Scientific Approach Steps Helda Kelas 11 Sem. 1 The Steps are: • Problems Identification • Literature Review • Hypothesis • Choose research methods/designs • Collect the data based on the methods • Analyze and evaluate the data • Disseminates the data Problems Identification • Must consist of 2 variables or more • Each variable must be proven related • It is written in the form of a question form of sentence Note: Variables are one of two or phenomena that a researcher believes are related and hopes to prove are related through research. Examples: Does over-use gadgets influence (variable 1) the students’ learning difficulties (variable 2)? (Are they related? Do one variable really affect the other?) Literature Review • To assure researcher that their research is original • To avoid researcher from plagiarism by checking out if their research were never been done in the past • To make sure if the same topic had been done/used in the past, then the researcher could change the topic or use the previous research as references to support their research using different approach Hypothesis • To assume/predict what the result of the research might happen • Should be written in a statement form Example using the previous problem identification: The writer believes that over-use gadgets does influence the students’ learning difficulties. (Note: you have to type yourself as a “writer” on your final paper) Research of Methods (Based on its approach) • Qualitative: Presented in the form of text (descriptive, narrative, or explorative) • Quantitave: Numerical, mathematically measured, may shown in the form of graphs and pie charts (amount), or line graphs (progress) Collect the Data • Interview • Survey • Ethnogaphy or field observation Analyze and Evaluate the Data • The researcher will connect all the data they collect and analyze if there are accuracy or inaccuracy of the hypothesis in predicting the outcome Example: Are your data accurate enough to prove that overuse gadgets affects the students’ learning difficulties? If yes, then your hypothesis is proven right. If not, then your hypothesis is not proven right, or there are in-accuracy in the data you collect so that you have to do further research with different approach. Disseminate • You share the result to community, general public, peers.