
k=1
n
8.
lim a stan ck d &cent;xk , where P is a partition of [0, p&gt;4]
ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0
k=1
1
lim a a ck b &cent;xk , where P is a partition of [1, 4]
ƒ ƒPƒ ƒ :0 k = 1
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 353
5.3 The Definite Integral
Using Properties and Known Values to Find
Other Integrals
9. Suppose that ƒ and g are integrable and that
2
5
5
ƒsxd dx = - 4,
ƒsxd dx = 6,
g sxd dx = 8 .
L1
L1
L1
Use the rules in Table 5.3 to find
2
a.
1
g sxd dx
L2
b.
2
c.
g sxd dx
L5
L1
d.
[ƒsxd - g sxd] dx
[4ƒsxd - g sxd] dx
f.
9
ƒsxd dx = 5,
L7
L1
Use the rules in Table 5.3 to find
L7
9
a.
L1
b.
[2ƒsxd - 3hsxd] dx
L7
d.
25.
L9
L9
L1
2
11. Suppose that 11 ƒsxd dx = 5 . Find
L1
b.
L1
1
L1
L2
0
12. Suppose that 1-3 g std dt = 22 . Find
a.
g std dt
L0
b.
g sud du
0
[ - g sxd] dx
L-3
4
10 ƒszd
d.
ƒszd dz
ƒstd dt
b.
L4
L3
1
14. Suppose that h is integrable and that 1-1 hsrd dr = 0 and
3
1-1 hsrd dr = 6 . Find
3
L1
28.
L0.5
32.
u2 du
35.
L0
2a
3
L0
x dx
La
2b
37.
s 2 ds
L0
p/2
34.
x dx
La
0.3
x 2 dx
L0
u du
Lp
3
31.
t 2 dt
L0
29.
27
r dr
L22
2p
x dx
3b
x 2 dx
38.
L0
x 2 dx
-2
7 dx
L3
40.
5
5x dx
L0
42.
x
dx
L3 8
22
2
43.
s2t - 3d dt
L0
1
L2
a1 +
z
b dz
2
44.
L0
1
3u 2 du
L1
L0
s2z - 3d dz
L3
48.
24u 2 du
L1/2
2
49.
A t - 22 B dt
0
46.
2
47.
22 dx
L0
0
s3x 2 + x - 5d dx
50.
L1
s3x 2 + x - 5d dx
1
hsrd dr
b. -
L3
hsud du
Using Area to Evaluate Definite Integrals
In Exercises 15–22, graph the integrands and use areas to evaluate the
integrals.
4
15.
2.5
x dx
2
41.
3
a.
0 6 a 6 b
Use the rules in Table 5.3 and Equations (1)–(3) to evaluate the integrals in Exercises 39–50.
45.
dz = 7 . Find
4
L1
33.
g srd
L-3
3t dt,
La
1
dr
22
3
13. Suppose that ƒ is integrable and that 10 ƒszd dz = 3 and
a.
30.
39.
L-3
0
c.
27.
0
-3
b 7 0
Use the results of Equations (1) and (3) to evaluate the integrals in
Exercises 27–38.
23ƒszd dz
[- ƒsxd] dx
d.
4x dx,
L0
Evaluations
36.
2
ƒstd dt
c.
26.
23a
2
ƒsud du
0 6 a 6 b
1/2
[hsxd - ƒsxd] dx
f.
2
24.
b
2s ds,
La
7
ƒsxd dx
e.
b 7 0
522
ƒsxd dx
A 1 + 21 - x 2 B dx
L-1
b
x
dx,
L0 2
1
7
a.
L-1
1
22
[ƒsxd + hsxd] dx
L7
9
c.
hsxd dx = 4 .
9
- 2ƒsxd dx
22.
s1 - ƒ x ƒ d dx
L-1
b
9
ƒsxd dx = - 1,
s2 - ƒ x ƒ d dx
L-2
1
Use areas to evaluate the integrals in Exercises 23–26.
L1
L1
10. Suppose that ƒ and h are integrable and that
9
20.
216 - x 2 dx
L-4
1
21.
ƒsxd dx
5
e.
ƒ x ƒ dx
L-3
18.
b
L2
5
0
29 - x 2 dx
1
19.
23.
5
3ƒsxd dx
3
17.
353
x
a + 3 b dx
L-2 2
3/2
16.
L1/2
s - 2x + 4d dx
Finding Area
In Exercises 51–54 use a definite integral to find the area of the region
between the given curve and the x-axis on the interval [0, b].
51. y = 3x 2
53. y = 2x
52. y = px 2
x
54. y = + 1
2
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Chapter 5: Integration
Average Value
In Exercises 55–62, graph the function and find its average value over
the given interval.
2
55. ƒsxd = x - 1
on
2
C 0, 23 D
x
on [0, 3]
57. ƒsxd = - 3x 2 - 1
2
58. ƒsxd = 3x 2 - 3 on [0, 1]
56. ƒsxd = -
59. ƒstd = st - 1d2
60. ƒstd = t 2 - t
61. g sxd = ƒ x ƒ - 1 on a. [- 1, 1] , b. [1, 3], and c. [-1, 3]
62. hsxd = - ƒ x ƒ on a. [- 1, 0] , b. [0, 1], and c. [- 1, 1]
b
64. What values of a and b minimize the value of
a. avsƒ + gd = avsƒd + avsgd
sx 4 - 2x 2 d dx ?
65. Use the Max-Min Inequality to find upper and lower bounds for
the value of
1
1
dx .
2
L0 1 + x
66. (Continuation of Exercise 65) Use the Max-Min Inequality to
find upper and lower bounds for
1
dx
1 + x2
1
and
1
dx .
2
L0.5 1 + x
Add these to arrive at an improved estimate of
1
dx .
2
L0 1 + x
1
0
68. Show that the value of 11 2x + 8 dx lies between 222 L 2.8
and 3.
[a, b] .
76. Use limits of Riemann sums as in Example 4a to establish Equation (3).
a. Suppose the graph of a continuous function ƒ(x) rises steadily
as x moves from left to right across an interval [a, b]. Let P
be a partition of [a, b] into n subintervals of length &cent;x =
sb - ad&gt;n . Show by referring to the accompanying figure that
the difference between the upper and lower sums for ƒ on this
partition can be represented graphically as the area of a
rectangle R whose dimensions are [ƒsbd - ƒsad] by &cent;x .
(Hint: The difference U - L is the sum of areas of rectangles
whose diagonals Q0 Q1, Q1 Q2 , &Aacute; , Qn - 1Qn lie along the
curve. There is no overlapping when these rectangles are
shifted horizontally onto R.)
b. Suppose that instead of being equal, the lengths &cent;xk of the
subintervals of the partition of [a, b] vary in size. Show that
where &cent;xmax is the norm of P, and hence that lim ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0
sU - Ld = 0 .
y
69. Integrals of nonnegative functions Use the Max-Min Inequality to show that if ƒ is integrable then
y f (x)
b
[a, b]
Q
f(b) f(a)
ƒsxd dx &Uacute; 0 .
La
Q3
70. Integrals of nonpositive functions Show that if ƒ is integrable then
Q1
b
on
on
U - L … ƒ ƒsbd - ƒsad ƒ &cent;xmax ,
67. Show that the value of 10 sinsx 2 d dx cannot possibly be 2.
ƒsxd … 0
ƒsxd … g sxd
1
on
if
sany number kd
77. Upper and lower sums for increasing functions
b
ƒsxd &Uacute; 0
ƒsxd dx ?
75. Use limits of Riemann sums as in Example 4a to establish Equation (2).
sx - x 2 d dx ?
(Hint: Where is the integrand positive?)
L0
La
74. It would be nice if average values of integrable functions obeyed
the following rules on an interval [a, b].
c. avsƒd … avsgd
63. What values of a and b maximize the value of
0.5
La
b
avsƒd dx =
b. avskƒd = k avsƒd
Theory and Examples
La
b
[- 2, 1]
La
73. If av(ƒ) really is a typical value of the integrable function ƒ(x) on
[a, b], then the number av(ƒ) should have the same integral over
[a, b] that ƒ does. Does it? That is, does
on [0, 1]
on [0, 3]
on
72. The inequality sec x &Uacute; 1 + sx 2&gt;2d holds on s - p&gt;2, p&gt;2d . Use it
1
to find a lower bound for the value of 10 sec x dx .
[a, b]
Q
La
R
Q2
ƒsxd dx … 0 .
71. Use the inequality sin x … x , which holds for x &Uacute; 0 , to find an
1
upper bound for the value of 10 sin x dx .
∆x
0 x 0 a x1 x 2
xn b
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 355
5.3 The Definite Integral
78. Upper and lower sums for decreasing functions (Continuation
of Exercise 77)
355
y
a. Draw a figure like the one in Exercise 77 for a continuous
function ƒ(x) whose values decrease steadily as x moves from
left to right across the interval [a, b]. Let P be a partition of
[a, b] into subintervals of equal length. Find an expression for
U - L that is analogous to the one you found for U - L in
Exercise 77a.
y f (x)
b. Suppose that instead of being equal, the lengths &cent;xk of the
subintervals of P vary in size. Show that the inequality
0
U - L … ƒ ƒsbd - ƒsad ƒ &cent;xmax
a
x1
x2
x3
x k1 x k
x n1
x
b
y
of Exercise 77b still holds and hence that lim ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0
sU - Ld = 0 .
79. Use the formula
sin h + sin 2h + sin 3h + &Aacute; + sin mh
cos sh&gt;2d - cos ssm + s1&gt;2ddhd
=
2 sin sh&gt;2d
to find the area under the curve y = sin x from x = 0 to x = p&gt;2
in two steps:
a. Partition the interval [0, p&gt;2] into n subintervals of equal
length and calculate the corresponding upper sum U; then
b. Find the limit of U as n : q and &cent;x = sb - ad&gt;n : 0 .
0
a
xk
x k1
b
a
xk
x k1
b
x
y
80. Suppose that ƒ is continuous and nonnegative over [a, b], as in the
figure at the right. By inserting points
x1, x2 , &Aacute; , xk - 1, xk , &Aacute; , xn - 1
as shown, divide [a, b] into n subintervals of lengths &cent;x1 = x1 - a,
&cent;x2 = x2 - x1, &Aacute; , &cent;xn = b - xn - 1 , which need not be equal.
a. If mk = min 5ƒsxd for x in the k th subinterval6 , explain the
connection between the lower sum
L = m1 &cent;x1 + m2 &cent;x2 + &Aacute; + mn &cent;xn
0
x
and the shaded region in the first part of the figure.
b. If Mk = max 5ƒsxd for x in the k th subinterval6 , explain the
connection between the upper sum
U = M1 &cent;x1 + M2 &cent;x2 + &Aacute; + Mn &cent;xn
⑀
ba
Pleacher, The Mathematics Teacher, Vol. 85, No. 6, pp. 445–446,
September 1992.)
and the shaded region in the second part of the figure.
c. Explain the connection between U - L and the shaded
regions along the curve in the third part of the figure.
81. We say ƒ is uniformly continuous on [a, b] if given any P 7 0
there is a d 7 0 such that if x1, x2 are in [a, b] and ƒ x1 - x2 ƒ 6 d
then ƒ ƒsx1 d - ƒsx2 d ƒ 6 P . It can be shown that a continuous
function on [a, b] is uniformly continuous. Use this and the figure
at the right to show that if ƒ is continuous and P 7 0 is given, it is
possible to make U - L … P # sb - ad by making the largest of
the &cent;xk’s sufficiently small.
82. If you average 30 mi&gt; h on a 150-mi trip and then return over the
same 150 mi at the rate of 50 mi&gt; h, what is your average speed for
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
Finding Riemann Sums
If your CAS can draw rectangles associated with Riemann sums, use it
to draw rectangles associated with Riemann sums that converge to the
integrals in Exercises 83–88. Use n = 4 , 10, 20, and 50 subintervals
of equal length in each case.
1
83.
L0
s1 - xd dx =
1
2
1
84.
L0
sx 2 + 1d dx =
4
3
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356
Chapter 5: Integration
p
85.
L-p
p/4
cos x dx = 0
86.
L0
sec2 x dx = 1
d. Solve the equation ƒsxd = saverage valued for x using the
average value calculated in part (c) for the n = 1000
partitioning.
1
87.
L-1
2
88.
L1
c. Compute the average value of the function values generated in
part (b).
ƒ x ƒ dx = 1
1
x dx (The integral’s value is about 0.693.)
89. ƒsxd = sin x
Average Value
In Exercises 89–92, use a CAS to perform the following steps:
a. Plot the functions over the given interval.
b. Partition the interval into n = 100 , 200, and 1000 subintervals
of equal length, and evaluate the function at the midpoint of each
subinterval.
[0, p]
on
90. ƒsxd = sin2 x
1
91. ƒsxd = x sin x
1
92. ƒsxd = x sin2 x
on
on
on
[0, p]
p
c , pd
4
p
c , pd
4
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Chapter 5: Integration
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
5.4
In this section we present the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, which is the central theorem of integral calculus. It connects integration and differentiation, enabling us to compute integrals using an antiderivative of the integrand function rather than by taking limits
of Riemann sums as we did in Section 5.3. Leibniz and Newton exploited this relationship
and started mathematical developments that fueled the scientific revolution for the next
200 years.
Along the way, we present the integral version of the Mean Value Theorem, which is another important theorem of integral calculus and used to prove the Fundamental Theorem.
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
Sir Isaac Newton
(1642–1727)
Mean Value Theorem for Definite Integrals
y
y f (x)
f (c), average
height
0
a
c
ba
b
x
FIGURE 5.16 The value ƒ(c) in the
Mean Value Theorem is, in a sense, the
average (or mean) height of ƒ on [a, b].
When ƒ &Uacute; 0 , the area of the rectangle
is the area under the graph of ƒ from a
to b,
b
La
In the previous section, we defined the average value of a continuous function over a
b
closed interval [a, b] as the definite integral 1a ƒsxd dx divided by the length or width
b - a of the interval. The Mean Value Theorem for Definite Integrals asserts that this average value is always taken on at least once by the function ƒ in the interval.
The graph in Figure 5.16 shows a positive continuous function y = ƒsxd defined over
the interval [a, b]. Geometrically, the Mean Value Theorem says that there is a number c in
[a, b] such that the rectangle with height equal to the average value ƒ(c) of the function
and base width b - a has exactly the same area as the region beneath the graph of ƒ from
a to b.
THEOREM 3
The Mean Value Theorem for Definite Integrals
If ƒ is continuous on [a, b], then at some point c in [a, b],
b
ƒscd =
1
ƒsxd dx .
b - a La
ƒsxd dx .
