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GED 108
Compiled by:
Art Appreciation as a course under the new GE Curriculum aims at intensifying
students’ interest and passion in the arts and humanities. In continuation to the subject
Contemporary Arts in the Senior High School Level, the foremost emphasis of the course
is on the beauty and grandeur of Philippine Arts giving much focus on the local arts in
the country which are somehow seen and presented as at par with the artistic
presentations and sense of artists in the global context.
The module gives emphasis on basic lessons in the course as reflected from the
presented topics in the Table of Contents. It started with the introduction of Humanities
and the Arts then slowly shifted to the more personal aspects such as analyzing the
subject of an artwork and the way it has been presented to its viewer. Furthermore, the
module focused on the artist and the mediums he uses in creating his art work as well as
the elements and principles of art implored in the produced works of art. Art history has
also been tackled as well as the famous Filipino and foreign personalities who have
contributed a lot to the arts locally and abroad. The last part of the module dealt with
modern and contemporary art production means such as art fusion, transcreation, soulmaking, appropriation and improvisation in various art forms.
The module has been divided into six units with the content patterned to the Art
Appreciation syllabus approved by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED).
To escalate students’ enthusiasm in engaging themselves to the course’s purpose of
creation, colorful visuals were presented inside the module. Outcomes based challenges
per lesson for each unit were provided for the students’ enjoyment and learning. An Art
Portfolio at the end of the course is required of students to submit so that they somehow
know the progress of their growth in the course taken.
With the creation of this module, it is hoped that the desire of students to not just embrace
the essentials of their fields of specialization be enhanced as the course would want the
students to realize that a deep appreciation and understanding of the arts is also an
important aspect of student life.
Unit 1
Humanities and the Arts
This unit shall give you a run through an overview of the Humanities and the
significance of the Arts as an important aspect of being human. Here, the basics of art
appreciation shall be discussed which will further enhance the learner’s orientation on the
significant role of humanities and the arts in one’s culture and the society in general.
Learning Objectives:
1.Define Humanities and the Arts
2. Reflect on the contributions of humanities and the arts to people, culture and society.
3. Relate Arts and Humanities to Philosophy
4. Identify and give meaning to the different art forms
5. Review on the importance of the study of the Arts and art appreciation
6. Appreciate the contributions of the Arts to oneself.
Lesson 1 - Humanities and the Arts
“Man is the measure of all things.” - Protagoras
What is Humanities?
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society
and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is
now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the
humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural, and sometimes social sciences, as
well as professional training.
The humanities use methods that are primarily critical, or speculative, and have a
significant historical element as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of
the natural sciences, yet, unlike the sciences, it has no central discipline. The humanities
include the study of ancient and modern languages, literature, philosophy, history,
archeology, anthropology, human geography, law, politics, religion and art.
Scholars in the humanities are "humanity scholars" or humanists. The term "humanist"
also describes the philosophical position of humanism, which some "anti-humanist"
scholars in the humanities reject. The Renaissance scholars and artists were also
called humanists. Some secondary schools offer humanities classes usually consisting
of literature, global studies and art.
Human disciplines like history, folkloristics, and cultural anthropology study subject
matters that the manipulative experimental method does not apply to—and instead
mainly use the comparative method and comparative research.
The study of humanities may also be attributed to the symmetry and balance
discussed by the art piece known as the Vitruvian Man of Leonardo da Vinci. This image
demonstrates the blend of mathematics and art during the Renaissance and demonstrates
Leonardo's deep understanding of proportions. In addition, this picture represents a
cornerstone of Leonardo's attempts to relate man to nature. Encyclopædia Britannica
online states, "Leonardo envisaged the great picture chart of the human body he had
produced through his anatomical drawings and Vitruvian Man as a cosmografia del minor
mondo (cosmography of the microcosm). He believed the workings of the human body to
be an analogy for the workings of the universe."
According to Leonardo's preview in the accompanying text, written in mirror
writing, it was made as a study of the proportions of the (male) human body as described
in Vitruvius' De architectura. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanities)
Image of the Vitruvian Man (widewalls.ch/google images)
Why Study Humanities?
A lot of reasons had been associated as to why one must study Humanities. The
following items are just a few of the many reasons why one must engage and be
interested in Humanities:
As the word humanities came from the Latin “humanus” which means human,
cultured and refined, man is taught to be as what the term exactly means: being cultured
and refined;
Humans have the characteristics of rationality, benevolence and care, he is
cultured and refined as shown by good tastes and manner indicative of good and proper
Humanities contains the records of man’s quest for answers to the fundamental
questions he asks himself and about the world we live in
Humanities studies man and the manner in which he conducts himself from the
time of his existence to the present (Martin & Jacobus, 2004)
Humanities is composed of academic disciplines that make it distinctive in both
content and method from the physical and biological sciences and from the social
The study of Humanities is devoted to understanding the different phenomena
within the human cultural contexts
Humanities studies how people process and document the human experience
using philosophy, religion, literature, art and history as their way of understanding and
recording the world
Humanities studies how individuals’ manner of expression varies as they record
human experiences and how the way of documenting these forms a connection between
and among humans of the past, present and future.
Fundamental Principles of Humanities
The following are identified fundamental principles of Humanities which are used
as guides for a better understanding of life and man’s existence.
Human nature is inherently good.
Individuals are free and are capable of making choices.
Human potential for growth and development is virtually unlimited.
Self-concept plays an important role in growth and development.
Individuals have an urge for self actualization.
Reality is defined by each person.
Individuals have a responsibility to both themselves and to others.
Art Explained
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or
performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or
technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. Other
activities related to the production of works of art include the criticism of art, the study of
the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination[clarification needed of art.
The three classical branches of art are painting, sculpture and architecture. Music,
theater, film, dance and other performing arts as well as literature and other media such
as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts. Until the 17th
century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated
from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic
considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired
skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts.
Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over
time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming
from human agency and creation. The nature of art and related concepts, such as
creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics.
Nature of the Arts
The following are identified natures of the Arts from the point of view of different
artists and philosophers:
1. Art or arts is of Aryan root “ar” which means to join or put together and has its Latin
term being “sars” or “artis” which means everything that is artificially made or composed
by man (wikipedia)
2. Art constitutes one of the oldest and most important means of expression
developed by man.
3. It refers to the skillful arrangement or composition of some common but significant
qualities of nature such as sounds, colors, lines, movements, words, stone and wood to
express feelings, thoughts, imaginations and dreams in an amazing, meaningful and
enjoyable way. (Adams, 2002)
4. Art is subjective as it employs the use of perception, insights, feelings and intuition
5. It is the heightened expression of human dignity and weaknesses felt and shared so
powerfully in a world increasingly aware of its successes and failures
6. It is man’s expression of himself as an individual and how he views his existence, and
7. Art also provides enjoyment and stimulation specially when people understand them
Functions of Art
Arts is a much needed avenue for people to:
Express freely oneself;
Socially express his need for display, celebration and communication; and
Physically express the need for utility of functional objects.
The Forms of Art Differentiated
The matrix below shows the difference of the art forms as identified:
Functional art forms
(the need for life to be better)
non- functional art forms
( the need to express aesthetics and beauty)
Architecture,weaving, furniture-making
painting, sculpture, literature,
music, dance and theater
Functional Art Forms are those which may benefit the cause of man’s existence.
They are art forms which give people sustenance as to need for life to be better. This
benefit is mostly financial in nature. Functional art is generally applied art - art created
for use, not necessarily everyday use, but designed to serve a purpose and with an
aesthetic in mind. It's art that serves a function, but is designed artistically for the
purpose of beauty. They meet a need for use, and are works of art as well.
The following example art pieces below are just a few of those which may be
considered functional art forms:
andreadavis-become.com (google images)
brabbu.com (google images)
Examples of Functional Art Forms
Non-functional art forms, on the other hand, Nonfunctional art is art that serves
no utilitarian purpose. It is in direct contrast with functional art, which has both an
aesthetic value and a utilitarian purpose. Nonfunctional art also encompasses paintings,
sculptures and all manner of fine art. These pieces usually seek to engage with the viewer
on an intellectual, emotional or aesthetic level. The exploration of these sensibilities,
rather than their utilitarian merits, determines the artworks' worth. (reference.com)
julspottery.com (google images)
slideshare.com (google images)
Examples of Non-functional art forms
Activity 1
Directions: Choose an object that you have difficulty in using. Make a plan to change
the form of this object to make it more functional.
Use the following as format of your presentation:
Identify the object. Associate a picture for visualization.
Presentation of the Plan ( in chronological and bulleted form)
Discuss the very important takeaways that you have learned from the lessons
Lesson 2 - Arts and Philosophy
Philosophy and Arts Related
Philosophy is a field of discipline which has attempted to explain almost all
aspects of human existence. Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions
about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often
posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by
Art or Aesthetics, on the other hand, is the study of beauty and taste, concerned
with the nature of art and used as a basis for interpreting and evaluating individual works
of art. It is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste, as well
as the philosophy of art. It examines subjective and sensori-emotional values, or
sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.
Philosophy of art is the study of the nature of art, including concepts such as
interpretation, representation and expression, and form. It is closely related to aesthetics,
the philosophical study of beauty and taste. In short, one cannot do away with philosophy
when explaining an art work. Also, one cannot produce an artwork without considering
the importance of the philosophy behind its production.(wikipedia.com)
Below is an example of an art form entitled “ Art is a Friendly Deception” that
combines both art and philosophy.
medium.com (google images)
The Artistic Philosophers
The following are just a few of the philosophers whose advocacies not only
focused on the philosophic ideas but also shared a few of their conceptions about the
1. Plato ( 428 – 347 BC) is a philosopher of Ancient Greece who is known for his
Dialogues together with Socrates. He loved and hated the arts at the same time which
makes his philosophical views on art unexplainably complicated. With the Republic
being his work, Plato was seen as a good literary stylist and great story teller and
considered the arts as threatening. He believed that “ though arts can be used to train
citizens to have an ideal society, using arts to accomplish this should be strictly
controlled”. He also explained that the physical world is a copy of a perfect, rational,
eternal and changeless original which he called FORMS.
Plato’s Ideas of the Arts may be summed up by the truths according to him that:
1. Art is imitation;
2. Art is dangerous.
(google images)
Beauty, Justice, and The Circle are all examples of what Plato called Forms or
Ideas. Other philosophers have called them Universals. Many particular things can have
the form of a circle, or of justice, or beauty. For Plato, these Forms are perfect Ideals, but
they are also more real than physical objects. He called them "the Really Real". The
world of the Forms is rational and unchanging; the world of physical appearances is
changeable and irrational, and only has reality to the extent that it succeeds in imitating
the Forms. The mind or soul belongs to the Ideal world; the body and its passions are
stuck in the muck of the physical world. So the best human life is one that strives to
understand and to imitate the Forms as closely as possible. That life is the life of the
mind, the life of the Philosopher (literally, the lover of wisdom). Self control, especially
control of the passions, is essential to the soul that wants to avoid the temptations of
sensuality, greed, and ambition, and move on to the Ideal World in the next life.
2. Aristotle ( 384 – 322 BC) was a student of Plato who first distinguished between “what
is good and what is beautiful''. For him, the universal elements of beauty are manifested
by order, symmetry and definiteness. As exemplified in his Poetics, he stated that
physical manifestation of beauty is affected by SIZE. He considered art as imitation or a
representation of nature and his emphasis of the art is on POETRY which for him is more
philosophical than Philosophy itself.
An image of Aristotle’s Poetics (google images)
Poets imitated the following according to Aristotle:
Things and events which have been or still are;
Things which are said to be seen and are probable and
Things which essentially are.
3. Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804) was a German, Enlightenment philosopher who wrote a
treatise on Aesthetics: Observations on the Feelings of the Beautiful and the Sublime. His
main interest was not on art but on BEAUTY that it is a matter of TASTE. Kant
explained that TASTE can be both SUBJECTIVE and UNIVERSAL.
For KANT, beauty is a question of form and color is NOT IMPORTANT.
The Kinds of Aesthetic Responses according to Kant are:
Beauty results in pleasure if there is order, harmony and symmetry; and
Beauty leads to a response of awe that overwhelms the viewers of the art.
pinterest.com (google images)
Kant’s Philosophy of the Mind as explained through Arts
Activity 2
Directions: Answer the following questions:
1. Why is it necessary for one to have a philosophical perspective on arts?
2. Identify other philosophers who advocated the arts and compare their ideas with
those of the three notable ones as discussed in this module.
3. Whose perspective of the arts do you adhere to? Why?
4. Say something about the artwork “ Art is a Friendly Deception”. Expound your idea
by means of giving relevant examples.
Artists vs. Artisans
An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the
arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic
discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used in the
entertainment business, especially in a business context, for musicians and other
performers (less often for actors). "Artiste" (the French for artist) is a variant used in
English only in this context; this use is becoming rare. Use of the term to describe
writers, for example, is valid, but less common, and mostly restricted to contexts like
criticism. (www.wikipedia.com)
The following are a few examples of artists in their fields of expertise:
An image of a Bagiuo painter with his artwork (businessmirror.com.ph)
Ryan Cayabyab, A National Artist of the Philippines for Music (ncaa.gov.ph)
An artisan (from French: artisan, Italian: artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who
makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example
furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and
tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker.
Artisans practice a craft and may through experience and aptitude reach the expressive
levels of an artist. The adjective "artisanal" is sometimes used in describing handprocessing in what is usually viewed as an industrial process, such as in the phrase
artisanal mining. Thus, "artisanal" is sometimes used in marketing and advertising as a
buzz word to describe or imply some relation with the crafting of handmade food
products, such as bread, beverages or cheese. Many of these have traditionally been
handmade, rural or pastoral goods but are also now commonly made on a larger scale
with automated mechanization in factories and other industrial areas. Artisans were the
dominant producers of consumer products before the Industrial Revolution. In ancient
Greece, artisans were drawn to agoras and often built workshops nearby. Below are a few
images of artisans doing their crafts:
Sources: pinterest.com, slideshare.com and devex.com (google images)
Here is a Venn Diagram which features the similarities and differences of artists
and artisans.
source:scribd.com (google images)
Activity 3
Directions: Collect 10 pictures each featuring artists and artisans. Use the Google
JamBoard in doing this exercise. As an activity:
Curate the pictures sent in a matrix with two columns, one for the artist column and
another one for artisan.
Group the pictures accordingly then be ready to present your work in class.
The Art Forms
The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression
of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in
order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of the arts
include visual arts (including architecture, ceramics, drawing, filmmaking, painting,
photography and sculpting), literature (including fiction, drama, poetry, and prose),
and performing arts (including dance, music and theater), culinary arts (including
cooking, chocolate making and winemaking).
Some art forms combine a visual element with performance
(e.g. cinematography), or artwork with the written word (e.g. comics). From
prehistoric cave paintings to modern-day films, art serves as a vessel for storytelling and
conveying humankind's relationship with the environment. (wikipedia.com)
One’s self expression especially when inclined with arts may take various forms
depending on the expertise and artistic inclinations of an artist, One may want to express
his artistic abilities by way of specific art forms such as painting or dance or a
combination of both. One may express oneself through other forms as music, sculpture,
literature or all of three combined. Whatever form of art one may use in expressing
oneself, what is important is that his self expression and creativity are explicit.
The following items below are the art forms which one may use in order to
express his artistic inclinations:
1. Architecture. Architecture is an art form that reflects how we present ourselves across
the earth’s landscape, and, like other expressive mediums, it changes with styles,
technologies and cultural adaptations. Architecture not only provides worldly needs of
shelter, workspace and storage but also represents human ideals in buildings like
courthouses and government buildings and manifestations of the spirit in churches and
temples. Traditional architecture has survived over thousands of years in one form or
another, while contemporary design offers new approaches in how we use materials and
Architecture is considered as the most functional of all the art forms. Some
examples of architectural works are The Malacanang Palace, the Philippines’ seat of
government, The Cultural Center of the Philippines, the center of cultural activities of the
country and Burj Khalifa, the highest skyscraper in the United Arab Emirates to name a
An image of The Malacanang Palace Source:discovephilippines.com (google images)
The Cultural Center of the Philippines Source: blueprint.onemega.com (google images)
Burj Khalifa
Source: boondam.com (google images)
2. Sculpture. Sculpture, an artistic form in which hard or plastic materials are worked
into three-dimensional art objects. The designs may be embodied in freestanding objects,
in reliefs on surfaces, or in environments ranging from tableaux to contexts that envelop
the spectator. An enormous variety of media may be used, including clay, wax,
stone, metal, fabric, glass, wood, plaster, rubber, and random “found” objects. Materials
may be carved, modeled, molded, cast, wrought, welded, sewn, assembled, or otherwise
shaped and combined. (https://www.britannica.com/art/sculpture)
Some example of sculptures are the following: The Jose Rizal Monument in Rizal Park,
the University of the Philippines Oblation in all UP campuses around the Philippines and
the Black Nazarene in the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene in Quiapo district,
Manila, Philippines.
The Rizal Monument
Source: commons.wikimedia.org (google images)
The UP Oblation
Source: editorial101.blogspot.com
The Black Nazarene
Source: en.wikipedia.org
3. Painting. Painting is the application of pigments to a support surface that establishes
an image, design or decoration. In art the term “painting” describes both the act and the
result. Most painting is created with pigment in liquid form and applied with a brush.
Painting as a medium has survived for thousands of years and is, along with drawing and
sculpture, one of the oldest creative media. It’s used in some form by cultures around the
world. Painting media are extremely versatile because they can be applied to many
different surfaces (called supports) including paper, wood, canvas, plaster, clay, lacquer
and concrete. (source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/masteryart1/chapter/readingpainting) Some of the examples of this two-dimentional art form are Juan Luna’s
Spolarium, Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci and The Fishermen by Ang Kiukok among
The Fishermen by Ang Kiukok Source: theculturetrip.com (google images)
Spolarium by Juan Luna
Source: news.abs-cbn.com (google images)
Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci
Source: britannica.com (google images)
4. Dance. Dance is the movement of the body in a rhythmic way, usually to music and
within a given space, for the purpose of expressing an idea or emotion, releasing energy,
or simply taking delight in the movement itself. Dance is a powerful impulse, but the art
of dance is that impulse channeled by skillful performers into something that becomes
intensely expressive and that may delight spectators who feel no wish to dance
themselves. These two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and
dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced largely by a professional few—are the
two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject. In
dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, and
neither can exist without the other. dance is an art form or activity that utilizes the body
Some of the examples of this art form are the folk dances of the Philippines like
Tinikling and Subli, ballet, and modern dances to name a few.
The Tinikling
Source: pinoyfolkdances.blogspot.com (google images)
Subli Folk Dance Source: choosephilippines.com google images)
Modern Hip Hop Dance
Source: datebook.sfchronicle.com (google images)
5. Music. Music is an art form, and cultural activity, whose medium is sound.
General definitions of music include common elements such as pitch (which
governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter,
and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities
of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound).
Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these
elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques
ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal
pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine
singing and instruments. (wikipedia)
Some of the examples which may be associated with music are the Philippine folk songs
and the produced popular music of Filipino singers like Sarah Geronimo and Gary
Valenciano to name a few.
Popular Filipino Bands Source: wheninmanila.com (google images)
Source: actmusicguide.wordpress.com (google images)
6. Theater. Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live
performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined
event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The performers may
communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech,
song, music, and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such
as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the
experience. The specific place of the performance is also named by the word "theatre" as
derived from the Ancient Greek théatron, "a place for viewing", itself from theáomai, "to
see", "to watch", "to observe". Modern theatre includes performances
of plays and musical theatre. The art forms of ballet and opera are also theatre and use
many conventions such as acting, costumes and staging. They were influential to the
development of musical theatre; see those articles for more information.
Some examples of theatrical presentations are the following: Shakespeare’s Midsummer
Night’s Dream and Romeo and Juliet, Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables and the local
theatrical presentations of Noli Me Tangere and chosen zarzuelas and moro-moro
Source: slideshare.net (google images)
Plays of William Shakespeare
Sources: theatre.colostate.edu and pa.marin.edu
7. Literature. Literature, most generically, is any body or collection of written work.
More restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form or any single
writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, and sometimes deploys language in
ways that differ from ordinary usage. Literature is classified according to whether it
is fiction or nonfiction, and whether it is poetry or prose. Fiction can be further
distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short story, or drama; and such
works are often categorized according to historical periods or their adherence to certain
aesthetic or genre. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literature)
Literature may be in any form such as poetry, novel, short story, essay, epic and legends
among others. Literature may be oral or written and are also sometimes meant to be
performed before an audience.
Some exmaples of this literary pieces are The Woman Who Had Two Navels by Nick
Joaquin, Po-on by F. Sionil Jose, Myths, Legends and Folktales by Maximo D. Ramos
and Stupid is Forever by the late Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago.
source: google images
The art forms may be classified as visual arts and performing arts. Visual arts are
those which are felt by the senses which includes sculpture, painting and architecture.
Music, Dance and Theater are under the performance arts category. Literature may be
visual or performance depending upon the manner as to how it shall be presented.
At present, there are other emerging art forms that have evolved. These art forms are
digital arts which includes photography and installation arts.
Appreciating the Arts
The previous pages of this module have given you a rundown of the basics of art
appreciation and the key points as to how one will be keen in understanding a certain
artwork or other forms of artistic presentation. The aim of making the students learn to
appreciate the arts is primarily to get the learner an engaging relationship with a
particular art work and for one to understand the meaning behind an artistic creation, the
messages that it would want to convey to its viewers and to appreciate one’s product of
art should one will be compelled to produce or make one. In so doing, here are a few
pointers as to how art appreciation may be applied by a learner of the course as
takeaways from learn.saylor.org/course:
Give a good physical description of the artwork based on their knowledge of art
elements and materials;
Analyze the artwork in terms of what the artist wants his work to represent and
the learner’s subjective reaction to the works which includes their thoughts and feelings;
Perceive the art work in the context of its history. This would enlighten the
learners of the artist’s intention in doing the work and add to the understanding of the
meaning the work is supposed to convey;
Give meaning to the artwork based on its description, analysis and context; and
Judge the artwork as to whether it is good or bad based on the learner’s perception
of it and its aesthetic and cultural value.
