NOTRE DAME OF MIDSAYAP COLLEGE INEGRATED BASIC EDUCATION Midsayap, Cotabato WEEKEND CLASS S.Y. 2021-2022 MODULE IN ENGLISH 7 QUARTER 1 - WEEK 5&6 October 11-15, 2021 Name: ___________________________________________________ Grade & Section: ________________________________________ Address: ________________________________________________ Contact #: _______________________________________________ MELANIE M. GINGOYON, LPT TEACHER CONTENT STANDARDS: After going through this module, you are expected to use the active andpassive voice meaningfully in varied contexts LEARNING COMPETENCIES (MELC) WEEK 4 (EN7G-111-c-2) Use the past and past perfect tenses correctly in varied contexts LESSON OBJECTIVES: 1. identify the past and past perfect tenses in the sentences. 2. construct sentences using the past and past perfect tenses correctly MOTIVATION Write if the sentence is in the past, present or future. ______________1. They climbed that hill easily. _____________ 2. We will travel to Europe next summer. _____________ 3. They play soccer in the sunshine. _____________ 4. The children ate their vegetables. _____________ 5. You will see your best friend next weekend. ABSTRACTION What are the tense of the verb? What are the different types of tenses of the verb? Verb tenses tell us how an action relates to the flow of time. There are three main verb tenses in English: present, past and future. The present, past and future tenses are divided into four aspects: the simple, progressive, perfect and perfect progressive. Simple Tenses We‘ll start with the simple tenses. These are probably the first tenses you learned in English. Simple tenses usually refer to a single action. In general, simple tenses express facts and situations that existed in the past, exist in the present, or will exist in the future. Simple present: I drive home every day. Simple past: I drove home yesterday. Simple future: I will drive home later. Simple Present Tense The term present tense is a little deceiving. You're probably thinking to yourself, "It's a no-brainer, isn't it? The present tense is used for actions that are happening now, right?"—not exactly. Although it's true that the present tense does have to do with current events, there are several specific ways in which it's used, including: Talking about actions that occur repeatedly These are actions that happen on a regular basis, such as habits or routines. They can have a specific or general time frame. I brush my teeth every morning and every night. Bret runs five miles every day. We visit my grandparents twice a year. Sometimes Sean and Jaimie go to the pool. Mom never lets us eat chocolate cake for breakfast. Discussing current facts, basic truths, or widely accepted beliefs The sky is blue, and the grass is green. Cats catch mice. Stealing is unethical. Describing people or things Use the present tense to describe physical characteristics, personality traits, feelings, abilities, and likes and dislikes that are true in the present. Her brothers are both over six feet tall. He is the nicest person I know. I feel sick today. My best friend plays minor league baseball. Many people love dogs, but many also love cats. This milk smells funny. Your new rose bush looks beautiful! Perfect Tenses Now let‘s look at the perfect tenses. Perfect tenses cause the most confusion. To put it simply, they express the idea that one event happens before another event. There are many tricky exceptions with the perfect tenses, which we will discuss in a future episode. The adverbs never, yet and already are common in perfect tenses. Present perfect: I have driven that road. Past perfect: I had already driven that road in the past. Future perfect: I will have driven 200 miles by tomorrow. Perfect Tenses Perfect tenses show when an action happened in relation to another action. To form the perfect tenses, use a form of the helping verb have (have, has, had, will have) plus the past participle of the main verb. The verb have changes to show the tense. Hint: To review irregular past participles, visit Lesson 7. Perfect Tenses Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect have walked had walked will have walked have finished had finished will have finished Present Perfect An action in the present perfect began in the past and continues in the present or has ended by the present. It can also be used to talk about past actions that happened multiple times. To form the present perfect, use the present tense of the verb to have plus the past participle of the main verb. Most days I take the bus to school, but for the last two weeks I have walked to school. I have finished my homework already. Past Perfect An action in the past perfect began and ended before another past event. To form the past perfect, use the past tense of the verb to have plus the past participle of the main verb. Yesterday I rode the bus to school, but the day before I had walked to school. I was watching TV because I had finished my homework already. Future Perfect An action in the future perfect tense will be finished by a particular time in the future. To form this tense, use this formula: will + have + past participle. By the time I arrive at school tomorrow, I will have walked to school 100 days in a row. By 8 p.m. I will have finished my homework. APPLICATION Write 3 sentences in each tense. A. Simple Tenses a. _________________________________________________________________ b.