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5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
357
Proof If we divide both sides of the Max-Min Inequality (Table 5.3, Rule 6) by sb - ad,
we obtain
b
min ƒ …
y
Since ƒ is continuous, the Intermediate Value Theorem for Continuous Functions (Section
2.6) says that ƒ must assume every value between min ƒ and max ƒ. It must therefore asb
sume the value s1&gt;sb - add 1a ƒsxd dx at some point c in [a, b].
y f (x)
1
Average value 1/2
not assumed
1
2
0
The continuity of ƒ is important here. It is possible that a discontinuous function never
equals its average value (Figure 5.17).
x
2
1
1
ƒsxd dx … max ƒ.
b - a La
FIGURE 5.17 A discontinuous function
need not assume its average value.
EXAMPLE 1
Applying the Mean Value Theorem for Integrals
Find the average value of ƒsxd = 4 - x on [0, 3] and where ƒ actually takes on this value
at some point in the given domain.
y
Solution
b
4
1
ƒsxd dx
b - a La
3
3
3
1
1
=
s4 - xd dx = a
4 dx x dxb
3 - 0 L0
3 L0
L0
02
32
1
= a4s3 - 0d - a bb
3
2
2
avsƒd =
y4x
5
2
Section 5.3, Eqs. (1) and (2)
1
= 4 0
1
3
2
2
3
4
x
FIGURE 5.18 The area of the rectangle
with base [0, 3] and height 5&gt;2 (the average
value of the function ƒsxd = 4 - x) is
equal to the area between the graph of ƒ
and the x-axis from 0 to 3 (Example 1).
5
3
= .
2
2
The average value of ƒsxd = 4 - x over [0, 3] is 5&gt;2. The function assumes this value
when 4 - x = 5&gt;2 or x = 3&gt;2. (Figure 5.18)
In Example 1, we actually found a point c where ƒ assumed its average value by setting ƒ(x) equal to the calculated average value and solving for x. It’s not always possible to
solve easily for the value c. What else can we learn from the Mean Value Theorem for integrals? Here’s an example.
EXAMPLE 2
Show that if ƒ is continuous on [a, b], a Z b, and if
b
La
ƒsxd dx = 0,
then ƒsxd = 0 at least once in [a, b].
Solution
The average value of ƒ on [a, b] is
b
avsƒd =
1
1
ƒsxd dx =
b - a La
b - a
#
0 = 0.
By the Mean Value Theorem, ƒ assumes this value at some point c H [a, b].
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358
Chapter 5: Integration
Fundamental Theorem, Part 1
If ƒ(t) is an integrable function over a finite interval I, then the integral from any fixed
number a H I to another number x H I defines a new function F whose value at x is
x
Fsxd =
area F(x)
y
y f (t)
0
a
x
b
t
La
ƒstd dt .
(1)
For example, if ƒ is nonnegative and x lies to the right of a, then F(x) is the area under the
graph from a to x (Figure 5.19). The variable x is the upper limit of integration of an integral, but F is just like any other real-valued function of a real variable. For each value of
the input x, there is a well-defined numerical output, in this case the definite integral of ƒ
from a to x.
Equation (1) gives a way to define new functions, but its importance now is the connection it makes between integrals and derivatives. If ƒ is any continuous function, then
the Fundamental Theorem asserts that F is a differentiable function of x whose derivative
is ƒ itself. At every value of x,
x
FIGURE 5.19 The function F(x) defined
by Equation (1) gives the area under the
graph of ƒ from a to x when ƒ is
nonnegative and x 7 a .
d
d
Fsxd =
ƒstd dt = ƒsxd.
dx
dx La
To gain some insight into why this result holds, we look at the geometry behind it.
If ƒ &Uacute; 0 on [a, b], then the computation of F&iquest;sxd from the definition of the derivative
means taking the limit as h : 0 of the difference quotient
Fsx + hd - Fsxd
.
h
y
For h 7 0, the numerator is obtained by subtracting two areas, so it is the area under the
graph of ƒ from x to x + h (Figure 5.20). If h is small, this area is approximately equal to
the area of the rectangle of height ƒ(x) and width h, which can be seen from Figure 5.20.
That is,
y f (t)
f (x)
0
a
x xh
Fsx + hd - Fsxd L hƒsxd.
b
t
FIGURE 5.20 In Equation (1), F(x) is
the area to the left of x. Also, Fsx + hd is
the area to the left of x + h . The
difference quotient [Fsx + hd - Fsxd]&gt;h
is then approximately equal to ƒ(x), the
height of the rectangle shown here.
Dividing both sides of this approximation by h and letting h : 0, it is reasonable to expect
that
F&iquest;sxd = lim
h:0
Fsx + hd - Fsxd
= ƒsxd .
h
This result is true even if the function ƒ is not positive, and it forms the first part of the
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
THEOREM 4
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Part 1
x
If ƒ is continuous on [a, b] then Fsxd = 1a ƒstd dt is continuous on [a, b] and
differentiable on (a, b) and its derivative is ƒsxd ;
x
F&iquest;sxd =
d
ƒstd dt = ƒsxd.
dx La
(2)
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5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
359
Before proving Theorem 4, we look at several examples to gain a better understanding
of what it says.
EXAMPLE 3
Applying the Fundamental Theorem
Use the Fundamental Theorem to find
x
(a)
d
cos t dt
dx La
(b)
d
1
dt
dx L0 1 + t 2
(c)
dy
dx
if
y =
dy
(d) dx
if
y =
x
5
Lx
3t sin t dt
x2
L1
cos t dt
Solution
x
(a)
d
cos t dt = cos x
dx La
Eq. 2 with ƒ(t) = cos t
x
d
1
1
1
dt =
Eq. 2 with ƒstd =
2
dx L0 1 + t 2
1
+
t2
1 + x
(c) Rule 1 for integrals in Table 5.3 of Section 5.3 sets this up for the Fundamental Theorem.
(b)
5
x
dy
d
d
=
3t sin t dt =
a- 3t sin t dtb
dx
dx Lx
dx
L5
x
d
= 3t sin t dt
dx L5
= - 3x sin x
Rule 1
(d) The upper limit of integration is not x but x 2 . This makes y a composite of the two
functions,
u
y =
L1
cos t dt
u = x2.
and
We must therefore apply the Chain Rule when finding dy&gt;dx.
dy
dy
=
dx
du
= a
#
du
dx
u
d
cos t dt b
du L1
= cos u
#
#
du
dx
du
dx
= cossx 2 d # 2x
= 2x cos x 2
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360
Chapter 5: Integration
EXAMPLE 4
Constructing a Function with a Given Derivative and Value
Find a function y = ƒsxd on the domain s - p&gt;2, p&gt;2d with derivative
dy
= tan x
dx
that satisfies the condition ƒs3d = 5.
Solution The Fundamental Theorem makes it easy to construct a function with derivative tan x that equals 0 at x = 3:
x
y =
tan t dt .
L3
3
Since ys3d =
tan t dt = 0, we have only to add 5 to this function to construct one
L3
with derivative tan x whose value at x = 3 is 5:
x
ƒsxd =
L3
tan t dt + 5.
Although the solution to the problem in Example 4 satisfies the two required conditions, you might ask whether it is in a useful form. The answer is yes, since today we have
computers and calculators that are capable of approximating integrals. In Chapter 7 we
will learn to write the solution in Example 4 exactly as
cos 3
y = ln ` cos x ` + 5.
We now give a proof of the Fundamental Theorem for an arbitrary continuous function.
Proof of Theorem 4 We prove the Fundamental Theorem by applying the definition of
the derivative directly to the function F(x), when x and x + h are in (a, b). This means
writing out the difference quotient
Fsx + hd - Fsxd
h
(3)
and showing that its limit as h : 0 is the number ƒ(x) for each x in (a, b).
When we replace Fsx + hd and F(x) by their defining integrals, the numerator in
Equation (3) becomes
x+h
Fsx + hd - Fsxd =
La
x
ƒstd dt -
La
ƒstd dt .
The Additivity Rule for integrals (Table 5.3, Rule 5) simplifies the right side to
x+h
ƒstd dt ,
Lx
so that Equation (3) becomes
Fsx + hd - Fsxd
1
= [Fsx + hd - Fsxd]
h
h
=
1
h Lx
x+h
ƒstd dt .
(4)
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5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
361
According to the Mean Value Theorem for Definite Integrals, the value of the last expression in Equation (4) is one of the values taken on by ƒ in the interval between x and
x + h. That is, for some number c in this interval,
1
h Lx
x+h
ƒstd dt = ƒscd.
(5)
As h : 0, x + h approaches x, forcing c to approach x also (because c is trapped between
x and x + h). Since ƒ is continuous at x, ƒ(c) approaches ƒ(x):
lim ƒscd = ƒsxd .
(6)
h:0
Going back to the beginning, then, we have
Fsx + hd - Fsxd
dF
= lim
dx
h
h:0
1
h:0 h L
x
Definition of derivative
x+h
= lim
ƒstd dt
Eq. (4)
= lim ƒscd
Eq. (5)
= ƒsxd .
Eq. (6)
h:0
If x = a or b, then the limit of Equation (3) is interpreted as a one-sided limit with h : 0 +
or h : 0 -, respectively. Then Theorem 1 in Section 3.1 shows that F is continuous for
every point of [a, b]. This concludes the proof.
Fundamental Theorem, Part 2 (The Evaluation Theorem)
We now come to the second part of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. This part
describes how to evaluate definite integrals without having to calculate limits of Riemann
sums. Instead we find and evaluate an antiderivative at the upper and lower limits of
integration.
THEOREM 4 (Continued)
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Part 2
If ƒ is continuous at every point of [a, b] and F is any antiderivative of ƒ on [a, b],
then
b
La
ƒsxd dx = Fsbd - Fsad.
Proof Part 1 of the Fundamental Theorem tells us that an antiderivative of ƒ exists, namely
x
Gsxd =
La
ƒstd dt .
Thus, if F is any antiderivative of ƒ, then Fsxd = Gsxd + C for some constant C for
a 6 x 6 b (by Corollary 2 of the Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives, Section 4.2).
Since both F and G are continuous on [a, b], we see that F(x) = G(x) + C also holds
when x = a and x = b by taking one-sided limits (as x : a + and x : b - d.
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Chapter 5: Integration
Evaluating Fsbd - Fsad, we have
b
=
a
ƒstd dt -
La
La
ƒstd dt
b
=
ƒstd dt - 0
La
b
=
La
ƒstd dt .
The theorem says that to calculate the definite integral of ƒ over [a, b] all we need to
do is:
1.
2.
Find an antiderivative F of ƒ, and
b
Calculate the number 1a ƒsxd dx = Fsbd - Fsad.
The usual notation for Fsbd - Fsad is
Fsxd d
b
b
or
a
cFsxd d ,
a
depending on whether F has one or more terms.
EXAMPLE 5
p
(a)
L0
cos x dx = sin x d
0
(b)
Evaluating Integrals
L-p&gt;4
p
= sin p - sin 0 = 0 - 0 = 0
0
sec x tan x dx = sec x d
0
-p/4
p
b = 1 - 22
4
4
4
(c)
= sec 0 - sec a-
3
4
4
a 1x - 2 b dx = cx 3/2 + x d
2
x
1
L1
4
4
= cs4d3/2 + d - cs1d3/2 + d
4
1
= [8 + 1] - [5] = 4.
The process used in Example 5 was much easier than a Riemann sum computation.
The conclusions of the Fundamental Theorem tell us several things. Equation (2) can
be rewritten as
x
dF
d
= ƒsxd,
ƒstd dt =
dx La
dx
which says that if you first integrate the function ƒ and then differentiate the result, you get
the function ƒ back again. Likewise, the equation
x
x
dF
dt =
ƒstd dt = Fsxd - Fsad
La dt
La
says that if you first differentiate the function F and then integrate the result, you get the
function F back (adjusted by an integration constant). In a sense, the processes of integraCopyright &copy; 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 363
5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
363
tion and differentiation are “inverses” of each other. The Fundamental Theorem also says
that every continuous function ƒ has an antiderivative F. And it says that the differential
equation dy&gt;dx = ƒsxd has a solution (namely, the function y = F(x)) for every continuous function ƒ.
Total Area
The Riemann sum contains terms such as ƒsck d &cent; k which give the area of a rectangle when
ƒsck d is positive. When ƒsck d is negative, then the product ƒsck d &cent; k is the negative of the
rectangle’s area. When we add up such terms for a negative function we get the negative of
the area between the curve and the x-axis. If we then take the absolute value, we obtain the
correct positive area.
EXAMPLE 6
Finding Area Using Antiderivatives
Calculate the area bounded by the x-axis and the parabola y = 6 - x - x 2 .
Solution
We find where the curve crosses the x-axis by setting
y = 0 = 6 - x - x 2 = s3 + xds2 - xd,
y
which gives
x = -3
y 6 x x2
2
L-3
–2
–1
0
1
2
␲
Area –2 2
2␲
9
27
8
b - a-18 - +
b = 20 56 .
3
2
3
The curve in Figure 5.21 is an arch of a parabola, and it is interesting to note that the area
under such an arch is exactly equal to two-thirds the base times the altitude:
25
125
2
s5d a b =
= 20 56 .
3
4
6
y sin x
Area 2
2
x3
x2
d
2
3 -3
= a12 - 2 -
y
0
s6 - x - x 2 d dx = c6x -
x
FIGURE 5.21 The area of this
parabolic arch is calculated with a
definite integral (Example 6).
1
x = 2.
The curve is sketched in Figure 5.21, and is nonnegative on [- 3, 2].
The area is
25
4
–3
or
x
–1
To compute the area of the region bounded by the graph of a function y = ƒsxd and
the x-axis requires more care when the function takes on both positive and negative values.
We must be careful to break up the interval [a, b] into subintervals on which the function
doesn’t change sign. Otherwise we might get cancellation between positive and negative
signed areas, leading to an incorrect total. The correct total area is obtained by adding the
absolute value of the definite integral over each subinterval where ƒ(x) does not change
sign. The term “area” will be taken to mean total area.
EXAMPLE 7
FIGURE 5.22 The total area between
y = sin x and the x-axis for 0 … x … 2p
is the sum of the absolute values of two
integrals (Example 7).
Canceling Areas
Figure 5.22 shows the graph of the function ƒsxd = sin x between x = 0 and x = 2p.
Compute
(a) the definite integral of ƒ(x) over [0, 2p].
(b) the area between the graph of ƒ(x) and the x-axis over [0, 2p].
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Chapter 5: Integration
The definite integral for ƒsxd = sin x is given by
Solution
2p
L0
sin x dx = - cos x d
2p
= - [cos 2p - cos 0] = - [1 - 1] = 0.