Art is not meant to be looked at only for what it is. It is meant to stimulate thought
because it allows viewers to draw their own emotions and pull from their personal
experiences when viewed. It is very powerful in this way and it naturally develops critical
and innovative thinking skills. Art also teaches many important qualities such as
listening, observing and responding to multiple perspectives. Having an appreciation for
art also helps us to develop an appreciation for each other and how we are all unique in
our own way.
For many people, art is meant to express something that we ourselves feel unable
to express or convey. Through its visual medium it evokes feelings of joy, sadness, anger
and pain. That is why art appreciation is so important in bringing that one final element to
complete the work, and that is our interpretation. Our perspective brings the artwork to
life as it changes for every person around it. It is important to foster art appreciation and
analysis, as it helps us value the art in how it appeals to us and what it means to each
person. It delves into the history and the story behind the art, as well as a look into the
lives of the artists. It enables one to critically analyze a work, along lines of design,
mastery and techniques. Most importantly, however, art appreciation stimulates thought
and analysis, provokes an individual to look past what meets the eye and open our mind
to the views of others. Art is here to stay. It is a person’s history and legacy which is an
ultimate proof that his personal experiences can be articulated and his immortality can be
defined. (https://www.educationworld.in/the-importance-of-art-appreciation/)
Activity 4
Directions: Look intently and examine with appreciation and curiosity the artwork of
Ang Kiukok’s Pieta. Answer sensibly the questions below.
1.What do you think is the meaning behind the art piece Pieta by Ang Kiukok?
2. Why do you think the artist made such art work?
3. Were you affected by this artwork? In what ways?
4. Do you think that the artist was successful in conveying the message to his
viewers? Why?Why not?
5. Will you take a second look at this painting should you be given the chance to visit
an art gallery where it shall be featured and displayed? Why?Why not?
Activity 2
Directions: Give three examples each of the seven art forms.
2. Painting
3. Sculpture
4. Music
5. Dance
6. Literature
7. Literature
My Art Portfolio
Directions: In order to collate properly all the activities, researched materials, written
outputs and other related files which needed to be compiled, a GEd 108 - Art
Appreciation Portfolio is required.The following are the instruction regarding the
submission of the said requirement:
A student of the course with internet access must have a google classroom folder to
serve as his portfolio. For those who will be using the module, a student must prepare
an 8.5 x 13 inch - clearbook to serve as his portfolio.
All activities done in the course must be put inside the portfolio for submission to the
instructor of the course which shall be checked every quarter.
The portfolio shall also serve as one of the course requirements for GEd 108.
Please watch the following videos related to Unit 1 - Humanities and the Arts:
Name: ____________________________
Year and Section: ___________________
Date: _______________
Rating: _____________
Unit I - Test
Part I. IDENTIFICATION. Directions: Identify the following. Write your answer on
the space provided.
_____________________1. It studies how people process and document the human
experience using philosophy, religion, literature, art and history as their way of
understanding and recording the world.
_____________________2. It is the philosophical study of beauty and taste, concerned
with the nature of art and used as the basis for interpreting and evaluating individual
works of art.
_____________________3. Whose philosopher explained that the physical world is a
copy of a perfect, rational, eternal and changeless original which he called FORMS?
_____________________4. He stated that physical manifestation of beauty is affected by
_____________________5. A person who exhibits exceptional skills in the visual and/or
the performing arts, more sensitive, very perceptive and more creative.
_____________________6. What constitutes one of the oldest and most important means
of expression developed by man?
_____________________7. He is a person who is involved in skilled trade which
produces things by hand.
_____________________8. It is a three- dimensional art form that is created through
molding, carving, welding, casting and assembling.
_____________________9. What is considered the most functional of all the art forms?
____________________10. What art form uses words to express thoughts, ideas and
Part II. TRUE or FALSE. Directions:: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and
FALSE if the statement states an incorrect idea. Write your answers on the space
____________________1. The fundamental principles of humanities are associated with
beliefs about freedom and that human beings are capable of making significant personal
choices within the constraints imposed by heredity, personal history and environment.
____________________2. Art is objective and employs the use of perception, insights,
feelings and intuition.
____________________3. Painting, sculpture, literature, music are examples of
functional art forms.
____________________4. Sculpture is considered as the most functional of all the art
____________________5. Individuals are free and are capable of making choices.
____________________6. Arts studies how people process and document the human
experience using philosophy, religion and history as their way of understanding and
recording the world.
____________________7. Human potential plays an important role in growth and
____________________8. Artists practice a craft and may through experience and
aptitude reach the expressive levels of an artisan.
____________________9. Non-functional art is generally applied art - art created for
use, not necessarily everyday use, but designed to serve a purpose and with an aesthetic
in mind.
___________________10. Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature
of beauty and taste, as well as the philosophy of art.
___________________11. Music, Dance, Theater and Literature are visual art forms.
__________________12. The Humanities and the Arts use an objective approach in the
study of man and his being.
__________________13. Painting and drawing are two - dimensional art forms.
__________________14. The aim of making the students learn to appreciate the arts is
primarily to get the learner an engaging relationship with a particular art work and for
one to understand the meaning behind an artistic creation.
__________________15. Art is not meant to be looked at only for what it is.
__________________16. Fiction can be further distinguished according to major forms
such as the novel, short story, or drama.
__________________17. Literature as an art form can only be considered performing
arts in nature.
__________________18. In art appreciation, an art work must be perceived in the
context of its history.
__________________19. Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions
about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often
posed as problems to be studied or resolved.
__________________20. The use of musical instruments in creating music is an example
of visual art.
Part III. ANALYSIS. Directions: Based on the posted artwork of Leonardo da Vinci’s
The Vitruvian Man, answer the questions below. (5 points each)
1. What do you think does the artwork The Vitruvian Man mean to demonstrate?
2. Is The Vitruvian Man by Da Vinci truly a commendable piece of art? Explain your
3. Does puzzle and mystery in an artwork add interest in the viewers? Clarify your claim.
4. What personal insights have you learned from Da Vinci’s The Viturvian Man? How
can these be applied to your being a learner of Art Appreciation?
Part IV. REFLECTION. Directions: Expound on the following items reflecting on your
learnings from Module 1. The following shall be used in grading your answer: content - 4
points, presentation - 4 points, grammar and diction - 2 points.
1. Art is universal and timeless.
2.“Man is the measure of all things.” - Protagoras
Ferrer, Maria Cristina D. et.al, Art Appreciation. Panday Lahi Publishing House, Inc.
Sucat, Muntinlupa City.
Ramirez, Veronica E., Mairene A. Leynes, Brenda V. Fajardo. (2008). Minding the Arts
Art Appreciation for College. Mutya Publishing House Inc. Mandaluyong City.
Tabotado, Claudio V. (2010). Art Appreciation Introduction to Humanities. Mindshapers
Co., Inc. Manila.
Tabotado, Claudio V., Ronald M. Corpuz and Ryan F. Hidalgo. (2013). Introduction to
Humanities and the Basics of Art Appreciation. Purely Books Trading & Publishing
Corp. Manila.
Humanities through the Arts [Jacobus, Lee, Martin, F. David] on Amazon.com.
Catherine Adams. Human Communication and Deafness Group, University of ... First
published: 28 October 2002. (https://doi.org/10.1111/1469)
https://www.google images.com
*End of Unit I*
Unit 2
Subject and Content
Unit 2 shall focus on helping students to answer questions by investigating
the subject of works of art. This will provide a guide for gathering clues embedded in
works of art, as well as an introduction to searching for the underlying meaning and
messages that are present in many works of art. Students will work, step by step, through
the layers of meaning, delving more deeply into these layers with each work as they
progress through the different lessons presented.
Learning Objectives:
By the end of this module, you should be able to:
Differentiate representational and non-representational art;
Discuss the difference between an artwork’s subject and content;
Identify the subject matter and specific examples of art;
Enumerate the sources of the subjects of some of the most recognizable works of
Lesson 1 - The Subject of An Artwork
The term subject in arts refers to the main idea that is represented in the artwork.
The subject in art is basically the essence of the piece. To determine subject matter in a
particular piece of art, one may be guided by the questions: What is actually depicted in
this artwork? What is the artist trying to express to the world... What is his or her
message? And how are they conveying that message?
In artwork, the subject matter would be what the artist has chosen to paint, draw
or sculpt. The subject matter or topic is entirely up to the artist. Art is really liberating in
that sense. It allows you to say whatever you want to say. Whether the message is
understood by others is another story, and whether the artist discloses the meaning of it or
not is also a personal choice. Some artists don't like to assign a strict explanation of their
art so that they are not imposing on the viewers own narrative and concept of the work.
That allows it to be more reflective or interactive if you like. It is nice to
contemplate something without being told what it is. Of course there are some symbols
that are archetypal and commonly understood/interpreted by humanity in the same way.
Therefore symbols can be very powerful when trying to convey a specific idea. Other
times one doesn't have a fixed idea when creating. Sometimes if I don't have a particular
subject I just start to paint with no plan. It is a bit like meditation because through that
process I am outside myself viewing the process remotely...or that is how I can best
describe the experience anyway. I just let my subconscious work away starting with
patterns and letting the colors and shapes suggest forms to me as I go and then the
panting reveals itself to me. It is fun because it is a surprise to me also.
Some artworks have subjects and some do not. The art pieces which use a specific
subject is called representational art or objective art; while those that have no subjects are
called non-representational or non-objective art.
Representational art refers to art which represents something, whether that be a
tree in a landscape, apple in a still life, or figure in a portrait. Or in other words, it is art
which is clearly identifiable as something which already exists in life. Representational
art does not need to be a completely realistic depiction of the subject; there will often be
varying levels of abstraction. (https://drawpaintacademy.com/)
Representational Art is a term that generally refers to a painting or sculpture that
is clearly recognizable for what it claims to be. It references images such as a human
form or a tree, and although these images may not always be portrayed as true to life in
color or position, they are still recognizable to the viewer. Representational Art depicts
any identifiable object or series of objects and their physical appearance in reality. It is
also referred to as Figurative Art, being that it is derived from real object sources.
Oftentimes, representational artists act as observers, and interpret what they see in their
own way through their work. (https://www.debuckgallery.com/glossary/representationalart/)
The following are some examples of representational art works:
Planting Rice by Fernando Amorsolo source: pinterest.com (google images)
Apple Blossoms by Kristina Joy
source: amazon.com (google images)
Non-representational or non-objective art, on the other hand, refers
to compositions which do not rely on representation or mimesis to any extent. Abstract
art, non figurative art, nonobjective art, and nonrepresentational art are related terms that
indicate a departure from reality in the depiction of imagery in art. Meaning in
nonrepresentational art is highly subjective and can be difficult to define. We
can focus on the elements of the artwork (form, shape, line, color, space, and texture) in
terms of the aesthetic value of the work, but the meaning will always be personal to
the viewer unless the artist has made a statement about his or her intentions.
Generally, we can look at non-representational art as the personal expression of
an artist's subjective experience. Certain movements have described their intentions as an
aim to evoke moods or emotions in the viewer. (boundless.com) Below are a few
examples of non-representational art works:
Composition VII by Wassily Kandinski
Sources: en.wikipedia.org and pinterest.com (google images)
Directions: Identify whether the following is Representational or Non-representational Art.
1. _____________________________
Source: essentialvermeer.com
2. ________________________
Source: artspace.com
3. _______________________
Source: learnodo-nuetonic.com
4. ______________________
Source: courses.lumenlearning.com
5. ________________________
Source: wikipedia.com
6. _______________________
Source: art-is-fun.com
7. ________________________
Source: pinterest.com
8. ______________________
Source: pinterest.com
9. _______________________
Source: emptyeasel.com
10. _____________________
Source: craft-mart.com
Lesson 2: The Sources of Subject
A learner, most of the time, may imagine as to where an artist gets his inspiration
from with regard to how he produces a certain masterpiece. It is noteworthy to remember
that artists are unique both in personal experiences and human attributes hence their
differences in the manner of creating art pieces or in producing art works. As art is a way
of man in expressing himself, an artist’s choice of subject or the source of his inspiration
only explains his inner world and his personality in general. With thi, it is noteworthy to
present the sources of artists’ inspiration in doing their works.
Nature. Nature, in the broadest sense, is equivalent to the natural world, physical
universe, material world or material universe. “Nature” refers to the phenomena of the
physical world, and also to life in general.”(wikipedia.com) It is considered the most
commonly used source of art.
Source:art-is-fun.com (google images)
Source:princetonbar.com(google images)
People. They are considered the most interesting subject of an artwork which may
be real or imagined. An artist’s thoughts, moods and even the genre of a certain art work
may be depicted by people by means of clues as takeaways. People as subjects may be
presented as individuals or groups and may perform tasks as how they do in their
everyday life. Below are a few examples.
source: thoughtco.com (google images)
Source: bluethumb.com.au
History. It is the depiction of factual events that occured in the past whose
purpose is either to remember important events of long ago or to teach the learners about
the lessons of the past. Some of the examples of art works with history as source of
inspiration are as follows:
Bonifacio Monument by Guillermo Tolentino
source: bluedreamer27.com
The Making of the Philippine Flag by Fernando Amorsolo
Source: pinterest.com (google images)
4. Legends. Artworks based on legends present to viewers of the art something tangible
even when unverified. Art brings life to these stories.
Si Malakas at si Maganda by Marcelo Chan source: pinterest.com
Lost Excalibur by Rashieq Sasman source: arstation.com
(google images)
5.Religion. Religion has played an enormous role in inspiring works of visual arts, music,
architecture and literature through ages. Artists used as inspiration the religious texts as
the Bible, Quran and Torah in conveying their ideas and beliefs through their art works. It
was also established that art is considered the handmaid of religion.
The Hand of God by Auguste Rodin source:bycommonconsent.com
(google images)
Mythology. These are sources of subjects that come from the stories of gods and
goddesses of Ancient Greece, Rome, Norse and Egyptians. These so called deities of the
mythological world depict present humanlike behaviours.
Medusa by Luciano Garbati source: qz.com Greek god by Pichiavo source:thiscollosal.com
(google images)
7.Dreams and Fantasy. The wonder of the unconscious is what is being expressed by art works under
this subject source. These works of art somehow explain to the viewers the content of the art piece
including the hidden meaning behind each work. The unconscious is being made to be understood by
this source of subject.
Artworks by Josephine Wall and Barbara Devlin source:pinterest.com
(google images)
Technology. The modernity of the present is also an inspiration being used by artists as a source of
subject. The wondrous use of machines, the towering skyscrapers, state of the art robotics technology, top of
the line transportation machineries as cars, ships and motorcycles to name a few are sources of subjects of
interest under technology.
The WEEE Man Source: law_kevin/weburbanist.com
Humanity Drowning in Technology by Elizabeth Elkin
source: pinterest.com (google images)
Sources of Subject Powerpoint Presentation
Source: http://www.slideshare.net
Directions: Identify the source of the subject being exemplified by the following art works.
Write your answer on the space provided.
1. ______________________________
2. ________________________
source: essentialvermeer.com
3. ________________________
source: artsy.net
4. ____________________________
source: khanacademy.org
5. ______________________
source: khanacademy.org
6. ___________________________
source: peoplematters.in
7. _____________________________
source: courses.lumenlearning.com
8. ___________________________
source: kidzworld.com
9. _________________________
source: pinterest.com
10. _______________________
source: abstractdesktopnexus.com
Activity 2
Directions: Collect three (3) images each for the different sources of subject to be compiled
As an output in your Art Portfolio folder. Be sure to submit your output next meeting via
Google classroom.
Lesson 3: Ways of Presenting the Subject
After the artist has decided on the source of the subject of his artwork, he is now
ready to identify the method of how he wants his art work to be presented to his viewers.
Their choice of a method may depend upon his expertise, exposure to certain art pieces or
simply of his personal preferences. The following are some of the methods or ways on
how an artist presents his subject to his audience.
1.Naturalism. Naturalism in art refers to the depiction of realistic objects in a natural
setting. The Realist movement of the 19th century advocated naturalism in reaction to the
stylized and idealized depictions of subjects in Romanticism, but many painters have
used a similar approach over the centuries. Naturalism began in the early Renaissance,
and developed itself further throughout the Renaissance, such as with the Florentine
School. Naturalism is a type of art that pays attention to very accurate and precise details,
and portrays things as they are. (source: https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturalism)
Artworks in naturalism always depict pieces showing the idealized human form.
One would immediately recognize that these images were imitated from the human form.
Similar to the superheroes of today’s comic books and films, these figures were made
almost perfect to imbue them with a greater degree of stature and significance worthy of
superbeings. In this way, the imagery did not focus on the specific attributes of an
individual but on the more universal characteristics of the human form as is accepted by
the culture of the day. (Kissick, 1996)
Hay Making by Jules Bastien-Lepage source: https://www.theartstory.org/
2.Realism. Realism in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter
truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding speculative fiction and supernatural
elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and can be in large part
a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization. In the visual
arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the
details of light and colour. But realist or naturalist works of art may, as well or instead of
illusionist realism, be "realist" in their subject matter, and emphasize the mundane, ugly
or sordid. ( https://en.wikipedia.org/)
Realism is the most popular way of presenting art subjects.
The Stone Breakers by Gustave Courbet source: https://www.theartstory.org/
3.Abstraction. Abstraction finds its roots in ‘intuition’ (of the artist) and ‘freedom’ (for
the artist as well as for the viewer). It is the capability of the artist to use their
imagination to look beyond what we can physically see and translate intangible emotions
onto the canvas. It is also the ability of the audience to then try to connect to the artist’s
intention and free their own mind of visual restrictions. Historically, the abstract art
movement emerged in the nineteenth century as a reaction to academic painting or
realism. In fact, a very simple way to understand the essence of abstract art is to think of
it as a visual opposite of realistic art. While realism pays attention to every tiny fold or
wrinkle, abstraction gives the artist the freedom to trust their intuition to create art that is
equally worthy of an audience. (https://www.art-mine.com/)
This is a method of presenting the subject where the artist moves away from
reality. The artist usually alters the shapes and colors in rendering a particular art piece.
Abstraction may be in these forms:
A. Distortion. Distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of
something. In the art world, a distortion is any change made by an artist to the size, shape
or visual character of a form to express an idea, convey a feeling or enhance visual
impact. (https://en.wikipedia.org/)
Art pieces of Henrietta Harris
source: https://usaartnews.com/
B.Elongation. Elongation is when the art subject is lengthened, protracted or extended.
High Aspirations by Ernie Barnes
C.Mangling. Artists show the subject as cut, lacerated, mutilated or hacked with repeated
The Weeping Woman by Pablo Picasso
( pablopicasso.org/ goggle images)
D.Cubism. This is the presentation of abstract figures through the use of a cone, cylinder,
sphere, triangle, square, cube and circle in place of real pictorial elements.
'Factory, Horta de Ebbo' by Pablo Picasso (https://www.artyfactory.com/)
4.Symbolism. This is the use of a visible sign of an idea to convey to the viewers, readers
or audiences the message of his work. In this way, mystery is advocated by an art work
making it more interesting to the viewers. The key to eliciting symbolic art involves
studying the background and personality of the artist and his inspiration in producing the
said piece of work.
Mona Lisa by Da Vinci source: amazon.com
5.Fauvism. Fauvism is the name applied to the work produced by a group of artists
(which included Henri Matisse and André Derain) from around 1905 to 1910, which is
characterised by strong colours and fierce brushwork. The name les fauves (‘the wild
beasts’) was coined by the critic Louis Vauxcelles when he saw the work of Henri
Matisse and André Derain in an exhibition, the salon d’automne in Paris, in 1905. The
paintings Derain and Matisse exhibited were the result of a summer spent working
together in Collioure in the South of France and were made using bold, non-naturalistic
colours (often applied directly from the tube), and wild loose dabs of paint. The forms of
the subjects were also simplified making their work appear quite abstract.
source: artsy.net
6.Dadaism. Dadaism is a protest movement in the art that is playful and experimental.
“Dada” means a “hobby horse”. Dadaism is most often nonsensical. Marcel Duchamp is
the famous painter using this method. It is considered a revolt against tradition because it
does not follow the principles in art and shows the wickedness of society in its
presentation. The aim of this method is to shock and provoke its viewers.
Fountain by Duchamp source: magazine.artland.com
7.Futurism. This was developed in Italy about the same time as cubism appeared in
France. Futurist painters wanted their works to capture the mechanical energy of modern
The Futuristic Art of NASA
source: artsy.net
8.Surrealism. This method mirrors the evils of the present society. Surrealism means
super realism, influenced by Freudian psychology which emphasizes the activities of the
subconscious state of the mind. The art movement began in Paris in 1924 by the French
poet Andre Breton. It emphasized the activities of the subconscious mind mostly
exemplifying violence and cruelty. The surrealist’s aim is to reveal the deep and ugly part
of human nature.
source: pinterest.com
9.Expressionism. This features art works describing pathos, morbidity, chaos or even
defeat and was introduced in Germany from 1900 – 1910. Expressionists believe that
man needs spiritual rebirth for him to correct defects that ruin the society.
The Night (Die Nacht) by Max Beckmann source: https://www.identifythisart.com
Ways of presenting the Subject Powerpoint Presentation
Source: slideshare.net
Directions: Collect three images each for the different ways of presenting the subject of
an art work. Upload your work in the Google Classroom for the class.
Please watch the following videos related to Unit 2:
Unit 2 Test
Name: __________________________
Year and Section: ________________
Date: __________________
Score: _________________
Test I. Matching Type. Directions: Phrases will be provided in the numbers below.
Match the phrase to the term that it refers to.