__________________________________________________________________ c.__________________________________________________________________ B. Perfect Tenses a. _________________________________________________________________ b.__________________________________________________________________ c.__________________________________________________________________ ASSESSMENT A. Write the correct form of "to be" in present tense. My name (be) ________(1) John. I (be) ________(2) fifteen years old. I live on a farm. It (be) ________(3) in the country. It is quiet in the country. It (be, not) ____ ____(4) loud in the country. I wake up early. Sometimes, I wake up before the sun rises. Sometimes, it (be) ________(5) still dark when I wake up. But I don‘t mind. I like waking up that early. I like the way the country looks in the morning. B. Recognizing the Perfect Tenses Underline the verb in each sentence. On the blank, write the tense of the verb. 1. The film house has not developed the pictures yet. _______________________ 2. Fred will have left before Erin‘s arrival. _______________________ 3. Florence has been a vary gracious hostess. _______________________ 4. Andi had lost her transfer by the end of the bus ride. _______________________ 5. By tonight, I will have finished my assignment. _______________________ 6. Before the discovery of the buried chest, Joe had not believed in buried treasure. _______________________ 7. We have worked over an hour on one math problem. _______________________ 8. Until his college years, Carl had not decided on his career. _______________________ 9. The snow plows had cleared our street before the really heavy snowstorm. _______________________ 10. Have the Ortons found their dog yet? _______________________ WEEK 6 CONTENT STANDARDS: uses the right stress, intonation, phrasing, pacing and tone in interpersonal expressions and in reading short written or recorded passages aloud LEARNING COMPETENCIES (MELC) WEEK 6 (EN7G-111-c-2) Use the direct and reported speech appropriately in varied context LESSON OBJECTIVES: After going through this module, you are expected to: 1. recognize the differences between direct and reported speech; 2. correct punctuation when writing quotes; MOTIVATION Directions: Change direct speech into reported speech and vice versa. Choose the correct answer from the choices given and write it on a separate sheet. 1. Jesus answered, ―I am the way, the truth and the life.‖ A. Jesus answered that He is the way and the truth and the life. B. Jesus had answered that He was the way and the truth and the life. C. Jesus answered that He is the way and the truth and the life. D. Jesus had answered that He is the way and the truth and the life. 2. M arielle told us that she has two brothers and three sisters. A. ―I have two brothers and three sisters,‖ Marielle told us. B. ―I had two brothers and three sisters,‖ Marielle told us. C. ―I am having two brothers and three sisters,‖ Marielle told us. D. ―I was having two brothers and three sisters,‖ Marielle told us. 3. Dr. Morris said, ―I will be preaching in Israel next month.‖ A. Dr. Morris said that he will be preaching in Israel next month. B. Dr. Morris said that he preached in Israel next month . C. Dr. Morris said that he will preach in Israel next month. D. Dr. Morris said that he would be preaching next month . 4. The president mentioned that he wanted to know how he could help health and care leaders during the covid-19 crisis. A. ―I want to know how I can help health and care leaders during the covid-19 crisis,‖ the president mentioned. B. ―I wanted to know how I could help health and care leaders during the covid-19 crisis,‖ the president mentioned. C. ―I would like to know how I could help health and care leaders during the covid- 19 crisis,‖ the president mentioned. D. ―I wanted to know how I can help health and care leaders during the covid -19 crisis,‖ the president mentioned. 5. DepEd Secretary Leonor Briones said that classes would open on August 24. A. DepEd Secretary Leonor Briones said, ―Classes would open on August 24.‖ B. DepEd Secretary Leonor Briones said, ―Classes will be opened on August 24.‖ C. DepEd Secretary Leonor Briones said, ―Classes will open on August 24.‖ D. DepEd Secretary Leonor Briones said, ―Classes have to open on August 24.‖ ABSTRACTION Direct Speech - the exact words someone says, set within quotation marks e.g. ―Doing studies as schools reopen will be really important,‖ said Susan Coffin, the infectious disease specialist of the Children‘s Hospital of Philadelphia. Indirect Speech - the reporting of what someone has said, not using his or her exact words e.g. Susan Coffin, the infectious disease specialist of the Children‘s Hospital of Philadelphia, said that doing studies as schools reopen would be really important. Quoted Speech- another term for direct speech Reported Speech- another term for indirect speech Reporting Verbs - verbs used to indicate quoted or reported speech. There are several reporting verbs but in journalism the most common is say e.g. The Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said Duterte would appear on GMA tomorrow. Quotation M arks - punctuation marks used to indicate that the text represents the exact words (direct speech) someone has spoken. These punctuation marks vary from language to language. Time and Place References - words and phrases that refer to time and place, e.g., yesterday, two weeks ago, here, there, etc. These often need to be changed in reported speech. There are only two options when we need to convey other people‘s words. They are direct and indirect speech. The former can be also referred to as quoted speech while the latter bears such names as reported speech and indirect discourse. A direct speech is a sentence that gives a statement or thought in its original form according to how the original speaker said it. It uses quotation marks. Examples: My brother said, ―I am very busy now.