0
The definite integral is zero because the portions of the graph above and below the x-axis
make canceling contributions.
The area between the graph of ƒ(x) and the x-axis over [0, 2p] is calculated by breaking up the domain of sin x into two pieces: the interval [0, p] over which it is nonnegative
and the interval [p, 2p] over which it is nonpositive.
p
L0
2p
Lp
sin x dx = - cos x d
sin x dx = - cos x d
p
= - [cos p - cos 0] = - [- 1 - 1] = 2.
0
2p
= - [cos 2p - cos p] = - [1 - s -1d] = - 2.
p
The second integral gives a negative value. The area between the graph and the axis is obtained by adding the absolute values
Area = ƒ 2 ƒ + ƒ -2 ƒ = 4.
Summary:
To find the area between the graph of y = ƒsxd and the x-axis over the interval
[a, b], do the following:
1.
2.
3.
y
Area 5
12
–1
y x 3 x 2 2x
0
8
Area – 
3
2
x
8
3
Subdivide [a, b] at the zeros of ƒ.
Integrate ƒ over each subinterval.
Add the absolute values of the integrals.
EXAMPLE 8
Finding Area Using Antiderivatives
Find the area of the region between the x-axis and the graph of ƒ(x) = x 3 - x 2 - 2x,
- 1 … x … 2.
First find the zeros of ƒ. Since
Solution
ƒsxd = x 3 - x 2 - 2x = xsx 2 - x - 2d = xsx + 1dsx - 2d,
FIGURE 5.23 The region between the
curve y = x 3 - x 2 - 2x and the x-axis
(Example 8).
the zeros are x = 0, - 1, and 2 (Figure 5.23). The zeros subdivide [-1, 2] into two subintervals: [- 1, 0], on which ƒ &Uacute; 0, and [0, 2], on which ƒ … 0. We integrate ƒ over each
subinterval and add the absolute values of the calculated integrals.
0
L-1
sx 3 - x 2 - 2xd dx = c
2
L0
0
5
x3
x4
1
1
- x2 d = 0 - c + - 1 d =
4
3
4
3
12
-1
sx 3 - x 2 - 2xd dx = c
2
8
8
x3
x4
- x 2 d = c4 - - 4 d - 0 = 4
3
3
3
0
The total enclosed area is obtained by adding the absolute values of the calculated integrals,
Total enclosed area =
8
37
5
+ `- ` =
.
12
3
12
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365
5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
EXERCISES 5.4
Evaluating Integrals
sin x
35. y =
0
1.
4
L-2
s2x + 5d dx
4
3.
L0
4.
A x 2 + 1x B dx
6.
L-2
x
L1
dx
8.
sin x dx
L0
10.
2 sec2 x dx
L0
12.
csc u cot u du
Lp&gt;4
14.
p&gt;3
1 + cos 2t
dt
2
Lp&gt;2
16.
L-p&gt;3
18.
L-p&gt;3
sr + 1d2 dr
L1
1
21.
a
L22
22
23.
L1
20.
L-4
a4 sec2 t +
43.
y
y2
2
p
b dt
t2
x␲
L-23
y 1 cos x
st + 1dst 2 + 4d dt
u
1
- 5 b du
2
u
22.
1
1
a 3 - 4 b dy
y
L1&gt;2 y
4
s 2 + 2s
ds
s2
24.
1 - 2u
L9
44.
du
y
p
ƒ x ƒ dx
␲
6
Derivatives of Integrals
Find the derivatives in Exercises 27–30
45.
1x
t
29.
cos t dt
d
dx L1
sin x
28.
d
du L0
tan u
30.
4
d
1u du
dt L0
31. y =
L0
y sec ␪ tan ␪
sec2 y dy
x
21 + t 2 dt
32. y =
sin st 2 d dt
34. y =
1
dt,
L1 t
x2
0
33. y =
L1x
L0
y
2
3t 2 dt
–␲
4
0
Find dy&gt;dx in Exercises 31–36.
x
46.

b. by differentiating the integral directly.
d
dx L0
x
5␲
6
y
a. by evaluating the integral and differentiating the result.
27.
y sin x
1
2u
1
scos x + ƒ cos x ƒ d dx
26.
L0 2
x
␲
0
1
7
4
25.
-1 … x … 8
Find the areas of the shaded regions in Exercises 43–46.
23
-1
19.
-2 … x … 2
-1 … x … 8
42. y = x 1&gt;3 - x,
1 - cos 2t
dt
2
-p&gt;4
s8y 2 + sin yd dy
L-p&gt;2
41. y = x 1&gt;3,
4 sec u tan u du
L0
p&gt;2
17.
40. y = x - 4x,
0 … x … 2
p&gt;3
0
15.
3
csc2 x dx
Lp&gt;6
-2 … x … 2
39. y = x 3 - 3x 2 + 2x,
5p&gt;6
3p&gt;4
13.
38. y = 3x - 3,
s1 + cos xd dx
L0
-3 … x … 2
2
p
p&gt;3
11.
37. y = - x 2 - 2x,
2
dx
x2
L-2
Area
In Exercises 37–42, find the total area between the region and the
x-axis.
x 3&gt;2 dx
L0
p
9.
sx 3 - 2x + 3d dx
-1
-6&gt;5
x
b dx
2
5
32
7.
a5 -
L-3
p
ƒxƒ 6 2
,
2
x3
b dx
4
L0
1
5.
a3x -
2.
dt
L0
21 - t 2
0
dt
36. y =
1
+
t2
Ltan x
Evaluate the integrals in Exercises 1–26.
–兹2
␲
4
␪
1
y sec 2 t
–␲
4
x 7 0
cos 1t dt
y 1 t2
0
1
t
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Chapter 5: Integration
Initial Value Problems
Drawing Conclusions About Motion from Graphs
Each of the following functions solves one of the initial value problems in Exercises 47–50. Which function solves which problem? Give
59. Suppose that ƒ is the differentiable function shown in the accompanying graph and that the position at time t (sec) of a particle
moving along a coordinate axis is
x
a. y =
x
1
dt - 3
L1 t
b. y =
x
c. y =
L-1
dy
1
= x,
47.
dx
t
sec t dt + 4
L0
s =
ƒsxd dx
L0
x
d. y =
sec t dt + 4
48. y&iquest; = sec x,
yspd = - 3
49. y&iquest; = sec x,
1
dt - 3
Lp t
1
50. y&iquest; = x ,
ys0d = 4
ys -1d = 4
ys1d = - 3
Express the solutions of the initial value problems in Exercises 51–54
in terms of integrals.
dy
= sec x, ys2d = 3
51.
dx
dy
= 21 + x 2,
52.
dx
meters. Use the graph to answer the following questions. Give
ys1d = - 2
y
y f (x)
4
(3, 3)
3
2
1
0
–1
(5, 2)
(2, 2)
(1, 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
x
9
–2
ds
= ƒstd,
53.
dt
sst0 d = s0
dy
= g std,
54.
dt
yst0 d = y0
a. What is the particle’s velocity at time t = 5 ?
b. Is the acceleration of the particle at time t = 5 positive, or
negative?
c. What is the particle’s position at time t = 3 ?
Applications
55. Archimedes’ area formula for parabolas Archimedes
(287–212 B.C.), inventor, military engineer, physicist, and the
greatest mathematician of classical times in the Western world, discovered that the area under a parabolic arch is two-thirds the base
times the height. Sketch the parabolic arch y = h - s4h&gt;b 2 dx 2,
-b&gt;2 … x … b&gt;2 , assuming that h and b are positive. Then use
calculus to find the area of the region enclosed between the arch
and the x-axis.
56. Revenue from marginal revenue Suppose that a company’s
marginal revenue from the manufacture and sale of egg beaters is
d. At what time during the first 9 sec does s have its largest
value?
e. Approximately when is the acceleration zero?
f. When is the particle moving toward the origin? away from the
origin?
g. On which side of the origin does the particle lie at time
t = 9?
60. Suppose that g is the differentiable function graphed here and that
the position at time t (sec) of a particle moving along a coordinate
axis is
t
dr
= 2 - 2&gt;sx + 1d2 ,
dx
where r is measured in thousands of dollars and x in thousands of
units. How much money should the company expect from a production run of x = 3 thousand egg beaters? To find out, integrate
the marginal revenue from x = 0 to x = 3 .
57. Cost from marginal cost The marginal cost of printing a poster
when x posters have been printed is
s =
y
8
(7, 6.5)
(6, 6)
6
y g(x)
2
3
dollars. Find cs100d - cs1d , the cost of printing posters 2–100.
58. (Continuation of Exercise 57.) Find cs400d - cs100d , the cost of
printing posters 101–400.
g sxd dx
meters. Use the graph to answer the following questions. Give
4
dc
1
=
dx
2 1x
L0
6
–2
–4
–6
9
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 367
5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
a. What is the particle’s velocity at t = 3 ?
b. Is the acceleration at time t = 3 positive, or negative?
a. h is a twice-differentiable function of x.
c. What is the particle’s position at time t = 3 ?
b. h and dh&gt;dx are both continuous.
d. When does the particle pass through the origin?
c. The graph of h has a horizontal tangent at x = 1 .
e. When is the acceleration zero?
d. h has a local maximum at x = 1 .
f. When is the particle moving away from the origin? toward the
origin?
e. h has a local minimum at x = 1 .
g. On which side of the origin does the particle lie at t = 9 ?
f. The graph of h has an inflection point at x = 1 .
g. The graph of dh&gt;dx crosses the x-axis at x = 1 .
T 69. The Fundamental Theorem
Theory and Examples
61. Show that if k is a positive constant, then the area between the
x-axis and one arch of the curve y = sin k x is 2&gt;k .
62. Find
x
lim
x: 0
63. Suppose
x
11
2
t
1
dt .
x 3 L0 t 4 + 1
ƒstd dt = x 2 - 2x + 1 . Find ƒ(x).
x
64. Find ƒ(4) if 10 ƒstd dt = x cos px .
65. Find the linearization of
x+1
ƒsxd = 2 -
L2
9
dt
1 + t
at x = 1 .
66. Find the linearization of
lim
h:0
If ƒ is continuous, we expect
1
h Lx
x+h
ƒstd dt
to equal ƒ(x), as in the proof of Part 1 of the Fundamental Theorem. For instance, if ƒstd = cos t , then
1
h Lx
x+h
cos t dt =
sin sx + hd - sin x
.
h
(7)
The right-hand side of Equation (7) is the difference quotient for
the derivative of the sine, and we expect its limit as h : 0 to be
cos x.
Graph cos x for -p … x … 2p . Then, in a different color if
possible, graph the right-hand side of Equation (7) as a function
of x for h = 2, 1, 0.5 , and 0.1. Watch how the latter curves converge to the graph of the cosine as h : 0 .
T 70. Repeat Exercise 69 for ƒstd = 3t 2 . What is
x2
g sxd = 3 +
367
sec st - 1d dt
L1
lim
h:0
at x = - 1 .
67. Suppose that ƒ has a positive derivative for all values of x and that
ƒs1d = 0 . Which of the following statements must be true of the
function
1
h Lx
sx + hd3 - x 3
?
h
h:0
x+h
3t 2 dt = lim
Graph ƒsxd = 3x 2 for -1 … x … 1 . Then graph the quotient
ssx + hd3 - x 3 d&gt;h as a function of x for h = 1, 0.5, 0.2 , and 0.1.
Watch how the latter curves converge to the graph of 3x 2 as
h : 0.
x
g sxd =
ƒstd dt ?
L0
x
a. g is a differentiable function of x.
b. g is a continuous function of x.
c. The graph of g has a horizontal tangent at x = 1 .
d. g has a local maximum at x = 1 .
e. g has a local minimum at x = 1 .
f. The graph of g has an inflection point at x = 1 .
g. The graph of dg&gt;dx crosses the x-axis at x = 1 .
68. Suppose that ƒ has a negative derivative for all values of x and
that ƒs1d = 0 . Which of the following statements must be true of
the function
x
hsxd =
L0
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
ƒstd dt ?
In Exercises 71–74, let Fsxd = 1a ƒstd dt for the specified function ƒ
and interval [a, b]. Use a CAS to perform the following steps and answer the questions posed.
a. Plot the functions ƒ and F together over [a, b].
b. Solve the equation F&iquest;sxd = 0 . What can you see to be true about
the graphs of ƒ and F at points where F&iquest;sxd = 0 ? Is your
observation borne out by Part 1 of the Fundamental Theorem
coupled with information provided by the first derivative?
c. Over what intervals (approximately) is the function F increasing
and decreasing? What is true about ƒ over those intervals?
d. Calculate the derivative ƒ&iquest; and plot it together with F. What can
you see to be true about the graph of F at points where
ƒ&iquest;sxd = 0 ? Is your observation borne out by Part 1 of the
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 368
368
Chapter 5: Integration
71. ƒsxd = x 3 - 4x 2 + 3x,
[0, 4]
9
72. ƒsxd = 2x 4 - 17x 3 + 46x 2 - 43x + 12, c0, d
2
x
73. ƒsxd = sin 2x cos ,
3
74. ƒsxd = x cos px,
d. Using the information from parts (a)–(c), draw a rough handsketch of y = Fsxd over its domain. Then graph F(x) on your
75. a = 1,
[0, 2p]
[0, 2p]
u(x)
In Exercises 75–78, let Fsxd = 1a ƒstd dt for the specified a, u, and
ƒ. Use a CAS to perform the following steps and answer the questions
posed.
a. Find the domain of F.
b. Calculate F&iquest;sxd and determine its zeros. For what points in its
domain is F increasing? decreasing?
c. Calculate F–sxd and determine its zero. Identify the local
extrema and the points of inflection of F.
usxd = x 2,
2
ƒsxd = 21 - x 2
ƒsxd = 21 - x 2
76. a = 0,
usxd = x ,
77. a = 0,
usxd = 1 - x,
78. a = 0,
2
usxd = 1 - x ,
ƒsxd = x 2 - 2x - 3
ƒsxd = x 2 - 2x - 3
In Exercises 79 and 80, assume that f is continuous and u(x) is twicedifferentiable.
usxd
79. Calculate
d
dx La
80. Calculate
d2
dx 2 La
usxd
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368
Chapter 5: Integration
5.5
Indefinite Integrals and the Substitution Rule
A definite integral is a number defined by taking the limit of Riemann sums associated
with partitions of a finite closed interval whose norms go to zero. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus says that a definite integral of a continuous function can be computed easily if we can find an antiderivative of the function. Antiderivatives generally turn out to be
more difficult to find than derivatives. However, it is well worth the effort to learn techniques for computing them.
