# IB Maths SL Formula Booklet

```Diploma Programme
Mathematics: analysis and approaches
formula booklet
For use during the course and in the examinations
First examinations 2021
Version 1.0
&copy; International Baccalaureate Organization 2019
Contents
Prior learning
SL and HL
2
Topic 1: Number and algebra
SL and HL
3
HL only
4
Topic 2: Functions
SL and HL
5
HL only
5
Topic 3: Geometry and trigonometry
SL and HL
6
HL only
7
Topic 4: Statistics and probability
SL and HL
HL only
9
10
Topic 5: Calculus
SL and HL
11
HL only
12
Prior learning – SL and HL
Area of a parallelogram
A = bh , where b is the base, h is the height
Area of a triangle
1
A = (bh) , where b is the base, h is the height
2
Area of a trapezoid
=
A
1
(a + b) h , where a and b are the parallel sides, h is the height
2
Area of a circle
A = πr 2 , where r is the radius
Circumference of a circle
C = 2πr , where r is the radius
Volume of a cuboid
V = lwh , where l is the length, w is the width, h is the height
Volume of a cylinder
V = πr 2 h , where r is the radius, h is the height
Volume of a prism
V = Ah , where A is the area of cross-section, h is the height
Area of the curved surface of
a cylinder
A= 2πrh , where r is the radius, h is the height
Distance between two
points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 )
d=
Coordinates of the midpoint of
a line segment with endpoints
( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 )
 x1 + x2 y1 + y2 
, 

2 
 2
( x1 − x2 ) 2 + ( y1 − y2 ) 2
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
2
Topic 1: Number and algebra – SL and HL
SL
1.2
SL
1.3
The nth term of an
arithmetic sequence
un = u1 + (n − 1) d
The sum of n terms of an
arithmetic sequence
S n=
The nth term of a
geometric sequence
un = u1r n −1
n
n
( 2u1 + (n − 1) d ) ; Sn= (u1 + un )
2
2
The sum of n terms of a
u1 (r n − 1) u1 (1 − r n )
, r ≠1
=
S
=
n
finite geometric sequence
r −1
1− r
SL
1.4
Compound interest
SL
1.5
Exponents and logarithms
a x = b ⇔ x = log a b , where a &gt; 0, b &gt; 0, a ≠ 1
SL
1.7
Exponents and logarithms
log=
log a x + log a y
a xy
x
log
=
log a x − log a y
a
y
kn
r 

FV = PV &times; 1 +
 , where FV is the future value,
 100k 
PV is the present value, n is the number of years,
k is the number of compounding periods per year,
r% is the nominal annual rate of interest
log a x m = m log a x
log a x =
log b x
log b a
SL
1.8
u1
The sum of an infinite
=
S∞
, r &lt;1
geometric sequence
r −1
SL
1.9
Binomial theorem
(a + b) n = a n + n C a n −1b +… + n C a n − r b r +… + b n
1
r
n!
nC =
r r !(n − r )!
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
3
Topic 1: Number and algebra – HL only
AHL
1.10
Combinations
n!
nC =
r r !(n − r )!
Permutations
n P = n!
r (n − r )!
AHL
1.12
Complex numbers
z= a + bi
AHL
1.13
Modulus-argument (polar)
and exponential (Euler)
form
z=
r (cos θ + isin θ ) =
re iθ =
r cis θ
AHL
1.14
De Moivre’s theorem
[ r (cosθ + isin θ )]
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
n
=
r n (cos nθ + isin nθ ) =
r n einθ =
r n cis nθ
4
Topic 2: Functions – SL and HL
SL
2.1
SL
2.6
SL
2.7
SL
2.9
Equations of a straight line
0 ; y − y1= m ( x − x1 )
=
y mx + c ; ax + by + d =
y2 − y1
x2 − x1
m=
Axis of symmetry of the
function
f ( x) =
ax 2 + bx + c ⇒ axis of symmetry is x =
−
equation
ax 2 + bx + c= 0 ⇒
Discriminant
∆= b 2 − 4ac
Exponential and
logarithmic functions
a x = e x ln a ; log a a x= x= a loga x where a , x &gt; 0, a ≠ 1
x=
b
2a
−b &plusmn; b 2 − 4ac
, a≠0
2a
Topic 2: Functions – HL only
AHL
2.12
Sum and product of the
roots of polynomial
equations of the form
n
∑a x
r =0
r
r
( −1) a0
− an −1
; product is
