Uploaded by Vince Sevandal


LESSON: Characteristics of Quantitative
Research and Steps in Conducting a Research
1. Identify the characteristics of a
quantitative research; and
2. Explain the seven steps in conducting a
1. Empirical. Research is based on direct
experience or observation by the
researcher. The collection of data relies
on practical experience. This means that
research is learning by doing.
2. Logical. Research is based on logical
reasoning and involves both inductive
and deductive methods of data analysis.
It is also based on valid procedures and
principles. Scientific investigation is done
in an orderly manner, so that researcher
has a confidence in the results.
3. Cyclical – Research undergoes a cyclical
process. It starts with a problem and ends
with a problem. Hence, research is
repeated. All researchers end their
recommendation. As long as there is a
recommendation in the part of the
research, then there is still a potential
problem that needs to be investigated by
other researchers. Thus, research is
4. Analytical - Research utilizes proven
analytical procedures in gathering data,
whether historical, descriptive, and
experimental or any alternative research
5. Replicable - The research design and
procedures are replicated to enable the
researcher to arrive at valid and
conclusive results. The more replicated
the researches are, the more valid and
conclusive the results would be. Research
can be replicated any time in a different
setting, but its findings are never
duplicated. Quantitative research cannot
generate new concept or theory. It just
only refines or recycles the old idea to
make it relatable or appealing to the
modern society. Conducting a research to
validate the already constructed idea is a
form of replicability. “Research is cyclical”
means that “research is replicable”. In
layman’s terms, the two characteristics
“cyclical” and “replicable” are closely
related to each other and they signify
that research is repeated.
6. Critical - Research exhibits a careful and
precise judgment. A researcher must be
critical in treating his hypothesis. A higher
level of confidence must be established,
i.e., at 99% or 97% or 95% level of
confidence. If the level of confidence is
99%, level of significance (margin of
error) is 1%. The commonly employed
confidence level is 95% (significance level
is 5%). This means that a researcher is 95%
certain that his research finding is valid
and reliable.
“Research is critical” means that a
researcher is equipped with so much
expertise in Statistics and Language. The
soul of the quantitative research is
Statistics and its body is Language.
Characteristics of Quantitative Research
The overarching aim of a quantitative research
is to understand events, count them, and
construct statistical models in an attempt to
explain what is observed. The following are the
characteristics of quantitative research:
1. The
data are gathered using
structured research instruments.
2. The results are based on larger
sample sizes that are randomly
chosen as representatives of the
3. The research can usually be replicated
or repeated, given its high reliability.
4. The researcher has a clearly defined
research question to which objective
answers are sought.
5. All aspects of the study are carefully
designed before data are collected.
6. Data are in the form of numbers and
7. Data are presented through tables,
graphs, figures or other non-textual
forms and followed by textual
analysis and interpretation.
8. Project can be used to generalize
concepts more widely, predict future
results, or investigate causal
9. The researcher uses tools, such as
software, to collect numerical data.
10. Findings are reusable.
Steps in Conducting a Research
Research is an organized and systematic
method of finding answers to questions. The
following are the seven steps of the research
STEP 1. Research doesn’t start from a TITLE. It
starts from a RESEARCH PROBLEM.
RESEARCH PROBLEM? He looks for a particular
phenomenon where he is doubtful or curious
about. Doubt brings curiosity. Curiosity leads to
inquiry. Inquiry leads to investigation.
Investigation leads to research. If a researcher
has already found a topic in which he is curious
about it, then he now begins scanning all the
available materials both online and printed
sources to look a related information to this
topic. If a teacher stated that research starts
from a review of related literature (RRL), then
he is definitely correct. Looking for a research
problem can only be done by series of reading.
Many researchers look at the research title;
going to the research objectives and then
proceed to the reference list. From this
technique, they can generate potential research
problems (working titles). That’s why, defining
and developing a problem or topic is also doing
STEP 2. After having a research problem, a
researcher now starts the rigid readings to
collect a background information to the chosen
problem. He has a NOTEPAD where he writes all
the relevant information about the research
topic. He writes the research title, author,
publisher, year of publication, volume number,
issue number, pages and uniform resource
locator (URL) or digital object identifier (DOI)
(for online sources). URL specifies the location
of digital information on the internet and can be
found in the address bar of the internet browser.
DOI is a string of numbers, letters and symbols
used to permanently identify an article or
document and link to it on the web. It will help
the readers easily locate a document for citation
purposes using American Psychological
Association (APA) format. RRL is very useful in
writing the BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY since
every paragraph of this section must contain at
least one citation to make it more credible.
Writing the background of the study follows the
deductive method. It starts from the general
idea going to the specific details of the research
topic. Significance of the study can be included
in the background of the study. Last paragraph
of this section must contain the major objective
of the study and the convincing statement why
there is a need to conduct this particular
research. RRL is based from the research
variables which are summarized in the
conceptual framework.