Recall from Section 4.8 that the set of all antiderivatives of the function ƒ is called the
indefinite integral of ƒ with respect to x, and is symbolized by
L
ƒsxd dx.
The connection between antiderivatives and the definite integral stated in the Fundamental
Theorem now explains this notation. When finding the indefinite integral of a function ƒ,
remember that it always includes an arbitrary constant C.
We must distinguish carefully between definite and indefinite integrals. A definite inb
tegral 1a ƒsxd dx is a number. An indefinite integral 1 ƒsxd dx is a function plus an arbitrary constant C.
So far, we have only been able to find antiderivatives of functions that are clearly recognizable as derivatives. In this section we begin to develop more general techniques for
finding antiderivatives. The first integration techniques we develop are obtained by inverting rules for finding derivatives, such as the Power Rule and the Chain Rule.
The Power Rule in Integral Form
If u is a differentiable function of x and n is a rational number different from -1, the
Chain Rule tells us that
un+1
du
d
.
b = un
a
dx n + 1
dx
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369
5.5 Indefinite Integrals and the Substitution Rule
From another point of view, this same equation says that u n + 1&gt;sn + 1d is one of the antiderivatives of the function u nsdu&gt;dxd. Therefore,
L
au n
un+1
du
b dx =
+ C.
n
+ 1
dx
The integral on the left-hand side of this equation is usually written in the simpler “differential” form,
L
u n du,
obtained by treating the dx’s as differentials that cancel. We are thus led to the following
rule.
If u is any differentiable function, then
L
u n du =
un+1
+ C
n + 1
sn Z - 1, n rationald.
(1)
Equation (1) actually holds for any real exponent n Z - 1, as we see in Chapter 7.
In deriving Equation (1), we assumed u to be a differentiable function of the variable
x, but the name of the variable does not matter and does not appear in the final formula.
We could have represented the variable with u, t, y , or any other letter. Equation (1) says
that whenever we can cast an integral in the form
L
u n du,
sn Z - 1d,
with u a differentiable function and du its differential, we can evaluate the integral as
[u n + 1&gt;sn + 1d] + C.
EXAMPLE 1
Using the Power Rule
L
21 + y 2 # 2y dy =
=
L
1u # a
du
b dy
dy
Let u = 1 + y 2 ,
du&gt;dy = 2y
u 1&gt;2 du
L
u s1&gt;2d + 1
=
+ C
s1&gt;2d + 1
Integrate, using Eq. (1)
with n = 1&gt;2 .
=
2 3&gt;2
u
+ C
3
Simpler form
=
2
s1 + y 2 d3&gt;2 + C
3
Replace u by 1 + y 2 .
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370
Chapter 5: Integration
EXAMPLE 2
Adjusting the Integrand by a Constant
L
1#
24t - 1 # 4 dt
L4
du
1
1u # a b dt
=
4L
dt
1
u 1&gt;2 du
=
4L
1 # u 3&gt;2
=
+ C
4 3&gt;2
24t - 1 dt =
Let u = 4t - 1 ,
du&gt;dt = 4 .
With the 1&gt;4 out front,
the integral is now in
standard form.
Integrate, using Eq. (1)
with n = 1&gt;2 .
=
1 3&gt;2
u
+ C
6
Simpler form
=
1
s4t - 1d3&gt;2 + C
6
Replace u by 4t - 1 .
Substitution: Running the Chain Rule Backwards
The substitutions in Examples 1 and 2 are instances of the following general rule.
THEOREM 5
The Substitution Rule
If u = gsxd is a differentiable function whose range is an interval I and ƒ is continuous on I, then
L
ƒsgsxddg&iquest;sxd dx =
L
ƒsud du.
Proof The rule is true because, by the Chain Rule, F(g(x)) is an antiderivative of
ƒsgsxdd # g&iquest;sxd whenever F is an antiderivative of ƒ:
d
Fsgsxdd = F&iquest;sgsxdd # g&iquest;sxd
dx
= ƒs gsxdd # g&iquest;sxd.
Chain Rule
Because F&iquest; = ƒ
If we make the substitution u = gsxd then
L
d
Fsgsxdd dx
dx
L
= Fsgsxdd + C
= Fsud + C
ƒsgsxddg&iquest;sxd dx =
Fundamental Theorem
u = gsxd
=
L
F&iquest;sud du
Fundamental Theorem
=
L
ƒsud du
F&iquest; = ƒ
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 371
5.5 Indefinite Integrals and the Substitution Rule
371
The Substitution Rule provides the following method to evaluate the integral
L
ƒsgsxddg&iquest;sxd dx ,
when ƒ and g&iquest; are continuous functions:
1. Substitute u = gsxd and du = g&iquest;sxd dx to obtain the integral
L
ƒsud du .
2. Integrate with respect to u.
3. Replace u by g(x) in the result.
EXAMPLE 3
Using Substitution
L
cos u #
cos s7u + 5d du =
1
du
7
L
1
=
cos u du
7L
1
= sin u + C
7
=
1
sin s7u + 5d + C
7
Let u = 7u + 5, du = 7 du,
s1&gt;7d du = du .
With the (1&gt;7) out front, the
integral is now in standard form.
Integrate with respect to u,
Table 4.2.
Replace u by 7u + 5 .
We can verify this solution by differentiating and checking that we obtain the original
function cos s7u + 5d .
EXAMPLE 4
Using Substitution
L
x 2 sin sx 3 d dx =
L
=
sin sx 3 d # x 2 dx
1
sin u # du
3
L
1
=
sin u du
3L
1
= s - cos ud + C
3
= -
1
cos sx 3 d + C
3
Let u = x 3,
du = 3x 2 dx,
s1&gt;3d du = x 2 dx .
Integrate with respect to u.
Replace u by x 3 .
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372
Chapter 5: Integration
EXAMPLE 5
Using Identities and Substitution
1
dx =
sec2 2x dx
2
L cos 2x
L
1
=
sec2 u # du
2
L
1
sec2 u du
=
2L
1
= tan u + C
2
=
1
tan 2x + C
2
1
= sec 2x
cos 2x
u = 2x,
du = 2 dx,
dx = s1&gt;2d du
d
tan u = sec2 u
du
u = 2x
The success of the substitution method depends on finding a substitution that changes
an integral we cannot evaluate directly into one that we can. If the first substitution fails,
try to simplify the integrand further with an additional substitution or two (see Exercises
49 and 50). Alternatively, we can start fresh. There can be more than one good way to start,
as in the next example.
EXAMPLE 6
Using Different Substitutions
Evaluate
2z dz
.
3 2
L 2
z + 1
Solution We can use the substitution method of integration as an exploratory tool: Substitute for the most troublesome part of the integrand and see how things work out. For the
integral here, we might try u = z 2 + 1 or we might even press our luck and take u to be
the entire cube root. Here is what happens in each case.
Solution 1: Substitute u = z 2 + 1.
2z dz
3 2
L 2
z + 1
=
du
u
L 1&gt;3
u -1&gt;3 du
L
u 2&gt;3
=
+ C
2&gt;3
=
=
3 2&gt;3
u
+ C
2
=
3 2
sz + 1d2&gt;3 + C
2
Let u = z 2 + 1,
du = 2z dz .
In the form 1 u n du
Integrate with respect to u.
Replace u by z 2 + 1 .
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 373
5.5 Indefinite Integrals and the Substitution Rule
373
3
Solution 2: Substitute u = 2z 2 + 1 instead.
2z dz
3 2
L 2
z + 1
=
L
= 3
L
= 3#
=
3 2
z + 1,
Let u = 2
3
2
u = z + 1,
3u 2 du = 2z dz.
3u 2 du
u
u du
u2
+ C
2
Integrate with respect to u.
3 2
sz + 1d2&gt;3 + C
2
Replace u by sz 2 + 1d1&gt;3 .
The Integrals of sin2 x and cos2 x
Sometimes we can use trigonometric identities to transform integrals we do not know how
to evaluate into ones we can using the substitution rule. Here is an example giving the integral formulas for sin2 x and cos2 x which arise frequently in applications.
EXAMPLE 7
(a)
(b)
L
L
1 - cos 2x
1 - cos 2x
sin2 x =
dx
2
2
L
1
1
1
=
s1 - cos 2xd dx =
dx cos 2x dx
2L
2L
2L
sin 2x
x
1
1 sin 2x
+ C = + C
= x 2
2 2
2
4
sin2 x dx =
1 + cos 2x
dx
2
L
sin 2x
x
+ C
= +
2
4
cos2 x dx =
y
1 + cos 2x
2
As in part (a), but
with a sign change
Area Beneath the Curve y = sin2 x
EXAMPLE 8
y sin 2 x
1
cos2 x =
Figure 5.24 shows the graph of gsxd = sin2 x over the interval [0, 2p]. Find
(a) the definite integral of g sxd over [0, 2p].
(b) the area between the graph of the function and the x-axis over [0, 2p].
1
2
Solution
0
␲
2
␲
2␲
x
(a) From Example 7(a), the definite integral is
2p
L0
FIGURE 5.24 The area beneath the
curve y = sin2 x over [0, 2p] equals p
square units (Example 8).
sin2 x dx = c
2p
sin 2x
sin 4p
0
sin 0
x
2p
d = c
d - c d
2
4 0
2
4
2
4
= [p - 0] - [0 - 0] = p.
(b) The function sin2 x is nonnegative, so the area is equal to the definite integral, or p.
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374
Chapter 5: Integration
EXAMPLE 9
V
Vmax
V Vmax sin 120 ␲ t
Household Electricity
We can model the voltage in our home wiring with the sine function
2V
Vav ␲max
V = Vmax sin 120pt,
1
60
0
1
120
t
which expresses the voltage V in volts as a function of time t in seconds. The function runs
through 60 cycles each second (its frequency is 60 hertz, or 60 Hz). The positive constant
Vmax (“vee max”) is the peak voltage.
The average value of V over the half-cycle from 0 to 1&gt;120 sec (see Figure 5.25) is
1&gt;120
1
Vmax sin 120pt dt
s1&gt;120d - 0 L0
1&gt;120
1
= 120Vmax ccos 120pt d
120p
0
Vav =
FIGURE 5.25 The graph of the voltage
V = Vmax sin 120pt over a full cycle. Its
average value over a half-cycle is 2Vmax&gt;p .
Its average value over a full cycle is zero
(Example 9).
=
Vmax
p [- cos p + cos 0]
=
2Vmax
p .
The average value of the voltage over a full cycle is zero, as we can see from Figure 5.25.
(Also see Exercise 63.) If we measured the voltage with a standard moving-coil galvanometer, the meter would read zero.
To measure the voltage effectively, we use an instrument that measures the square root
of the average value of the square of the voltage, namely
Vrms = 2sV 2 dav .
The subscript “rms” (read the letters separately) stands for “root mean square.” Since the
average value of V 2 = sVmax d2 sin2 120pt over a cycle is
sV 2 dav =
1&gt;60
sVmax d2
1
,
sVmax d2 sin2 120pt dt =
2
s1&gt;60d - 0 L0
(Exercise 63, part c), the rms voltage is
Vrms =
sVmax d2
Vmax
=
.
2
B
22
The values given for household currents and voltages are always rms values. Thus, “115 volts
ac” means that the rms voltage is 115. The peak voltage, obtained from the last equation, is
Vmax = 22 Vrms = 22 # 115 L 163 volts,
which is considerably higher.
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374
Chapter 5: Integration
EXERCISES 5.5
Evaluating Integrals
Evaluate the indefinite integrals in Exercises 1–12 by using the given
substitutions to reduce the integrals to standard form.
3.
L
sec 2t tan 2t dt,
u = 2t
2
1.
L
sin 3x dx,
u = 3x
2.
L
x sin s2x 2 d dx,
u = 2x 2
4.
t
t
a1 - cos b sin dt,
2
2
L
u = 1 - cos
t
2
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 375
5.5 Indefinite Integrals and the Substitution Rule
5.
L
6.
L
28s7x - 2d-5 dx,
x 3sx 4 - 1d2 dx,
9r 2 dr
7.
L 21 - r 3
8.
L
9.
L
37.
1
1
cos2 a x b dx,
2
Lx
11.
csc2 2u cot 2u du
u = y 4 + 4y 2 + 1
u = x 3&gt;2 - 1
1
u = -x
L
a. Using u = cot 2u
b. Using u = csc 2u
dx
L 25x + 8
b. Using u = 25x + 8
a. Using u = 5x + 8
Evaluate the integrals in Exercises 13–48.
13.
15.
17.
L
23 - 2s ds
14.
1
ds
L 25s + 4
16.
4
L
u 2 1 - u 2 du
18.
L
L
21.
1
dx
2
L 1x s1 + 1xd
22.
23.
L
cos s3z + 4d dz
24.
L
25.
L
sec2 s3x + 2d dx
26.
L
x
x
sin cos dx
27.
3
3
L
5
r3
r2 a
- 1 b dr
29.
18
L
31.
33.
34.
35.
L
L
44.
L
45.
L
47.
L
L
1x
cos 2u
L 2u sin2 2u
49.
ss 3 + 2s 2 - 5s + 5ds3s 2 + 4s - 5d ds
su4 - 2u2 + 8u - 2dsu3 - u + 2d du
t 3s1 + t 4 d3 dt
46.
x 3 2x 2 + 1 dx
48.
x - 1
dx
A
x5
L
L
18 tan2 x sec2 x
dx
3 2
L s2 + tan xd
a. u = tan x , followed by y = u 3 , then by w = 2 + y
50.
21 + sin2 sx - 1d sin sx - 1d cos sx - 1d dx
L
a. u = x - 1 , followed by y = sin u , then by w = 1 + y2
b. u = sin sx - 1d , followed by y = 1 + u 2
dx
sin s8z - 5d dz
tan2 x sec2 x dx
c. u = 1 + sin2 sx - 1d
Evaluate the integrals in Exercises 51 and 52.
s2r - 1d cos 23s2r - 1d2 + 6
dr
51.
L
23s2r - 1d2 + 6
52.
sin 2u
L 2u cos3 1u
du
Initial Value Problems
Solve the initial value problems in Exercises 53–58.
53.
ds
= 12t s3t 2 - 1d3,
dt
p
p
b tan ay + b dy
2
2
54.
dy
= 4x sx 2 + 8d-1&gt;3,
dx
y - p
y - p
b cot a
b dy
2
2
55.
ds
p
= 8 sin2 at +
b,
12
dt
s s0d = 8
56.
dr
p
= 3 cos2 a - u b,
4
du
r s0d =
L
sec ay +
L
csc a
sin s2t + 1d
2
L cos s2t + 1d
dt
32.
36.