Sum is
an
an
n
=0
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
5
Topic 3: Geometry and trigonometry – SL and HL
SL
3.1
Distance between two
points ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) and
d=
Coordinates of the
midpoint of a line segment
with endpoints ( x1 , y1 , z1 )
 x1 + x2 y1 + y2 z1 + z2 
,
,


2
2 
 2
Volume of a right-pyramid
V=
1
Ah , where A is the area of the base, h is the height
3
Volume of a right cone
V=
1 2
πr h , where r is the radius, h is the height
3
Area of the curved surface
of a cone
A = πrl , where r is the radius, l is the slant height
Volume of a sphere
V=
Surface area of a sphere
A = 4πr 2 , where r is the radius
Sine rule
a
b
c
= =
sin A sin B sin C
Cosine rule
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cos C ; cos C =
Area of a triangle
1
A = ab sin C
2
Length of an arc
l = rθ , where r is the radius, θ is the angle measured in radians
Area of a sector
1
A = r 2θ , where r is the radius, θ is the angle measured in
2
( x1 − x2 ) 2 + ( y1 − y2 ) 2 + ( z1 − z2 ) 2
( x2 , y2 , z2 )
and ( x2 , y2 , z2 )
SL
3.2
SL
3.4
4 3
πr , where r is the radius
3
a 2 + b2 − c2
2ab
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
6
SL
3.5
Identity for tan θ
tan θ =
SL
3.6
Pythagorean identity
cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ =
1
Double angle identities
sin 2θ = 2sin θ cos θ
sin θ
cos θ
cos 2θ = cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ = 2cos 2 θ − 1 = 1 − 2sin 2 θ
Topic 3: Geometry and trigonometry – HL only
AHL
3.9
Reciprocal trigonometric
identities
secθ =
1
cos θ
cosecθ =
Pythagorean identities
1
sin θ
1 + tan 2 θ =
sec 2 θ
1 + cot 2 θ =
cosec 2θ
AHL
3.10
Compound angle identities
sin ( A=
&plusmn; B ) sin A cos B &plusmn; cos A sin B
cos ( A &plusmn; B ) =
cos A cos B ∓ sin A sin B
tan A &plusmn; tan B
tan ( A &plusmn; B ) =
1 ∓ tan A tan B
Double angle identity
for tan
AHL
3.12
Magnitude of a vector
tan 2θ =
v =
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
2 tan θ
1 − tan 2 θ
 v1 
 
v + v2 + v3 , where v =  v2 
v 
 3
2
1
2
2
7
AHL
3.13
Scalar product
 v1 
 w1 
 
 
v ⋅ w= v1w1 + v2 w2 + v3 w3 , where v =  v2  , w =  w2 
v 
w 
 3
 3
v⋅w =
v w cos θ , where θ is the angle between v and w
AHL
3.14
AHL
3.16
v1w1 + v2 w2 + v3 w3
v w
Angle between two
vectors
cos θ =
Vector equation of a line
r = a + λb
Parametric form of the
equation of a line
x =+
x0 λ l , y =+
y0 λ m, z =+
z0 λ n
Cartesian equations of a
line
x − x0 y − y0 z − z0
= =
l
m
n
Vector product
 w1 
 v1 
 v2 w3 − v3 w2 
 
 


v &times;=
w  v3 w1 − v1w3  , where v =  v2  , w =  w2 
v w −v w 
w 
v 
 1 2 2 1
 3
 3
v&times;w =
v w sin θ , where θ is the angle between v and w
Area of a parallelogram
A=
v &times; w where v and w form two adjacent sides of a
parallelogram
AHL
3.17
Vector equation of a plane
r = a + λb + &micro; c
Equation of a plane
(using the normal vector)
r ⋅n =a⋅n
Cartesian equation of a
plane
ax + by + cz =
d
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
8
Topic 4: Statistics and probability – SL and HL
SL
4.2
SL
4.3
SL
4.5
SL
4.6
Interquartile range
= Q3 − Q1
IQR
k
Mean, x , of a set of data
x=
∑fx
i =1
, where n =
n
k
∑f
i =1
i
n ( A)
n (U )
Probability of an event A
P ( A) =
Complementary events
P ( A) + P ( A′) =
1
Combined events
P ( A ∪ B )= P ( A) + P ( B) − P ( A ∩ B)
Mutually exclusive events
P ( A ∪ B )= P ( A) + P ( B)
P ( A ∩ B)
P ( B)
Conditional probability
P ( A B) =
Independent events
P ( A ∩ B) =
P ( A) P ( B)
SL
4.7
Expected value of a
=
E(X )
discrete random variable X
SL
4.8
Binomial distribution
SL
4.12
i i
x P(X
∑=
x)
X ~ B (n , p)
Mean
E ( X ) = np