Past events and memories
Gods and goddesses
Subject of the artwork is evident
Representational art
Sacred texts
Cut, lacerated and mutilated
Use of geometric figure
Subject is stretched
Bright colors showing comfort and joy
The subject as it is
“hobby horse”
Moving away from reality
Meaning conveyed is different from the literal
Activities of the subconscious
Misshapen and twisted
Ruins and ills of society
Test II. True or False. Directions: Write TRUE if the statement conveys the correct
idea, FALSE if the statement is wrong. Write your answer on the space provided.
________________1. The subject refers to what the work represents which could be a
person, object, scene or event.
________________2. Surrealism came from the merging of super and realism that
emphasized on the activities of the unconscious mind where themes are mostly violent
and cruel which reveals the deep, true and ugly part of human nature.
________________3. Symbolism is an art movement that began in Italy which aims at
making their works capture the speed and force of the modern industrial society.
________________4. Dadaism is an art movement that doesn’t follow the traditions and
principles in art, and tries to shock society and provoke the public with outrageous pieces
of writing, poetry recitals and art exhibits.
________________5. Religion is considered the handmaid of Art.
________________6. People are the most popular source of objective art.
________________7. A work of art is realistic when the presentation and organization of
details in the work are imitated or duplicated.
________________8. Abstraction as subject presentation should be presented as is and
does not involve the use of any other forms.
________________9. In distortion, artists show subjects as cut, mutilated, lacerated or hit
with repeated blows.
________________10. Dadaism as a method of subject presentation means “wild
Test III. Artwork Recognition. Directions: Identify the way the following subjects of
art are presented and the source used by the artist in presenting the art pieces. Write your
answers on the space provided.
1. _________________________________
source: hisour.com
2. __________________________
source: en.wikipedia.org
3. __________________________
source: tate.og.uk
4. __________________________
source: typesofartstyles.com
source: thoughtco.com
6. ____________________________
source: theartist.me
7. _________________________
source: ideelart.com
8. ____________________________
source: artsyfactory.com
9. ___________________________
source: fineartsamerica.com
10. ___________________________
source: pinterest.com
Test IV. Essay. Directions: Answer sensibly the following items. Write your answer on
the spaces provided for. The following shall be used as the basis in grading your answer:
presentation - 4 points, content - 4 points, grammar and diction - 2 points.
Compare and contrast Representational from Non-representational Art.
Why do you think is it important for one to have a background of the different
ways in which art subjects are presented?
Ferrer, Maria Cristina D. et.al, Art Appreciation. Panday Lahi Publishing House, Inc.
Sucat, Muntinlupa City.
Ramirez, Veronica E., Mairene A. Leynes, Brenda V. Fajardo. (2008). Minding the Arts
Art Appreciation for College. Mutya Publishing House Inc. Mandaluyong City.
Tabotado, Claudio V. (2010). Art Appreciation Introduction to Humanities. Mindshapers
Co., Inc. Manila.
Tabotado, Claudio V., Ronald M. Corpuz and Ryan F. Hidalgo. (2013). Introduction to
Humanities and the Basics of Art Appreciation. Purely Books Trading & Publishing
Corp. Manila.
Kissick, John. Art, Context and Criticism. Brown and Benchmark, 1996.
*End of Unit 2*
Unit 3
The Artist and His Medium
This part of Art Appreciation focuses more on the technical aspect of the course
which refers more on the process of creating the art work, the materials and equipment
needed, the techniques applied as well as how to preserve so that it can be appreciated
and utilized for a long period of time.
Learning Outcomes:
After the discussion of the lessons under the unit, students taking the course are
expected to:
1.Understand the different processes of art production
2. Learn the variety of visual art media
3. Know the different art forms and their variations
4. Create basic samples of the different art forms
5. Appreciate the value of art and its variety
Lesson 1 - The Process of Art Production
Production is at the heart of making art. Artists and theorists have long
acknowledged its importance as both an artistic action and an idea to be explored. And as
the role of production has shifted in our lives, so have the ways in which artists
have responded to it. While some contemporary artists foreground production as a tool,
others use their work to explore ideas around production we might otherwise overlook. It
can refer to the making of something, or to a final product, like a theatrical performance.
It can be the process of bringing a song or musical to life or honing that work to
perfection. Production might bring out images of factory production lines, or even the
theories of scientists and philosophers after the mind has conceived it through a certain
Video link: https://www.tate.org.uk/visit/tate-modern/tate-exchange/art-production
When an artist is ready to express himself in art and to give shape to his vision, his first
thought would be on what medium to use.
The Technique
The technique of the artwork shows the level of familiarity with the medium being
Derived from the word “curare” which means to take care. It is a process that involves
managing, overseeing and assembling or putting together a presentation or exhibit for
some type of artistic collection.
Lesson 2 - The Different Media of the Visual Arts
Graphic or Two-Dimensional Arts
The fundamental skill needed in the visual arts.
Different Media for Drawing:
1. Pencils- Made of graphite which comes in different hardness from soft to hard or
thickness from thick to needle-like.
Shading Techniques:
✔ Hatching- A series of thin parallel lines that run in the same direction.
✔ Cross-hatching- A series of thin parallel lines and criss-crossing it with another
set of tin parallel lines.
✔ Stippling- Uses the sharp point of the pencil to make dot patterns in some parts of
the drawing.
✔ Blending- May be accomplished by using the finger or a paper stump to gradually
change the tone from dark to light.
2. Ink- It is one of the oldest materials for drawing that is still in use. It allows for a great
variety of qualities, depending on the tools and technique used in the application.
Pastel- This is composed of dry pigment held together by a gum binder and
compressed into sticks.
i. 3 Kinds of Pastel:
✔ Soft Pastel
✔ Hard Pastel
✔ Oil Pastel
Pastel Techniques:
✔ Stippling- Using pastel of different colors to produce small marks, thus, creating
a pattern.
✔ Feathering- Using the point of the pastel to make parallel strokes creating a
feather-like effect.
✔ Scumbling- It is like layering but using pastel. The side of the pastel is lightly
drawn on top of an existing color but still making the color of the first layer visible.
✔ Impasto- The technique of thickly applying the pastel by pressing it hard on the
paper creating an opaque effect.
✔ Sgraffito- Technique that applies a thick deposit of pastel on the support then
using a blunt pen, scrapes it off to reveal the underlying color.
4. Charcoal- An organic medium that comes from burnt wood.
i. 2 Kinds of Charcoal:
✔ Compressed Charcoal- The vine charcoal which comes in thin sticks that is easy
to blend and erase.
✔ Manufactured Charcoal- Made from loose charcoal mixed with a binder and
pressed into sticks.
Paper- The most common surface used in two-dimensional art.
3 Types of Paper:
Hot-pressed Paper- Smooth
Cold-pressed Paper- Has moderate texture.
Rough Paper- Has the most texture (tooth).
It is the process of applying paint onto a smooth surface (ground/support) like paper,
cloth, canvas, wood or plaster.
Pigment- Part of the paint that gives color.
Different Media for Painting:
Watercolor- Pigments are mixed with water and applied to paper.
Gouache- The pigment has been mixed with water and added with a chalk-like
material to give it an opaque effect.
Oil Paints- Pigments are mixed with oil as its binder. It is a dense painting
medium and gives rich, beautiful colors. Discovered by a Flemish painter, Jan Van Eyck
in the 15th century.
Tempera- Pigment is mixed with egg yolk (sometimes with the white) as binder.
Fresco- Pigment is mixed with water and applied on a portion of the wall with
wet plaster. It is used for mural paintings.
Acrylic- Modern medium with synthetic paint using acrylic emulsion as binder.
Wall or floor decorations made of small tiles or irregularly cut pieces of colored stones or
glass called tesserae.
Derived from a French word “coller” which means to stick. This is a technique of
making art by gluing or pasting on firm support materials or found objects.
Process used for making reproductions of graphic works. Allows for the repeated transfer
of a master image from a printing plate (matrix) onto a surface.
Printmaking Techniques:
Relief Painting (Raised)- The oldest method of printmaking. The technique
involves cutting away certain parts of the surface and leaving the ‘raised’ part to produce
the image.
Intaglio Printing (Depressed)- Instead of the surface of the plate for the image,
the lines of the image are cut or incised to a metal plate.
Surface Printing (Flat)- Includes all processes in which printing is done from a
flat surface.
Plastic or Three-Dimensional Arts
Originated from the Latin word “sculpere” which means to carve . It is defined as the art
or practice of creating three-dimensional forms or figures.
3 Kinds of Sculptures:
Freestanding- Sculptures which can be viewed from all sides.
Relief- Sculptures in which the figures project from a background.
Two Variations of Relief Sculpture:
✔ Low Relief (bas relief)- Figures are slightly raised/projected from its
✔ High Relief- Almost half of the figures project from its background, more
shadows are created.
Kinetic (mobile)- A sculpture that is capable of movement by wind, water or
other forms of energy.
Lesson 3 - The Process of Creating Sculptures
Subtractive Process
Involves removing or cutting away pieces of the material to form the figure.
Additive Process
The process involves the construction of a figure by putting together bits of the material
or by welding together metal parts to create figures.
Process of Substitution
This process is also known as casting. This method involves using a mold to produce a
3D figure in another material.
Different Media of Sculpture:
Stone- A natural medium.Hard and relatively permanent.
Wood- Also a natural medium. It varies in hardness and durability depending on
the kind of tree it came from.
Metal- It has three unique qualities: tensile strength, ductility and malleability.
Plaster- It is finely ground gypsum mixed with water and poured into mold.
Terra cotta (cooked earth)- Baked clay or clay fired in a kiln at a relatively high
Glass- Made by heating and cooling a combination of sand and soda lime.
Plastic- Synthetic medium made from organic polymers.
Lesson 4 - Architecture
Art of designing buildings and other structures which will serve a definite function.
Construction Principles
Post and Lintel- Makes use of two vertical supports (post) and spanned by a
horizontal beam (lintel). It was invented by the Greeks.
Arch- A Roman invention that consists of separate pieces of wedge-shaped
blocks called voussoirs arranged in a semi-circle.
i. Structures that can be Built from the Principle of Arch:
✔ Barrel Vault- A succession of arches.
✔ Groin Vault- A structure that is formed by intersecting arches resulting in four
✔ Dome- Structure with the shape of an inverted cup.
Truss- System of triangular forms assembled to form a rigid framework.
Cantilever- A structure that makes use of a beam or slab that extends horizontally
into space beyond its supporting post.
Buttress- A structure that is built as a support for the wall.
Lesson 5 - Media of Architecture
Compressive Strength- Refers to those materials that can support heavy weights
without crumbling or breaking down.
Materials that are used for Creating Building and Infrastructures:
Stones and Bricks- Stones are favored over other materials for its durability,
adaptability to sculptural treatment and its use for building simple structures in its natural
Lumber (wood)- All parts of a building can be constructed using wood except
the foundations.
Iron and Steel- Provide stronger and taller structures with less use of material
when compared to stone or wood.
Concrete- Mixture of cement and water, with aggregates of sand and gravel.
Activity 1 for Unit 3
Task Description: Students will choose a medium based on the previously discussed topics
and create a simple actual representation of the chosen artwork. The piece must reflect the
relevance to the current social scenario along with a written reflection regarding the artwork
that will awaken and move the viewers emotional state regarding the art piece. The output will
be presented before the class through Google slides or JamBoard.
Lesson 6 - Literature and the Combined Arts
Art of combining spoken or written words and their meanings into forms which have
artistic and emotional appeal.
Types of Literature
Poetry- It used to follow strict rules s to the number and length of lines and
stanzas but in recent years they have become more free-flowing
Fiction- Written work that is not real and which uses elaborate figurative
Non-fiction- Subject matter comes from real life.
Drama- Includes all plays or any written works that are meant to be performed.
Lesson 7 - Music, Media in Music, some Genres of Music
Defined as the art of combining and regulating sounds of varying pitch to produce
compositions that express various ideas and feelings.
Media in Music
Vocal Medium- The oldest and most popular medium for music is the human
i. Classification of Human Voice (Komien,2008):
✔ Soprano- Highest female singing voice.
✔ Contralto- Female singing voice that is low and rich in quality.
✔ Tenor- Highest adult male singing voice.
✔ Bass- Male singing voice that is low and rich in quality.
Baritone- Male singing voice that is between tenor and bass.
Instrumental Medium- Materials that produce/create sound
i. Traditional Instruments of Music:
✔ String Instruments- Provide basic orchestral sounds. Two kinds are: Bowed
strings that produce tones by means of a bow of horse hair and Plucked strings that
produce tones by plucking the strings with a finger or with a plectrum held in one’s hand.
✔ Woodwind Instruments- Create sounds by blowing into them.
✔ Brass Instruments- Have cup-shaped mouthpieces and expands into a bellshaped end.
✔ Percussion Instruments- Makes sound by hitting them.
✔ Keyboard Instruments- Make sound by means of a keyboard which consist of a
series of black and white keys.
Some Genres of Music:
Classical Music- European tradition that covered the years of 1750 to 1830.
Forms such as the symphony, concerto, and sonata were standardized.
b. Folk Music- Originated in the traditional popular culture or is written in such a style.
c. Pop Music- Began in the 1950s and is inspired in the tradition of rock and roll.
d. Jazz- Originated in the African-American communities in the late 19th and early 20th
e. Blues- Originated from the African Americans in the deep South of the United States
in the late 19th Century.
f. Rock Music- Form of popular music that evolved from rock and roll and pop music.
g. Alternative Music- A style of rock music that emerged from the independent music of
the 1980s and gained popularity in the 1990s.
Lesson 8 - Dance, Types of Dance
Is said to be the oldest of the arts. It is the man’s gestures that express emotions through
rhythmic movements.
Types of Dance:
Ethnologic (ethnic)- Includes folk dances associated with national and/or cultural
Social or Ballroom- Type of dancing that are generally performed in pairs.
Ballet- Originated in the royal courts of the Medieval era.
Social or Ballroom- Sometimes called contemporary or interpretative dances.
They represent rebellion against the classical formalism of ballet.
Musical Comedy (musicale)- Refers to those dances performed by one dancer or
a group of dancers.
Lesson 9 - Drama and Theatre and Genres of Drama
Genre of literature that is intended to be acted-out or performed on stage in front of an
Combined art that includes music, dance, painting, sculpture, and architecture.
Genres of Drama (DiYanni, 2000):
Tragedy- literature’s greatest dramatic genre.
Melodrama- Emphasizes the never ending battle between good and evil wherein
good always wins.
Comedy- Exact opposite of tragedy.
Satire- Portrays human weakness and criticized human behavior to pave the path
to some form of salvation for human actions.
Farce- Light humorous play in which the emphasis is on the jokes, humorous
physical action, exaggerated situations and improbable characters.
Lesson 10 - Cinema, Genres of Motion Pictures and People Behind Motion Pictures
Series of images that are projected onto a screen to create the illusion of motion.
Genres of Motion Pictures:
Feature Films- Commonly shown in movie theaters.
Animated movies- Use images created by artists/ animators.
Documentary movies- deal primarily with facts, not fiction.
Experimental films- Sequence of images, literal or abstract, which do not
necessarily form a narrative.
Educational Films- Specifically intended to facilitate learning at home or
People Behind a Motion Picture
Actors- Play the roles of the characters.
Producer- handles finances.
Screenwriter- develops stories and ideas for the screen or adapts interesting
written pieces of work as motion pictures.
Director- Studies the script, plans and visualizes how the film should be
portrayed and guides the actors and the production crew as they carry out the project.
Activity 2 for Unit 3
Task Description: From all the discussed topics from lesson 6 to 10 (literature, music, dance,
theater, and cinema), select one example for each and create a complete documentary report
based on the following format: genre, artist, history/background and message or meaning. Use
Google spreadsheet in presenting your work.
Ferrer, Maria Cristina D. et.al, Art Appreciation. Panday Lahi Publishing House, Inc.
Sucat, Muntinlupa City.
Unit 4
Elements and Principles of Art
This unit presents the importance of the different elements of the art mediums that
make up the holistic character and qualities of the art work. The discussions will focus on
how the elements and the different basic principles can merge and effectively create a
particularly organized art piece.
Learning Objectives:
At the end of the discussion of the Unit, the students taking the course are
expected to:
Understand the different principles of the elements and classifications of the arts.
Learn successfully the methods of creating art and designs.
Apply the principles effectively in creating one’s own art work.
Value the learned principles and rules in art creation and design.
Lesson 1 - Line and Kinds of Line
A line can be defined in several ways: It is a path made by a moving point; a
series of dots; a prolongation of points or according to Paul Klee is a dot that went for a
walk. One definition of a line, however, that captures its essence in the visual arts is it
being an intended mark made by the artist to convey meaning beyond its physical
Kinds of lines
Straight lines are geometric, impersonal and differ in the direction that they
take. The straight lines may move from left to right, start from the top going down, slant
or move up and down forming angles. Whatever is the direction, each kind indicates a
specific type of emotion.
■ Horizontal lines - move from left to right or vice versa. It is a line that appears to be
laying down.
■ Vertical Line - start from bottom to top or vice versa. It is a line that appears to be
■ Diagonal lines - are slanting lines. In the visual art, diagonals suggest two meanings,
a positive and a negative one. On the positive diagonals indicate action and movement
i.e. to move forward and act. On the negative, it conveys a feeling of uncertainty, stress
and defeat.
 Zigzag lines - Are angular lines that resulted in abrupt change in the direction of a
straight line thus forming angles. The lines are unpleasant and harsh which portrays
tension, conflict, chaos, or violence.
Curved lines - are technically curvilinear lines. Curve lines suggest grace,
movement and flexibility indicative of life and energy. When a curve line moves
continuously in opposite directions, it forms a wavy line which shows fluidity
because of the gradual change in direction.
Lines can possess a variety of characteristics, depending on shape,
density,rhythm, angularity, and the material that have produced them. Lines may be short
or long, fine or thick, heavy or light, wavy or jagged, straight or curved. As shown in the
diagram below (alphabet of lines). No matter what type of line it is, it always has
Lesson 2 - Properties of Color and How Colors Relate and Light and Shadow
Color - The significance of color as an element of the visual arts cannot be over
emphasized. People see and perceive the world as a multitude of colors. Also the
materials used by the artists possess characteristics of color. Color adds beauty and
meaning to all forms of art. The world would be a gloomy place if it is devoid of color.
(google images)
Color is the property of light. So when light goes out, color goes with it. Color is
composed of a series of wavelengths which strike the retina of the eyes. A ray of light
contains all the colors of the visible spectrum- red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo
and violet (ROYGBIV). The visible spectrum was discovered by sir Isaac Newton when
light was allowed to pass through a glass prism. Passing white light through a prism
breaks it into a band of the visible colors (just like a rainbow).
Properties of Color
Hue - It is the name given to the color, for example; red, green, violet and blue.
For pigments, RED, YELLOW and BLUE are called primary hues. They are
considered primary because these hues cannot be produced from combining any hues.
When two primary hues are mixed in equal amounts, secondary hues are
produced. These are ORANGE, GREEN and VIOLET.
Mixing equal amounts of the primary and secondary hues produces intermediate
Combining in equal mixture any two secondary hues produces the tertiary hues.
Value - refers to the lightness or darkness of a color. The value of any hues can be
changed by adding a neutral such as black or white. This results in changing the quantity
of light the hue reflects.
Shade - When black is combined with hue.
Tint - When white is added with hue.
Intensity - denotes the brightness or dullness of a color. It gives color its strength.
Colors differ in intensity or vividness.
Hues become less intense (dull) when white is added because color becomes
lighter in value.
The hues’ intensity diminishes when black is added and as the value darkens.
If gray is added, the result will be a variation in intensity without any change in
How Colors Relate
Color harmony is one method of establishing color quality in a composition. There are
several ways of creating harmony that an artist can use. The most common are the
Monochromatic harmony - When a single color in the composition is varied in
intensity and value by adding white or black.
Complementary Harmony - results when two colors that are opposite each
other in the color wheel are placed side by side.
Analogous harmony - results when hues that are adjacent or beside each other in
the color wheel is used in a composition.
Color temperature - refers to the relative warmth or coolness of a color. Warm
colors are colors that have YELLOW as its dominant component white cool colors have
blue as their dominant component.\
Light and Shadow (Value)
Light and shadow focuses on what is known as achromatic value. This refers to
the changes in the amount of reflected light which ranges from black to gray to white and
vice versa. An artist who has mastered the manipulation of achromatic value in a
composition gives his work the illusion of depth and form.
Chiaroscuro is the technique of manipulating light and shadow in painting.
Masters who have perfected the use of this technique are Da Vinci, Michelangelo,
Rembrandt, and Caravaggio.
Rembrandt and Caravaggio went a step further and exaggerated the use of shadows to an
extreme called tenebrism or “dark manner”.
In the local scene, Fernando Amorsolo, also mastered chiaroscuro, but his focus
was more on the manipulation of light rather than shadow.
Lesson 3 - Shape and Classification of Shapes
Shapes - In visual arts, a shape is formed when two ends of a line meet to enclose an
area. The area may stand out from the surface because of a difference in color, value or
texture. They may also present themselves as flat or two-dimensional and solid or threedimensional on a picture plane.
Picture plane - any flat surface onto which the artwork is created.
Negative shapes - these are between the shapes that are not occupied by any form. In
painting, these spaces can be as important as the shapes themselves. In sculpture and
architecture, the shape of the artwork can be determined by viewing the work against its
background (Marquardt & Eskilson, 2005).
Classification of Shapes
Natural or organic shapes - those are seen in nature like the shape of leaves,
animals, mountains, flowers and seashells.
Abstract shapes - those that have little or no resemblance to natural objects.
Non-objective or biomorphic shapes - seldom have reference to recognizable
objects, but most often show a similarity to some organic forms.
Geometric shapes - these are triangles, rectangles, squares, cylinders, cubes.
Sculpture and architecture are three-dimensional forms, which are identified
either by mass or volume. When mass is structured or has a definite shape, it is said to
have volume. The sculptor is concerned with volume because sculpture occupies space.
Single volume is the fundamental unit in sculpture.