L
3x 5 2x 3 + 1 dx
c. u = 2 + tan3 x
7
x 1&gt;2 sin sx 3&gt;2 + 1d dx
du
If you do not know what substitution to make, try reducing the integral
step by step, using a trial substitution to simplify the integral a bit and
then another to simplify it some more. You will see what we mean if
you try the sequences of substitutions in Exercises 49 and 50.
L 22y 2 + 1
s1 + 1xd3
42.
Simplifying Integrals Step by Step
3 2
8u 2
u - 1 du
x
x
tan sec2 dx
28.
2
2
L
3
r5
r 4 a7 b dr
30.
10
L
5
38.
b. u = tan3 x , followed by y = 2 + u
4y dy
20.
L
s2x + 1d3 dx
43.
3 dx
2
L s2 - xd
3y 27 - 3y dy
19.
2
sec z tan z
dz
L 2sec z
1
cos s 1t + 3d dt
40.
L 1t
2cot y csc2 y dy
39.
12s y 4 + 4y 2 + 1d2s y 3 + 2yd dy,
1x sin2 sx 3&gt;2 - 1d dx,
L
1
1
cos a t - 1 b dt
2
Lt
1
1
1
sin cos du
41.
2
u
u
u
L
u = x4 - 1
u = 1 - r3
,
10.
12.
u = 7x - 2
375
x 1&gt;3 sin sx 4&gt;3 - 8d dx
6 cos t
dt
s2
+ sin td3
L
s s1d = 3
y s0d = 0
p
8
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376
Chapter 5: Integration
d 2s
p
= - 4 sin a2t - b , s&iquest;s0d = 100, s s0d = 0
2
dt 2
d 2y
= 4 sec2 2x tan 2x, y&iquest;s0d = 4, y s0d = - 1
58.
dx 2
59. The velocity of a particle moving back and forth on a line is
y = ds&gt;dt = 6 sin 2t m&gt;sec for all t. If s = 0 when t = 0 , find
the value of s when t = p&gt;2 sec .
57.
60. The acceleration of a particle moving back and forth on a line is
a = d 2s&gt;dt 2 = p2 cos pt m&gt;sec2 for all t. If s = 0 and y =
8 m/sec when t = 0 , find s when t = 1 sec .
Theory and Examples
b.
c.
L
2 sin x cos x dx =
L
2 sin x cos x dx =
L
2u du
u = sin x ,
L
= u 2 + C1 = sin2 x + C1
- 2u du
u = cos x ,
L
= - u 2 + C2 = - cos2 x + C2
2 sin x cos x dx =
62. The substitution u = tan x gives
L
sec2 x tan x dx =
L
u du =
tan2 x
u2
+ C =
+ C.
2
2
The substitution u = sec x gives
L
sec2 x tan x dx =
L
u du =
sec2 x
u2
+ C =
+ C.
2
2
63. (Continuation of Example 9.)
61. It looks as if we can integrate 2 sin x cos x with respect to x in
three different ways:
a.
a. Show by evaluating the integral in the expression
1
s1&gt;60d - 0 L0
Vmax sin 120 pt dt
that the average value of V = Vmax sin 120 pt over a full cycle
is zero.
b. The circuit that runs your electric stove is rated 240 volts rms.
What is the peak value of the allowable voltage?
c. Show that
1&gt;60
sin 2x dx 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x
L
cos 2x
= + C3 .
2
1&gt;60
L0
sVmax d2 sin2 120 pt dt =
sVmax d2
.
120
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376
Chapter 5: Integration
5.6
Substitution and Area Between Curves
There are two methods for evaluating a definite integral by substitution. The first method
is to find an antiderivative using substitution, and then to evaluate the definite integral by
applying the Fundamental Theorem. We used this method in Examples 8 and 9 of the preceding section. The second method extends the process of substitution directly to definite
integrals. We apply the new formula introduced here to the problem of computing the area
between two curves.
Substitution Formula
In the following formula, the limits of integration change when the variable of integration
is changed by substitution.
THEOREM 6
Substitution in Definite Integrals
If g&iquest; is continuous on the interval [a, b] and ƒ is continuous on the range of g, then
b
La
gsbd
ƒsgsxdd # g&iquest;sxd dx =
ƒsud du
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5.6 Substitution and Area Between Curves
377
Proof Let F denote any antiderivative of ƒ. Then,
b
La
ƒsgsxdd # g&iquest;sxd dx
= Fsgsxdd d
x=b
x=a
= Fsud d
u = gsbd
gsbd
=
Fundamental
Theorem, Part 2
ƒsud du .
d
Fsgsxdd
dx
= F&iquest;sgsxddg&iquest;sxd
= ƒsgsxddg&iquest;sxd
To use the formula, make the same u-substitution u = gsxd and du = g&iquest;sxd dx you
would use to evaluate the corresponding indefinite integral. Then integrate the transformed integral with respect to u from the value g (a) (the value of u at x = a) to the value
g(b) (the value of u at x = b).
EXAMPLE 1
1
Evaluate
Solution
L-1
Substitution by Two Methods
3x 2 2x 3 + 1 dx.
We have two choices.
Method 1: Transform the integral and evaluate the transformed integral with the trans-
formed limits given in Theorem 6.
1
L-1
3x 2 2x 3 + 1 dx
2
=
1u du
L0
2
2
= u 3&gt;2 d
3
0
=
Let u = x 3 + 1, du = 3x 2 dx .
When x = - 1, u = s -1d3 + 1 = 0 .
When x = 1, u = s1d3 + 1 = 2 .
Evaluate the new definite integral.
422
2 3&gt;2
2
c2 - 0 3&gt;2 d = c222 d =
3
3
3
Method 2: Transform the integral as an indefinite integral, integrate, change back to x, and
use the original x-limits.
3x 2 2x 3 + 1 dx =
1u du
L
2
= u 3&gt;2 + C
3
L
=
1
L-1
3x 2 2x 3 + 1 dx =
Let u = x 3 + 1, du = 3x 2 dx .
Integrate with respect to u.
2 3
sx + 1d3&gt;2 + C
3
1
2 3
sx + 1d3&gt;2 d
3
-1
Replace u by x 3 + 1 .
Use the integral just found,
with limits of integration for x.
=
2
css1d3 + 1d3&gt;2 - ss -1d3 + 1d3&gt;2 d
3
=
422
2 3&gt;2
2
c2 - 0 3&gt;2 d = c222 d =
3
3
3
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378
Chapter 5: Integration
Which method is better—evaluating the transformed definite integral with transformed limits using Theorem 6, or transforming the integral, integrating, and transforming
back to use the original limits of integration? In Example 1, the first method seems easier,
but that is not always the case. Generally, it is best to know both methods and to use
whichever one seems better at the time.
EXAMPLE 2
Using the Substitution Formula
p&gt;2
0
cot u csc2 u du =
Lp&gt;4
u # s - dud
L1
0
= -
Let u = cot u, du
- du
When u = p&gt;4, u
When u = p&gt;2, u
=
=
=
=
- csc2 u du,
csc2 u du.
cot (p&gt;4) = 1.
cot (p&gt;2) = 0.
u du
L1
0
= -c
u2
d
2 1
= -c
s1d2
s0d2
1
d =
2
2
2
Definite Integrals of Symmetric Functions
The Substitution Formula in Theorem 6 simplifies the calculation of definite integrals of
even and odd functions (Section 1.4) over a symmetric interval [-a, a] (Figure 5.26).
y
y
0
–a
–a
0
a
a
x
(b)
(a)
a
a
a
FIGURE 5.26 (a) ƒ even, 1-a ƒsxd dx = 2 10 ƒsxd dx (b) ƒ odd, 1-a ƒsxd dx = 0
Theorem 7
Let ƒ be continuous on the symmetric interval [- a, a].
a
(a) If ƒ is even, then
L-a
a
ƒsxd dx = 2
L0
ƒsxd dx .
a
(b) If ƒ is odd, then
L-a
ƒ(x) dx = 0.
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 379
5.6 Substitution and Area Between Curves
379
Proof of Part (a)
a
0
ƒsxd dx =
L-a
a
ƒsxd dx +
L-a
ƒsxd dx
L0
a
-a
= -
ƒsxd dx +
L0
L0
ƒsxd dx
Order of Integration Rule
a
Let u = - x, du = - dx .
When x = 0, u = 0 .
When x = - a, u = a .
a
= y
L0
ƒs - uds - dud +
a
Upper curve
y f(x)
=
b
x
ƒs - ud du +
L0
L0
L0
ƒsxd dx
a
L0
a
=
a
Definite Integrals
ƒsxd dx
a
ƒsud du +
L0
ƒsxd dx
ƒ is even, so
ƒs -ud = ƒsud .
a
= 2
L0
Lower curve
y g(x)
ƒsxd dx
The proof of part (b) is entirely similar and you are asked to give it in Exercise 86.
FIGURE 5.27 The region between
the curves y = ƒsxd and y = gsxd
and the lines x = a and x = b .
The assertions of Theorem 7 remain true when ƒ is an integrable function (rather than
having the stronger property of being continuous), but the proof is somewhat more difficult and best left to a more advanced course.
y
y f (x)
EXAMPLE 3
Integral of an Even Function
2
a x 0 x1
x n1
x2
Evaluate
x
b xn
L-2
sx 4 - 4x 2 + 6d dx .
Since ƒsxd = x 4 - 4x 2 + 6 satisfies ƒs -xd = ƒsxd, it is even on the symmetric interval [- 2, 2], so
Solution
y g(x)
2
FIGURE 5.28 We approximate the
region with rectangles perpendicular
to the x-axis.
L-2
2
sx 4 - 4x 2 + 6d dx = 2
sx 4 - 4x 2 + 6d dx
L0
2
x5
4
= 2 c - x 3 + 6x d
5
3
0
= 2 a
y
32
232
32
+ 12b =
.
5
3
15
(ck , f (ck ))
Areas Between Curves
f (ck ) g(ck )
a
Ak
ck
b
(ck , g(ck ))
xk
FIGURE 5.29 The area &cent;Ak of the kth
rectangle is the product of its height,
ƒsck d - g sck d , and its width, &cent;xk .
x
Suppose we want to find the area of a region that is bounded above by the curve y = ƒsxd,
below by the curve y = gsxd, and on the left and right by the lines x = a and x = b
(Figure 5.27). The region might accidentally have a shape whose area we could find with
geometry, but if ƒ and g are arbitrary continuous functions, we usually have to find the
area with an integral.
To see what the integral should be, we first approximate the region with n vertical rectangles based on a partition P = 5x0 , x1, &Aacute; , xn6 of [a, b] (Figure 5.28). The area of the
kth rectangle (Figure 5.29) is
&cent;Ak = height * width = [ƒsck d - gsck d] &cent;xk .
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380
Chapter 5: Integration
We then approximate the area of the region by adding the areas of the n rectangles:
n
n
A L a &cent;Ak = a [ƒsck d - gsck d] &cent;xk .
k=1
Riemann Sum
k=1
As 7P7 : 0, the sums on the right approach the limit 1a [ƒsxd - gsxd] dx because ƒ and
g are continuous. We take the area of the region to be the value of this integral. That is,
b
n
b
A = lim a [ƒsck d - gsck d] &cent;xk =
ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0
k=1
La
[ƒsxd - gsxd] dx.
DEFINITION
Area Between Curves
If ƒ and g are continuous with ƒsxd &Uacute; g sxd throughout [a, b], then the area of
the region between the curves y = fsxd and y = gsxd from a to b is the integral of ( f - g) from a to b:
b
A =
La
[ƒsxd - gsxd] dx.
When applying this definition it is helpful to graph the curves. The graph reveals which
curve is the upper curve ƒ and which is the lower curve g. It also helps you find the limits
of integration if they are not already known. You may need to find where the curves intersect to determine the limits of integration, and this may involve solving the equation
ƒsxd = gsxd for values of x. Then you can integrate the function ƒ - g for the area between the intersections.
EXAMPLE 4
y
Find the area of the region enclosed by the parabola y = 2 - x 2 and the line y = - x.
(x, f (x))
y 2 x2
(–1, 1)
–1
Solution First we sketch the two curves (Figure 5.30). The limits of integration are found
by solving y = 2 - x 2 and y = - x simultaneously for x.
x
0
1
Area Between Intersecting Curves
x
2
2 - x2
x2 - x - 2
sx + 1dsx - 2d
x = - 1,
x
(x, g(x))
y –x
(2, –2)
FIGURE 5.30 The region in
Example 4 with a typical
approximating rectangle.
=
=
=
=
-x
0
0
2.
Equate ƒ(x) and g(x).
Rewrite.
Factor.
Solve.
The region runs from x = - 1 to x = 2. The limits of integration are a = - 1, b = 2.
The area between the curves is
b
A =
2
[ƒsxd - gsxd] dx =
La
2
=
L-1
L-1
[s2 - x 2 d - s -xd] dx
s2 + x - x 2 d dx = c2x +
= a4 +
2
x3
x2
d
2
3 -1
8
9
1
1
4
- b - a-2 + + b =
2
3
2
3
2
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:57 AM Page 381
5.6 Substitution and Area Between Curves
HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY
If the formula for a bounding curve changes at one or more points, we subdivide the region into subregions that correspond to the formula changes and apply the formula for the
area between curves to each subregion.
Richard Dedekind
(1831–1916)
EXAMPLE 5
4
2
2
Area 兹x dx
0
L
(4, 2)
yx2
1
A
y0 2
The sketch (Figure 5.31) shows that the region’s upper boundary is the graph of
ƒsxd = 1x. The lower boundary changes from gsxd = 0 for 0 … x … 2 to gsxd = x - 2
for 2 … x … 4 (there is agreement at x = 2). We subdivide the region at x = 2 into subregions A and B, shown in Figure 5.31.
The limits of integration for region A are a = 0 and b = 2. The left-hand limit for region B is a = 2. To find the right-hand limit, we solve the equations y = 1x and
y = x - 2 simultaneously for x:
Solution
B
(x, f(x))
0
y 兹x
(x, f (x))
Changing the Integral to Match a Boundary Change
Find the area of the region in the first quadrant that is bounded above by y = 1x and below by the x-axis and the line y = x - 2.
(兹x x 2) dx
L
2
Area y
381
(x, g(x))
4
x
(x, g(x))
FIGURE 5.31 When the formula for a
bounding curve changes, the area integral
changes to become the sum of integrals to
match, one integral for each of the shaded
regions shown here for Example 5.
1x
x
x 2 - 5x + 4
sx - 1dsx - 4d
x
=
=
=
=
=
x - 2
sx - 2d2 = x 2 - 4x + 4
0
0
1,
x = 4.
Equate ƒ(x) and g(x).
