Psychological Statistics Module: BS Psychology - 2nd year Activity 2 1. Researchers have observed that high school students who watched educational television programs as young children tend to have higher grades than their peers who did not watch educational television. Is this study an example of an experiment? Explain why or why not. • This study is not an example of an experimental research, but this study could be correlational or non-experimental research. The researchers are only doing observation on the amount of educational television, they are not manipulating or changing the value of one variable that will cause changes to occur in the second variable. 2. What two elements are necessary for a research study to be an experiment? • The two elements that are necessary for a research to be a true experiment is the manipulation and control. Manipulation is when the researchers manipulate one variable by changing its value from one level to another, and control is when the researchers have control over the research situation to ensure that other, extraneous variable do not influence the relationship being examined. 3. Loftus and Palmer (1974) conducted an experiment in which participants were shown a video of an automobile accident. After the video, some participants were asked to estimate the speed of the cars when they “smashed into” each other. Others were asked to estimate the speed when the cars “hit” each other. The “smashed into” group produced significantly higher estimates than the “hit” group. Identify the independent and dependent variables for this study. • The question's phrasing is the independent variable, and each participant's approximate speed is the dependent variable.