Lesson 4 - Texture, Methods of creating Space and Movement
Texture - refers to the feel or tactile quality of the surface of an object. It has to do with
the characteristic of the surface, whether it is rough or smooth, fine or coarse, polished or
dull, plain or irregular. They also add richness and vitality in paintings.
Visual texture - in such cases where touching the artwork is not allowed, textured can be
perceived by the eyes.
Space - An illusion in the graphic arts. It is created by techniques that add depth and
distance to two-dimensional art. In sculpture and architecture, however, space is actually
Methods of Creating Space
Overlapping planes (interposition) - create space when an object covers a part
of another object which is behind it.
Relative size - objects that appear large/big indicate nearness and small-sized
objects as distant. Aside from creating the illusion of space, this can also be interpreted as
power and import.
Position on the picture plane (relative height) - In some paintings, spatial
representation is based upon the position of objects relative to the bottom of the frame.
Those objects found at the bottom of the frame will appear closer to the viewer. Farther
distances are indicated by the positions of the objects higher on the picture plane. The
point of reference is the horizon line which is the line at the eye level. A picture plane
can be divided into three parts;
Foreground - the bottom part.
Middle ground - where the horizon is.
Background - the topmost part.
Color is also used to give the illusion of distance. Warm colors advance and make
objects look closer while cool colors recede making objects look farther away.
Perspective - deals with the effect of distance on the appearance of objects. It
enables the viewer to perceive distance and to see the position of objects in space.
the perception distance by means of converging lines.
It has to do with the direction of lines and with the size of objects.
Aerial perspective (gradient) - the effect of haze, mist or atmosphere on the
object. Near objects are seen in detail with the full intensity of color and as objects
recede, details are lost and objects appear grayer.
Space in sculpture may be viewed in two ways: it may be considered a single solid
object or an assemblage of solids that exhibits space; or space may be perceived as it
enters into relations with its surroundings-extending into it, enveloping it, or relating
across it.
Space in architecture is created and defined by the shape, position, and the materials
employed by the architect.
Over the years, artists of the visual arts have manipulated the medium and elements in
order to portray motion in their artworks. They have also experimented on which
techniques to employ to be able to incorporate in their works the perception of
Two ways to present motion or movement in their art
Actual movement - in art, specifically in sculptures results in kinetic art. Actual
movements may be achieved naturally using wind and water or mechanically through
some energy source (batteries or electricity).
Implied movement - results when a variety of lines are used together, repeated,
change in position, or decreased/increased in size. This gives the impression of
movement in a stationary two dimensional art.
Elements of the Combined Arts
Lesson 5 - Elements of Music
Rhythm - is a movement or pattern with uniform recurrence of accented and
accented beat
Melody - is the succession of tones arranged in such a way as to give it a musical
sense. It may also refer to the rising and falling of the tune in time.
Harmony - is the sounding of a series of groups of tones in the same time. It may
also refer to the pleasing sound that is produced when two or more notes are played
together. Concordance results when the combination of sounds are in agreement which
makes it sound good while dissonance results when the combination is not pleasant to
Timbre - is tonal quality or the character of the tone that is produced by an
instrument or by the human voice. Timbre allows the listener to distinguish the sound
between a guitar and a violin for example. In the same way, people can be identified by
their voices. A man’s voice sounds different from a woman’s voice and an old person’s
voice is different from that of a child.
Form - is the structure or the framework of a composition
Vocal Forms
Opera is a drama set to music complete with actions, costumes and scenery
Cantata is a religious story told in music without actions
Moro-moro is a Philippine drama set to music which depicts the conflict between
the Christians and the Muslims.
Instrumental Forms
Sonata is a long composition for solo instruments (piano, Violin)
Symphony is a sonata for the orchestra
Dynamics - is the loudness and softness of the sound in music indicated by
symbols to regulate the volume of the sound.
pp pianissimo - very soft
p piano - soft
mp mezo piano - half soft
ff fortissimo - very loud
crescendo - gradually becoming louder
decrescendo - gradually becoming softer
Elements of Dance
Music plays an important role in the dance to which it is closely related. It should
be melodic and harmonious and fits into the movements of the dance. Music motivates
the dancers to move in tune with its rhythm. The background music of the dance
functions to captivate the interest and awe of the audience.
Movement is how the dancers use their bodies to move and create organized
patterns. Dancers also use gestures which express specific emotions or ideas in sign
Choreography refers to how the steps and movements are connected for it to be
performed in an organized manner. The choreography guides the dancers’ movements for
them to perform the movement, convey the message and tell the story through body
Technique is the skill of the dancer in executing the movements. A good dancer
has complete control over the muscles of the body thus creating grace and fluidity of
Theme is the content or the main ingredient of the dance. It tells what the dance is
trying to convey. It has something to do with the message of the dance.
Design is the planned organization or patterns of movement in time and space.
Pattern in time, is provided by rhythm to be executed in space on a stage or dance floor.
Costume. The type of dance performed and the costumes worn relate closely to
the customs, beliefs, and environment of the people. Costumes enhance the effect of the
Activity 1 for Unit 4
Task Description: Individual students will choose a particular art piece and analyze the
artwork from the learned topics and create a report on the piece. Reports must be presented to
the class.
Lesson 6 - Elements of Drama
Drama is basically one of the genres of literature that is written primarily to be
performed. The performance is done by actors on stage before a live audience.
Plot is the overall structure of the play. It is concerned about what the story is all
about. Traditional plots have a beginning, a middle, and an ending.The Plot progresses
through the following:
Exposition is the part that familiarizes the audience with the characters and the situation
they are in.
Complication happens in the middle part of the play which develops the conflict that was
started in the exposition.
Resolution is also called the anticlimax or the part where conditions in the story are
normalized and the situation becomes stable.
Setting is the locale and period in which the story takes place. It includes the
scenery, props and costumes used in staging. It is the background of the play that informs
the audience where and when the story will take place.
Characters are the persons involved in the story. They may seem real to the
audience depending on how the playwright structures the dialogues to make the
characters come to life. Characters can be the protagonist or the antagonist. Protagonist is
the character from which the story revolves around while the antagonist is the person who
challenges the role of the protagonist.
Dialogue refers to the words uttered by the characters in the story. It what the
characters use when conversing with each other or when expressing his thoughts and
emotions. Dialogues let the audience know the kind of character that the actor is
portraying. There are, however, plays with no dialogues. Pantomimes rely heavily on
actions, gestures, facial expression and sound effects.
Theme is what the story means. It is how the individual elements are put together
to give the story significance and perspective. It relates something about life that is
presented in its totality. The theme may be directly or indirectly stated.
Lesson 7 - Elements of Theater
Theater art is performed live. Its performance is immediate and once performed
cannot be undone. Its magic begins when the curtains are raised and the stage lights go
The Playwright’s role is to work out the plot in terms of the actual actions to be
performed and dialogue to be spoken by actors within the limited facilities of the stage.
The Performers are the ones who portray the characters in a play.
The Director works with the playwright to present which is interpreted and
translated into dramatic action.
Production Design includes the scenery, props, make-up, costumes, lights,
music, sound and all other special effects used in a theater production.
Lesson 8 - Elements of Cinema (Motion Picture)
Acting and the Stars.Acting is the art of portraying or impersonating a character
in the story. A performer during filming should embody the character he is portraying.
The actor’s portrayal must be perfect and complete.
Set and Directors should know the setting of the story and build artificial sets.
Music and Musical Director. Music is indispensable in motion pictures. The
musical director is in charge of selecting, composing new songs, writing orchestration,
preparing background music, creating musical scores and supervising all recording.
Color in the movies is an innovation in cinematography. It costs twice as much as
the black and white films. Most films are now shown in high definition (HD) color.
Make-up, Hair and Costume Design. These people are responsible for applying
the specific type of make-up, hairstyle and costume to the actors before they face the
Sound, Camera and Special Effects Technicians. Sound technicians are
responsible for making the dialogue clear and music of fine quality. They make sure that
there is no background noise. The use of cameras and the functions of the special effects
technician is indispensable in cinematography. They decide on the use of masking, the
choice of lens, the camera angle and the control of camera movements.
Lesson 9 - Principles of Art
Generally, the visual arts are made-up of three key elements that are independent of
each of their specific elements. In the appreciation of the visual arts, these three elements
present themselves as:
Form refers to how specific elements in the artwork are organized to produce a
unified whole. Form is further classified into:
■ Primary Features. This is how the artwork appears to the viewers.Its physical
attributes in terms of medium, color, texture and size.
■ Secondary Features. This is how the primary features of the artwork relate to one
another. Particularly, this refers to balance, proportion, unity and harmony that are used
to create the whole composition.
Content refers to the message the artist wants to convey through his art. The
levels of content are:
■ Factual is the literal interpretation of the work, its images, attributes, actions and
■ Conventional level takes into consideration the basic genres and the figurative
meanings usually indicated by familiar signs and symbols and the quality of work.
■ Subjective level takes into consideration the effect of form and content on the
viewers of the art.
Context refers to the various circumstances that influence how a work of art was
produced and interpreted. The two types of context are:
■ Primary context pertains to the characteristic of the artist, his personality, beliefs,
interests and values.
■ Secondary context pertains to the setting. The historical period, time in which the
work was produced. Included here are the functions served by the art work, its religious
and philosophical conviction, socio political and economical undertones, climate and
Lesson 10 - Principles of Design
The principles of design describe the ways in which an artist has used or can use the
elements of art to create beautiful compositions. (Grieder 1996)
Balance is the distribution of the visual weight of objects, color, texture and
space. The use of these elements should be balanced to make the viewers see and feel
design as stable. Three types of balance:
■ Symmetrical balance results when the elements used on one side of the design are
similar to those on the other side.
■ Asymmetrical balance is when the sides of the composition are different but still
looked balanced.
■ Radial balance is achieved when the elements are arranged around a central point.
Elements may exhibit similarities as they spread around the central point.
Emphasis is the part of the design that catches the viewer's attention. The artist
will usually make one area stand out by contrasting it with other areas.
Movement is the path the viewer's eye takes when looking through the work of
art. Such movement can be implied along lines edges, shape, and color within the work of
Pattern is the repetition of objects, shapes, lines, or symbols all over the space or
picture plane.
Proportion is the feeling of unity created when all parts relate well with each
Repetition works with patterns to make the work seem active. The repetition of
elements of design creates unity within the artwork.
Rhythm is created when one or more elements of design are used repeatedly to
produce a feeling of organized, continuous, sometimes flowing movement. To keep
rhythm exciting and active, variety is important.
Variety is the use of several elements of design that adds interest in order to hold
the viewer's attention and guide the viewer’s eye through and around the work of art.
Unity is the feeling of harmony between and among the parts of the work of art,
which creates a feeling of completeness in the composition.
Lesson 11 - The Rule of Thirds and the Seven Da Vincian Principles
The Rule of Thirds is used by visual artists (painters, digital artists, and
photographers) to create compositions that meet the requirements for a good design. Most
artists today, however, do not use this rule, they opt for free flowing composition that is
more of their individual expression rather than of works limited or bounded by basic
rules. The point of this discussion is to encourage artists to first be aware of the basic
rules before they start venturing to unorthodox techniques in expressing their art.
The Rule of Thirds
The surface with two equally spaced vertical lines and two equally spaced
horizontal lines.
These lines divide the picture plane into nine equal parts with four intersecting
Based on studies, placing an object in one of the intersecting points results in a
pleasing composition.
Balance is achieved by placing another object at the point opposite the first one.
The major function of the Rule of Thirds is to serve as a guide for visual artists on
the proper placement of their subjects on the picture plane to achieve a more interesting
composition. Placing the subject at the center does not provide enough interest for
viewers to be able to appreciate the work.
The Seven Da Vincian Principles
Leonardo da Vinci was more than an artist. He was also an architect, scientist,
inventor, anatomist, geologist, historian and writer. Through the centuries, Da Vinci
influenced various areas in many disciplines. Based on the research conducted by
Michael J. Gleb (born 1952), specifically, in his book “How to Think like Leonardo da
Vinci” (1998), da Vinci’s genius was based on 7 principles which he called the seven da
Vincian Principles.
1. Curiosita is approaching life with a heightened level of wonder and continuous search
to know and learn more.
2. Dimostrazione is the commitment to test knowledge and to persist in this task, which
includes experiencing both success and failures in undertaking.
3. Sensazione is experiencing life through refinement of the senses. For example, the
eyes should do more than see, it should be able to distinguish between the beauty of
various colors, note minute details and savor the physicality of everything the world has
to offer.
4. Sfumato literally translates to “going up in smoke”. It is accepting life’s paradoxes
and uncertainties. It is knowing and realizing that not everything is cause and effect and
that events happen that even logic can explain.
5. Arte/Scienza is finding a balance between art and science or logic and imagination.
This relates to the concept of a whole brain thinking (not just the left and right brain).
6. Corporalita is taking care of one’s body. Ensuring that healthy habits are practiced
and sustained. A sound mind is usually the product of a sound body and vice versa.
7. Connessione is realizing that all things are interconnected. It is discovering patterns in
the way things work and how things and lives work out. Interconnectedness is seeing
how events in the past led to the present state of affairs. A closer study of history would
make one realize how events in the past explains the present.
Activity 2 of Unit 4
From a chosen medium of each individual student, they will create and
Task description:
apply all learned skills and elements to the artwork to be exhibited on-line with a simple
reflection about the particular theme of the subject. Assessment will be based on the following
Effective use Responsible
Adequate use Limited use Unable to
Usage of
use of the
of the
of the
use the
Principles and of the
elements of
elements of
elements of
elements of elements o
art in the
art in the
art in the
art in the
art to
produce the design
process to
process to
process to
produce a
create a
produce the
Shows some Unable to
Craftsmanship/ Effective
degree of skill evidence of recognize
skill in some own ability
with slight
Demonstrates Intelligent use Manages
Failure to
clear and
effort in the
the need for adequately
of Work
planning in organize th
focus in the
in the design
the design
design idea
Use of Media
and Equipment display of
usage and
utility of
medium and
Application of Effective use
of concepts,
and ideas
and Ideas
display of
usage of
media and
Adequate use
of media and
Poor or
wasteful use
of medium
Disregard of
usage of
application of
and ideas
Adequate use
of concepts
of concepts
Unable to
Ferrer, Maria Cristina D. et.al, Art Appreciation. Panday Lahi Publishing House, Inc. Sucat,
Muntinlupa City.
* End Unit 4 *
Unit 5
This unit is an overview of how art started to exist from the Prehistoric period up to the
present time. It focuses on the historical background of art in terms of the various art periods and
movements, their characteristics, leading contributors and influential works and significant
historical events.
Learning Objectives:
At the end of this unit, the students are expected to:
1. Identify the underlying history, philosophy of the different era or art movements.
2. Classify the various art movements according to their historical background, factors, influential
persons, socio-political issues, prevalent artists, art form and media.
3. Present the history and movements of arts through a timeline.
4. Make a creative interpretation of different music genres.
5. Trace and summarize the development of the arts, art appreciation and aesthetics in
contemporary art practice.
6. Categorize national and GAMABA artists with their art genre and famous works of art.
Lesson 1 - The Beginnings of Art, Western and Asian Art
“Art is the signature of civilizations” – Beverley Sills.
The Beginnings of Art
Art history is a timeline of vast accumulation of movements, periods and styles that
reflect the time during which each piece of art was made. It begins around 44,000 years ago with
the first known cave paintings in Sulawesi, Indonesia that predate writing in the journey of human
race. Art is a significant aspect of history since it is one of the few things to survive. It can tell us
stories, express the condition and beliefs of an era, and lets us connect to the people who lived
ahead of us. Upon exploration of art from Prehistoric to Contemporary times, people of the
present day can see how art influences the future and convey the past.
Prehistoric and Ancient Art
Prehistoric and ancient art were around 44,000 B.C.E. to 400 BCE. It can be considered
as the art period that includes cave paintings, fertility statues and bone flutes to approximately
the end of the Roman empire. A variety of art styles were produced over this lasting period. This
Art period includes those of prehistory to the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and
the nomadic tribes.
Pre-historic Art
Prehistoric cave art in Sulawesi, Indonesia was discovered in the 1950's. This art is of
indigenous mammals; a small water buffalo, a warty pig, and a pig-deer, and hand stencils.
Archeologists discovered their age to be around forty thousand years, at least same age as the
oldest known art in Europe. It would mean that art was developed much earlier than what humans
thought, in Africa, and that men carried the tradition with them as they move.
Cave Paintings
Lascaux, France
Sulawesi, Indonesia
Seventeen thousand years ago, humans painted on the walls of the caves of
Lascaux, in France the realistic images of bison, bulls, horses, stags, and other animals.
They made stencils of their hands, too. There were also several cave arts found in Europe.
These cave paintings from Indonesia and Europe have similar characteristics which
appear to be prevalent in prehistoric times.
Cave paintings, fertility goddesses, megalithic structures
Civilizations from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and the
Sulawesi Cave Paintings, Lascaux Cave Paintings, Venus of
Willendorf, Stonehenge
Ice Age ends 910,000BCE-8,000BCE); new Stone Age and
first permanent settlements (8000BCE-2500BCE)
Venus of Willendorf,
Stonehenge, Northern
Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
Ancient Art
Ancient Art period includes the works found in classical civilizations like the Greeks and
Celts as well as that of the early Chinese dynasties.
Religious and symbolic imagery, decorations for utilitarian
objects, mythological stories
A sculpture depicts
Babylonian king Hammurabi
and the deity Shamash.
Pyramids of Giza
Mesopotamian -warrior art and narration in stone
Egyptian - Afterlife focus: pyramids and tomb paintings;
massive, monumental structures
Greek and Hellenistic - Greek idealism; perfect proportions;
architectural orders (Doric, Ionic, Corinthians)
Romans- Roman realism: practical and down to earth; the arch
Civilizations from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and the
Code of Hammurabi; Standard of Ur; Gate of Ishtar
Imhotep’s pyramid; Great pyramids; Temple of Rameses; The
Great Sphinx
Greek and Hellenistic
Parthenon; Myron; Phidias; Polykeitos; Praxiteles
Augustus of Primaporta; Colosseum; Trajan’s Column;
Sumerians invent writing (3400 BC); Hammurabi writes his law
code (1780 BCE); Abraham founds monotheism
Greek and Hellenistic
Athens defeats Persia at marathon (490 BCE); Peloponnesian
Julius Caesar was assassinated (44BCE); Augustus proclaimed
emperor (27 BCE); Diocletian splits Empire (CE 292)
Rome falls (CE 476)
The artwork of this time is as varying as the cultures that created it. What relates
them together is their purpose. Most of the time, art was made to narrate stories in a time
when oral tradition predominates. Art was also utilized to decorate utilitarian objects like
bowls, pitchers, and weapons. At times, it was also used to show the status of its owner, a
concept that art has used since time immemorial.
Hindu Art
This Art reflects the plurality of beliefs, Hindu Temples, which depicts their architecture
and where sculptures are found, typically are devoted to different deities.
Hindu Art is portrayed by holy symbols like the Om, an invocation of divine
consciousness of God; the swastika, a symbol of auspiciousness; and the lotus flower, a
symbol of purity, beauty, fertility, and transcendence. It is believed that the Christian
"Amen" and Islamic "Amin" are both derived from Om.
Swastika symbol
Chinese Art
This art evolved through its history. As political and social circumstances changed and
new technologies developed, so did its art. Chinese artistic styles are classified according
to the dynasty under which they were produced. The important qualities include a love of
nature, a credence in the moral and educative capacity of art, an appreciation of
simplicity, an gratitude of accomplished brushwork, an interest in viewing the subject
from various perspectives, and a loyalty to much-used motifs and designs from lotus
leaves to dragons. The art forms most worthy to mention are calligraphy and painting
though Chinese art also encompasses fine arts, folk arts, and performance arts.
Wintry Forest, Li Cheng
Japanese Art
Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery,
calligraphy on silk and paper, ink painting, kirigami, origami, and dorodango sculpture,
and, ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints, and more recently manga, a modern method
of Japanese cartooning and comics. Japan’s art has frequently been complicated by the
definitions and expectation established in the late 19th and 20th centuries when Japan
was opened to the west.
Cherry Blossoms at Arashiyama, Hiroshige
Serene, meditative, art, and Arts of the Floating World
Gu Kaizhi; Li Cheng; Hokusai; Hiroshige
Swastika, om
Wintry Forest, Level Distance
Cherry Blossom Time at Naka-no-cha in the Yoshiwara
Birth of Buddha (563 BCE); Silk Road opens (1st century BCE); Buddhism spreads to China
(1st-2nd century CE) and Japan (5th century CE)
Byzantine art is about religious expression and more specifically about church doctrine
translated into aesthetic forms.
Byzantine forms of architecture and painting was based on religious concerns which
made art uniform, anonymous, and perfected within this austere tradition. The result was
sophistication of style and a spirituality of expression that rarely compares with the art of
Western tradition.
Heavenly Byzantine mosaics,; Islamic architecture and amazing maze-like design
Rublev, Andre
Hagia Sofia, Mosque of Cordoba; The Alhambra
Justinian partly restores Roman Empire (533 CE-562CE); Iconoclasm Controversy (726CE843CE); Birth of Islam (610 CE); and Muslim conquests (632 CE-732CE)
The Hagia Sofia, Islamic Art
The Virgin of Vladimir, Rublev
Medieval Art
To some, the millennium from 400 and 1400 A.D. is considered as the Dark Ages,
where the art in this period were depicted as grotesque or brutal scenes while others were
focused on formalized religion. Most of the art created were melancholy.
Medieval European art saw a transition from the Byzantine period to the Early
Christian period. Within that, from about 300 to 900, we also saw Migration Period Art
as Germanic people migrated across the continent. This Barbarian art was outboard by
necessity and more of it was understandably lost.
As the millennium passed, more and more Christian and Catholic art appeared.
The period centered around elaborate churches and artwork to adorn this architecture. It
also saw the rise of Gothic and Romanesque styles of art and architecture.