‖ ―I will see you on Sunday,‖ my friends mentioned. A reported speech is a sentence that expresses the content of a statement without quoting just like what is done in direct speech. The message of the original speaker is conveyed or reported in your own words. You often need to change verbs and pronouns to keep the original meaning. 5 Examples: My brother said that he was very busy then. My friends mentioned that they would see me on Sunday. GRAM M AR RULES W ITH 10 TIPS ON USING DIRECT & REPORTED SPEECH Tip 1: Conversion Rules as per the Reporting Verb When the reporting or principal verb is in the past tense, all present tenses of the direct are changed into the corresponding past tenses. a) Direct: He said, ―I am finished doing my homework.‖ b) Reported: He said (that) he was finished doing his homework . If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, the tenses of the direct speech do not change. a) Direct: He says/will say, ―I am finished doing my homework.‖ b) Reported: He says/will say ―I am finished doing my homework.‖ The tense in re ported speech is NOT CHANGED if the words within the quotation marks talk of a universal truth or habitual action. a) Direct: My grandmother said, ―All of us need water.‖ b) Reported: My grandmother said that all of us need water. Tip 2: Conversion Rules of Present Tense in Direct Speech Simple Present Changes to Simple Past a) Direct: "I am excited to perform on stage,‖ she said. b) Reported: She said that she was excited to perform on stage. Present Continuous Changes to Past Continuous a) Direct: "I am drinking coffee,‖ he explained. b) Reported: He explained that he was drinking coffee. Present Perfect Changes to Past Perfect a) Direct: She said, "He has watered the plants.‖ b) Reported: She said that he had watered the plants. Tip 3: Conversion Rules of Past & Future Tense Simple Past Changes to Past Perfect a) Direct: He said, ―Gabriel arrived on Friday." b) Reported: He said that Gabriel had arrived on Friday. Past Continuous Changes to Past Perfect Continuous a) Direct: "We were working in Dipolog City", they told me. b) Reported: They told me that they had been working in Dipolog City. Future Changes to Present Conditional a) Direct: He said, "I will be in Dapitan tomorrow." b) Reported: He said that he would be in Dapitan the next day. Tip 4: Changes in Modals CAN changes into COULD a) Direct: He said, "I can write a short story." b) Reported: He said that he could write a short story. MAY changes into MIGHT a) Direct: He said, "I may conduct a webinar.‖ b) Reported: He said that he might conduct a webinar. MUST changes into HAD TO/WOULD HAVE TO a) Direct: He said, "I must help the covid-19 patients.‖ b) Reported: He said that he had to help the covid-19 patients. Modals that DO NOT Change: would, could, might, should, ought to a) Direct: He said, "I should wear a face mask in public places.‖ b) Reported: He said that he should wear a face mask in public places. Tip 5: Conversion of Interrogative Reporting Verb like ‗said/ said to‘ changes to asked, enquired or demanded a) Direct: He said to me, ―Where are you going?‖ b) Reported: He asked me where I was going. If sentence begins with auxiliary verb, the joining clause should be if or whether. a) Direct: He said to them, ―W ill you attend the seminar?‖ b) Reported: He asked them whether they would attend the seminar. If sentence begins with ‗wh‘ questions then no conjunction is used as the "question-word" itself act as joining clause. a) Direct: ―W here do you buy your necklace ?‖ asked the girl. b) Reported: The girl enquired where I bought my necklace . Tip 6: Command, Request, Exclamation, Wish Commands and Requests Reported Speech is introduced by some verbs like ordered, requested, advised and suggested. Forbid(s)/ forbade is used for the negative sentences. The imperative mood is changed into the infinitive. c) Direct: He said to her, ―Please give our visitor a glass of fresh juice.‖ d) Reported: He requested her to give their visitor a glass of fresh juice . Exclamations and W ishes Reported Speech is introduced by some words like grief, sorrow, happiness, applaud. Exclamatory sentence changes into assertive sentence and interjections are removed. a) Direct: He said, ―Alas! I am undone.‖ b) Indirect: He exclaimed sadly that he was broke. Tip 7: Change of Pronouns The first person of the reported speech changes according to the subject of reporting speech. a) Direct: She said, ―I am in SPED class.‖ b) Reported: She says that she was in SPED class. The second person of reported speech changes according to the object of reporting speech. a) Direct: He says to them, "You have completed your job.