Square both sides.
Rewrite.
Factor.
Solve.
Only the value x = 4 satisfies the equation 1x = x - 2. The value x = 1 is an extraneous root introduced by squaring. The right-hand limit is b = 4.
ƒsxd - gsxd = 1x - 0 = 1x
ƒsxd - gsxd = 1x - sx - 2d = 1x - x + 2
For 0 … x … 2:
For 2 … x … 4:
We add the area of subregions A and B to find the total area:
2
4
1x dx +
s 1x - x + 2d dx
Total area = L0
2
L
(')'*
('''')''''*
area of A
2
area of B
4
x2
2
2
+ 2x d
= c x 3&gt;2 d + c x 3&gt;2 3
3
2
0
2
=
2
2
2
s2d3&gt;2 - 0 + a s4d3&gt;2 - 8 + 8b - a s2d3&gt;2 - 2 + 4b
3
3
3
=
10
2
.
s8d - 2 =
3
3
Integration with Respect to y
If a region’s bounding curves are described by functions of y, the approximating rectangles
are horizontal instead of vertical and the basic formula has y in place of x.
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Chapter 5: Integration
For regions like these
y
y
d
y
d
d
x f (y)
x f (y)
x g(y)
x f(y)
x g(y)
x g(y)
0
c
c
c
x
0
x
x
0
use the formula
d
A =
Lc
[ƒs yd - gs yd] dy.
In this equation ƒ always denotes the right-hand curve and g the left-hand curve, so
ƒs yd - gs yd is nonnegative.
y
2
1
0
EXAMPLE 6
(g(y), y)
x
xy2
y
f(y) g(y)
y0
2
Find the area of the region in Example 5 by integrating with respect to y.
(4, 2)
y2
( f (y), y)
4
x
Solution We first sketch the region and a typical horizontal rectangle based on a partition of an interval of y-values (Figure 5.32). The region’s right-hand boundary is the line
x = y + 2, so ƒs yd = y + 2. The left-hand boundary is the curve x = y 2 , so gs yd = y 2 .
The lower limit of integration is y = 0. We find the upper limit by solving x = y + 2 and
x = y 2 simultaneously for y:
y + 2 = y2
FIGURE 5.32 It takes two
integrations to find the area of this
region if we integrate with respect to
x. It takes only one if we integrate
with respect to y (Example 6).
y2 - y - 2 = 0
s y + 1ds y - 2d = 0
y = - 1,
y = 2
Equate ƒs yd = y + 2
and gs yd = y 2 .
Rewrite.
Factor.
Solve.
The upper limit of integration is b = 2. (The value y = - 1 gives a point of intersection
below the x-axis.)
The area of the region is
b
A =
La
2
[ƒs yd - gs yd] dy =
[y + 2 - y 2] dy
L0
2
=
L0
[2 + y - y 2] dy
= c2y +
= 4 +
y2
y3 2
d
2
3 0
8
10
4
- =
.
2
3
3
This is the result of Example 5, found with less work.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 383
5.6 Substitution and Area Between Curves
Combining Integrals with Formulas from Geometry
y
2
The fastest way to find an area may be to combine calculus and geometry.
(4, 2)
y 兹x
1
EXAMPLE 7
2
yx2
Area 2
2
0
383
y0
2
4
The Area of the Region in Example 5 Found the Fastest Way
Find the area of the region in Example 5.
x
FIGURE 5.33 The area of the blue region
is the area under the parabola y = 1x
minus the area of the triangle (Example 7).
Solution The area we want is the area between the curve y = 1x, 0 … x … 4, and the
x-axis, minus the area of a triangle with base 2 and height 2 (Figure 5.33):
4
1
1x dx - s2ds2d
2
L0
4
2
= x 3&gt;2 d - 2
3
0
Area =
=
10
2
.
s8d - 0 - 2 =
3
3
Conclusion from Examples 5–7 It is sometimes easier to find the area between
two curves by integrating with respect to y instead of x. Also, it may help to combine
geometry and calculus. After sketching the region, take a moment to think about the best
way to proceed.
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5.6 Substitution and Area Between Curves
383
EXERCISES 5.6
1
Evaluating Definite Integrals
10. a.
Use the Substitution Formula in Theorem 6 to evaluate the integrals in
Exercises 1–24.
3
1. a.
0
L0
2y + 1 dy
b.
1
2. a.
r21 - r 2 dr
L0
b.
tan x sec x dx
b.
p
4. a.
3 cos x sin x dx
L0
b.
4 3
t s1 + t d dt
L0
b.
27
6. a.
L0
5r
dr
2 2
L-1 s4 + r d
1
10 1y
8. a.
dy
L0 s1 + y 3&gt;2 d2
7. a.
23
L0
4x
2x 2 + 1
b.
2
tan x sec x dx
L-p&gt;4
2
3 cos x sin x dx
L2p
L-1
L0
b.
L-1 2x 4 + 9
4 3
t s1 + t d dt
L-27
15.
17.
p&gt;2
L0
cos z
24 + 3 sin z
p
dz
b.
cos z
dz
L-p 24 + 3 sin z
sin w
dw
2
L-p&gt;2 s3 + 2 cos wd
p&gt;2
L0
2t 5 + 2t s5t 4 + 2d dt
b.
L0
4
16.
L0
5r
dr
2 2
L0 s4 + r d
4
101y
b.
dy
L1 s1 + y3&gt;2 d2
4x
L-23 2x 2 + 1
19.
18.
5s5 - 4 cos td1&gt;4 sin t dt 20.
L0
dy
3p&gt;2
cos-3 2u sin 2u du
sin w
dw
s3 + 2 cos wd2
2
L1 21y s1 + 1yd
Lp
p
1
s1 - cos 3td sin 3t dt
Lp&gt;6
p&gt;6
t st 2 + 1d1&gt;3 dt
u
u
cot5 a b sec2 a b du
6
6
p&gt;4
L0
s1 - sin 2td3&gt;2 cos 2t dt
1
21.
s4y - y 2 + 4y 3 + 1d-2&gt;3 s12y 2 - 2y + 4d dy
L0
1
dx
22.
L0
dx
p&gt;3
0
14. a.
x3
t
t
t
t
a2 + tan b sec2 dt b.
a2 + tan b sec2 dt
2
2
2
2
L-p&gt;2
L-p&gt;2
1
3
b.
b.
s1 - cos 3td sin 3t dt
L0 2x 4 + 9
2p
23
dx
12. a.
13. a.
0
t st 2 + 1d1&gt;3 dt
1
9. a.
r 21 - r 2 dr
1
3
b.
0
3p
2
1
5. a.
2y + 1 dy
0
2
L0
L-1
0
dx
p&gt;6
11. a.
1
p&gt;4
3. a.
L-1
x3
s y 3 + 6y 2 - 12y + 9d-1&gt;2 s y 2 + 4y - 4d dy
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Chapter 5: Integration
3
2p2
23.
-1&gt;2
2u cos2 su3&gt;2 d du
L0
24.
L-1
1
t -2 sin2 a1 + t b dt
31.
y
(–2, 8)
(2, 8)
8
Area
y 2x 2
Find the total areas of the shaded regions in Exercises 25–40.
25.
26.
y x 4 2x 2
y
y
y (1 cos x) sin x
y x兹4 –2
x2
–2
0
x
2
32.
28.
–␲
–2
–1
x
0
x y3
x
y ␲ (cos x)(sin(␲ ␲sin x))
2
y
y
1
– ␲ –1
2
–2
(1, 1)
y2
0
–1
–␲
x
2
y
1
27.
1
–1
NOT TO SCALE
x
␲
0
–1
x
1
x
0
33.
y
1
–1
x 12y 2 12y 3
–3
y 3(sin x)兹1 cos x
x 2y 2 2y
29.
30.
0
y
y
y 1 sec2 t
2
1
y1
␲
2
34.
35.
y
2
1
y cos 2 x
0
x
1
␲
x
–␲
3
0
1
␲
3
t
y – 4 sin2 t
–1
y
yx
y
x2
0
1
1
y1
2
y x
4
x
0
–4
y –2x 4
–2
1
2
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 385
5.6 Substitution and Area Between Curves
36.
49. y = 2 ƒ x ƒ
are there?)
y
1
y
1
x
2
51. x = 2y 2,
52. x = y 2
37.
38.
y
y
y –x 3x
(2, 2)
2
2
5
4
x = 0,
and
–2
–1
1
2
55. x + y 2 = 0
and
x + 3y 2 = 2
2&gt;3
= 0
58. x = y - y
–3
0
1
Find the areas of the regions enclosed by the curves in Exercises 59–62.
3
60. x - y = 0
–10
61. x + 4y 2 = 4
2
62. x + y = 3
–4
39.
40.
(3, 6)
6
4
y4x
3
y x x
3
2
y x
3
2
–2 –1
1
2 3
(3, 1)
x
y –x 2
–2
0
3
x
–2, – 2 

3
–5
(3, –5)
and
and
43. y = x 4
y = 8x
and
2
y = -3
44. y = x - 2x
and
45. y = x 2
y = - x 2 + 4x
and
46. y = 7 - 2x 2
and
y = x2 + 4
and
y = x2
48. y = x 2a - x ,
a 7 0,
and
2
for
x &Uacute; 0
4x + y 2 = 0
and
63. y = 2 sin x
and
y = sin 2x,
0 … x … p
64. y = 8 cos x
and
y = sec2 x,
-p&gt;3 … x … p&gt;3
65. y = cos spx&gt;2d
and
y = 1 - x2
66. y = sin spx&gt;2d
and
y = x
2
67. y = sec x,
68. x = tan2 y
2
x = - p&gt;4,
y = tan x,
and
x = - tan2 y,
69. x = 3 sin y 2cos y
70. y = sec2 spx&gt;3d
and
and
x = 0,
y = x 1&gt;3,
and
x = p&gt;4
-p&gt;4 … y … p&gt;4
0 … y … p&gt;2
-1 … x … 1
71. Find the area of the propeller-shaped region enclosed by the curve
x - y 3 = 0 and the line x - y = 0 .
73. Find the area of the region in the first quadrant bounded by the
line y = x , the line x = 2 , the curve y = 1&gt;x 2 , and the x-axis.
75. The region bounded below by the parabola y = x 2 and above by
the line y = 4 is to be partitioned into two subsections of equal
area by cutting across it with the horizontal line y = c .
y = x
47. y = x 4 - 4x 2 + 4
2
x + y 4 = 1,
and
74. Find the area of the “triangular” region in the first quadrant
bounded on the left by the y-axis and on the right by the curves
y = sin x and y = cos x .
y = 2
42. y = 2x - x 2
3x 2 - y = 4
and
72. Find the area of the propeller-shaped region enclosed by the
curves x - y 1&gt;3 = 0 and x - y 1&gt;5 = 0 .
Find the areas of the regions enclosed by the lines and curves in Exercises 41–50.
41. y = x 2 - 2
x4 - y = 1
and
Find the areas of the regions enclosed by the lines and curves in Exercises 63–70.
y
y
(–2, 4)
x = ƒ y ƒ 21 - y 2
and x = 2y
and
2
(–2, –10)
(1, –3)
(–3, –3)
x + y4 = 2
and
59. 4x 2 + y = 4
y –x 2 2x
4x - y = 16
x + 2y 2 = 3
57. x = y 2 - 1
y 2x 3 x 2 5x
and
and
3
x
y = 3
54. x - y 2 = 0
56. x - y
x
and
x = y + 2
53. y 2 - 4x = 4
y
x2
y = sx 2&gt;2d + 4
and
Find the areas of the regions enclosed by the lines and curves in Exercises 51–58.
0
(–3, 5)
5y = x + 6 (How many intersection points
and
50. y = ƒ x 2 - 4 ƒ
xy2
x2
385
y = 0
a. Sketch the region and draw a line y = c across it that looks
about right. In terms of c, what are the coordinates of the
points where the line and parabola intersect? Add them to
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 386
386
Chapter 5: Integration
b. Find c by integrating with respect to y. (This puts c in the
limits of integration.)
y
y –x
76. Find the area of the region between the curve y = 3 - x 2 and the
line y = - 1 by integrating with respect to a. x, b. y.
77. Find the area of the region in the first quadrant bounded on the
left by the y-axis, below by the line y = x&gt;4 , above left by the
curve y = 1 + 1x , and above right by the curve y = 2&gt; 1x .
78. Find the area of the region in the first quadrant bounded on the
left by the y-axis, below by the curve x = 2 1y , above left by the
curve x = sy - 1d2, and above right by the line x = 3 - y .
–1
1
82. True, sometimes true, or never true? The area of the region between the graphs of the continuous functions y = ƒsxd and
y = g sxd and the vertical lines x = a and x = b sa 6 bd is
b
La
2
x
–1
y
x (y yx
1
c. Find c by integrating with respect to x. (This puts c into the
integrand as well.)
[ƒsxd - g sxd] dx .
1)2
x3y
Theory and Examples
1
83. Suppose that F(x) is an antiderivative of ƒsxd = ssin xd&gt;x, x 7 0 .
Express
x 2兹y
1
0
3
x
2
L1
sin 2x
x dx
in terms of F.
79. The figure here shows triangle AOC inscribed in the region cut
from the parabola y = x 2 by the line y = a 2 . Find the limit of the
ratio of the area of the triangle to the area of the parabolic region
as a approaches zero.
y
1
L0
1
ƒsxd dx =
ƒsxd dx = 3 .
L0
C y
(a, a 2)
A
ƒs1 - xd dx .
1
a2
a 2)
L0
85. Suppose that
y x2
(–a,
84. Show that if ƒ is continuous, then
Find
0
–a
O
a
L-1
x
if a. ƒ is odd,
80. Suppose the area of the region between the graph of a positive
continuous function ƒ and the x-axis from x = a to x = b is 4
square units. Find the area between the curves y = ƒsxd and
y = 2ƒsxd from x = a to x = b .
ƒsxd dx
b. ƒ is even.
86. a. Show that if ƒ is odd on [-a, a] , then
a
L-a
ƒsxd dx = 0 .
b. Test the result in part (a) with ƒsxd = sin x and a = p&gt;2 .
81. Which of the following integrals, if either, calculates the area of
1
a.
L-1
1
b.
L-1
a
1
sx - s - xdd dx =
L-1
2x dx
1
s - x - sxdd dx =
L-1
87. If ƒ is a continuous function, find the value of the integral
- 2x dx
I =
ƒsxd dx
ƒsxd
+ ƒsa - xd
L0
by making the substitution u = a - x and adding the resulting
integral to I.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 387
5.6 Substitution and Area Between Curves
88. By using a substitution, prove that for all positive numbers x and y,
xy
Lx
a. ƒsxd = x 2,
The Shift Property for Definite Integrals
A basic property of definite integrals is their invariance under translation, as expressed by the equation.