Dark imagery, biblical subjects,
Classical mythology, Gothic
architecture, Romanesque, Celtic
Art, Carolingian Renaissance
Abbot, Suger, Cimabue, Duccio,
Crucifix, Lamentation of Christ
St. Sernin, Durnham Cathedral,
Chartres Cathedral
Viking Raids (793-1066); Battle of
Hastings (1066); Crusades I-IV
Black Death (1347-1351)
Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)
Madonna and the Child,
The Notre Dame Cathedral
Early to High Renaissance
This movement covers the period from 1400 through 11500. Renaissance literally
means rebirth and describes the resurgence of curiosity in the artistic achievements of
Greece and Rome. Most known paintings emerged from this period. Many of the notable
art created during the Renaissance was Italian. The famous 15th-century artists like
Brunelleschi and Donatello paved the way to the work of Botticelli and Alberti. When the
High Renaissance took over in the next century, the work of Da Vinci, Michelangelo, and
Raphael emerged.
The increasing edification of society, through political stability, economic growth
and cosmopolitanism brought about the high renaissance. Education at its time took
center stage, with libraries and academies that allowed empirical studies and research to
be conducted into the cultures of the ancient world. The arts benefited from the patronage
of influential families and individuals.
Rebirth of classical culture
Ghiberti, Brunelleschi; Donatello; Boticelli;
Leanardo; Michaelangelo; Rapahael
Ghiberti’s Door; Cathedral of Sta. Monica
del Fiore; David; Primavera, Mona Lisa
Guttenberg’s invents movable parts (1447);
Turks conquers Constatntinople(1453);m
Columbus lands in New Word (1492);
Martin Luther starts Reformation (1517)
Monalisa, Da Vinci
Wiki Commons
David, Botticelli
Wiki Commons
Venetian and Northern Renaissance
In 1430-1550, a period of Northern Renaissance was famous due to advance
technique in oil painting, realistic, vivid altarpiece art, wooden panel paintings, woodcuts,
and printmaking. Stone sculpture was not extremely popular, but the Germans boost up
their wood carving techniques. Dutch art was governed by empirical perspective. Dutch
aimed to get to the basics, capturing every single detail. The painters learned from direct
observation and their knowledge of the consistency of things.
The Renaissance extends northward to France, Low
Countries, Poland, Germany and England
Bellini, Giorgione, Titian, Durer, Bruegel, Bosch, Jan
Van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden
Through the Looking Glass
Portrait in a Young Man in Red
Council of Trent and Counter-Reformation (15451563); Copernicus proves the Earth revolves around
the sun (1543)
Allendale Nativity, Giorgione
Portrait in a Young Man in Red, Bellini
Mannerism (1527-1580) introduced a highly imaginative period in art after the climax of
excellence that naturalistic painting had attained in Renaissance Italy. Artists started to
deviate from classical influences and turn toward a further intellectual and expressive
approach. This ushered in a change from authentic portrayals of figures and subjects, a
rejection of harmony, and the development of a dramatic new style unconstrained by the
graphic plane, reality, or literal correctness. Radical asymmetry, artifice, and the
decorative also apprised this movement. Paintings, and compositions can have no focus
and space can be abstruse. The figures can be represented by an powerful twisting and
bending with distortions, exaggerations, elongations of the limbs, bizarre posturing on
one hand, graceful posturing on the other hand and the rendering of the head as uniformly
small and oval. The compositions are marked by clashing colors which lacks the balance,
naturalism, and dramatic colors of High Renaissance. Mannerist artwork seeks instability
and restlessness with fondness for allegories that have lascivious undertones.
New discoveries in science had led society away from Humanist ideals and paintings no
longer conceived man as the center of the universe, but rather as isolated, incidental
partakers in the great mysteries of life.
Art that breaks the rules, artifice over nature
Tintoretto, El Greco, Pontormo, Bronzino, Cellini
St. Luke, Summer
Magellan circumnavigates the globe (1520-1522)
Baroque Art
Venus, Cupid Folly and Time, Bronzino
Wiki Commons
The word baroque means something that is elaborate and highly detailed. Baroque
style (1600-1750) is characterized by exaggerated motion and clear detail used to produce
drama, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance,
and music. The defining characteristics of the Baroque style were real or implied
movement, an attempt to represent infinity, an emphasis on light and its effects, and a
focus on the theatrical.
A number of techniques were introduced, or further established by Baroque artists
to accomplish these effects including quadro riportato (frescos that incorporated the
illusion of being composed of a series of framed paintings), quadrature (ceiling painting),
and trompe l'oeil techniques. This allowed for a blurring of the boundaries between
painting, sculpture, and architecture that was signature to the movement.
Chiaroscuro technique is a trait of Baroque Art in which the treatment of light and
dark in an artwork assisted to create dramatic tension, was a key component in Baroque
artwork. It was further evolved by Baroque master Caravaggio into tenebrism, which
used the intensification of contrast within dark atmospheric scenes to highlight particular
During this era, significant events like the Reformation and the CounterReformation occurred with the baroque style being considered intricately linked to the
Catholic Church. The popularity of style was encouraged by the church which was
decided at the Council of Trent that the arts should communicate religious themes and
direct emotional involvement in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Splendour and flourish for God; art as a weapon in the religious
Reubens, Rembrandt, Caravaggio,
Palace of Versailles
Thirty Years War between Catholics and Protestants (1618-1648)
The Calling of St. Matthew, Caravaggio
The Neoclassical Period is considered a period of enlightenment. The movement
started in Europe in the 1700's and spread into the colonies. The focus of this was on
government, ethics, and science which varies from the previous period that focused on
religion, imagination, and emotions. Neoclassical art has a cleaner style, sculpted forms,
a shallow depth of background and a more realistic approach. Neoclassical painting and
sculpture involved emphasis on austere linear design in the depiction of classical event,
characters and themes, using historically correct settings and costumes.
Art that recaptures Greco-Roman grace and grandeur
David, Ingres, Greuze, Canova
Philoctetes on Lemnos, Napoleon crossing the Alps
Enlightenment (18th Century; Industrial Revolution (1760-1850))
Romanticism (1750-1850) rapidly spread all over Europe and the United States at
the end of the 18th century to the 19th. The period extolled abstract, complex ideas like
despair, hope, heroism, liberty, peace, survival, and other impressions that nature evokes
in human beings. Romantic art concentrated on emotions, feelings, and moods to
challenge the rational ideal held so tightly during the Enlightenment. The subject matter
varied widely including landscapes, religion, revolution, and serene beauty. It also stood
counter to science in favor of spiritualism, deliberation in support of instinct, industry in
preference to nature, subjugation vetting on democracy and against aristocracy for
rusticity. The artists emphasized that sense and emotions - not simply reason and order were equally important means of understanding and experiencing the world.
Romanticism celebrated the individual imagination and intuition in the enduring search
for individual rights and liberty. Its ideals of the creative, subjective powers of the artist
fueled avant-garde movements well into the 20th century.
The triumph of imagination and individuality
Caspar Friedrich, Gericault, Delacroix, Turner, Benjamin West
Caernarvon Castle; Liberty Leading the People
American Revolution (1775-1783); French Revolution (1789-17990;
Napoleon crowned Emperor by French (1803)
Fisherman at Sea, Turner
Realism (1848-1900) is also called naturalism. The accurate, detailed,
straightforward depiction of nature or of contemporary life. Realists rejected romanticism
which had dominated French literature and art late 18th century. They depicted people of
all classes in ordinary life situations which reflected the changes brought on by the
industrial and commercial revolutions.
Celebrating working class and peasants; air rustic painting
Corot, Courbet, Daumier, Millet
The Gleaners
European democratic revolutions (1848)
The Gleaners, Millet
The modern art refers to late 19th and early-to-mid 20th century art. Works
produced during this time showcase artists’ interest in re-imagining, reinterpreting, and
even rejecting traditional aesthetic values of preceding styles. Starting with light and airy
Impressionism and ending with energetic Abstract Expressionism, the modern art genre is
composed of several major movements.
This is the style of painting that emerged in the mid and late 1800s. The
movement emphasizes on an artist’s immediate impression of a moment or scene,
communicated through the effect of light and its reflection, short brush strokes and
separation of colors. Modern life is often used as the subject matter by impressionist
painters painting freely and quickly featuring short visible strokes-dots, commas, smears,
and blobs.
Post-impressionism (1885-1910) bridged the gap between the restrictive
techniques found in the impressionist period and the emphasis on geometry found in
modern art. Post-Impressionism is an art movement characterized by a subjective
approach to painting, as artists opted to evoke emotion rather than realism in their work.
While their styles passionately varied, paintings completed in the Post-Impressionist
manner share some similar qualities like symbolic motifs, unnatural color, and painterly
A soft revolt against impressionism
Van Gogh, Gaugin, Cezanne, Seurat
The Starry Night, Pyramid of Skulls,
The Dream
Belle Epoch (late 19th Century
Golden Age; Japan defeats Russia
The Starry Night, Van Gogh
Arearea, Gaugin
Paul Gauguin - Arearea Google Art Project.jpg
Fauvism and Expressionism (1900-1935)
Fauvism is a term to denote the use of distortion and exaggeration for emotional e ect,
which first surfaced in the art literature of the early twentieth century. The artists used
pure, brilliant color applied straight from the paint tubes to create bright effects from the
Expressionism is an artistic style in which the artist attempts to portray not objective
reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses that objects and events awaken in
him. It is accomplished through distortion, exaggeration, primitivism, and fantasy
through vivid, violent, or dynamic application of formal elements.
Harsh colors and flat surfaces (fauvism)
Emotion distorting form
Matisse, Kadinsky and Munch
Dancer Tilting, San Giorgio Maggiore at
Boxer Rebellion in China (1900); World
War (1914-1918)
The Scream, Munch
Harmony in Red, Matisse
Cubism, Futurism, Supremativism, Constructivism, De Still (1905-1920)
Cubism is an artistic movement, created by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. It
employs geometric shapes in depictions of human and other forms. Overtime, the
geometric touches grew so intense that they sometimes overtook the represented forms,
creating a pure level of visual abstraction.
Futurism is an Italian art movement that took speed, technology, and modernity as
its inspiration. It portrayed the dynamic character of 20th century life, elevated war, and
machine age, and favored the growth of Fascism.
Pre-post World War I art experiment; new forms to express modern life
Picasso, Braque, Leger, Boccioni, Severini, Malevich
The Old Guitarist
Malevich’s Self Portrait
Russian Revolution (1917); American women franchised (1920)
The Black Square, Malevich
Three Musicians, Picasso
Dadaism and Surrealism (1917-1950)
Dadaism is the first conceptual art movement where the focus of the artists was
not to craft aesthetically pleasing objects but create works that upended bourgeois
sensibilities. It aimed to generate difficult questions about the society, the role of the
artist and the purpose of art. Dada artist are identified to use ready-made objects with
little manipulation.
Surrealism intends to channel the unconscious means to unlock the power of
imagination. Strongly influenced by psychoanalysis, the Surrealist’s considers the
rational mind repressed the power of imagination, weighing it down with taboos. It was
also influenced by Karl Marx in the sense that surrealists hoped that the human psyche
had the power to reveal contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
Ridiculous art; painting dreams and exploring the unconscious
Duchamp, Dali, Ernst, Magritte, de Chirico, Kahlo
The Fountain, The Persistence of Memory
The Fountain,
Disillusionment after WWI; The Great Depression (19291938); World War II (1939-1945) and Nazi horrors; atomic
bombs dropped on Japan (1945)
The Persistence of
Memory, Dali
ador dali/the persistence of
Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art
Abstract Expressionism (1940-1950) is an art movement of mostly nonrepresentative painting. It was neither wholly abstract nor expressionist and comprised
several fairly various styles. What integrated them in one art movement was an aim to
redefine the nature of painting.
The emergence and fast propagation of Abstract Expressionism turn out to be
possible owing to the following factors. First, was the coming to US of many modern
artist refugees from European autocratic regimes of 1930s and war disasters of 1940s
(Arshile Gorky, Hans Hofmann, George Grosz, Fernand Leger, Josef Albers, Piet
Mondrian, Marcel Duchamp, Yves Tanguy, Max Ernst). Second, was the advent of a new
network of New York museums and galleries that staged (for the first time in US) major
exhibitions of European modern art (Museum of Modern Art, MOMA was instituted in
1929 and increased its popularity by exposing collections of Cubism, Abstract Art, and
Dadaism. Dadaism, known also as Dada is characteristic of messiness and extremely
lively applications of paints. Its brush strokes exposed the artist’s process, this process is
the subject of the art itself.
Pop Art (1960s) is a movement marked by a fascination with popular culture
reflecting the a uence in post-war society. It was most prominent in American art but
soon spread to Britain. In celebrating everyday objects, the movement turn the
commonplace into icons. It is a direct descendant of Dadaism in the way it mocks the
established art world by appropriating images from the street, the supermarket, the mass
media, and presents it as art.
Post WWII,: pure abstraction and
expression without form; popular art
absorbs consumerism
Gorky, Pollock, de Kooning, Rothko,
Warhol, Lichtenstein
Autumn Rhythm, Marilyn Monroe,
Campbell soup cans
Autumn Rhythm, Pollock
Cold War and Vietnam War (US enters
1965); UUSR suppresses Hungarian
revolt 1956); Czechoslovakian Revolt
Campbell Soup cans, Warhol
Contemporary art is the art of today, created by artists who are living in the
twenty-first century. Contemporary art provides a chance to reflect on contemporary
civilization and the matters relevant to us, and the world around us. Contemporary artists
work in a globally motivated, culturally diverse, and technologically evolving world. This
art is a dynamic mixture of materials, techniques, concepts, and subjects that question
traditional boundaries and challenge easy definition. contemporary art is diverse
characterized by the extreme lack of a consistent, unifying principle or ideology.
Contemporary art is concerned on personal and cultural identity, family, community, and
Post Modernism and Deconstructivism
Postmodern art refers to a group of movements that began in the late 1950s and
early 1960s, during which artist rejected established practices and questioned the
importance of their roles in the artistic process. Postmodern artists use familiar images
from consumer and pop culture and mass media to confront or question art and society.
Their work has an irreverent almost mocking view of artistic importance.
Art without a center and reworking and mixing past
Gerard Richter, Cindy Sherman, Anselm Kiefer, Frank
Gehry, Zaha Hadid
Orders of the Night; Abstract Art
Nuclear freeze movement; Cold War fizzles;
Communism collapses in Eastern Europe and USSR
Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture which appeared in the
1980s. It gives the impression of the fragmentation of the constructed building. It is
characterized by an absence of harmony, continuity, or symmetry.
The Canadian-American Frank O. Gehry is the most well-known proponent of
Deconstructivism building design. He is one of the prominent American architects of the
Postmodern era. Other deconstructivists include Daniel Libeskind, the firm Coop
Himmelb(l)au, Rem Koolhaas, Bernard Tschumi and Peter Eisenman. Astonishing
deconstructivist buildings include: Nationale Nederlanden Building (Prague),
Guggenheim Museum (Bilbao) and The Experience Music Project (Seattle), designed by
Frank Gehry; Hotel Porta Fira (Barcelona), designed by Toyo Ito; Seattle Central Library
designed by Rem Koolhaas; and UFA-Palast (Dresden), designed by Coop
Guggenheim Museum, Gehry
Wikimedia Commons
Hotel Porta Fira, Ito
Activtity 1
A. Directions: Do a historical timeline from prehistoric art to Contemporary art using a
powerpoint or slide presentation.
B. Choose three (3) art pieces from different art movements that made a great impact to
you. Fill this table.
Title of Art piece
Art Movement
Lesson 2 - The History of Instrumental Music
"Young people can learn from my example that something can come from nothing. What I have
become is the result of my hard efforts."- Franz Joseph Haydn
Instrumental Music
Instrumental music is a musical composition that is without lyrics, or singing, although it
might include some inarticulate vocals. This music is primarily produced by instruments. The
commencement of this genre of music is significant for it paved the way for the invention and
development of musical instruments with tone qualities as people understand it today.
Instrumental music marked the beginnings of the elements of harmony, rhythm and melody that
made music beautiful then and still is up to now. It can mimic the sound of nature so well that
they can effectively stir the deepest of human emotion.
History of Instrumental Music
The history of Instrumental music is usually dated back from the Middle Ages. During
this period the texture of music was monophonic. Sacred vocal music such as Gregorian chants
were set to Latin text and sung unaccompanied. Subsequently, church choirs added one or more
melodic lines to the Gregorian chants. This created polyphonic texture. During the Renaissance,
the size of church choirs grew, and with it, more voice parts were added. Polyphony was widely
used during this period, but soon, music also became homophonic. During the Baroque period
musical quality was also polyphonic and/or homophonic. With the addition of instruments and the
development of certain musical techniques (ex. basso continuo), music during this period became
more fascinating. Musical texture of Classical music is mostly homophonic but flexible. During
the Romantic period, some forms used during the Classical period were continued but was made
more subjective. All the various changes that happened to music from the Middle Ages to the
Romantic period contributed to the music of the 20th century. Although 20th-century composers
used and/or were influenced by composers and music forms of the past, they created their own
unique sound. This unique sound has many different layers to it, coming from the combination of
instruments, noisemakers, and shifts in dynamics, meter, pitch, etc. The music of the 20th century
differs from the music of the past.
Medieval Music (1150- 1400)
During Medieval period, music was primarily vocal. Instruments were used to
accompany vocal lines or to improvise instrumental dances. Rhythm was not notated and tradition
regarding sacred text, meter of the text and musical abilities of singers and instrumentalist.
Harmony and tonality were not functional during this period.
Monophonic texture was predominantly used during the first period of era. It is the simplest
of musical texture consisting of a melody typically sung by a single singer or played by a single
instrument player without accompanying harmony or chords. Polyphonic texture began to be used
in the middle to late medieval period. It is one type of musical texture, where a texture is the way
that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the
overall sound. Polyphony consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody.
Type of music
Secular music with notated
manuscripts showing
connections with the church;
organum indicated the
beginnings of harmony.
Gregorian Chant and Plainsong which
are monodic or written as one musical
Gregorian chants, a monophonic vocal
line sung by monks, as well as choral
music for a group of singers
Renaissance Music (1400-1600)
The Renaissance or "rebirth" was a period from 1400 to 1600 of significant changes in
history including music. Moving away from the medieval period, where every facet of life,
include music was church-driven, you begin to see that the church was starting to lose some of its
influence. Instead, the kings, princes and other prominent members of the courts were beginning
to have an impact on the direction of music.
Music was performed by vocal groups (ensembles of one to eight parts). Instrumental
music included ensembles (consort music) and solos (keyboard music for the organ or
harpsichord). Tempos still determined by the musician as well as the sacred character of the piece
or text. Rhythm began to increase in complexity and melodic range increased during this era.
Renaissance composers sought to blend the sound of voices and instruments and pleasing
harmonies were sought. Polyphonic texture was predominantly used.
Popular Music Forms
During the Renaissance, composers took known musical forms from church music and
secularized them. Forms of music that evolved during the Renaissance included the cantus
firmus, chorale, French chansons, and madrigals.
Cantus Firmus meant "firm chant," that was typically utilized in the Medieval period and was
strongly founded on the Gregorian chant. Composers dropped the chants and instead incorporated
secular, folk music.
The Renaissance, saw the rise of the chorale, a song that was intended to be sung by a
congregation. Its original form was monophonic, which then evolved into a four-part harmony.
The French chanson is a polyphonic French song that was originally for two to four voices.
An Italian madrigal is defined as polyphonic secular music that was performed in groups of four
to six singers who sang mostly love songs. It had served two principal roles: as a enjoyable
private entertainment for small groups of skilled amateur musicians or as a small part of a large
ceremonial public performance.
MUSIC (1400-1600)
Enhanced freedom in music
showed harmony and polyphony;
composers still devoted to choral
Noted composers include Dunstable,
Ockegehm, Despres and Dufay (15th
century) include Dowland, Byrd,
Gibbons, and Tallis (16th century).
Baroque Music (1600-1750)
The word baroque that was used to describe the music styles of the 1600s to the 1700s comes
from the Italian word "barocco" which means bizarre. This word was first used to describe the
style of architecture mainly in Italy during the 17th and 18th century.
The Baroque is considered the late period of the Renaissance, marked by a more intricate and
even unconventional visual style. In some ways the word applies to the music as well.
Compositions became more homophonic, meaning based on one melody with harmonic support
coming from a keyboard player. Tonality was divided into major and minor. This period is also
described by the upsurge of the fugue, a type of polyphonic composition based on a principal
theme (subject) and melodic lines that imitate the principal theme, and of the opera, the first of
which were composed around 1600. The most famous composer of the Baroque is Johann
Sebastian Bach, who might also be considered the greatest composer of any period.
Composers of the Period
Composers of the time period included Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi and
George Handle among others. This period saw the development of opera and instrumental music.
This style of music immediately follows the renaissance-style of music and is a precursor to the
classical style of music.
Baroque Instruments
Usually carrying the song where a basso continuo group, which consisted of a chordplaying instrumentalist like a harpsichord or flute and bass-type instruments carrying the bassline,
like a cello or double bass.
A characteristic baroque form was the dance suite which were designed for listening, not for
accompanying dancers.
Choral music no longer dominated the
era; the idea of the modern orchestra was
born; violin, viola, cello, and harpsichord
were invented; important advances in all
musical groups.
Bach, Monteverde, Corelli,
Schutz, Purcell, Lully, Bach,
Handel, Telemann, Couperin,
Scarlatti and Vivaldi
Rococo is the transitional period between baroque and classical music. It is characterized
by delicate, frivolous expression designed to please than to excite the listener. Some traditional
composers are Couperin, Scarlatti and the sons of Bach.
Classical Music (1750-1830)
The Classical era is the era where the most influential personalities of classical music
emerged. In this period a new form of music which is highly refined, simple in melodic text and
harmonic structure and coordinated by symmetrical form developed. Mozart, Beethoven,
Paganini, Rossini, and others who gave the world some of the greatest music ever composed. This
was a time when musicians went back to more ordered forms and strict compositional direction to
guide their pursuit of musical perfection.
