Uploaded by Yll Aliu


In the beginning….
Myths were created in a large part of
explain things that the ancient Greeks did
not understand i.e. Where did the world
come from? Who created the first being?
Myths of Greece and Rome were told orally
because the societies were almost entirely
They passed them down in this manner
from generation to generation.
The differences between myth
and legend…..
True stories that are exaggerated
Frequently deal with heroes
EX: Trojan War was a real event, but stories
can’t be proven.
• Not necessary true
Created to understand the world around us
Often times involves a supernatural being
8 Reasons for Myths
Explain natural phenomena
Control natural forces – sacrifices, prayer offerings, and
Bind people together – common belief
Record historical events
Geography lessons
Set examples for peoples behaviors
Justify a social structure
Control people
Why Gods and Goddesses were
Greeks and Romans made their gods in their own image.
They were also feared.
They were immortal and could change form.
They ate nectar, drank ambrosia, and lived on Mount
Why do we need to know this?
Literature is filled with allusions to Greek
gods and goddesses.
From the Lightning Thief to Shakespeare
Art is filled with mythological stories as
From television to the latest science fiction
From Atlas Tires to Superman
The Iliad
Homer’s Iliad
Homer is said to be
the first teller of
adventures of all
. He was a blind
Prophet whose date of
birth is around800BC
Eris, Goddess of Discord
Responsible for Trojan War
Angry because she was not invited to the
wedding of the Sea Goddess Thetis to King
Peleus, Eris tossed the Golden Apple marked
“To the Fairest” into the banquet.
The Fairest
Aphrodite, (goddess of love and beauty)
Hera (Zeus wife) , and Athena (goddess of
wisdom, knowledge and skill in battle)
ALL wanted the apple.
Zeus would not choose. He did not want
the goddesses angry with him.
Paris was asked to make
the decision.
The Decision
Hera offered to make
Paris ruler of Europe
and Asia.
Athena offered to let
him lead Troy in a
victory over the
Aphrodite offered him
the love of the most
beautiful woman in
the world.
Paris Chooses Aphrodite
The most beautiful woman
in the world is Helen, the
wife of King Menelaus.
Aphrodite helps Paris
seduce and kidnap Helen.
The Beginning of War
King Menelaus called on all those who were loyal to him.
They gathered a huge army and built a thousand ships to carry
the army to Troy.
Helen of Sparta was now called “Helen of Troy.”
She was “The face that launched a thousand ships.”
The Trojan War
The battle raged for 10
Many great heroes lost
their lives.
A prophet predicted
that Troy could be
captured only with the
help of Achilles.
The Hero Achilles
Knowing of the prophecy, and worried
that her son would be killed in war,
Achilles’ mother dipped him in the
river Styx to make him immortal.
His only weakness was the place on his
heals where she held him.
Achilles agreed to allow his friend Patroclus to wear his armor.
The next day Patroclus was killed and stripped of the armor by
the Trojan hero Hector, who mistook him for Achilles.
Achilles was overwhelmed with grief for his friend and rage at
Achilles kills Hector. He desecrated the body, dragging it
behind his chariot before the walls of Troy.
Finally Paris, aided by Apollo,
wounded Achilles in the heel
with an arrow; Achilles died of the wound.
10 Years of War
The Gods are tired of watching men kill each
other and decide to help end the war. Athena
whispers an idea in the Spartan hero Odysseus’s
gods and goddess take sides
For Troy
For the Greeks
The Trojan Horse
Odysseus tells them they
will build a huge horse of
Some would climb inside
and hide.
The rest would sail around
the tip of the islan, where
they could not be seen.
One would stay behind
and tell the Trojans that he
had been abandoned by
the Greeks, and that the
horse was an offering to
The Fall of Troy
The Trojans believed
the trick.
They had a huge
banquet to celebrate
the end of the war.
At night the men from
inside the horse came
out and unlocked the
gates to the city.
The Burning of Troy
The city is invaded by the
The Trojans are drunk and
spent from their night of
revelry, unable to fight
The Spartans destroy and
burn the city.
Aphrodite saves Helen
from the destruction.
The War Ends
King Menelaus
accepts Helen back.
The Warriors can now
return home.
Odysseus leaves for
home, his wife, and
What is an Epic?
Epics are long,
narrative poems
that tell the
adventures of
heroes who in some
way embody the
values of their
What types of epics are the Iliad
and the Odyssey?
Iliad – War Epic
Odyssey – Journey
Modern Day Epics
Star Wars
Forrest Gump
Lord of the Rings
Wizard of Oz
Attributes of a Hero
Well aren’t I special!
Eight Step Transformation
We usually divide the Journey into eight
steps, but you must remember that the
journey is a single process and an individual
adventure towards growth and
transformation. As such, the sequence of
events and the duration of the experience
will vary from one person to another.
Separation (from the known)
The Call to Adventure
Offers an opportunity to face the unknown.
It promises physical or spiritual gain.
Something must call the hero to action.
Often times they don’t have a choice
whether to answer the call or not.
The Threshold
(Jumping off point)
Cool Toys and Cool friends
• Early on the hero receives
assistance from an older wiser
• This helper may give our hero a
symbol of protection/something
cool to whoop on people and
Better known as Homies
Along the journey the hero will find a loyal
If they are lucky, it might be several loyal
This cool friends assist the hero on their
journey home
Initiation The
The hero will encounter trials and tests along the
The hero will meet many foes (bad guys)
The hero will have many
challenges to overcome.
These will help the hero grow
stronger, wiser. They have to
learn a lesson.
Initiation and Transformation
The Abyss
The greatest challenge is faced here.
The lowest point for the hero on this
They usually break emotionally and submit
or give up to the lesson of the journey.
Initiation and Transformation
The Revelation and the Atonement
The hero achieves the goal of his/her quest
The hero will gain understanding (rebirth)
Must make peace with the new situation or
the new you.
The Return
(with a gift)
Return to our everyday life but as a new
The essence of the return is to begin
contributing to society.
A Few Words
If a hero is properly defined as
somebody who does
something dangerous to help
somebody else, then the
heroes of Greek mythology do
not qualify.
They were a pretty selfish
bunch, often with additional
antisocial tendencies thrown
into the bargain--in other words,
not exactly role models for the
younger generation of today.
How is Odysseus different from
other heroes?
Hero in Trouble
Clever (not just brute
Did not want to go to
Why did Odysseus object to the
Trojan War?
He believes no war
should be fought over
an unfaithful woman
He wants to stay at
home with his wife
and newborn son.
So, he tried to pretend
he was crazy.
Menelaus put him to
the test.
Odysseus attempts to
“Draft Dodge”
Tried to appear insane by planting salt instead of
Draft recruiters throw his son in front of his plow.
Odysseus reveals his sanity by avoiding running
over Telemachus.
The Epic Begins
Odysseus been gone 20
Telemachus is 20 years
Suitors have invaded his
house, robbing him of his
inheritance, and attempt to
marry his mother Penelope
(Odysseus’s Wife)
Penelope and her suitors