Measurement System Analysis Training PPT-1

```Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
Validating
g yyour measurement systems
y
Measurement Uncertainty
LSL
USL
Measurement
point pass or
reject?
•
•
Imagine you measure a component and find it to be at the point
shown within the specification limits
Would you pass or reject the component?
Measurement Uncertainty
LSL
USL
Measurement
point pass or
reject?
•
•
You now discover that is has a measurement error associated with it
as shown by the error bar above
Would you pass or reject the component?
Main sources of variation
•
•
•
•
•
Materials
M th d
Methods
Machines
People
Environment
Measurement System Analysis - MSA
• A scientific and objective method of analysing the validity
of a measurement system
system.
• A tool which quantifies
– Equipment
q p
variation
– Appraiser (operator) variation
– The total variation of a measurement system
• Examples
E amples of meas
measurement
rement ssystems
stems
–
–
–
–
–
–
Micrometer
g p
Go/no-go gage
Data collection form
S r e
Survey
On-time delivery report
Variation
Part
Variability
Measurement
Variability
Total
Observed Variability
Process A
σ&sup2;Actual (Part) + σ&sup2;Meas. syst. = σ&sup2;Observed Total
Process B
Which process is best? Which is easier to improve?
Components of Measurement Error
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Resolution/Discrimination
Accuracy (bias)
Linearity
Stability (consistency)
Precision – Repeatability &amp; Reproducibility
1. Resolution
What is the length of this
component to the nearest 10th?
•
•
•
Definition:
D
fi iti
Th
The capability
bilit tto
detect the smallest acceptable
change
C
Cause:
d
t
measurement units
Guideline “10 bucket rule”
– Increments in the measurement
system should be one tenth of the
product specification or process
variation
•
Actions:
– Change measurement device
– Record sample averages
– Live with it but understand its
limitations
R
Resolution
l ti
1/10th
1
2
3
Poor resolution
4
1
2
3
Better resolution
4
What percent of requests are issued
within 4 hours of receipt??
Customer Name
Date Issued
________________
________________
________________
Poor resolution
Customer Name
Date Issued
Time Issued
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
Better resolution
2. Accuracy /Bias
Master value
Reference standard
•
•
•
Accuracy/Bias:
A
/Bi
Difference
Diff
between the observed average
value and the master reference
Master value is an accepted,
traceable reference standard
Actions:
– Calibrate regularly
– Use operations instructions
– Review
R i
specifications
ifi ti
ffor
resolution
– Validate data systems input
accuracy
– Create operational definitions
X
X
X
X
X
Less accurate
Master value
Reference standard
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
More accurate
X
X
X
X
X
•
•
Measurement is
M
i ““true”” and/or
d/
consistent across the range of
the “gauge”
Actions
–
–
–
–
Check gauge specification
Rebuild/replace gauge
Use within restricted range
Use correction factor
Temperature deg C
3. Linearity
Linear
range
Gauge reading deg C
Form Linearity
Super Outstanding
Outstanding
Incredible
Excellent
Great
Very Good
Good
OK
Fair
Poor
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
4. Stability
Time 1 Time 2
•
•
•
Measurements remain
M
i
constant and predictable over
time i.e. accuracy remains
constant
No drifting, sudden shifts or
cycles
Actions
– maintain and service
equipment
– use control charts
– use SOP
– ensure adequate training
– regular audits
Shift
5. Precision – Repeatability &amp; Reproducibility
Master value
Reference standard
•
•
Repeatability
R
t bilit - variation
i ti th
thatt
occurs when repeated
measurements are made of the
same item under
nder identical
conditions
Actions
– repair, replace, adjust
– SOP
•
•
Reproducibility – variation that
results when different conditions
are used to make the same
measurements
Actions
– training
– SOP
X
X
X
X X X
X
X
X
X
Poor precision
Master value
Reference standard
XXXXXXX
XXX
Good precision
Gauge R&amp;R Studies
• Method of assessing Repeatability &amp; Reproducibility of a
measurement system
• A number of appraisers (usually two or three) measure a
number of parts (or process output) (usually 5 to 20) a
number of times (usually two or three)
• The results are compared within each appraiser
(Repeatability) and between appraisers (Reproducibility)
• Randomisation is critical for repeat
p
measurements to
avoid learning or copying.
Gage R&amp;R Study – Continuous Data
Three appraisers, two
measurements each
% of Tolerance
% of Total Variation
EV=Equip’t Variation
AV=Appraiser Variation
PV=Part Variation
R&amp;R = √(EV&sup2;+AV&sup2;)
Gage R&amp;R Study – Attribute Data
Two appraisers, two
measurements each
h
Appraiser Variation
Appraiser vs Control
AV=Appraiser Variation
AC=Appraiser vs Control
R&amp;R = √(AV*AC)
Measurement Error Matching Exercise
A.
Time 1
Time 2
Shift
B.
1. Resolution/Discrimination
X
X
X
X
(
)
2. Accuracyy (bias)
X
X
X
X
X
X
3. Linearity
4. Stability (consistency)
C
C.
D
D.
XXXXXXX
XXX
1
2
3
4
Tem
mperature d
deg C
5. Precision – Repeatability &amp;
Reproducibility
E
E.
Gauge reading deg C
```