Sonata form: development of
modern concerto, symphony trio
and quartet; obsession with
structural clarity
Friedman, Christian, Haydn, Mozart,
Beethoven, and Schubert
Romantic Period (1820-1900)
The Romantic Era is characterized by chamber music ensembles, large symphony
orchestras, opera companies and piano as performing mediums. An exceedingly fruitful period,
the Romantic Era of music is expressive, dramatic, and orchestral with rhythmic complexity and
raging tempos. Music are composed and played with a level of drama and emotionality not
observed in previous eras. Composers delved on themes such as romantic love, the supernatural,
and even death. Some got inspiration from the history and folk songs of their native country,
while others incorporated foreign influences. Genres included concertos, operas, sonatas, and
symphonies. New and compound harmonies emerged like etude, nocturne and waltz.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Franz Josef Hayden
Ludwig van Beethoven
ROMANTIC (18301860)
Leading Composers
Golden age of Virtuoso:
balance of expressive and
formal music
Berloiz, Chopin, Mendelssohn,
Schumann, Liszt and Verdi
Composition in terms of
emotional content and
dramatic continuity
Highlighted by the operatic
supremacy of Verdi and Wagner
Frederic Chopin
Modern Music (1900–present)
The 20th century is described as the “age of musical diversity” because composers had
more creative freedom. No single style of music dominates, and composers ranged from the
relatively traditional to the most modern. Many composers ensued the dominant artistic style of
the period, from Impressionism to Futurism to Expressionism to Post-Modernism. Composers
were more willing to experiment with new music forms or reinvent music forms of the past. They
also took advantage of the resources and technology that were available to them. Like George
Gershwin and Andrew Lloyd Webber who not only propelled the classic structure but may also
be considered the grandfathers of American pop music.
Prior to and after World War II, the United States became a center of musical activity. Many
composers from Europe moved to the US and some of them even became faculty members.
Music Forms and Styles
12-tone System is credited to Arnold Schoenberg. He developed a technique called 12tone system wherein all the 12 notes of the octave are of equal importance. The 12 notes are
placed in a specific order called a "tone-row" or "tone-series," and no note is repeated within a
row. This evoked music that felt anxious and unresolved.
Concert Music. Many composers combined jazz music elements with other music styles
such as classical and blues. Music during this time also spoke of nationalistic fervor. Some of the
composers whose works were greatly appreciated were George Gershwin (Rhapsody in Blue),
Aaron Copland (Rodeo) and Dmitry Shostakovich (The Golden Age).
Electronic Music. Composers of electronic music experimented with technology and
how it affects certain aspects of music such as melody and rhythm.
Impressionistic. In music, it is applied to works of early 20th century composers such as
Debussy. Debussy rejected the rules of tonality and created music that is pleasing to the ears as
impressionist paintings are appealing to the eyes. This resulted in music that was relaxed and
almost dreamlike.
Jazz can be traced back to earlier African-American music styles. It is particularly
remarkable for its improvisation, harmonic progressions, and modified rhythms.
Minimalism is the type of music which was simple and contained patterns that were
repeated and reinforced by a steady beat. Examples are the music of Steve Reich and Philip
New Romanticism desired music that was expressive, haunting, and mysterious, much
like the music of the past. Composers who used this technique were George Crumb (Ancient
Voices of Children) and Gyorgy Ligeti (Lux Aeterna), among others.
Neoclassical is a concept applied to the music of early 20th century composers like
Stravinsky which reflects the 18th-century music. Stravinsky's works, particularly after the highly
acclaimed The Rite of Spring, did not emphasize tonality but felt restrained. Stravinsky was
discovered by Sergei Diaghilev, the producer of the Ballet Rouse. His earlier works reflected
influences from Debussy's dissonance and irregular rhythmic patterns.
Serialism was based on Schoenberg's 12-tone system, which was continued by his
student Anton von Webern. Serialism was evident in the music of the 1950s and 1960s but
appreciation was limited to university professors and their students. Serialism used a strict
musical formula that was difficult to play. Composers who used this technique were Milton
Babbitt and Pierre Boulez, to name a few.
Notable 20th Century Composers and Musicians
Bela Bartok: A Hungarian composer and renowned ethnomusicologist.
Alban Berg: An Austrian composer who adapted the atonal style, also referred to as the
classicist of modern music.
Ernest Bloch: A Swiss composer of spiritual music.
John Cage: An American composer of the 20th century known for his innovative, avantgarde ideas of creating and appreciating music. He devised the "prepared piano."
Henry Cowell: The American composer, and one of the inventors of an electrical
instrument called "rhythmicon", who wrote pieces wherein the musicians played the keys of a
piano by striking it with their forearms or wrists and strumming or plucking the strings.
Edward Elgar: An English composer, who, according to Richard Strauss, was the "first
English progressive musician."
Charles Ives: The first known composer of polytonal pieces.
Jean Sibelius: A Finnish composer, conductor, and teacher especially known for his
orchestral works and symphonies.
Edgard Varese: One of the composers who experimented with music and technology.
He wrote a piece for an orchestra composed of solely percussion instruments. He also
experimented with taped music and electronic instruments.
Anton von Webern: An Austrian composer belonging to the 12-tone Viennese school.
Ralph Vaughan Williams: An English composer of nationalistic music.
Diverse styles
Debussy, Ravel, Schoenberg, and
Arnold Schoenberg
Claude De Bussy
Lesson 3 - Philippine Art History
"Some people come into our lives, leave footprints on our hearts, and we are never the same." Franz Schubert
Philippine Arts
The Philippine Arts pertain to Filipino artworks that have developed in country from the
beginning of its civilization up to the present era.
It reflects the culture of the Philippine society and the wide range of cultural influences
from countries that happen to interact with us and also the influenced in local arts that resulted in
Filipino artworks as it is known today as Art of the Philippines.
(before 1521)
The pre-colonial era or also known as Pre-Spanish era is the period of Philippine Art
before the coming of Spaniards. Early evidence of ancient tools and other artifacts are found in
the different islands of Philippines like Batangas, Cagayan, Central Luzon, Davao, and Palawan.
Items discovered were described to be the crudest from the stone tools (flake tools).
Early Filipinos believe in life after death. They used receptacles which were containers
fashioned to enclose and protect the bodies of their dead relatives. Receptacles were made from
fibers and tree barks constructed into mats or they can also be made of leaves, wood, and
bamboo. These receptacles can also function as repositories of food and other possessions which
will accompany the dead on their journey to the other world. Receptacles.
Angono Petroglyphs
The Angono-Binangonan Petroglyphs is a rock art on the wall of a rockshelter in Rizal. A
National Cultural Treasure and declared as the oldest known work of art in the Philippines. This
was discovered in 1965 by the late renowned muralist and National Artist, Carlos "Botong"
Francisco. One hundred twenty-seven human figures spread on the wall were rendered by
engraving lines using a piece of stone on the surface of the rock shelter. The cuts vary from ten
centimeters to faint lines figures. The figures consist of circular heads, with or without necks set
on a rectangular or v-shaped body. The linear arms and legs are usually bent. Some incisions on
the rock wall are circles, rectangles, and triangles. The site is at the border of Angono and
Binangonan in the province of Rizal.
Rock art is closely linked with a system of belief of a group of people which is considered
symbolic and not decorative. Rare rock art in the Philippines were reported in places such as
Penablanca Caves in Cagayan Valley; rock ledges in Alab, Bontoc, Mt. Province; and caves in
Singnapan Basin in Ransang, Palawan.
Textile weaving
Weaving is an ancient art form that remain in the Philippines today, with each ethnic
group having their distinctive weaving techniques. Prehistoric textile that have been excavated
are believed to have been created by using flat stone tools to pound and flatten tree barks for use
as materials. According to many accounts of early travelers of the pre-colonial era, the Filipino
people utilized fibers made from natural materials, such as abaca (Manila hemp), maguey,
pineapple, cotton and tree bark, to weave textiles, clothes, rugs, hats and baskets, along with
quilts and bedding.
The oldest surviving textile in the entire Southeast Asian region was found in the
Philippine island of Banton in Romblon province. The cloth, known as the Banton cloth, has
designs with folkloric motifs, and was used as a death wrap.
The different textile forms in the Philippines are the brocaded weave (pinilian) of the Ilocano, the
wavy designs of the Bontoc, the geometric designs of the Kalinga, the piña of the Aklanon, the
hablon of the Kiniray-a and Hiligaynon, the seputangan of the Yakan, the mabal tabih of the
Blaan, the bagobo inabal of the Bagobo Manobo, the dagmay of the Mandaya, the mëranaw of
the Maranao, the pis syabit of the Tausug, and the t'nalak of the T'boli.
Preceding the Spanish colonization, the native Filipino of all genders, all social classes
wore gold from gold necklaces, earrings, bracelets, armlets, even to their grave. Their love for
gold to making a threaded belt and hilts of swords and daggers made of gold. This was the life of
our ancestors. Gold was abundant then in areas now known as Butuan, Eastern Visayas, Mindoro,
and Surigao. The people created belts, necklaces, masks, rings, leg ornaments, even ceremonial
weapons, and wore these gold objects in rituals and celebration and to establish their rank in
Gold Death Mask
The burial practice of covering the eyes, nose, and mouth of the dead with sheets of gold
is a custom practiced by a limited group of Filipinos. It is believed that when the face of the dead
is covered with a gold mask, evil spirits cannot come into the body. The face of the corpse was
covered with skillfully labored sheets of gold. The gold nose-disc and gold eye-mask dated from
the late 14th to the early 15th century A.D. were found in a grave site in San Antonio, Oton,
Iloilo. Aside from the museum collection, another pre-Hispanic gold burial mask was also
recovered in Masao, Butuan, Agusan del Norte where gold was abundant in prehistoric times.
The elaborateness depends on their social status. This suggests how rich the Philippines back
then. Wearing gold was part of their daily clothes. This was proven through the Boxer Codex
manuscript in gold leaf.
Gold Death Mask
Shell Bracelets and Pendants
In the early days, shells were transformed into tools, as well as ornaments. The oldest identified
ornaments made from cone shells were found in the early 1960’s in the tomb of an adult male in
Duyong Cave in Palawan. A shell disk with a cavity in the center was found next to his right ear
and a disk with a hole by the edge was found on his chest. The shell ornaments were dated 4854
B.C. and are characteristic of the Late Neolithic Age
Other personal ornaments such as anklets, beads, bracelets, and earrings recovered from tomb
sites were unearthed together with dippers, spoons, and other tools transformed from shells. Shell
beads retrieved from other sites were made from cowry, whelk, and conch shells. Shell beads
were also recovered from Arku Cave in Cagayan, Ngipe’t Duldug Cave in Palawan and in Bato
Caves, in Sorsogon; a shell bracelet was also found in Bato Caves.
“Many of the works, unearthed between the 1960s and 1981, affirm the unprecedented creativity,
prosperity, and sophisticated metalworking tradition of the precolonial period,” (Josette Sheeran,
Earthenware pots resembling human figures were found in Ayub Cave, in Pinol, Maitum,
Saranggani Province. The jars used for secondary burial were dated to the Metal Age about 5 BC.
- 225 A.D. Each of the twenty-nine jars recovered from the site is unique. The head-shaped
covers portray different kinds of facial expressions like sadness, joy, contentment. The heads
were either plain, perforated or coated with red and black paints. Some have earrings, others are
tattooed. Some head-shaped covers depict teeth while others have arms, female breasts, and male
genitalia. Clay pots were also discovered in Masbate which dated as early as 710 B.C.E.
The jar burial practices of early Filipinos were prevalent not only in the Philippines, but
also in Southeast Asia. These practices date back to the Late Neolithic Period from 1,000 B.C. to
the 16th century before the arrival of the Spaniards. The discovery of jar burials uncovers
significant clues to the prehistory of Maguindanao and the country.
To categorize and analysis thousands of pre-Hispanic potteries, they are classified
corresponding to shape, method of decoration and type of design on the surface.
Shape is the description of the vessel’s body, the form of its mouth, the thickness of its lips, or
the presence of ears, spouts and legs attached to its body.
Method of decoration is how designs are applied on the body’s surface. Decorative designs are
either impressed or incised.
Pressing on the container with certain things like a string, rope, or small piece of mat
while the surface is still wet create impressed designs.
Some of the designs on the pottery were like those found in southwestern Mindanao but the
detailed facial expression is unique. The making of these earthenware depicting human figures
and faces indicates a high level of craftmanship.
The use of
sharp objects to
draw patterns on
the while the pot is still damp
body produce incised designs.
Designs are either abstract or representational. Abstract design consists
straight lines,
curved lines, which are inspired by nature. Examples are seeds, stars,
waves, clouds, flowers, and feathers which primitive Filipinos styled into simple, flowing forms.
Representational designs are usually of objects in nature,
example trees, animals,
and drawings of human figures.
The ancient Filipinos had attained a high artistic level through pottery, jewelry, and wood
Mununggul Jar
The Mununggul jar is regarded as the symbol of Philippine Prehistoric artifact. It was
found in Palawan and is estimated to be from 890-710BCE. Figures representing spirits
constituted most of the early Philippines representational sculpture. Some statues of Hindu gods
and goddesses were also discovered all over the archipelago which proved that the early Filipinos
with Hindu traders.
Maitum jar
In Ayub Cave, now referred to as Pinol Cave 29 burial jars and around 33 baskets or
about 4 cubic meters of archaeological material have been collected. Pinol, Maitum was formerly
part of South Cotobato in Sarangani. These secondary burial jars have characteristics that belong
to the Developed Metal Age Period in the Philippines calibrated date of 190 BC to 500 AD, these
jars date back to the Metal Age. Two conventional dates calibrated date of AD 70 to 370 and
calibrated date of 5 BC to 225 AD. Experts used samples taken from the walls of a small
earthenware vessel found inside one of the larger burial jars. The Maitum burial jars were
discovered in by the archeological group of the National Museum in 1991. The jars have designs
that signify human figures with complete or partial facial features or known as anthropomorphic
In the 16th century, early inhabitants of the Philippines built single room structure with walls of
bamboo and roof of palm leaves, with the ground floor typically utilized for storage. There were
three different styles of structure of native dwellings, the bahay-kubo or nipa hut, Ifugao house
and the Maranao house.
Bahay-kubo is built from bamboo and nipa which are the most available construction
materials in the rural areas. The bahay-kubo is very functional in terms of comfort and
affordability of materials.
Ifugao house is so designed for the reason of the cold climate of the Mountain
Province. The Ifugaos construct their houses for protection from the low temperature and
the rainfall common in the Mountain Province.
Maranao house is an archaic-style house with a boat-like appearance. This
description is primarily due to the existence of the panolong, carved beam that
protrudes in the front of the house that support its flooring.
Torogan known as the flower symbol of the ancestral home of the highest titleholder
in a Maranao village. The panolong symbolizes power and prestige.
Muslim Art
Islamic art meshed with ethnic culture and produced a Filipino Muslim art that reflects the ethnic
background and Islamic identity of the people.
Okir is a general name for the colorful flowing designs which decorate any surface of the
Muslim regions. It is an elaborate curvilinear motif made by the Maranao and Tausug tribes of
Mindanao. The main motifs are the sarimanok, the naga and the pako-rabong. These are mainly
used to decorate the houses of Sultans. Okir-a-datu are ornamental design for men and okir-a-bay
for women.
In the book of Dr. Nagasura Madale, it explains that the Okir has patterns which are used by the
Maranao artists. 1. Matilak (circle) 2. Poyok (bud) 3. Dapal (leaf) 4. Pako (fern or spiral form) 5.
Todi (fern leaf with spiral at upper edge) 6. Pako lungat (fern leaf with a cut at one edge). Other
elements found by Dr. Madale were: Naga, obid-obid binotoon, kianoko, pakonai and tialitali.
Panolong with okir motif
Sarimanok is a depiction of an open-winged legendary bird which stands on a fish with
another fish hanging from its beak. It is usually positioned atop bamboo poles at the center of
Maranao villages among decorative flags during celebratory events.
Naga is a
elaborately in plows.
stylized dragon or
serpent carved in
Ukkil is a design technique usually see in the Sulu Peninsula. Others consider it a variant
of the okir. It is a decorative design that is used in carving, baskets, pottery and weaving. It is a
pattern like Western style Arabesque and Art Noveau.
Maranao Brass is best observed in the kabul and gadur. This is a jar-like container with
covers that look a lot like the domes of their mosques.
A long sword, its handle akin to the open mouth of a naga, a wavy flame-like blade representing
the body of a serpent; the barong, a leaf-like blade having the same geometric designs on its hilt.
Art of the Mountain Province
Wood is the medium of choice in the art of the Mountain Province. It is used in making shields,
spoons, ladles, bowls, and human and animal figures. Woodcarving is considered an important
skill in all tribes. Mountain Province art is divided into two kinds: the ritualistic and the
The bulul, a carved male figure made of narra is seated while its crossed arms rest on its raised
knees. Believed to guard rice crops, this figure was traditionally bathed in pig’s or chicken’s
blood during rice planting rituals in Ifugao.
Ritualistic Art
google images
Decorative Art
The ancient script Baybayin. According to many
early Spanish accounts, the Tagalogs had already
been writing with the baybayin for at least a century.
Baybayin handwriting by Filipino artist Jacob Ira
Azurin Vijandre. (Biyani Art, 2018)
The year 1521 marks the dawn of the the first colonial power in the Philippines. This is
called the Spanish period.
For the Catholic faith to be propagated successfully, it should be able to communicate
well with the educated as well as the uneducated, and the best way to achieve this is through art.
Religious paintings, sculptures, literature, music, dance, and theatre have all contributed to
instilling the doctrines of the Catholic faith into the hearts and minds of the early Filipinos.
Fr. Antonio Sedeno introduced a lime in the construction of buildings. He was
responsible for the construction of the first fortress, the Nuestra Senora de Guia Fort in Manila.
He was instrumental in the planning and building of the Manila’s Secular residences. Early
painting and sculptural works for the church were largely given to the Chinese artisans living in a
community outside Intramuros called the Parian.
Carving which began in the pre-Hispanic times in making the likha (a local deity), was
redirected by the friars into the creation of santos (sculptures of saints). The making of santos are
strictly supervised by the church authorities for fear that the natives might include pagan elements
into the prescribed iconography of the church.
Most of the santos had been carved out of wood. Ivory and animal bone were also used.
Famous Sculptors
Juan delos Santos carved several retablos for the Augustinian church in Intramuros.
Lorenzo Flores carved the escudo of the Franciscan Order found in front of the Tayabas Church.
A rise of national consciousness was expressed through the reform movement during the 19th
century. The Sociedad Economica de Amigos dela Pais, a civic organization, aimed to encourage
the development of visual arts which led to the establishment of the Escuela de Dibujo y Pintura
in 1821.
The school closed in 1834 but reopened 20 years later. This school was incorporated with the
Escuela Pintura Escultura Y Grabado in 1879.
Damian Domingo
Sociedad Economica de Amigos dela Pais
Damian Domingo, the first teacher, a mestizo whose talents impressed local authorities.The
technique of painting during this time may be from his works, where detailed and fine lines give
volume or body to objects or parts of the human figures. The quality of softness in the rendering
of the lines suggests the use of a Chinese brush.
The earliest portraits were done in miniature, the size of a thumbnail. The painters are called
miniaturists. Large portrait of wealthy natives began to appear in 1850.
Two local artists became famous abroad: Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo.
Juan Luna won a silver medal for his La Muerte de Cleopatra at Exposicion General de Bellas
Artes in 1881. He also won a Gold medal
at Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1884
for his famous Spolarium. Felix Hidalgo won a silver medal for his Christian Virgins Exposed to
the Populace in Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes.
Christian Virgins Exposed to the Populace, Hidalgo
Spoliarium, Luna
Nicolas Bagay is one of the outstanding engravers who ran a printing press and Francisco Suarez
are both known for their designs in 1733 and for the 12 scenes depicting representative life in the
islands in the Murillo-Velarde Map.
They signed their works proudly writing Indio Tagalog
after their signatures.
18th Century
Earliest among the collection are religious in themes and composed of 18th century icons and
images created by local artisans under the tutelage of the friars. The devotional pieces of the
collection are of outstanding significance. Engravings were printed from copper plates and wood
Coronation of the virgin
It is one of the oldest artworks in the visual arts collection. An extremely rare icon belonging to
the primitive school of Philippine art. It is typical of the religious art produced during the 18th
century for household use (devotional piece).
19th Century
The introduction of lithograph prints eventually replaced engraving in copper.
Lithograph Print- oil and water
Direction. Answer these questions legibly and succinctly.
1. How would you generally describe the works of art of Prehistoric Filipino people? How about
the Filipinos under the Spanish era? Contrast and compare.
Lesson 3 - American Colonial Period and Art of the Post-War Period
“A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be
ultimately at peace with himself.” - Abraham Maslow
The arrival of the new colonial power ushered in a change in art patronage – from
the native ilustrados to the Americans. The new patrons, including the tourists and
foreign investors, favored landscapes, still life, and genre themes that show the beauty of
the land and its people. Portraits were still favored by the public officials, usually
depicting them in dignified poses. There from, the American Colonization brought high
influence to the major Filipino art forms: architecture, paintings and sculptures.
Architecture during the American colonial period witnessed the commencement
of the use of new materials such as reinforced concrete, glass, and steel, in the neoclassical architectural style. The famous architects are Juan Arellano, Tomas Mapua and
Antonio Toledo.
Manila Metropolitan Theatre, Juan Arellano
Dela Salla University, Tomas Mapua
Manila City Hall, Antonio Toledo
Only a lone name stood out, Guillermo Tolentino, trained in the classical style in Rome,
Tolentino’s masterpieces include the Oblation in the University of the Philippines and the
Bonifacio Monument in Caloocan City.