‖ b) Reported: He tells them that they have completed their job. The third person of the reported speech doesn't change. a) Direct: He says, "She is in tenth class.‖ b) Reported: He says that she is in tenth class. Tip 8: Change of Place and Time Words expressing nearness in time or place in Direct Speech a re generally changed into words expressing distance in Indirect Speech. Now -- then Here – there Ago -- before Thus – so Today -- that day Tomorrow -- the next day This -- that Yesterday -- the day before These -- those Hither—thither Come -- go Hence -- thence Next week/month -- following week/month a) b) c) Direct: Mary said, ―My husband came yesterday.‖ Reported: Mary said that her husband had come the day before. Direct: Mary says/will say, ―My father came yesterday.‖ Reported: She says/will say that her had come yesterday. (The reporting verb ‗says‘ is in the present tense OR ‗will say‘ in future tense; because the time expression ‗yesterday‘ won‘t change.) Tip 9: Punctuation Words that are actually spoken should be enclosed in quotes and start with a capital letter Example: She said, ―You are the champion.‖ The comma, full stop, question mark, or exclamation mark must be present at the end of reported sentences and are placed inside the closing inverted comma or commas. Example: Peter inquired, ―Can I be your partner?‖ When the di rect speech comes after the information about who is speaking, comma is used in order to introduce the piece of speech, placed before the first inverted comma. Example: The teacher shouted, ―Stop talking!‖ Example: ―Thinking back,‖ Paolo said, ―he didn't expect to win.‖ (Comma is used to separate the two reported speech and no capital letter to begin the second sentence). Tip 10: Conversion of Reported to Direct Speech 1. The reporting verb, "say" or "said to" is used in its correct tense. 2. The conjunctions "that, to, if or whether etc" should be removed wherever necessary. 3. Quotation marks, question mark, exclamation and full stop, must be inserted as per the mood of the sentence. 4. Place a comma before the statement. 5. First letter of the first word of the statement should be capitalized. 6. The past tense is changed into present tense wherever the reporting verb is in the past tense. 7. Convert the past perfect either into past tense or present perfect if found necessary. APPLICATION Directions: On a separate sheet, complete the sentences in reported speech. Please note the change of pronouns and verbs. 1. James: I want to tell you something about my holiday in Dipolog City. Rona: What did he say? You: He said that __________________________________________ 2. Carlo: Some pe ople experienced boredom during the community quarantine. Alice: What did he say? You: He said that ___________________________________________ 3. Fernan: I choose my favorite spot in the park to eat lunch. Amy: What did he say? You: He said that ___________________________________________ Directions: Correct the errors in the following sentences. Rewrite each se ntence on a separate sheet. 1. ―Covid-19 vaccine is very rare.‖ The doctor said. ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Mrs. Marquez proclaimed: ―There will be no class next month.‖ ____________________________________________________________________________ ASSESSMENT Directions: Change direct speech into reported speech and vice versa. Encircle the correct answer from the choices given and write it on a separate sheet. 1. ―I am reading an inspiring new book of my favorite author,‖ she explained. A. She explained that she is reading an inspiring new book of her favorite author. B. She explained that she reads an inspiring new book of her favorite author. C. She explained that she was reading an inspiring new book of her favorite author. D. She explained that she read an inspiring new book of her favorite author. 2. Daniela said, ―I have a meeting at 4:00.‖ A. Daniela said that she had a meeting at 4:00. B. Daniela said that she will have a meeting at 4:00. C. Daniela said that she will be having a meeting at 4:00. D. Daniela said that she would a meeting at 4:00. 3. Mother told us, ―I may donate my savings to the flood victims.‖ A. Mother told us that she may donate her savings to the flood victims. B. Mother told us that she will donate her savings to the flood victims. C. Mother told us that she should donate her savings to the flood victims. D. Mother told us that she might donate her savings to the flood victims. 4. My best friend asked me, ―Why are you working in Africa?‖ A. My best friend asked me why I am working in Africa. B. My best friend asked me why I work in Africa. C. My best friend asked me why I worked in Africa. D. My best friend asked me why I was working in Africa. 5. Paolo said, ―I don‘t like to eat Filipino desserts such as leche flan, maja blanca, and buko pie.‖ A. Paolo said that he didn‘t like to eat Filipino desserts such as leche flan, maja blanca, and buko pie. B. Paolo said that he doesn‘t like to eat Filipino desserts such as leche flan, maja blanca, and buko pie. C. Paolo said that he won‘t like to eat Filipino desserts such as leche flan, maja blanca, and buko pie. D. Paolo said that he do not like to eat Filipino desserts such as leche flan, maja blanca, and buko pie.