Uploaded by manoj sitaula

Seismic vulnerability Assessment methods slides

• What is Seismic Vulnerability?
 Susceptibility to damage during seismic events.
 Can be subjective or numerical quantity.
The systematic approach or framework to quantify the
seismic vulnerability is seismic vulnerability assessment
Why is seismic vulnerability assessment needed ???
Risk Management
Risk Identification
A major Exposure element to define the risk are buildings
Evaluation of the vulnerability of Structures (Buildings)
depends on many parameters
Building Typology
Structural Systems
Seismic Capacities
Ground Condition
Other structural aspects
Insights about buildings behavior during
seismic hazards
Vulnerability Assessment
Constructed from
Small no. of
parameters on
large number of
Combination of
the data from
empirical methods
in conjunction
with analytical
Obtained form
mathematical or
modeling of
exposure for an
assumed potential
level of hazard
Large number of
data on small
building numbers
Empirical Approach
Rapid Visual Screening
• First Step before detail damage assessment
• Qualitative estimation from exterior observation
Many countries have developed their own RVS technique
Few to name are
FEMA 154,
Basic Hazard Score, BSH = -log10[P(collapse)]
Final Score = BSH + SMs (score modifiers)
National Research Council (NRC) Canada’s
Structural Priority Index (SPI) = SI (Structural index) + NSI (Non
Structural Index)
Others are
Japans Seismic Index approach
NZ’s Initial Evaluation Procedure (IEP) followed by Detailed Seismic
Assessment(DSA) etc.,
Empirical Approach
Vulnerability Index Method
1. GNDT Approach
Matrix of qualification coefficient ‘Ki‘ of Four vulnerability classes
(A, B, C, D), each with 11 parameters having a fixed
weightage(considering importance) for each parameter
Vulnerability index Iv is evaluated using
Iv value normalized between 0-100 from 0 to 382.5 such that 0
indicating the least vulnerable to 100 worst.
Similarmatrix for RC building also , can be trasformed to Iv for
Masonry , Using
Empirical Approach
Vulnerability Index Method
2. European Macro-seismic EMS Approach Risk-UE project
• Building Typology Classes distributed to 6 vulnerability classes (A
to F) least
• Such building are classified into four general typologies: Masonry,
RC, Steel and Wooden
• It categorizes the scale of damage to five grades D1(slight damage)
to D5(collapsed)
Empirical Approach
Vulnerability Index Method
2. Combined GNDT and EMS Approach
• Both method combined to certain correlation between them
• Mean Damage Grade Md is defined such that (0<Md<6)
where (I) represents the earthquake, hazard associated with macroseismic intensity, (V) is the vulnerability index, (Q) identifies the
ductility of a particular construction, ranging from 1 to 4.
Analytical Approach
• Also called theoretical approach
• Includes large number of parameters for small building numbers
• Focuses no hazard (SGM) simulation to assess the performance
behavior of the buildings
Linear approach
Non-Linear approach
Static approach
Dynamic approach
Moreover the methods considering non linearity of the structures are more
precise to assess the performance behavior and are mostly employed.
• Non-Linear static analysis (NLSA) - Pushover analysis (POA)
• Non-Linear time history analysis (NLTHA) - incremental dynamic
• analysis (IDA)
Analytical Approach
Non Linear Static Pushover (NLSPO-Analysis)
• Originally presented in in FEMA 273 and later updated in FEMA 356
Analytical Approach
Non-Linear time history analysis (NLTHA) - incremental dynamic
analysis (IDA)
• Most exact and precise method to assess the seismic performance of a
• capacity to model wide diversity of non-linear material behavior,
irregularity in structures with geometric non-linearity, pounding
effects, and higher mode effects in tall buildings
• Concerned towards solving the dynamic equation of equilibrium
• Different accelerograms (time histories ) actual events, modified and
simulated are used
Hybrid Approach
Hybrid system considering both empirical and Analytical methods
• Data from actual field scenarios collected using empirical methods are
• Statistical data obtained from empirical methods are required to be
sorted and categorized
• Experimental findings and parameters determined from evaluation
actual damage scenarios are used
• Analysis through analytical techniques like NLPOA and NLTHA is
done for a determined typology of buildings and failure categories