Bonifacio Monument, Guillermo Tolentino
Filipino painters depicted scenes from the countryside. Fabian de la Rosa and Fernando
Amorsolo dominated and influenced the art scene with their landscape and genre
Rice Planters, Dela Rosa
Fabian dela Rosa was noted for his realistic portraits, genre, and landscapes in subdued
colors. He was enrolled at the Escuela de Bellas Artes y Dibujo and took lessons from
Lorenzo Guerrero. De la Rosa is often considered the brightest name in Filipino painting
and certainly the most important for the first quarter of the century.
Fernando Amorsolo captured the attention of the public and the buyers, and had a long
artistic career. Spanning for more than half a century, his influence is still evident in
some of today’s painters. He was named as the country’s first National Artist in 1972.
Planting Rice, Amorsolo
(after 1946)
During Post war, Philippine Architecture was dominated by the American style.
In this period the plan for the modern city of Manila was designed with a large number of
art deco buildings, by famous American and Filipino architects. During the liberation of
Manila by the Americans in 1945 large portions of Intramuros and Manila were
 Massive rehabilitation and reconstruction was seen by the Philippine society in the
post-war years.
 Leandro Locsin designed the Cultural Center of the Philippines who earned a
National Artist award.
 Other architectural landmarks are Philippine International Convention Center and
many other tall structures particularly in the Business Center of Makati City.
 Napoleon Abueva is considered the first modern Filipino sculptor. His modernism
was developed during his studies in the United States. Noted works are Double Crucifix
suspended from the dome above the altar of UP and Allegorical Harpoon at CCP
Allegorical Harpoon, Napoleon Abueva
Double Crucifix, Napoleon Abueva
Other noted sculptors include: Abdulmari Imao, a sculptor from Jolo; Solomon Saprid,
for his Peace Loving Tikbalang and Eduardo Castrillo for his massive sculptures of the
Last Supper and Pieta at the Loyola Memorial Park in Marikina and Paranaque
Sarimanok, Imao
The Redemption, Eduardo Castrillo
 The establishment of Art Association of the Philippines and the Philippine Art Gallery
helped to introduce modern art locally, to support its struggle against conservative art, and to
create patronage among art-buyers. The early post war modernist, call themselves Neo-Realists.
 Two popular names were Vicente Manansala for Madonna of the Slums and Carlos Fran for
Sungka Players. Their works demonstrated the influence of various Western Art styles such as
post- impressionism, abstraction, cubism, expressionism and surrealism.
 Some famous painters in the fifties and early sixties are: Fernando Zobel, Arturo Rogerio
Luz, Jose T. Joya, Maura Malang Santos, and Anita Magsaysay Ho.
 In the mid sixties further developments in the international art movement such as pop art,
abstract expressionism, constructivism and environmental art were reflected in the works of:
Robert Chabet, Mars Galang, and Bendicto Cabrera
Sungka Players, Manansala
Madonna of the Slums, Manansala
 One of the artistic forms that involves a large audience.
 Manuel Rodriguez, Sr. is the pioneer and mentor in Philippine graphic art who opened
Contemporary Graphic Art Workshop in Malate to attract artists to the new medium. He
specialized in etching. Three of his sons-Manuel Jr., Marcelino and Ray are all accomplished
 The Philippine Association of Printmakers was founded in 1968 and offered workshops in
various graphic mediums. The Association developed outstanding printmakers: Raul Isidro,
Orlando Castillo, Imelda Cajipe Endaya, Rodolfo Paraz Perez in wood cut, Rodolfo Samonte in
serigraphy, Virgilio Aviado and Ofelia Gelvezon in etching.
Manuel Rodriguez Sr
Rodolfo Paras Perez
1. Look into the presentation on Post War Period Liberation (2014) by P. Salcedo at
2. In a matrix, make a complete listing of the artworks, the artist and the respective description of
3. Compare and contrast the over-all theme of artworks produced during the American and PostWar period.
Lesson 5 - Philippine Contemporary Art and National Artists
“Ang kabataan ang pag-asa ng bayan .“- Jose Rizal
Philippine Contemporary Art
Contemporary Philippine Arts is an art produced at the present period, roughly from 1970
up to the present time. The term “contemporary art” refers to art made and produced by artists
living today. Massive progress in technology impacted the arts in terms of medium and technique.
The invention of computer technology greatly influenced graphic arts and combined arts.
In sculpture and architecture, introduction of new materials and innovativeness of artists to try out
new media, designs and techniques commercialized the process of plastic arts. Inventions of
machines for mass production and use of computer software for architecture enabled to view their
designs virtually in cyberspace.
Even the audience have changed. The impact of globalization, the internet and social
media strengthened interconnectedness of people around the globe increasing the level of
awareness and understanding of other countries society and culture.
Philippine National Artists
The National Artist recognition is the highest individual award given to an artist who
contributed works of significance to the Philippine arts in their area of artistry. This task is
handled by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCAA) and the Cultural Center of
the Philippines (CCP) and bestowed by the President of the Philippines. The confirmation of the
National Artist Award started in 1972 through Presidential Proclamation No. 1001 s. 1972. the
following is the list of National Artist of the Philippines (as of April 2017) in the categories of
architecture and Allied Arts, Broadcast Arts, Dance, Film, Literature, Music, Theater, and Visual
Fernando Amorsolo was the first Philippine National Artist in 1972 and since then only
73 talented individuals have been given this honor. It is the highest recognition given to Filipino
artists (film, visual arts, dance, etc). In order to be considered for selection, the artist must meet
certain criteria such as work towards nation-building and has reviewed prestigious national and
international recognition.
The Order of National Artists is the highest recognition given to Filipinos who have
contributed significantly to the status of Philippine arts, such as music, visual arts, literature, film,
broadcast arts, theater, dance, architecture, design, and allied arts. The recognition is sparsely
given to artists, with awards sometimes taking place years apart.
Since its inception in 1972, only 73 individuals have been conferred this highest honor of
becoming a National Artist of the Philippines. Of that number, 26 were awarded posthumously,
including the first National Artist, Fernando Amorsolo.
Originally, the recognition was called National Artists Award, until it was elevated in
2003 by then-President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo to the rank of Order. The Order is conferred to
individuals by the National Commission for the Culture and the Arts (NCCA) and the Cultural
Center of the Philippines (CCP) at a ceremony in Malacañang Palace.
The rank and title of a National Artist, although conferred by the NCCA and the CCP, bears the
power of a presidential proclamation.
To date, the Philippines has conferred the Order of National Artist to 13 individuals for music, six
for dance, eight for theater, seven for architecture, design, and the allied arts, one for historical
literature, seven for film, 14 for literature, and 17 for visual arts
Fernando Amorsolo
First conferred National Artist (1972)
Sample Works: Maiden in a Stream, Dalagang Bukid
The Roster of National Artists
Fernando C. Amorsolo
Visual Arts – Painting
Francisca Reyes Aquino
Carlos "Botong" V. Francisco
Visual Arts – Painting
Amado V. Hernández
Antonio J. Molina
Juan Nakpíl
Guillermo E. Tolentino
Visual Arts – Sculpture
Jose Garcia Villa
Napoleón V. Abueva
Visual Arts – Sculpture
Leonor Orosa-Goquingco
Lamberto V. Avellana
Film and Theater
Nick Joaquín
Jovita Fuentes
Victorio C. Edades
Visual Arts – Painting
Pablo Antonio
Vicente S. Manansala
Visual Arts – Painting
Gerardo de León
Carlos P. Rómulo
Honorata "Atang" de la Rama
Theater and Music
Antonino Buenaventura
Lucrecia Reyes Urtula
Lucrecia R. Kasilag
Francisco Arcellana
César Legaspi
Visual Arts – Painting
Leandro V. Locsin
Hernándo R. Ocampo
Visual Arts – Painting
Lucio D. San Pedro
Lino Brocka
Felipe P. de León
Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero
Rolando S. Tínio
Theater and Literature
N. V. M. González
Levi Celério
Music & Literature
Arturo R. Luz
Visual Arts – Painting
José Maceda
Carlos Quirino
Historical Literature
J. Navarro Elizalde
Ernani Joson Cuenco
Andrea O. Veneración
Daisy Avellana
Ishmael Bernál
Severino Montano
F. Sioníl José
Virgilio S. Almario
José T. Joya
Visual Arts – Painting
Edith L. Tiempo
Ang Kiukok
Alejándro R. Roces
Visual Arts – Painting
Eddie S. Romero
Film and Broadcast Arts
Salvador F. Bernál
Theater and Design
Benedicto Reyes Cabrera
Visual Arts – Painting
Abdulmari Asia Imao
Visual Arts – Sculpture
Bienvenido Lumbera
Ramón Obusan
I.P. Santos
Architecture – Landscape
Fernando Poe Jr.
Ramón Valera
Architecture, Design and Allied Arts –
Fashion Design
Manuel Conde
Film and Broadcast Arts
Lázaro Francisco
Federico Aguilar Alcuáz
Visual Arts – Painting, Sculpture and Mixed
Alice Reyes
Francisco Coching
Visual Arts
Cirilo F. Bautista
Francisco Feliciano
Ramón Santos
José María Zaragoza
Ryan Cayabyab
Francisco Mañosa
Architecture and Allied Arts
Ramon Muzones
Resil Mojares
Larry Alcala
Visual Arts
Amelia Lapeña Bonifacio
Kidlat Tahimik
Film and Broadcast Arts
1. Create a collage of artworks of the Philippine National Artists using your own style of
presentation. Include the title of artwork, name of the artist, and the genre.
2. Identify five (5) Filipino Contemporary Artists, their artwork and genre. What is the
contribution of their art to Philippine Arts?
Contribution to
Philippine Art
Lesson 6 - Philippine Indigenous Arts and GAMABA Artists
“The aim of art is to represent not the outward appearance of things, but their inward
significance.” - Aristotle
Philippine Indigenous Arts
Creativity through craftsmanship is what Filipinos are also known. Many artisans across
the country showcase different unique crafts and arts that will surely catch your interest.
Cloth weaving
One of the most valuable living traditions that are still preserved until this day is the cloth
weaving. Threads or strands of material are passed under and over each other. Beginning in the
pre-colonial era, the art of cloth weaving, particularly of the Cordillera tribes in the North, still
lives notwithstanding the threat of the more practical production of fabrics today. The natives
practice blackstrap loom to create blankets and pieces of clothing.
Piña cloth is also created through looms everywhere in the province of Antique. It is a fine and
elegant handwoven fabric that is produced from the fibers of pineapple plants. It is commonly
used in Barong Tagalog, the traditional Philippine clothes for men. With its airy and organic
textile, it is growing more popular today and also around the world.
Another is the abaca fiber which comes from the abaca plant. Abaca is endemic and grown in the
Philippines. It is woven mainly to produce sinamay fabric. Abaca is famous in manufacturing
rope, specialty papers like the currency, vacuum bags, and tea bags. There are also handicrafts
like furniture, carpets, bags, and clothing specially made out of abaca.
Basket weaving
The Cordilleras mainly use baskets for their occupation. They utilize them for food storage too
when they have to go to the mountain terraces and farm their lands.
A basket is a must have for carrying hunting animals, grains, and fishing in the waters. The
baskets are made of bamboo to become as their fish traps; the size and the shape of the baskets
are based on the variety of fish they wish to catch.
Jewelry making
Since the 16th century, it is presumed that jewelry making in the country already existed. It is
known that the skills of the early Filipinos in creating jewelry are parented from our Asian
neighbors like the Chinese people.
There are two largest product classes of fine jewelry production in the Philippines:
Metal Jewelry
This jewelry is made of gold and silver which are in the forms of earrings, bracelets, rings,
brooches, necklaces, tie pins, pendants, and cuff links.
Pearls are considered precious stones and as semi-precious stones. These are either unworked or
worked types of pearls.
Pottery are made from wet clay, then hardened by baking. Pottery includes both decorative and
practical items such as bowls, dishes, vases and lamps. Pots in the country have various shapes,
sizes, and designs. Their designs are typically geometric with embellished nature motifs.
A model of this is the “palayok,” which is utilized for cooking. The “Banga” and “Tapayan” are
also used for depositing liquids. There is also the stove or “kalan” which is made out of clay. The
production of “Burnay” pottery in the Ilocos Sur is yet a spirited tradition that remains up to the
The Philippine sculpture is the most well-known art form of the Filipinos. The most famous
woodcarving in the Philippines is the carvings of the “Anitos” or the nature gods, “Santos” or
saints, and figures of Christ and the Blessed Mother Mary. Accordingly, Paete in Laguna is
considered wood carving capital of the Philippines since 2005.
GAMABA Artists
In April 1992, the Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan or the National Living Treasures
Award was institutionalized through Republic Act No. 7355. Tasked with the administration and
implementation of the Award is the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), the
highest policy-making and coordinating body for culture and the arts of the State. The NCCA,
through the Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan Committee and an Ad Hoc Panel of Experts,
conducts the search for the finest traditional artists of the land, adopts a program that will ensure
the transfer of their skills to others and undertakes measures to promote a genuine appreciation of
and instill pride among our people about the genius of the Manlilikha ng Bayan.
First awarded in 1993 to three outstanding artists in music and poetry, the Gawad sa
Manlilikha ng Bayan has its roots in the 1988 National Folk Artists Award organized by the
Rotary Club of Makati-Ayala. As a group, these folk and traditional artists reflect the diverse
heritage and cultural traditions that transcend their beginnings to become part of our national
character. As Filipinos, they bring age-old customs, crafts and ways of living to the attention and
appreciation of Filipino life. They provide us with a vision of ourselves and of our nation, a
vision we might be able to realize someday, once we are given the opportunity to be true to
ourselves as these artists have remained truthful to their art.
As envisioned under R.A. 7355, “Manlilikha ng Bayan” shall mean a citizen engaged in
any traditional art uniquely Filipino whose distinctive skills have reached such a high level of
technical and artistic excellence and have been passed on to and widely practiced by the present
generation in his/her community with the same degree of technical and artistic competence.
GAMABA Artists
Ginaw Bilog
Poet, 1993
Hanunuo Mangyan
Panaytayan, Orinetal Mindoro
(Died in 2003)
He helped preserved the Mangyan literary tradition by documenting the
of ambahan recorded not only on bamboo tubes but also on notebooks passed
on to him. The ambahan is a poetic literary form composed of seven-syllables.
The Filipinos are grateful and justifiably proud of Ginaw Bilog for
vigorously promoting the elegantly poetic art of the surat Mangyan and the
Masino Intaray
Musician and Storyteller, 1993
(Died in 2013)
He has mastered the traditions of his people, the Palawan, Batak and
Tagbanwa in the highlands of Southern Palawan. He is skillful in basal
(gong music ensemble), kulial (lyrical poem expressing passionate love
song with the accompaniment of the kudyapi, and bagit (instrumental music
depicting nature.)
Samaon Sulaiman
Musician, 1993
Mama sa Pano, Magindanao
(Died in 2011)
A master in the use of the kulintang and kudyapi (of the magindanaos)
His extensive repertoire of dinalayday, linapu, minuna, and binalig has
demonstrated not only his own skills but their culture.
Lang Dulay
Textile Weaver, 1998
(+ 2015)
T’bolis are known for their use of abaca fibers in textile weaving.
Lang Dulay continued this tradition and preserved the culture
of their community through patterns of crocodiles, butterflies, flowers,
mountains, and streams of Lake Sebu in her works.
Salinta Monon
Textile Weaver, 1998
Tagabawa Bagobo
Bansalan, Davao del Sur
(+ 2009)
Salinta Monon had watched her mother’s nimble hands glide over
the loom, weaving traditional Bagobo textiles. She developed a keen
eye for the traditional designs, and now, at the age of 65, she can
identify the design as well as the author of a woven piece just
by a glance. Salinta has built a solid reputation for the quality of her
work and the intricacies of her designs. There is a continuing demand
for her fabrics.
Alonzo Saclag
Musician and Dancer, 2000
Lubugan, Kalinga
Worked for the preservation of Kalinga culture. He lobbied that the
abandoned Capitol Building be turned into a museum, that schools
implement the practice of donning the Kalinga costume for important
events and that traditional Kalinga music should be broadcasted alongside
contemporary music in the local radio station. He formed the Kalinga
Budong Dance Troupe
Francisco Caballero
Epic Chanter, 2000
Calinog, Iloilo
A Panay-Bukidnon from the mountains of Central Panay to ceaselessly work for
the documentation of the oral literature, particularly the epics, of his people.
These ten epics, rendered in a language that, although related to Kiniray-a, is no
longer spoken, constitute an encyclopedic folklore one only the most persevering
and the most gifted of disciples can learn. Together with scholars, artists, and
advocates of culture, he painstakingly pieces together the elements of this oral
tradition nearly lost.
Uwang Ahadas
Musician, 2000
Lamitan, Basilan
His life’s work is to preserve and promote Yakan’ culture through the
traditional music and instruments of his tribe.He has mastered the
gabbang, the agung, the kwintagan and others.
Eduardo Mutuc
Metalsmith, 2004
Apalit, Pampanga
He dedicated his life in sculpting retablos, mirrors, altars
and carosas from bronze, and wood. Some of his works can
exceed 40 feet tall while the others feature smaller sizes and
dedicate craftsmanship.
HAJA AMINA APPIMat Weaver, 2004
Tandubas, Tawi-Tawi
(+ 2013)
Haja Amina Appi of Ungos Matata, Tandubas, Tawi-Tawi, is recognized
as the master mat weaver among the Sama indigenous community of
Ungos Matata. Her colorful mats with their complex geometric patterns
exhibit her precise sense of design, proportion and symmetry and
sensitivity to color. Her unique multi-colored mats are protected by a
plain white outer mat that serves as the mat’s backing. Her functional
and artistic creations take up to three months to make.
Darhata Sawabi
Textile Weaver, 2004
Parang, Sulu
Her remarkable proficiency with the art and the intricacy of her
allows her to price her creations a little higher than others. Her own
community of weavers recognizes her expertise in the craft, her bold
contrasting colors, evenness of her weave and her faithfulness to
traditional designs. Pis syabit weaving is a difficult art. She remains
faithful to the art of pis syabit weaving. Her strokes are firm and
sure, her color sensitivity acute, and her dedication to the quality of
her products unwavering.
Teofilo Garcia
Casque Maker, 2012
San Quintin, Abra
He learned how to make gourd casques and weave baskets from his
grandfather at the ag of 16. He never stopped experimenting with
other designs. He previously used nito to decorate the headgear and
then used with other materials such as bamboo after his supplier from
Cagayan passed away.
Magdalena Gamayo
Textile Weaver, 2012
Pinili, Ilocos Norte
Magdalena’s handiworks are finer than most abel –her blankets have a
very high thread count and her designs are the most intricate and
can sometimes take up to five colors. Making sure the right colored
threads are spaced evenly and keeping accurate count is a challenge
that Magdalena has always unerringly met. The beauty of her designs
lies in how delicate the patterns are, and yet how uniform the weave.
Magdalena’s calloused hands breathe life to her work and her
unique products are testament to how machines can never hope to
equal the human art.
Ambalang Ausalin
Textile Weaver, 2016
(born 4 March 1943)
Apuh Ambalang's skill is deemed incomparable: she is able to bring forth
all designs and actualize all textile categories typical to the Yakan. She
can execute the suwah bekkat (cross-stitch-like embellishment) and suwah
pendan (embroidery-like embellishment) techniques of the bunga sama
She possesses the complex knowledge of the entire weaving process,
aware at the same time of the cultural significance of each textile design
or category.She practiced the sinalu’an and the seputangan, two of the
most intricate categories in Yakan weaving. They are the most intricate
since the former requires the use of the minutest details of diamond or
rhomboid designs, and the latter demands balance and the filling up of all
the spaces on the warp with pussuk labung and dinglu or mata-mata
Estelita Bantilan
Mat Weaver, 2016
(born 17 October 1940)
Born as Labnai Tumdan was already precocious in mat weaving, took
on the name Estelita in the 1950s. She kept to her mat weaving. She
persisted where other women could not because her. Estelita also
carried on because mats were her gifts of choice to people she cherished.
She was never wont to monetize her mats. She carved out considerable
time from domestic and farming responsibilities to accomplish some of
the biggest, most subtly beautiful mats to be seen anywhere in Southeast
Asia today. And, from the evidence of the mats she makes today,
Estelita has continued to cultivate a personal aesthetic through half
a century.
Yabing Masalon Dulo
Ikat Weaver, 2016
(born 8 August 1914)
She carries on with an exquisite tradition of her gift: the expert making
of fine warp ikat textiles. That focus brings to greater clarity a person
whose ikat-dyed fabrics bear stunning similarity with museum-held
Blaan pieces created more than a century ago.
1.Choose a particular artwork which would symbolize the Philippines and its people.
Insert picture here
2.Elucidate your choice. Download a picture and submit it with your answer.
Reference: Ferrer, Maria Cristina D. et.al (2018), Art Appreciation. Panday Lahi Publishing House, Inc. Sucat, Muntinlupa City.
Name: ___________________________
Year and Section: __________________
Date: ________
Rating: ______
Unit 5 Test
Part I. IDENTIFICATION. Directions: Identify the following. Write your answer on the space
_____________________1. It is the art period where cave paintings and hand stencils are part
_____________________2. It is the art period which includes the works found in classical
civilizations like the Greeks and Celts as well as that of the early Chinese dynasties.
_____________________3. The om, swastika and lotus flower are symbols of this art period.
_____________________4. The most significant art forms in this art era are calligraphy and
_____________________5. This art period is about religious expression and more specifically
about church doctrine translated into aesthetic forms.
._____________________6. A significant historical event during this period was the opening of
the Silk Road.
_____________________7. Duccio is one of the leading artists during this period of art history.
_____________________8. Monalisa by Da Vinci was painted during the art period.
_____________________9. Characteristic of this art period is celebrating working class and
peasants and air rustic painting.
____________________10. This art period starts with Impressionism and ends with Abstract
____________________11. During this musical period, new and compound harmonies emerged
like etude, nocturne and waltz.
