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biology root words

 NAME:_____________________________________ PERIOD:___ BACKGROUND: As in any language, English words are invented as needed. In biology, many words are built from Greek or Latin terms, which serve as word roots. Every year, as biologists make new discoveries, they need to invent and introduce new words made from these roots. Since Latin is a “Dead” language and is not spoken anymore, it is a great choice as a foundation for these roots. These terms are made up of prefixes (The beginning part of a word) and suffixes (The end of a word). The new words can be just one prefix and suffix or many of each can be used to form a new word. ACTIVITY: You will be using a list of common prefixes and suffixes to work with the vocabulary used in biology. MEANINGS OF WORD ROOTS, PREFIXES, AND SUFFIXES USED IN BIOLOGY
a, an- without , anemia
ecto- outer, ectoderm
ab- away from, abnormal
ectomy- removal, appendectomy
ad, af- near, toward, adrenal, afferent
emia- blood, anemia
alb- white, albumin
endo- inner, endoderm
algia- pain, neuralgia
enter- intestine, enteric
amphi- both, amphibious
epi- on, at, beside, epidermis
anti- against, antitoxin
erythro- red, erythrocyte
aqua- water, aquatic
eu- true, eucaryote
archae- ancient, Archaeopteryx
ex- out, exterior
arthr- joint, arthritis
fer- bearer, Rotifera
ase- enzyme, lipase
gastro- stomach, gastric juice
auto- self, autobiography
gen- producing, antigen
bi- two or twice, biceps
glossa- tongue, hypoglossal
bio- life, biology
gymno- naked, gymnosperm
blast- that which will germinate, blastula
helminth- worm, platyhelminthes
brachi- arm, brachial
hemo- blood, hemoglobin
branch- gill, arthrobranch
herb- non-woody plant, herbarium
card- heart, carditis
hepato- liver, hepatic duct
carn- flesh, carnal
hetero- other, heterosexual
caryo- nucleus of cell, eucaryote
homo, homeo- same, homogeneous
cephalo- head, cephalothorax
hyper- above, excessive, hyperacidity
chloro- green, chloroplast
hypo- below, not enough, hypothyroidism
chondr- cartilage, Chondrichthyes
ia, iasis- disease, pneumonia
chromo- color, chromosome
ichthys- fish, ichthyology
cide- kill, bactericide
inter- between, interspecies
coel-cavity, coelom
intra- within, intraspecies
com, con- with, community
iso- same, isoptera
costa- rib, intercostal
itis- inflammation of, appendicitis
cyst- capsule, nematocyst
kin- motion, cytokinesis
cyto, cyte- cell, leukocyte
lac- milk, lactose
decid- to cut off, deciduous
lamella- leaf or layer, lamellate
dendr- tree, dendrite
leuco, leuko- white, leukocyte
dent, dont- tooth denture, orthodontist
logy- study of, biology
derm- skin, epidermis
lupus- wolf, Canis lupus
di- two, diatomic
lysis- dissolving, cytolysis
dis, dys- ill or bad, disease
eco- household, ecology
macro- large, macronucleus
mal- bad, malnutrition
maxilla- jaw, maxilliped
mega- very large, megaspore
meso- middle, mesophyll
meta- beyond or after, metamorphosis
micro- small, microbe
mito- thread, mitochondrion
mono- one, monoculture
morpho- shape, form, morphology
myo- muscle, myofibril
nema- thread, nematocyst
nephr- kidney, nephritis
neuro- nerve, neurology
noto- dorsal or back, notochord
oma- tumor or swelling, sarcoma
omni- all, omnivore
ophth- eye, ophthalmology
orni- bird, ornithoIogy
ortho- straight, orthoptera
osis- act, condition, acidosis
osteo- bone, osteopath
oto- ear, otitis
ovi, oo- egg, oviduct, oocyte
para- beside, parathyroid
patho- disease, pathology
ped, pod- foot, millipede
peri- around, pericardium
phago- eating, phagocyte
pheno- to show, phenotype
photo- light, photograph
phyll- leaf, mesophyll
phyto- plant, saprophyte
pino- to drink, pinocytosis
plasma- form, cytoplasm
plast- particle, chloroplast
platy- flat, platypus
pleur-side, somatopleure
poly- many, polysaccharide
post- after, behind, posterior
proto- first, protozoa
pseudo- false, pseudopod
pter- wing, diptera
pulmo- lung, pulmonary
renal- kidney, adrenal glands
rhea, rrhea- flow or discharge, diarrhea
rhino- nose, rhinoceros
sal- salt, saline
sarc- flesh, sarcodina
sclero- hard, arteriosclerosis
soma- body, chromosomes
stom- mouth, stomata
sym, syn- binding together, sympathy
tax- arrangement, taxonomy
tel- far or distant, telophase
therm- heat, thermometer
thromb- clot, thromobosis
tom- piece or section, anatomy
trema- hole, trematoda
trop- turn, phototropic
troph- nourishment or food, autotrophic
viv- living, viviparous
vore- to devour, carnivore
xeros- dry, xerophyte
zo- animal, zoology
zyg- united, zygote
PART A: Translate these make-­‐believe words into commonly used English words. Use the list above and on the previous page to complete this part. 1. Macromallupus-­‐____________________ 2. Gymnopodiasis-­‐_____________________ 3. Ichthygenderm-­‐______________________ 4. Gymnochloropoditis-­‐______________________ 5. Megarheachlororhinoplast-­‐_________________________ 6. Gastrothrombhelminthiasis-­‐__________________________________ PART B: Use your list to break down the following words and then combine the terms to translate the word into its meaning. Example: Biology -­‐ Bio = life and ology = study of. The study of life. 7. Ichthyology_______________________________________________________ 8. Heterotroph_____________________________________________________ 9. Autotroph______________________________________________________ 10. Endoderm_____________________________________________________ 11. Erythrocyte____________________________________________________ 12. Omnivore_____________________________________________________ 13. Isoptera_______________________________________________________ 14. Archaeozoology________________________________________________ 15. Arthropod_____________________________________________________ 16. Chromosome__________________________________________________ 17. Chloroplast___________________________________________________ 18. Carnivore_____________________________________________________ 19. Cytokinesis___________________________________________________ 20. Chlorophyll___________________________________________________ 21. Archaeopteryx_________________________________________________ 22. Maxillaped____________________________________________________ 23. Orthoptera____________________________________________________ 24. Ornithology___________________________________________________ 25. Zoology______________________________________________________ 26. Microbiology__________________________________________________ 27. Cytoplasm____________________________________________________ 28. Photosynthesis________________________________________________ 29. Ecology______________________________________________________ 30. Platyhelminthes________________________________________________ PART C: Now using the list create 5 of your own words and tell their meaning and use them in a complete sentence. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.