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Application and Reading Assignment

•Job Analysis Example 1:
–Identify the components of the job analysis.
Job context
The job analysts needed to compare the
validity of apprenticeship program for lineman
to keep the electricity flowing even during
stormy and windy conditions with job
Machines, tool, equipment, work aids, and This job requires heavy machines and tools
used, to fully understand the job, the job
analysts should do an investigation of the tools,
machines and equipment used in the jobs.
Unit of Analysis
Scales applied to unit of work
As a part of tasks: Install automatic dead ends
on wire.
Scales applied to worker characteristic As a part of KSAOs: skills in rigging
headlines, slings, and come-alongs.
Sources of Job Analysis Data
Written documents
The job analysts had access to a previous list
of 385 tasks and 34 KSAOs
Previous job analyses
Job holder
Jobholder’s immediate supervisor
Organizational training specialist
T&D trainer
Technical expert
Planner analyst
Job analysts
The job analystss themselves had reviewed
ratings of tasks and of KSAOs
Methods of Data Collection
Technical conference
A meeting with more than one expert was held
to gain better understanding of the job
The job analysts asked job experts to review
and evaluate the tasks and KSAOs on scales.
Reviewing records
The job analysts reviewed previous tasks and
KSAOs and then reviewed the training
modules against the tasks
–Compare what the authors were asked to do with what they did. Any concerns?
The authors were hired by company management to analyze and assess the validity of a training
program for lineman at a medium-sized electric power company. The program contained 242
separate modules for job holders who keep the electricity running despite bad weather conditions.
This emphasizes that the author must consider of the prevailing working conditions in respect of
physical aspect of the job when review the training program. The authors’ objective was to
compare and contrast the training contents with the job requirements and this was their driving
force to choose the choice of methods.
This particular job analysis was required for the purpose of “Training” which means to support job
holders to perform better in their job. According to Morgeson et.al (2019), the development of
training can be determined by the key KSAOs which are required for job holders to successfully
perform their tasks. Thus, in order to approach their given task, the authors met with training staff
to understand the project and give attention to any issues if needed but most importantly, they
decided that tasks and KSAOs would be the only thing to focus on this project.
The first source of data available to the authors was a previous list of tasks and KSAOs which
were provided to them in written documents. More importantly, the authors were able to form a
group of experts including job holders, supervisors, training specialist and technical expert to assist
them in reviewing and evaluating the tasks and KSAOs based on their experience and knowledge.
After gathering all information from the company’s perspectives and the authors’ perspectives,
they reviewed the training modules against the tasks in order to complete the assessment on the
training program.
In my opinion, the authors had performed a solid and thorough work by setting a specific goal at
the beginning. They identified main duties involve, involved people in the company and sought
for the assistance from job experts. Throughout their process, it is clearly that they focus on
identifying KSAOs and tasks, however they carried out to understand the tasks first before KSAOs
because it is crucial that the tasks must be established first before determining KSAOs.
Additionally, they collected data from multiple sources: written documents, focus group,
questionnaires, evaluation and analyses which had made their report more accurate and
Nevertheless, one of my concern is that “Literature Review” was not applied to gain an initial
understanding of the job. The sources can be varied but most famously is from job description but
there was no record showing that they have reviewed the job description. According to Mathis and
Jackson (2008), job description is a systematic that contains detailed summary of job tasks, duties
and responsibilities, a key document used by employees and managers to assure an understanding
of what the job incumbent is expected to do to perform the job therefore job description should
align with tasks and KSAOs. If there is a review of job description, we will have more savvy on
the tasks and KSAOs. Moreover, the methods of data collection should sufficient for their research,
maybe more methods could have been applied for example directly observe job incumbents
performing the job duties, work sample or job segments. This is essential because it will for
identify the physical requirements, physical work context and environmental conditions especially
in this case where the lineman sometimes had to perform their job during stormy and windy
In conclusion, the authors had performed an excellent job analysis by focusing on identifying tasks
and KSAOs as well as collecting data from a large sample, of course, there are several components
that could be further considered to collect the data such as review literature and observing.
Combining several data collection methods will balance the strengths and weaknesses of each
method and will be able to provide both quantitative and qualitative data to explain in detail all of
the elements involved in the job and the qualifications needed to perform the duties. Consequently,
the report will be more credible and accountable
•Job Analysis Example 2:
–Identify the components of the job analysis.
Organizational philosophy and structure
A large hospital delivering mental health
services to inpatients and outpatients
Licensing and other government -mandated Typically, incumbents related to healthcare
industry must hold a certain kind of certificate.
Thus, job analysts must identify the licenses
and/or certifications required for this job.
The job analysts must develop valid MQs for
Pharmacy Technician position with the
original requirement was:” two years of
experience in assisting a registered pharmacist
in the compounding and dispending of
Personal job demands
Based of personal job demands to identify
whether several jobs at the hospital had an
adverse effect on hiring chances of minority
Work activities
The job analysts must fully understand what
does the job do. In this particular case,
basically job holder will have to Compound
and Dispense of prescriptions
Worker characteristic requirements
The job analysts must identify skills,
knowledge communication, abilities to
perform this job.
Unit of Analysis
The job analysts collected different MQs for
PT to determine the new acceptable MQs
Check patient records to determine drug
allergies and interactions
Scales applied to worker characteristic Ability to communicate orally with
pharmacists/ other healthcare professionals
Sources of Job Analysis Data
Previous job analyses
The job analysts decided to use other MQs for
PT to set their fundamental objective.
Organizational training specialist
Job analysts had a meeting with key staff at the
hospital and HR to kick off the project
Other organizational units
Technical experts
Job analysts assembled panels of 6-9 job
experts to assist with developing MQs
Methods of Data Collection
Technical conference
Group interviews
A meeting with more than one expert of the job
was held to better understand the reasons and
requirement of the job.
The job analysts had experts to evaluate and
rate task and KSAs
Two groups of experts were assembled to
discuss the tasks and KSAs respectively. From
that, the job analysts will distinguish
candidates who are not acceptable for the job
and who are barely acceptable.
–Identify and evaluate the MQs for a job of your choice.
The MQs developed for the position of a high school math teacher could be identified as follow:
Candidate must hold a bachelor’s degree in Mathematics from an accredited institution
Must hold a professional teacher license from any state or enrolled in a program to obtain
a professional teachers license.
Candidate shall have at least 3 years of successful math teaching experience.
Must comfortable working with students especially those who one or two levels behind
Must have excellent communication skills and a friendly, approachable personality
Generally, MQs are baseline set of skills and other requirements that an applicant must possess in
order to eligible for the job. The MQs above are measurable and objective, clearly identifies the
bare minimum for knowledge, experience and certifications that applicant must have to apply for
the job. KSAs were clearly listed out so job applicant understands the minimum expectations from
hiring perspectives. Moreover, the MQs were written in language to indicate that the MQs are
mandatory, detailed when describing required experience (number of years experience, field of
experience,….) and specified the credentials required to be considered as a candidate (a bachelor’s
degree in Mathematics).
Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2003). Well-being in the workplace and its
relationship to business outcomes: A review of the Gallup studies. In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Haidt
(Eds.), Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived (pp. 205–224). American
Psychological Association.
Saziye Gazioglu & Aysit Tansel.,(2006) Job satisfaction in Britain: individual and job related
factors, Applied Economics, 38:10, 1163-1171, DOI: 10.1080/00036840500392987