La
La - c
ƒsx + cd dx .
(1)
The equation holds whenever ƒ is integrable and defined for the necessary values of x. For example in the accompanying figure, show that
1
-1
L-2
3
sx + 2d dx =
b. ƒsxd = sin x,
a = 0,
b = 1,
a = 0,
c. ƒsxd = 2x - 4,
c = 1
b = p,
a = 4,
c = p&gt;2
b = 8,
c = 5
COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS
b-c
ƒsxd dx =
89. Use a substitution to verify Equation (1).
90. For each of the following functions, graph ƒ(x) over [a, b] and
ƒsx + cd over [a - c, b - c] to convince yourself that Equation
(1) is reasonable.
y
1
1
t dt = L1 t dt .
b
L0
3
x dx
In Exercises 91–94, you will find the area between curves in the plane
when you cannot find their points of intersection using simple algebra. Use a CAS to perform the following steps:
a. Plot the curves together to see what they look like and how
many points of intersection they have.
b. Use the numerical equation solver in your CAS to find all the
points of intersection.
because the areas of the shaded regions are congruent.
c. Integrate ƒ ƒsxd - g sxd ƒ over consecutive pairs of intersection
values.
y
d. Sum together the integrals found in part (c).
y ( x 2)3
y x3
91. ƒsxd =
x3
x2
1
- 2x + ,
3
2
3
92. ƒsxd =
x4
- 3x 3 + 10,
2
93. ƒsxd = x + sin s2xd,
2
94. ƒsxd = x cos x,
–2
–1
387
0
1
g sxd = x - 1
g sxd = 8 - 12x
g sxd = x 3
g sxd = x 3 - x
x
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 387
Chapter 5 Questions to Guide Your Review
Chapter 5
387
1. How can you sometimes estimate quantities like distance traveled,
area, and average value with finite sums? Why might you want to
do so?
2. What is sigma notation? What advantage does it offer? Give examples.
8. Describe the rules for working with definite integrals (Table 5.3).
Give examples.
9. What is the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus? Why is it so important? Illustrate each part of the theorem with an example.
3. What is a Riemann sum? Why might you want to consider such a
sum?
10. How does the Fundamental Theorem provide a solution to the initial value problem dy&gt;dx = ƒsxd, ysx0 d = y0 , when ƒ is continuous?
4. What is the norm of a partition of a closed interval?
11. How is integration by substitution related to the Chain Rule?
5. What is the definite integral of a function ƒ over a closed interval
[a, b]? When can you be sure it exists?
12. How can you sometimes evaluate indefinite integrals by substitution? Give examples.
6. What is the relation between definite integrals and area? Describe
some other interpretations of definite integrals.
13. How does the method of substitution work for definite integrals?
Give examples.
7. What is the average value of an integrable function over a closed
interval? Must the function assume its average value? Explain.
14. How do you define and calculate the area of the region between
the graphs of two continuous functions? Give an example.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 388
388
Chapter 5: Integration
Chapter 5
Practice Exercises
20
Finite Sums and Estimates
1. The accompanying figure shows the graph of the velocity (ft&gt; sec)
of a model rocket for the first 8 sec after launch. The rocket accelerated straight up for the first 2 sec and then coasted to reach its
maximum height at t = 8 sec .
k=1
Velocity (ft/sec)
k=1
20
20
a. a 3ak
b. a sak + bk d
2bk
1
b
c. a a 7
k=1 2
d. a sak - 2d
k=1
20
200
150
20
4. Suppose that a ak = 0 and a bk = 7 . Find the values of
k=1
20
k=1
Definite Integrals
In Exercises 5–8, express each limit as a definite integral. Then evaluate the integral to find the value of the limit. In each case, P is a partition of the given interval and the numbers ck are chosen from the
subintervals of P.
100
50
0
2
4
6
8
n
5.
lim a s2ck - 1d-1&gt;2 &cent;xk , where P is a partition of [1, 5]
ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0
k=1
n
Time after launch (sec)
lim a cksck 2 - 1d1&gt;3 &cent;xk , where P is a partition of [1, 3]
a. Assuming that the rocket was launched from ground level,
about how high did it go? (This is the rocket in Section 3.3,
Exercise 17, but you do not need to do Exercise 17 to do the
exercise here.)
6.
7.
n
ck
lim a acos a bb &cent;xk , where P is a partition of [- p, 0]
2
ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0 k = 1
b. Sketch a graph of the rocket’s height aboveground as a
function of time for 0 … t … 8 .
2. a. The accompanying figure shows the velocity (m&gt; sec) of a
body moving along the s-axis during the time interval from
t = 0 to t = 10 sec. About how far did the body travel during
those 10 sec?
8.
lim a ssin ck dscos ck d &cent;xk , where P is a partition of [0, p&gt;2]
ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0
b. Sketch a graph of s as a function of t for 0 … t … 10
assuming ss0d = 0 .
ƒ ƒ P ƒ ƒ :0 k = 1
n
k=1
2
5
2
a.
5
ƒsxd dx
L-2
b.
5
g sxd dx
L5
5
e.
4
a
L-2
d.
ƒsxd + g sxd
b dx
5
2
2
2
1
2
a.
1
2
g sxd dx
L0
b.
2
4
6
Time (sec)
8
10
c.
g sxd dx
L1
0
2
ƒsxd dx
L2
d.
L0
22 ƒsxd dx
2
e.
10
s - pg sxdd dx
L-2
10. If 10 ƒsxd dx = p, 10 7g sxd dx = 7 , and 10 g sxd dx = 2 , find
the values of the following.
3
0
ƒsxd dx
L2
-2
c.
5
Velocity (m/sec)
5
9. If 1-2 3ƒsxd dx = 12, 1-2 ƒsxd dx = 6 , and 1-2 g sxd dx = 2 ,
find the values of the following.
10
L0
s g sxd - 3ƒsxdd dx
3. Suppose that a ak = - 2 and a bk = 25 . Find the value of
k=1
10
ak
a. a
k=1 4
10
c. a sak + bk - 1d
k=1
k=1
10
b. a sbk - 3ak d
k=1
10
5
d. a a - bk b
k=1 2
Area
In Exercise 11–14, find the total area of the region between the graph
of ƒ and the x-axis.
11. ƒsxd = x 2 - 4x + 3,
12. ƒsxd = 1 - sx 2&gt;4d,
0 … x … 3
-2 … x … 3
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 389
Chapter 5 Practice Exercises
13. ƒsxd = 5 - 5x 2&gt;3,
Initial Value Problems
-1 … x … 8
14. ƒsxd = 1 - 1x,
0 … x … 4
x
33. Show that y = x 2 +
Find the areas of the regions enclosed by the curves and lines in Exercises 15–26.
2
15. y = x,
y = 1&gt;x ,
16. y = x,
y = 1&gt; 1x,
17. 1x + 1y = 1,
d2 y
dx 2
x = 2
y = 0
d 2y
dx 2
1
0
1
y = 0,
for
36.
x
0 … x … 1
y
0
19. x = 2y 2,
2
21. y = 4x,
x = 0,
1
y = 3
x
20. x = 4 - y 2,
23. y = sin x,
x = 0
y = 4x - 16
y = x,
y&iquest;s0d = 3,
y s0d = 0 .
y s - 1d = 2
Evaluating Indefinite Integrals
37.
L
2scos xd-1&gt;2 sin x dx
39.
L
s2u + 1 + 2 cos s2u + 1dd du
a
38.
L
stan xd-3&gt;2 sec2 x dx
1
+ 2 sec2 s2u - pdb du
L 22u - p
st + 1d2 - 1
2
2
at - t b at + t b dt
dt
41.
42.
t4
L
L
43.
1t sin s2t 3&gt;2 d dt
L
44.
sec u tan u 21 + sec u du
L
0 … x … p&gt;4
24. y = ƒ sin x ƒ , y = 1, - p&gt;2 … x … p&gt;2
25. y = 2 sin x, y = sin 2x, 0 … x … p
26. y = 8 cos x,
dy
= 22 - sin2 x ,
dx
40.
y = 4x - 2
22. y 2 = 4x + 4,
= 2sec x tan x ;
Evaluate the integrals in Exercises 37–44.
x 3 兹y 1, 0 ⱕ x ⱕ 1
1
y s1d = 1 .
y&iquest;s1d = 3,
Express the solutions of the initial value problems in Exercises 35 and
36 in terms of integrals.
dy
sin x
35.
= x , y s5d = - 3
dx

x = 0,
1
;
x2
x
y
18. x 3 + 1y = 1,
= 2 -
1
dt solves the initial value problem
L1 t
34. Show that y = 10 A 1 + 22sec t B dt solves the initial value
problem
x = 2
x = 0,
y = sec2 x,
389
Evaluating Definite Integrals
Evaluate the integrals in Exercises 45–70.
- p&gt;3 … x … p&gt;3
1
27. Find the area of the “triangular” region bounded on the left by
x + y = 2 , on the right by y = x 2 , and above by y = 2 .
45.
28. Find the area of the “triangular” region bounded on the left by
y = 1x , on the right by y = 6 - x , and below by y = 1 .
47.
29. Find the extreme values of ƒsxd = x 3 - 3x 2 and find the area of
the region enclosed by the graph of ƒ and the x-axis.
1
L-1
s3x 2 - 4x + 7d dx
46.
L0
2
4
dy
2
L1 y
4
dt
49.
L1 t1t
27
48.
51.
31. Find the total area of the region enclosed by the curve x = y 2&gt;3
and the lines x = y and y = - 1 .
53.
32. Find the total area of the region between the curves y = sin x and
y = cos x for 0 … x … 3p&gt;2 .
55.
36 dx
3
L0 s2x + 1d
L1
1u
du
dr
3
L0 2
(7 - 5r) 2
1&gt;2
x -1&gt;3s1 - x 2&gt;3 d3&gt;2 dx
54.
sin2 5r dr
56.
L0
p
L0
A 1 + 1u B 1&gt;2
1
52.
1
L1/8
x -4/3 dx
L1
4
50.
1
30. Find the area of the region cut from the first quadrant by the curve
x 1&gt;2 + y 1&gt;2 = a 1&gt;2 .
s8s 3 - 12s 2 + 5d ds
x 3s1 + 9x 4 d-3&gt;2 dx
p&gt;4
L0
cos2 a4t -
p
b dt
4
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 390
390
Chapter 5: Integration
p&gt;3
57.
L0
58.
x
dx
6
Lp&gt;4
p
60.
L0
3p
59.
cot2
Lp
0
61.
L-p&gt;3
L0
sec x tan x dx
62.
L-p&gt;2
p&gt;2
67.
L0
p&gt;3
69.
L0
tan2
u
du
3
Cy = 8.27 + 10 -5 s26T - 1.87T 2 d .
5ssin xd3&gt;2 cos x dx
64.
15 sin4 3x cos 3x dx
66.
csc z cot z dz
Lp&gt;4
Find the average value of Cy for 20&deg; … T … 675&deg;C and the temperature at which it is attained.
1
L-1
p&gt;2
65.
csc2 x dx
3p&gt;4
p&gt;2
63.
stant volume by 1&ordm;C, measured in units of cal&gt; deg-mole (calories
per degree gram molecule). The specific heat of oxygen depends
on its temperature T and satisfies the formula
3p&gt;4
sec2 u du
2x sin s1 - x 2 d dx
2p&gt;3
3 sin x cos x
21 + 3 sin2 x
tan u
du
22 sec u
L0
p&gt;4
dx
68.
70.
L0
p2&gt;4
x
x
cos-4 a b sin a b dx
2
2
sec2 x
dx
s1 + 7 tan xd2&gt;3
cos 1t
Lp2&gt;36 2t sin 1t
dt
Differentiating Integrals
In Exercises 77–80, find dy&gt;dx.
x
77. y =
L2
22 + cos3 t dt
7x2
78. y =
1
79. y =
L2
22 + cos3 t dt
2
6
dt
4
Lx 3 + t
80. y =
1
dt
2
Lsec x t + 1
Average Values
Theory and Examples
71. Find the average value of ƒsxd = mx + b
81. Is it true that every function y = ƒsxd that is differentiable on
[a, b] is itself the derivative of some function on [a, b]? Give reasons for your answer.
a. over [ -1, 1]
b. over [ -k, k]
82. Suppose that F(x) is an antiderivative of ƒsxd = 21 + x 4 . Ex-
72. Find the average value of
1
press 10 21 + x 4 dx in terms of F and give a reason for your
a. y = 23x over [0, 3]
b. y = 2ax over [0, a]
1
73. Let ƒ be a function that is differentiable on [a, b]. In Chapter 2 we
defined the average rate of change of ƒ over [a, b] to be
b - a
and the instantaneous rate of change of ƒ at x to be ƒ&iquest;sxd . In this
chapter we defined the average value of a function. For the new definition of average to be consistent with the old one, we should have
= average value of ƒ&iquest; on [a, b] .
b - a
83. Find dy&gt;dx if y = 1x 21 + t 2 dt . Explain the main steps in
0
84. Find dy&gt;dx if y = 1cos x s1&gt;s1 - t 2 dd dt . Explain the main steps
85. A new parking lot To meet the demand for parking, your town
has allocated the area shown here. As the town engineer, you have
been asked by the town council to find out if the lot can be built
for \$10,000. The cost to clear the land will be \$0.10 a square foot,
and the lot will cost \$2.00 a square foot to pave. Can the job be
done for \$10,000? Use a lower sum estimate to see. (Answers
may vary slightly, depending on the estimate used.)
0 ft
74. Is it true that the average value of an integrable function over an
interval of length 2 is half the function’s integral over the interval?
36 ft
54 ft
T 75. Compute the average value of the temperature function
2p
ƒsxd = 37 sin a
sx - 101db + 25
365
for a 365-day year. This is one way to estimate the annual mean
air temperature in Fairbanks, Alaska. The National Weather Service’s official figure, a numerical average of the daily normal
mean air temperatures for the year, is 25.7&ordm;F, which is slightly
higher than the average value of ƒ(x). Figure 3.33 shows why.
T 76. Specific heat of a gas Specific heat Cy is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a given mass of gas with con-
51 ft
49.5 ft
Vertical spacing 15 ft
54 ft
64.4 ft
67.5 ft
42 ft
Ignored
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 391
Chapter 5 Practice Exercises
86. Skydivers A and B are in a helicopter hovering at 6400 ft. Skydiver A jumps and descends for 4 sec before opening her parachute. The helicopter then climbs to 7000 ft and hovers there.