Variance
Var (=
X ) np (1 − p )
Standardized normal
variable
z=
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
x−&micro;
σ
9
Topic 4: Statistics and probability – HL only
AHL
4.13
AHL
4.14
Bayes’ theorem
P ( B | A) =
P ( B) P ( A | B)
P ( B ) P ( A | B) + P ( B′) P ( A | B′)
P ( Bi | A) =
P( Bi ) P( A | Bi )
P( B1 ) P( A | B1 ) + P( B2 ) P( A | B2 ) + P( B3 ) P( A | B3 )
k
Variance σ 2
k
f i ( xi − &micro; )
f i xi 2
∑
∑
=
=
= i1
− &micro;2
σ 2 i 1=
n
n
2
k
∑ f (x
i
i
− &micro;)
2
Standard deviation σ
σ=
Linear transformation of a
single random variable
b ) aE ( X ) + b
E ( aX +=
Expected value of a
continuous random
variable X
i =1
n
a 2 Var ( X )
Var ( aX + b ) =
E(X =
) &micro;=
∫
∞
−∞
x f ( x) dx
Variance
Var ( X ) = E ( X − &micro; ) 2 = E ( X 2 ) − [ E (X ) ]
Variance of a discrete
random variable X
Var ( X ) =
x) =
x) − &micro; 2
∑ ( x − &micro; )2 P ( X =
∑ x2 P ( X =
Variance of a continuous
random variable X
2
∞
∞
−∞
−∞
2
2
2
Var ( X ) =
∫ ( x − &micro; ) f ( x) dx =
∫ x f ( x) dx − &micro;
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
10
Topic 5: Calculus – SL and HL
SL
5.3
SL
5.5
Derivative of x n
f ( x) =
x n ⇒ f ′( x) =
nx n −1
Integral of x n
n
dx
∫x=
Area between a curve
y = f ( x) and the x-axis,
where f ( x) &gt; 0
SL
5.6
SL
5.9
x n +1
+ C , n ≠ −1
n +1
b
A = ∫ y dx
a
Derivative of sin x
f ( x) =sin x ⇒ f ′( x) =cos x
Derivative of cos x
− sin x
f ( x) =⇒
cos x
f ′( x) =
Derivative of e x
f ( x) =
e x ⇒ f ′( x) =
ex
Derivative of ln x
1
f ( x) =
ln x ⇒ f ′( x) =
x
Chain rule
y = g (u ) , where u = f ( x) ⇒
Product rule
y =uv ⇒
Quotient rule
du
dv
v −u
u
dy
d
d
x
x
y= ⇒
=
2
dx
v
v
dy
dv
du
=u + v
dx
dx
dx
dv d 2 s
=
dt dt 2
Acceleration
=
a
Distance travelled from
t1 to t 2
distance =
Displacement from
t1 to t 2
displacement =
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
dy dy du
= &times;
dx du dx
∫
t2
t1
v(t ) dt
∫
t2
t1
v (t )dt
11
SL
5.10
Standard integrals
1
dx
∫ x=
ln x + C
− cos x + C
∫ sin x dx =
dx
∫ cos x=
∫e
SL
5.11
Area of region enclosed
by a curve and x-axis
x
sin x + C
d=
x ex + C
b
A = ∫ y dx
a
Topic 5: Calculus – HL only
AHL
5.12
Derivative of f ( x) from
first principles
AHL
5.15
Standard derivatives
y = f ( x) ⇒
dy
 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 
= f ′( x)= lim 

h
→
0
h
dx


tan x
f ( x) =tan x ⇒ f ′( x) =sec 2 x
sec x
f ( x) =sec x ⇒ f ′( x) =sec x tan x
cosec x
f ( x) =
cosec x ⇒ f ′( x) =
−cosec x cot x
cot x
−cosec 2 x
f ( x) =⇒
cot x
f ′( x) =
ax
f ( x) =
a x ⇒ f ′( x) =
a x (ln a )
log a x
f ( x) = log a x ⇒ f ′( x) =
arcsin x
f ( x)= arcsin x ⇒ f ′( x)=
arccos x
1
f ( x) =
arccos x ⇒ f ′( x) =
−
1 − x2
arctan x
f ( x)= arctan x ⇒ f ′( x)=
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
1
x ln a
1
1 − x2
1
1 + x2
12
AHL
5.15
Standard integrals
a dx
∫=
x
1 x
a +C
ln a
1
1
x
=
∫ a 2 + x 2 dx a arctan  a  + C
1
 x
d=
x arcsin   + C ,
a
a −x
∫
AHL
5.16
AHL
5.17
Integration by parts
Area of region enclosed
by a curve and y-axis
Volume of revolution
AHL
5.18
Euler’s method
2
dv
∫ u dx d=x
uv − ∫ v
x &lt;a
du
dx or ∫ u d=
v uv − ∫ v du
dx
b
A = ∫ x dy
a
b
b
a
a
V = ∫ πy 2 dx or V = ∫ πx 2 dy
xn + h , where h is a constant
yn +=
yn + h &times; f ( xn , yn ) ; xn +=
1
1
(step length)
Integrating factor for
e∫
Maclaurin series
f ( x) =f (0) + x f ′(0) +
Maclaurin series for
special functions
e x =1 + x +
y ′ + P ( x) y =
Q ( x)
AHL
5.19
2
P ( x )dx
x2
+ ...
2!
ln (1 + x) =x −
x 2 x3
+ − ...
2
3
sin x =x −
x3 x5
+ − ...
3! 5!
cos x =−
1
x2 x4
+ − ...
2! 4!
arctan x =x −
Mathematics: analysis and approaches formula booklet
x2
f ′′(0) + …
2!
x3 x5
+ − ...
3 5
13
```