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Designing Training Program

Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Effective HR
Designing Training Programs
We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
• After completing this chapter, you should be
able to:
– Know the meaning and significance of training
– Know the various training design models
– Identify the factors to be taken into account for
designing a training program.
– Understand the motivational dynamics of
– Understand the process of training design.
Meaning and significance of training
• After assessing training • Designing successful
needs, the training
training programs
manager will come to
requires not only a
know whether training is
thorough understanding
the right solution to the
of the training problem,
performance or
but also a well-stated
compliance problem.
definition of the results to
be achieved & a thought
• If training is seen as
out plan for achieving
solution to the problem,
those results.
then the training process
moves to the next stage
designing a program.
Meaning and significance of training
• Design is a planning activity which in the
context of training, refers to
– the framework for analyzing a training problem,
defining the intended outcome,
– determining how to present the content to
learners to achieve those outcomes,
– developing the training course according to the
design, implementing the course,
– evaluating its effectiveness and
– devising follow-up activities.
Meaning and significance of training
• Training designers will have to consider certain
important factors from three perspectives before
designing a program and the three perspectives are
– cost, availability and appropriateness.
• Training designers will have to answer the following
questions – What materials will be required to implement the program
in a particular way?
– What media will be used?
– What specialized expertise will be required for
implementation of this design?
Meaning and significance of training
• The basic elements of
an effective training
design are:
– It is learner-focused
– It should be based on
identified needs
– It has measurable
– It is goal oriented
– It is time bound
– It has taken into
account the resource
constraints and
Meaning and significance of training
• Training design is nothing but a training plan
and involves three activities —
– Stating the training objectives
– Identifying the learning activities as well as
– Sequencing the activities in which they have to be
held for meaningful learning.
Training design models
• Designers of learning programs should first
explore existing models before starting to design.
• Below are two training models that training
managers use while designing training programs
– Instruction system development model
– Transitional model
• We will discuss these in brief in the subsequent
Training design models
• Instruction system development model
Training design models
• The Instructional System Development model
comprises of five stages:
– 1. Analysis
• This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis,
and target audience analysis.
– 2. Planning
• This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome,
instructional objectives that measures behavior of a
participant after the training, types of training material,
media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer
and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e.
selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.
Training design models
• The Instructional System Development model
comprises of five stages:
– 3. Development
• This phase translates design decisions into training material.
It consists of developing course material for the trainer
including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration
props, etc. course material for the trainee including
handouts of summary.
– 4. Execution
• This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as
arranging speakers, equipment benches, podium, food
facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training
Training design models
• The Instructional System Development model
comprises of five stages:
– 5. Evaluation
• The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the
training program has achieved its aim in terms of
subsequent work performance.
• This phase consists of identifying strengths and
weaknesses and, making necessary amendments to any
of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve
failure practices.
Training design models
• Transitional model
– Transitional model
focuses on the
organization as a whole.
– The outer loop
describes the vision,
mission and values of
the organization on the
basis of which training
model i.e. inner loop is
– The mission, vision, and
values precede the
objective in the inner
– This model considers
the organization as a
– The objective is
formulated keeping
these three things in
mind and then the
training model is further
Training design models
• Transitional
Training design models
• Transitional model
– Vision
• focuses on the milestones that the organization would
like to achieve after the defined point of time
– Mission
• explain the reason of organizational existence.
– Values
• is the translation of vision and mission into
communicable ideals.
Factors to be considered for designing
a training
The training manager has to take
several aspects into account while
designing a training program:
• Previous knowledge, skills and
position in the hierarchy
• Learning styles
• Previous experience
• Business or organizational purpose
• Trainee characteristics
• Nature of learning
• Resources
Motivational dynamics
• The training manager will also need to tailor
the contents and teaching style to the
motivational dynamics of trainees.
• Most trainees go through three phases of
motivation as under:
– 1. Initial stage:
• Here, the trainee’s primary learning goal is getting
started and learning enough material to proficiently
handle the routine tasks
Motivational dynamics
• Most trainees go through three phases of
motivation as under:
– 2. Intermediate stage:
• Learners have mastered routine tasks and gained
confidence. They want to learn how to handle routine tasks
more efficiently and how to handles some less common
– 3. Matured stage:
• At this stage, the learning attains a kind of maturity and
trainees feel humble to be learned people. This is a
realization stage and most trainees are aware of the limits of
their capabilities
Motivational dynamics
• Training managers should also consider the
learning styles of people.
• Such styles can be classified as
– Dependent learners - prefer instructor led
– Collaborative learners — prefer learning by group
work practice
– Independent learners — who want to learn on
their own, whether facilitated or not by the
Process of training design
• Designing a training program involves a series
of steps from identifying the learning
objectives, determining the training content,
deciding the methodologies, selecting the
learning activities, defining evaluation criteria
and to specifying follow-up activities.
• Even though it is the standard sequence of
activities, training managers may have some
variations depending upon the situations.
Process of training design
• Identifying the training objective
– Training objectives are of great significance from a
number of stakeholder perspectives:
• Trainer
• Trainee
• Evaluat
• Design
Process of training design
• Determining training content
– The major activities involved in the action plan
• Identifying the program contents and activities.
• Dividing program contents into sub-topics.
• Segregating the contents and activities into knowledge,
skill, and attitude related
• Organizing the content sequentially.
Process of training design
• Selecting training methods
– Training methods can be broadly classified into
two groups
• On the job approaches like job instruction training, job
rotation, coaching, mentoring, etc.
• Off the job approaches like classroom
training, seminars, workshops, etc.
Process of training design
• Identifying learning activities and developing
lesson plan
– There are some basic rules for developing lesson
• There should be proper sequencing of learning.
• The training manger should prepare an instructor guide
• The training manager should ensure that the morning
sessions are used for difficult topics, subject to proper
Process of training design
• Defining evaluation criteria
– Training design is
incomplete if it does not
contain evaluation
– The objectives of the
evaluation are to see
how far the training
program was effective enough in meeting the
training objectives.
Process of training design
• Specifying follow-up activities
– Following questions while specifying follow-up
activities and has to find answers for them in
• Whom can the trainee ask if he requires any guidance
while practicing at workplace?
• What should the trainee do for his part to master the
taught skills?
• Can those trainees who fail to meet the predetermined standards of performance be retrained?