Forty-five seconds after A leaves the aircraft, B jumps and descends for 13 sec before opening his parachute. Both skydivers
descend at 16 ft&gt; sec with parachutes open. Assume that the skydivers fall freely (no effective air resistance) before their parachutes open.
a. At what altitude does A’s parachute open?
b. At what altitude does B’s parachute open?
c. Which skydiver lands first?
Average Daily Inventory
Average value is used in economics to study such things as average
daily inventory. If I(t) is the number of radios, tires, shoes, or whatever
product a firm has on hand on day t (we call I an inventory function),
the average value of I over a time period [0, T ] is called the firm’s average daily inventory for the period.
T
Average daily inventory = avsId =
1
Istd dt .
T L0
If h is the dollar cost of holding one item per day, the product avsId # h
is the average daily holding cost for the period.
391
87. As a wholesaler, Tracey Burr Distributors receives a shipment of
1200 cases of chocolate bars every 30 days. TBD sells the chocolate to retailers at a steady rate, and t days after a shipment arrives, its inventory of cases on hand is Istd = 1200 - 40t,
0 … t … 30 . What is TBD’s average daily inventory for the 30day period? What is its average daily holding cost if the cost of
holding one case is 3&cent; a day?
88. Rich Wholesale Foods, a manufacturer of cookies, stores its cases
of cookies in an air-conditioned warehouse for shipment every 14
days. Rich tries to keep 600 cases on reserve to meet occasional
peaks in demand, so a typical 14-day inventory function is
Istd = 600 + 600t, 0 … t … 14 . The daily holding cost for each
case is 4&cent; per day. Find Rich’s average daily inventory and average daily holding cost.
89. Solon Container receives 450 drums of plastic pellets every 30
days. The inventory function (drums on hand as a function of
days) is Istd = 450 - t 2&gt;2 . Find the average daily inventory. If
the holding cost for one drum is 2&cent; per day, find the average daily
holding cost.
90. Mitchell Mailorder receives a shipment of 600 cases of athletic
socks every 60 days. The number of cases on hand t days after the
shipment arrives is Istd = 600 - 20 215t . Find the average
daily inventory. If the holding cost for one case is 1&gt;2&cent; per day,
find the average daily holding cost.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 391
Chapter 5
Theory and Examples
solves the initial value problem
1
1. a. If
d 2y
1
7ƒsxd dx = 7, does
L0
L0
ƒsxd dx = 1 ?
dx 2
1
b. If
L0
+ a 2y = ƒsxd,
and y = 0 when x = 0 .
4. Proportionality Suppose that x and y are related by the equation
2ƒsxd dx = 24 = 2 ?
L0
2
y
x =
5
ƒsxd dx = 4,
5
ƒsxd dx = 3,
g sxd dx = 2 .
L2
L-2
L-2
Which, if any, of the following statements are true?
2
a.
dy
= 0
dx
(Hint: sin sax - atd = sin ax cos at - cos ax sin at .)
ƒsxd dx = 4 and ƒsxd &Uacute; 0, does
1
2. Suppose
391
5
ƒsxd dx = - 3
b.
sƒsxd + g sxdd = 9
L5
L-2
c. ƒsxd … g sxd on the interval - 2 … x … 5
3. Initial value problem Show that
1
y = a
x
L0
ƒstd sin asx - td dt
1
L0 21 + 4t 2
dt .
Show that d 2y/dx 2 is proportional to y and find the constant of
proportionality.
5. Find ƒ(4) if
x2
ƒsxd
t 2 dt = x cos px .
L0
L0
6. Find ƒsp/2d from the following information.
a.
ƒstd dt = x cos px
b.
i. ƒ is positive and continuous.
ii. The area under the curve y = ƒsxd from x = 0 to x = a is
a
p
a2
+ sin a + cos a .
2
2
2
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 392
392
Chapter 5: Integration
y
7. The area of the region in the xy-plane enclosed by the x-axis, the
curve y = ƒsxd, ƒsxd &Uacute; 0 , and the lines x = 1 and x = b is
equal to 2b 2 + 1 - 22 for all b 7 1 . Find ƒ(x).
4
8. Prove that
x
L0
a
u
L0
ƒstd dtb du =
L0
y x2
3
x
ƒsudsx - ud du .
2
(Hint: Express the integral on the right-hand side as the difference
of two integrals. Then show that both sides of the equation have
the same derivative with respect to x.)
y1x
9. Finding a curve Find the equation for the curve in the xy-plane
that passes through the point s1, - 1d if its slope at x is always
3x 2 + 2 .
10. Shoveling dirt You sling a shovelful of dirt up from the bottom
of a hole with an initial velocity of 32 ft/sec. The dirt must rise 17
ft above the release point to clear the edge of the hole. Is that
enough speed to get the dirt out, or had you better duck?
–1
1
0
1
x
2
3
y –1
–1
FIGURE 5.34 Piecewise continuous functions
like this are integrated piece by piece.
Piecewise Continuous Functions
Although we are mainly interested in continuous functions, many
functions in applications are piecewise continuous. A function ƒ(x) is
piecewise continuous on a closed interval I if ƒ has only finitely
many discontinuities in I, the limits
11. ƒsxd = e
x 2&gt;3,
- 4,
12. ƒsxd = e
2 - x,
x 2 - 4,
lim ƒsxd and lim+ ƒsxd
13. g std = e
t,
sin pt,
14. hszd = e
21 - z,
s7z - 6d-1&gt;3,
x : c-
x:c
exist and are finite at every interior point of I, and the appropriate onesided limits exist and are finite at the endpoints of I. All piecewise
continuous functions are integrable. The points of discontinuity subdivide I into open and half-open subintervals on which ƒ is continuous,
and the limit criteria above guarantee that ƒ has a continuous extension to the closure of each subinterval. To integrate a piecewise continuous function, we integrate the individual extensions and add the
results. The integral of
1 - x,
ƒsxd = • x 2,
- 1,
-1 … x 6 0
0 … x 6 2
2 … x … 3
-8 … x 6 0
0 … x … 3
-4 … x 6 0
0 … x … 3
0 … t 6 1
1 … t … 2
1,
15. ƒsxd = • 1 - x 2,
2,
-2 … x 6 -1
-1 … x 6 1
1 … x … 2
r,
16. hsrd = • 1 - r 2,
1,
-1 … r 6 0
0 … r 6 1
1 … r … 2
17. Find the average value of the function graphed in the accompanying figure.
(Figure 5.34) over [- 1, 3] is
3
L-1
y
0
ƒsxd dx =
L-1
2
s1 - xd dx +
= cx =
0 … z 6 1
1 … z … 2
L0
0
2
3
x 2 dx +
L2
1
s - 1d dx
3
x2
x3
d + c d + c-x d
2 -1
3 0
2
3
8
19
+ - 1 =
.
2
3
6
The Fundamental Theorem applies to piecewise continuous funcx
tions with the restriction that sd&gt;dxd 1a ƒstd dt is expected to equal
ƒ(x) only at values of x at which ƒ is continuous. There is a similar restriction on Leibniz’s Rule below.
Graph the functions in Exercises 11–16 and integrate them over
their domains.
x
0
1
2
18. Find the average value of the function graphed in the accompanying figure.
y
1
x
0
1
2
3
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 08/24/04 2:50 PM Page 393
Leibniz’s Rule
dy&gt;dx at which the carpet is being unrolled. That is, A(x) is being increased at the rate
In applications, we sometimes encounter functions like
x2
ƒsxd =
21x
s1 + td dt
g sxd =
and
Lsin x
393
ƒsysxdd
sin t 2 dt ,
L1x
defined by integrals that have variable upper limits of integration and
variable lower limits of integration at the same time. The first integral
can be evaluated directly, but the second cannot. We may find the derivative of either integral, however, by a formula called Leibniz’s Rule.
dy
.
dx
At the same time, A is being decreased at the rate
ƒsusxdd
du
,
dx
the width at the end that is being rolled up times the rate du&gt;dx. The
net rate of change in A is
Leibniz’s Rule
If ƒ is continuous on [a, b] and if u(x) and y(x) are differentiable functions of x whose values lie in [a, b],
then
dA
dy
du
= ƒsysxdd
- ƒsusxdd ,
dx
dx
dx
which is precisely Leibniz’s Rule.
To prove the rule, let F be an antiderivative of ƒ on [a, b]. Then
ysxd
d
dy
du
- ƒsusxdd .
ƒstd dt = ƒsysxdd
dx Lusxd
dx
dx
ysxd
Lusxd
Figure 5.35 gives a geometric interpretation of Leibniz’s Rule. It
shows a carpet of variable width ƒ(t) that is being rolled up at the left
at the same time x as it is being unrolled at the right. (In this interpretation, time is x, not t.) At time x, the floor is covered from u(x) to y(x).
The rate du&gt;dx at which the carpet is being rolled up need not be the
same as the rate dy&gt;dx at which the carpet is being laid down. At any
given time x, the area covered by carpet is
ƒstd dt = Fsysxdd - Fsusxdd .
Differentiating both sides of this equation with respect to x gives the
equation we want:
ysxd
d
d
ƒstd dt =
cFsysxdd - Fsusxdd d
dx Lusxd
dx
= F&iquest;sysxdd
= ƒsysxdd
ysxd
Asxd =
Lusxd
ƒstd dt .
dy
du
- F&iquest;susxdd
dx
dx
Chain Rule
dy
du
- ƒsusxdd .
dx
dx
Use Leibniz’s Rule to find the derivatives of the functions in Exercises 19–21.
x
19. ƒsxd =
y
Uncovering
sin x
1
dt
L1/x t
20. ƒsxd =
1
dt
2
Lcos x 1 - t
21y
sin t 2 dt
L1y
22. Use Leibniz’s Rule to find the value of x that maximizes the value
of the integral
21. g s yd =
f (u(x))
y ⫽ f (t)
Covering
f (y(x))
x+3
0
Lx
u(x)
t s5 - td dt .
y(x)
A(x) ⫽
f (t) dt
u(x)
L
y(x)
t
FIGURE 5.35 Rolling and unrolling a carpet: a geometric
interpretation of Leibniz’s Rule:
dA
dy
du
= ƒsysxdd
- ƒsusxdd .
dx
dx
dx
At what rate is the covered area changing? At the instant x, A(x) is increasing by the width ƒ(y(x)) of the unrolling carpet times the rate
Problems like this arise in the mathematical theory of political
elections. See “The Entry Problem in a Political Race,” by Steven
J. Brams and Philip D. Straffin, Jr., in Political Equilibrium, Peter
Ordeshook and Kenneth Shepfle, Editors, Kluwer-Nijhoff,
Boston, 1982, pp. 181–195.
Approximating Finite Sums with Integrals
In many applications of calculus, integrals are used to approximate finite sums—the reverse of the usual procedure of using finite sums to
approximate integrals.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 394
394
Chapter 5: Integration
For example, let’s estimate the sum of the square roots of the first
n positive integers, 21 + 22 + &Aacute; + 2n . The integral
2
2
1x dx = x 3&gt;2 d =
3
3
0
L0
n: q
as a definite integral.
is the limit of the upper sums
26. Use the result of Exercise 25 to evaluate
n
1 &Aacute;
+ n
n +
A
21 + 22 + &Aacute; + 2n
=
.
n 3&gt;2
1
An
n
1
1
2
lim n cƒ a n b + ƒ a n b + &Aacute; + ƒ a n b d
1
1
Sn =
25. Let ƒ(x) be a continuous function. Express
1
2
n + An
#
#
#
1
n
a. lim
1
s2 + 4 + 6 + &Aacute; + 2nd ,
n2
b. lim
1
s115 + 215 + 315 + &Aacute; + n 15 d ,
n 16
n: q
n: q
3p
np
p
2p
1
c. lim n asin n + sin n + sin n + &Aacute; + sin n b .
n: q
y
What can be said about the following limits?
y 兹x
d. lim
n: q
1
s115 + 215 + 315 + &Aacute; + n 15 d
n 17
1
s115 + 215 + 315 + &Aacute; + n 15 d
n 15
27. a. Show that the area An of an n-sided regular polygon in a circle
e. lim
n: q
0
1
n
n1 1
n
2
n
An =
x
Therefore, when n is large, Sn will be close to 2&gt;3 and we will have
2
Root sum = 21 + 22 + &Aacute; + 2n = Sn # n 3&gt;2 L n 3/2 .
3
The following table shows how good the approximation can be.
n
Root sum
s2&gt;3dn3&gt;2
Relative error
10
50
100
1000
22.468
239.04
671.46
21,097
21.082
235.70
666.67
21,082
1.386&gt;22.468 L 6%
1.4%
0.7%
0.07%
nr 2
2p
sin n .
2
b. Find the limit of An as n : q . Is this answer consistent with
what you know about the area of a circle?
28. A differential equation Show that y = sin x +
p
1x cos 2t dt + 1 satisfies both of the following conditions:
i. y– = - sin x + 2 sin 2x
ii. y = 1 and y&iquest; = - 2 when x = p .
29. A function defined by an integral The graph of a function ƒ
consists of a semicircle and two line segments as shown. Let
x
g sxd = 11 ƒstd dt .
y
3
23. Evaluate
y f(x)
15 + 25 + 35 + &Aacute; + n 5
n: q
n6
1
lim
–3
by showing that the limit is
–1
–1
1
3
x
1
L0
x 5 dx
and evaluating the integral.
24. See Exercise 23. Evaluate
1 3
s1 + 23 + 33 + &Aacute; + n 3 d .
n : q n4
lim
a. Find g (1).
b. Find g (3).
c. Find g s -1d .
d. Find all values of x on the open interval s - 3, 4d at which g
has a relative maximum.
e. Write an equation for the line tangent to the graph of g at
x = -1.
f. Find the x-coordinate of each point of inflection of the graph
of g on the open interval s -3, 4d .
g. Find the range of g.
4100 AWL/Thomas_ch05p325-395 8/20/04 9:58 AM Page 395
Chapter 5 Technology Application Projects
Chapter 5
395
Technology Application Projects
Mathematica/Maple Module
Using Riemann Sums to Estimate Areas, Volumes, and Lengths of Curves
Visualize and approximate areas and volumes in Part I.
Mathematica/Maple Module
Riemann Sums, Definite Integrals, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Parts I, II, and III develop Riemann sums and definite integrals. Part IV continues the development of the Riemann sum and definite integral
using the Fundamental Theorem to solve problems previously investigated.
Mathematica/Maple Module
Rain Catchers, Elevators, and Rockets
Part I illustrates that the area under a curve is the same as the area of an appropriate rectangle for examples taken from the chapter. You will
compute the amount of water accumulating in basins of different shapes as the basin is filled and draine```