RRL is also anchored on the objectives of the
study. It plays a vital role in the data analysis and
interpretation to support or to oppose the
current findings of the research. A researcher
makes sure that every research objective he has,
there is a corresponding RRL which he can use
to support his findings in that particular research
objective during the data analysis and
STEP 3. After all needed RRL are collected, a
researcher starts planning his research design
and sampling technique. This research section
involves Statistics already. Research design is
the blueprint of the research process. It is based
from the major objective of the study. In other
words, the major research objective of the study
determines what particular research design will
be applicable. Statistical tools can be
determined using the specific research
objectives. Methodology refers to the
systematic procedures or techniques used to
identify, select, process, and analyze
information about a topic. It allows the readers
to critically evaluate a study’s overall validity and
reliability as well as the research parameters
used in the study. Determining the sample is also
a part of methodology. Sample should be
systematically done using mathematical
formula. Quantitative research has a large
population. Thus, sampling technique is very
necessary. Construction of the research
instrument is a part of methodology together
with the testing of its validity and reliability.
Testing the validity means that research experts
are invited to check the overall content of the
research instrument if it will answer what the
study intends to answer. Valid research
instrument is an instrument that can generate
the solution of the research problem. Research
problem is also known as research objective or
research question or statement of the problem
STEP 4. After all plans of the research process
are laid down in the methodology, data
gathering activity follows. However, this activity
cannot be pursued if there is no research
instrument already validated by research
experts. Research instrument is a measurement
tool designed to obtain data on a topic of
interest from research subjects. Interview, focus
group discussion, participatory rapid appraisal
and tape or video recorder are some of the
research tools used in gathering qualitative
research data. Checklist, survey questionnaire
and multiple-choice paper pencil test are the
research instruments used for data collection in
quantitative research. Research ethics should be
observed all the times particularly the informed
consent, human rights protection, anonymity
and privacy during the data gathering activities.
STEP 5. After all the needed data are
collected, presentation of quantitative data
through tables, graphs or figures follow.
Presentation of data is based from the order of
the research objectives. In quantitative research,
data analysis is usually done in deductive
approach. In deductive approach, overall mean
is discussed first before tackling the indicators
receiving the lowest and highest means. After
the detailed discussion of the overall mean, the
lowest and the highest means, RRL is used to
support or contradict the current research
findings. Then, implication of the results will be
given. In qualitative research, data analysis is
done in inductive approach. Presentation of the
picture or photo is done first. Writing a short
caption about the picture follows. Then, detailed
explanation of the event or phenomenon
depicted in the picture (photo) comes next.
Verbatim quotes from the participants are
explained without any alteration. Contradicting
ideas should be explained and afterwards, a
resolution should be given. Presentation of data
without analysis and interpretation is dull.
STEP 6. After all data are presented, analyzed
and interpreted, conclusions are formulated
based from the summary of findings. Summary
of findings is based from the order of the
research questions. Conclusions are applicable
only in quantitative research. Quantitative
research is conducted to validate the already
constructed theory. Major conclusion is based
from the major objective or hypothesis of the
research. Thus, conclusion is needed. Insights
gained are applied in qualitative research.
STEP 7. After drawing conclusions or laying
down the new insights gained, recommendation
of the current researcher should be formulated
based from the conclusions or insights gained.
From this recommendation, new problem is
found. Thus, another research starts defining his
research problem based from the findings,
conclusions and recommendations of the
previous research. New researcher might
replicate the previous research using other
setting or larger population. Thus, research is
repeated (cyclical).
Approaches Applied in Conducting a Research
Inductive Approach is also known as
bottom-up approach. It is concerned with the
generation of new theory emerging from the
specific data to general idea. It is often times
associated with qualitative research. It starts
with the observations and theories are proposed
towards the end of the research process as a
result of personal reflection.
Qualitative Research is inductive when
the researcher starts with the observations and
the new theory or insight is generated towards
the end of the research process.
In Qualitative Research, the researcher
begins from gathering all the small or specific
details of the subject before he will give his
generalization towards the end of the research
process. This means that NO CONCLUSION will be
GAINED will be used instead of conclusions.
Deductive Approach is also known as top-down
approach. It usually begins with a hypothesis. Its
emphasis is generally on causality. It starts with
general idea to specific investigations of a
certain phenomenon. It is usually associated
with quantitative research.
Quantitative Research is deductive when it starts
from an already constructed theory or principle.
The researcher begins with a hypothesis or
already constructed theory. The aim of
quantitative research is to test hypothesis or
In Quantitative Research, the researcher begins
with an expected pattern “that is tested against
In other words, inductive approach is not
mutually exclusive to qualitative research.
Deductive approach is also not mutually
exclusive to quantitative research.
Quantitative Research versus Qualitative
Quantitative research uses numbers and figures
to denote a particular phenomenon. In contrast
to Qualitative research which is subjective,
Quantitative research is characterized by
objectives, in which only the real or factual, not
the emotional condition or existence of the
object matters.
Qualitative research uses verbatim quotes of the
participants and it employs thematic analysis or
clustering of ideas.
Quantitative research is more specific compared
with qualitative research. Qualitative research is
broader compared with quantitative research.
Quantitative research can only validate the
already established theory. Qualitative research
has a wider scope compared with quantitative
Qualitative research is primary exploratory
research. It is used to gain understanding of
underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It
provides insights into the problem or it helps to
develop ideas or hypotheses for potential
quantitative research. Quantitative research is
used to quantify the problem using rating scale
and other research parameters. It is used to
quantify reasons, opinions and motivations.