____________________12. It is the transitional period between baroque and classical music
which is characterized by delicate, frivolous expression designed to entertain than to excite the
____________________13. He developed a technique called 12-tone system wherein all the 12
notes of the octave are of equal importance.
____________________14. This type of music was simple and featured patterns that were
repeated and supported by a steady beat.
____________________15. An American composer of the 20th century known for his
innovative, avant-garde ideas of creating and appreciating music.
Part II. TRUE or FALSE. Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE, if the
statement correct is incorrect. Write your answers on the space provided.
____________________1. The cave paintings in Sulawesi, Indonesia are believed to be 17, 000
years old.
____________________2. The Doric, Ionic and Corinthian architecture orders were dominant
during the Mesopotamian art period.
____________________3. The Dark Ages saw the rise of Gothic and Romanesque styles of art
and architecture.
____________________4. Renaissance literally means rebirth, its art period describes the
resurgence of fascination in the artistic achievements of Greece and Rome.
____________________5. During the Northern Renaissance Art period Copernicus proves the
Earth revolves around the sun.
____________________6. Magellan circumnavigates the globe during the time Mannerism is
prevalent in art era.
____________________7. Chiaroscuro technique is a trait of Neoclassicism Art.
____________________8. During the Romanticism Art period Napoleon was crowned Emperor
by French.
____________________9. Cubism denotes the use of distortion and exaggeration for emotional
e ect.
___________________10. Expressionism intends to channel the unconscious means to unlock
the power of imagination.
___________________11. An important artwork during the Abstract Expressionism period is Du
Champ’s The Fountain.
__________________12. Pop Art was most prominent in American art but soon spread to
__________________13. Contemporary Art is characterized as without a center and reworking
and mixing past styles.
__________________14. Deconstructivism is characterized by an absence of harmony,
continuity, or symmetry.
__________________15. Pop art is a direct descendant of Dadaism.
__________________16. The Medieval Ages saw music with polyphonic musical texture.
__________________17. Guido de Arezzo is regarded as the inventor of modern musical
__________________18. An Italian madrigal is defined as polyphonic secular music that was
performed in groups of 14 to 16 singers who sang mostly love songs.
__________________19. Johann Sebastian Bach, a prominent figure in the Baroque period is
also considered one of the greatest composers of any period.
__________________20. The renowned music of Mozart, Beethoven and Haydn all hail from the
Classical Period.
__________________21. The sonata is type of polyphonic composition based on a principal
theme and melodic lines emergent during the Baroque period.
__________________22. The dance suites were designed for listening, not for accompanying
__________________23. Minimalism is the type of music which was simple and contained
patterns that were repeated and reinforced by a steady beat.
__________________24. Composers who used serialism technique were Milton Babbitt and
Pierre Boulez
__________________25. Edward Elgar is the first known composer of polytonal pieces.
__________________26. Medieval European art saw a transition from the Byzantine period to
the Early Christian period.
__________________27. Stone sculpture was not extremely popular in the Venetian and
Northern Renaissance Art period.
__________________28. The Neoclassical Period is considered a period of Dark Ages.
__________________29. Realists rejected Romantic ideas which had dominated French literature
and art late 18th century.
__________________30. Impressionist painters featured short visible strokes-dots, commas,
smears, and blobs in their artworks.
Test III. Artwork Recognition. Directions: Identify the following artwork, the artist and
the art period each belong to. Write your answers on the space provided.
source: mantlemagazine.com
1. A. ___________________ B.____________________ C.___________________
Source: wikiwand.com
2. A. ___________________ B.____________________ C.___________________
source: 365greatpinoystuff.wordpress.com
3. A. ___________________ B.____________________ C.___________________
source: Allan Jay Quesada commons.wikimedia.org
4.A.___________________B.____________________ C.___________________
source: commons.wikimedia.org
5. A.___________________B.____________________ C.___________________
Part IV. REFLECTION. Directions: Expound on the following items reflecting on your
learnings from Module 5. The following shall be the basis in grading your answer:
content - 4 points, presentation - 4 points, grammar and diction - 2 points
1. What is the implication to you as a Filipino of the Pre-colonial Art in the Philippines?
2. Why do you think is it vital for a person to have a background of Art History?
3. Discuss Philippine Indigenous Arts and its contribution to nation building.
4. Why is recognizing National Artists and GAMABA artists significant to the Filipinos?
Ferrer, Maria Cristina D. et.al., Art Appreciation. Panday Lahi Publishing House, Inc.Sucat,
Muntinlupa City.
Cartwright, M. (2017, October 13). Ancient Chinese Art. Ancient History Encyclopedia.
Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Chinese_Art/
Esaak, Shelley. "An Art History Timeline from Ancient to Contemporary Art." ThoughtCo, Feb.
11, 2020, thoughtco.com/art-history-timeline-183476.
Wilder, Jeffrey (2007). Art History Timeline for Dummies.
The Art Story. Mannerism. Retrieved from https://www.theartstory.org/movement/mannerism/
Green, A. (2018). Classical Music Composer Timeline to Present Day. Retrieved from
Estrella, E. (2019). Medieval Musical Timeline. Retrieved from
Estrella, E. (2019). Composers and Styles that Defined 20th Century Music. Retrieved from
Renaissance Music Timeline. Retrieved from
Philippine Pre-Hispanic art retrieved from https://philippineart.tumblr.com/
Esaak, Shelley (2019). "An Art History Timeline from Ancient to Contemporary Art." Retrieved
from https://www.thoughtco.com/art-history-timeline-183476
Indigenous Garments and Accessories Of The G’addang In Barangay Ngileb: Documentation on
Production, Angela Garra Saint Mary’s University Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya Philippines
Ladrido, Portia (2018). The bulul as an important piece of Philippine art. Retrieved from
Pastor, Cristina DC. (2015). Gold exhibit in NYC: Pre-colonial Filipinos were not Savages:
Organizers. Retrieved from https://thefilam.net/archives/18816
Pinoy Culture. The Philippine Golden Age: Relics of Our Precolonial Past (2014). Retrieved from
Handicrafts and Folkcrafts Industries In The Philippines: Their Socio-Cultural And Economic
Context Olympio V. Caparas, Valentine Mariel L. Lim, Nestor S. Vargas
Salcedo, P. (2014). Post War Period Liberation. Retreived from
mem orial%20park
Benesa, L. (April 15, 2015). Philippine Contemporary Art as a Post-War Phenomenon. Retrieved
from http://ncca.gov.ph/subcommissions/subcommission-on-the-arts-sca/visual-arts/philippinecontemporary-art-as-a-post-war-phenomenon/.
Gomez, J (2018). 15 Gorgeous Pieces in this Week’s contemporary Filipino art show in Tokyo
Limos, A. (2019). Get To Know All the National Artists of the Philippines. Retrieved at
Filipino National Artists retrieved from https://pilipinas.org/list-of-filipino-national-artists/
Official Gazette of the Philippines. National Artists of the Philippines. Retrieved from
National Living Treasures. Retrieved from https://ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/cultureprofile/gamaba/
* End of Unit 5 *
Unit 6
Art in Today’s Society
This lesson focuses on the concepts of soul-making, art fusion and transcreation and their
respective examples.
Learning Objectives
At the end of the lesson the students are expected to:
1. Discuss the concept of soul making, art fusion and transcreation.
2. Develop students’ artistic potentials through the art of soul-making, fusion and transcreation.
3. Enhance appreciation and awareness of students towards arts today’s society.
4. Explain the concept of hybrid art forms.
5. Characterize and define narratives, appropriation, borrowings and ownership of the artist or
any agency in the art world.
6. Develop students’ artistic ability in any form they would choose to appropriate an art.
Lesson 1 - Soul-Making, Art Fusion, and Transcreation
"Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations."- Faith Baldwin
In the language that refers to all activities concerning individual expression through the
arts, is the deeper process known as “soul- making.” The soul here refers to the individual’s
“It is this activity of working through disintegration that I consider to be at the core of the
creative and therapeutic processes. I call this act “poesis” (following Heidegger’s use of the
Greek word for poetry), and consider it to be at the center of human existence. These creative
activities can be best described as a death and rebirth of the soul or what James Hillman calls
Art Fusion
Art fusion is a product of industry and commercialism. It occurs when an artist of any art
form collaborates with a brand/company (a product, service, fashion, charity) to create a product
that will benefit the artist, the company and society as a whole.
Art still has the power to influence the society’s capacity to grow and evolve. It can
predict, maintain and destroy the status quo. Artists have the power nurture a society’s soul. Art
fusion can give an artist the ability to produce work that will reach a new and wider audience.
Transcreation is a type of translation that also includes creation, or recreation. It means
going a step further than simply adapting the text. It is a term used in advertising and marketing
and refers to the process of adapting a message from one language to another, while maintaining
its intent, tone and context.
To create a global marketing campaign that evokes the desired response in every culture
you target, you need to recreate the campaign–the words and the images–or every culture. This
process is known as transcreation. Content that is transcreated is created for a particular culture,
using the vernacular of that culture, often in a certain locale. Transcreation is more of a content
development process than a translation process. Sure, transcreated content retains the brand logo
and mark, the corporate colors, and so on. What it doesn’t necessarily keep is the message or
expression of sentiment.
In arts, transcreation may take the form of recreating an art from into another art form
with the intent of changing the medium and noting else. Examples would be changing the music
to text, text to dance, dance to visual art, text to theatre and text to cinema.
(google images)
A great example is the transcreation of Spider-Man in India. Peter Parker of New York is
transformed into the dhoti-wearing Pavitr Prabhakar in Mumbai who fights evil monster in
emblematic places like the Taj Mahal. The setting and the names of the main characters, with the
exception of Doctor Octopus, have been changed so that the target audience identifies with them
more readily.
Transcreation is not limited to the way concepts are expressed or how foreign names are
made more appetizing and easier to pronounce. Visual elements such as colors, shapes, and sizes
are also necessary to be modified to cultural preferences. This is something that often goes
unnoticed, but even little changes can make a immense difference in marketing success. In
Europe, the background of the McDonald’s logo is green rather than red, which elicit the idea of a
healthier and more natural product.
Sometimes, however, changes are so dramatic that the outcome is almost completely
unrecognizable. Such is the case of the Qatar-based news agency Al Jazeera, which is known as
Aj+ in western society. The two logos show a world of difference.
Each society is conditioned by their language and culture. Therefore, each one has a
lifestyle based on their customs, values, beliefs, or even more trivial things like entertainment
1. In not more than ten sentences, discuss soul-making and art fusion. Give one famous example
of art fusion. Expound on why art fusion is valuable to the society.
2. Collate examples of transcreation in arts.
Transcreation in Arts
1. Music to text
Title of Artwork - Artist
Text to dance
Dance to visual art
Text to theatre
Theatre to cinema
3.Explain how each of the transcreation process was done. Was it successful in getting the
message across the audience? Why or why not?
Lesson 2- Hybrid Art Forms and Appropriation
“Art is not a mirror to hold up to society, but a hammer with which to shape it.”
– Leon Trotsky
Hybrid is defined as having mixed origin that adds variety or complexity to a system.
Art Forms in the contemporary arts explore the various media and techniques for innovation and
experimentation in art creation. It may involve cross-breeding the art-making process with other
disciplines like with the natural and physical sciences, industrial and etc. Contemporary artist are
now free to create art with whatever material or technique they could think of. This freedom from
rules paved way the way for new opportunities to express ideas, beliefs ad emotions.
In art forms, hybridity could mean the blurring of traditional distinct boundaries between
artistic media such as painting, sculpture, film, performance, architecture, and dance. It also can
mean cross-breeding art-making with other disciplines, such as natural and physical science,
industry, technology, literature, popular culture, or philosophy. Hybrid art forms expand the
possibilities for experimentation and innovation in contemporary art.
According to Levinson (1984), hybrid art forms are not purely structural; they are primarily
historical. Hybrid art forms are art forms arising from the actual combination of interpretation of
earlier art forms. Its form must be understood in light of their components. Levinson identifies
three important categories of hybrid art forms which are classified according to their method of
combining different artistic disciplines:
1. Juxtaposition (or addition) – simply joining two or more different products to present a larger,
more complicated one; each component maintains its original identity; involves arts that
explicitly use accompaniment and most multi- or mixed-media arts; examples:
mime accompanied by flute b. symphony plus light show
2. Synthesis (or fusion) – all components modify each other so that each one loses some of its
original identity; employs a certain amount of parity or symmetry of fusion; examples:
Wagnerian opera = symphonic sung drama (or dramatic song)
Concrete poetry = poem-picture (partly poetry, partly graphics)
3. Transformation (or alteration) – one art is transformed is the direction of another; an unequal
mixture of components so that the resulting hybrid maintains the identity of the dominant art
form; example: kinetic sculpture (sculpture with movement related to dance)
Two overall effects that Hybrid works of art achieve:
1. Integrative: the image of richness and complexity; parts cooperate towards common end (e.g.
Wagnerian Opera)
2. Disintegrative: rampant lack of coordination; cognitive overload (e.g. Einstein on the Beach)
Today’s artists are free to make art with whatever material or technique they can imagine. This
freedom creates new opportunities to express ideas and concepts. It also opens up a number of
challenges, choices, and decisions for artists.
In these sculptures, Italian artist Alessandro Gallo depicts everyday people as human
animal hybrids. Gulls sit patiently on a bench.
Appropriation is borrowing. It is the practice of creating a new work by taking a
preexisting image or material from another source like book and combines it with new ones, thus
completely transforming the original. A found object is an existing object given a new identity as
an artwork or part of an artwork. Artist can re-create an object in many ways like repainting it,
altering its style, they can also layer images and redefining the images in a new context.
To is to take possession of something. Appropriation artists deliberately copy images to
take possession of them in their art. They are not stealing or plagiarizing, nor are they passing off
these images as their very own. This artistic approach does stir up controversy because some
people view appropriation as unoriginal or theft. This is why it's important to understand why
artists appropriate the artwork of others.
Appropriation artists want the viewer to recognize the images they copy. They hope that
the viewer will bring all of his original associations with the image to the artist's new context, be
it a painting, a sculpture, a collage, a combine, or an entire installation. The deliberate borrowing
of an image for this new context is called recontextualization. Recontextualization helps the artist
comment on the image's original meaning and the viewer's association with either the original
image or the real thing.
The Eli and Edythe L. Broad
“Art is not a mirror to hold up to society, but a hammer with which to shape it.”
– Leon Trotsky
1. A Relate the quotation of Trotsky to the concept of hybridity in art forms.
Look closely on this image.Answer the following questions.
1. What elements of the image are appropriated?
2. Can you identify the source of the appropriated image?
3. What do you think is the artist trying to convey in this appropriated work?
4. How does the source and the transformation of the appropriated image help create meaning for
this artwork?
Reference: Ferrer, Maria Cristina D. et.al, (2018). Art Appreciation. Panday Lahi Publishing House, Inc. Sucat, Muntinlupa City.
Lesson 3 - Improvisation in Various Art Forms
“Creativity takes courage.” – Henri Matisse
Improvisation in Various Art Forms
Improvisation is creating or performing something spontaneously or without
preparation, or making something functional from whatever is available. The skill to improvise
can apply to many different areas, across all artistic, scientific, physical, cognitive, academic
and non- academic disciplines. There are things that no matter what people do, is just
unpredictable and cannot be controlled, the best that the person can do is adapt and make use of
whatever is available to survive. Murphy’s Law states that in any field of endeavor, anything
that can go wrong will gowrong.
Photorealism is a term that was invented to refer to artist whose works depended for the
most part on photographs. These artists would often project onto the canvas the images which
would be replicated with precision and accuracy. The movement began in the same period as
Conceptual art, Pop Art, and Minimalism. Photorealism expressed a strong interest in realism in
art, over that of idealism and abstraction.
Photorealism complicates realism by combining that which is real and which is not. Photorealism
emphasizes the value of the tradition techniques of academic art again after years of spontaneous,
accidental, and improvisational art techniques.
Chuck Close is a stalwart of photorealism (Image credit: Chuck Close)
Installation Art
Installation art is a modern movement characterized by immersive, larger-than-life works
of art. Usually, installation artists create these pieces for specific locations, enabling them to
expertly transform any space into a customized, interactive environment. Installation art is
different from sculpture and other traditional art in a sense that its focus is on its effect on the
viewer. Installation artist usually create this pieces for specific location, enabling them to
transform the space into a customized, interactive environment. Installation art is characterized
into three major characteristics: immersive, large-scale and site specific.
Immersive. This unique characteristics entices the viewers’ senses and invites them to experience
the art from new and different perspectives.
Large-Scale. Most works are massive or large in scale. Their size engulfs the viewers and
enables them to become completely immersed in this environment.
Site-Specific. Before artists create their massive installations, they usually plan it with certain
sites already in mind. These areas may be rooms in galleries, museums or outdoor spaces.
Like many modern and contemporary genres, the installation art is influenced by different art
movements, like Conceptualism, Dadaism, and Performance Arts. The innovation of installations
has become a major component in modern art since 1960.
Applied Arts
Applied Arts
Applied Arts refers to the application of artistic designs and decorations to everyday utilitarian
objects to make them aesthetically pleasing. This includes, industrial design, fashion design,
furniture design, and commercial art.
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through
techniques of mass production. A key characteristic is that design precedes manufacture: the
creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features takes place in advance of
the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated, often automated,
Fashion. It is defined as popular way of dressing at a particular time and place, and among a
particular group of people. It is the art of applying design and aesthetics or natural beauty to
clothing and accessories. Fashions designs are influenced by culture and social attitudes which
has varied over time and place. Designers are tasked to come up with works that are original,
flattering, and comfortable. They also consider who is likely to wear the garment and situations in
which it will be worn.
Furniture Design. A specialized field where function and aesthetics are brought together. Interior
designers believe that furniture is one of the most important aspects of an interior space. Furniture
not only add function and space, but they also add style and personality. Chair, table and couch
should be more than just functional, it should be aesthetic and decorative.
1. Collect 10 pictures each featuring photorealism and installation art. Use the Google
JamBoard in doing this activity.
2. Curate the pictures in a matrix with two columns, one for the photorealism column and
another one for installation art.
Group the pictures consequently and then be prepared to present your work in class.
Name: ___________________________
Year and Section: _________________
Date: _______________
Rating: _____________
Unit 6 Test
Part I. IDENTIFICATION. Directions: Identify the following. Write your answer on
the space provided.
_____________________1. It refers to all activities concerning individual expression
through the arts, is the deeper process.
_____________________2. It occurs when an artist of any art form collaborates with a
product, service, fashion, charity to create a product that will benefit the artist, the
company and society as a whole.
_____________________3. It is a term used in advertising and marketing and refers to
the process of adapting a message from one language to another, while maintaining its
intent, tone and context.
_____________________4. It is defined as having mixed origin that adds variety or
complexity to a system.
_____________________5.According to him hybrid art forms are not purely structural;
they are primarily historical.
._____________________6. This means the blurring of traditional distinct boundaries
between artistic media.
_____________________7. In contemporary art this is also known as borrowing.
_____________________8. This is creating or performing something spontaneously or
without preparation, or making something functional from whatever is available
_____________________9. This law states that in any field of endeavor, anything that
can go wrong will go wrong.
____________________10. This expressed a strong interest in realism in art rather than
that of idealism and abstraction.
Part II. TRUE or FALSE. Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and
FALSE, if the statement correct is incorrect. Write your answers on the space provided.
____________________1. Art has the power to influence the society’s capacity to grow
and evolve.
____________________2. Transcreation is more of a translation process than a
translation process.
____________________3. Hybrid is defined as having mixed origin that adds variety or
complexity to a system.
____________________4. Appropriation is to take possession of something.
____________________5. Wagnerian opera is an example of fusion in hybrid art.
____________________6. Transformation simply means joining two or more different
products to present a larger, more complicated one.
____________________7. Minimalism complicates realism by combining that which is
real and which is not.
____________________8. Installation art is characterized into three major
characteristics: immersive, large-scale and site specific.
____________________9. Large-scale characteristic of installation art means it is able to
plunge the viewers and enable them to become completely immersed in this environment.
___________________10. Industrial design is defined as popular way of dressing at a
particular time and place, and among a particular group of people.
Test III. Artwork Recognition. Directions: Identify to which the following artwork
belong to. Write your answers on the space provided.
Source: old.artsandlabour.com
Source: https://www.elle.com/
source: https://sites.google.com
3. _________________________
Source: blogartzone.blogspot.com
Source: d2jv9003bew7ag.cloudfront.net
5. _____________________________________________
Part IV. REFLECTION. Directions: Expound on the following items reflecting on your
learnings from Module 6. The following shall be the basis in grading your answer:
content - 6 points, presentation - 6 points, grammar and diction - 3 points.
1.Expound on Levinson’s discussion on hybrid art forms and its characteristics.
2.Why do you think appropriation is also termed as borrowing. How does it affect the
original artist and his work?
3.In your point of view, do you consider fashion, industrial design and furniture design
art? Why or why not?
4.Elaborate on the concepts of soul-making, art fusion and transcreation. Give examples
for each.
Ferrer, Maria Cristina D. et.al, (2018). Art Appreciation. Panday Lahi Publishing House, Inc.
Sucat, Muntinlupa City.
Alfred (2018). Transcreation: What is it and Why is it important? Retrieved from
Soul-making. Retrieved from http://abbeyofthearts.com/blog//2009/04//28/soul-making
Hybrid Art Forms. Retrieved from http://schools.walkerart.org/arttoday/index.wac?id=2355
Levinson, Jerrold. “Hybrid Art Forms.” In Music, Art, and Metaphysics: Essays in Philosophical
Aesthetics. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1990, pp. 26-36. (Previously published
under the same title in the Journal of Aesthetic Education, 18 (1984), pp. 5-13.)
The Art Story. Photorealism. Retrieved fromhttps://www.theartstory.org/movement/photorealism/
My Modern Met (2019). Intallation Art. https://mymodernmet.com/what-is-installation-arthistory-artists/2/
"Applied art" in The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Online edition. Oxford University Press, 2004.
Applied Art. Visual art cork.com
* End of Unit 6 *