Seerat-e-Tayyaba and the Muslim Youth Q 1. Unit # 01 How was the youth given a great esteem by the beloved Rasool (SAW) in the battle of Uhud? Ans: The beloved Rasool (SAW), has given a great esteem to the youth in the battle of Uhud by admiring the emotions and passions of the youth went even against his opinion and decided to face the enemy outside the city in an open filed. In another instance, The Rasool (SAW) preferred a teenager Osama Bin Zaid (R.A) over the most respected elders like Abu Bakar (R.A) and Umar ibn-Al-Khattab to lead the military expedition to avenge upon the losses of the Muslim army in the battle of Mu’tah in Syria. Q 2. Narrate the Hadith in which the beloved Rasool (SAW) resembles himself with the last brick of the otherwise complete house of prophethood? Ans: According to the Hadith in Sahih Al- Bukhari (Kitabul Manaqib, Hatimun Nabieen, Hadith No.33420, the Holy Prophet is like the last brick fitted to complete the nicely built house of prophet hood. He came with the message that was final, universal and perfect, covering all aspects of human life. Q 3. How did Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) spent his youth? Ans: The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) spent his youth in a dignified and sublime way. Even before his accession to the position of prophethood, He (SAW) never indulged himself in vices that were prevalent in his time. During his youth, his nobility of soul, purity of heart, his strict adherence to truth and honesty and his stern sense of duty earned him the titles of “Al-amin”- the trustworthy and, Al-Sadiq- the true. Thus, he set an example for the youth of the coming generations to follow the path of rectitude in all situations and always to lead a pious and pure life. The Last Rasool (SAW) lived an active and a purposeful life as youth. At the very tender age of 12, he took part in trade activities and accompanied his uncle Abu Talib in a business tour to Syria. Q 4. Evaluate in brief the character of the present day youth in the light of the teachings of the Holy Prophet. Ans: The present day youth is totally different from the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. They have changed the priorities and live a meaningless life. They feel exhausted when it comes to the obedience of the Holy Prophet and they do not spend their lives according to the teachings of the last Prophet (SAW). Q 5. What social activities did Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) participate in his youth? Ans: The Last Rasool (SAW) at his very young age of 12, took part in trade activities and accompanied his uncle Abu Talib in a business tour to Syria. Once, when some of the energetic youths of Arab tribes came together to form a peace committee under the name of “Hulf-ul – Fazul” (The league of virtue), the Holy Prophet (SAW) didn’t lag behind and became an active member of the committee. Similarly, when once a strife had arisen among various Arab clans, over the setting of the Black Stone (Al-Hajr-ul-Aswad) in its place, it was the 35 years old Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) who helped prevent a serious conflict by resolving the issue very sagaciously. Q 6. What did the Holy Prophet say about modesty? What is the importance of modesty in the life of youth? Give an example of modesty from the life of Holy Prophet. Ans: The Holy Prophet (SAW) declared modesty (Haya) to be the integral part of faith. He said “If you don’t feel ashamed then do whatever you do”. Importance of modesty in the life of youth: Modesty and virtue are qualities that universally recognized as essential for the proper development of an individual’s character. We need to teach the young ones about these values so that they grow up as a responsible member and play a key role in the moral uplift of the society. The parents are the good teachers, they need to teach about these sacred values of modesty and virtue and make their children morally excellent. To get their children to imbibe these qualities in their children, parents must lead by example. When we talk about modesty, we mean to become decent and abstain from ethically wrong deeds. A virtuous person must deny such deeds that are forbidden in our religion and observe Haya. Example of Modesty from the life of Holy Prophet (SAW): Once Ibn Umar reported that a man from the Ansar was giving warning to his brother against modesty when the Holy Prophet came along and said “leave him alone, modesty is the integral part of faith”. Q 7. Cite an instance from the text showing that the beloved Rasool (SAW) led simple and austere life. Ans: The beloved Prophet (SAW) led a simple and austere life even though Allah Almighty had put before him the keys to the treasures of this world but he rejected it, preferring an extremely simple life. Often for months no fire could be lighted in his house because of the scantiness of means. Q 8. What type of youth did the Holy Prophet (SAW) want to see? Ans: The Holy Prophet (SAW) wanted to see the youth who follow the faith rectitude in all circumstances and always lead a pious and pure life. He wanted the youth who play an active role in the society and not to have an obscure and indolent personality. Jinnah’s Vision of Pakistan Unit# 02 Reading Comprehension Answer the questions Q 1. What were the two main functions of the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan as mentioned by MA Jinnah in his speech? Ans. MA Jinnah focused quite evidently on the two main functions for which the Constituent Assembly has to be responsible. The first one is to outline the future constitution of Pakistan and the second function is to perform the responsibility as a complete and absolute sovereign body as the Federal legislature of the state. Q2. What is the “unprecedented Cyclonic Revolution which Quaid-e-Azam has talked about in his speech? Why did he call it as unprecedented? Ans. 'Unprecedented cyclonic revolutions' means, unparalleled revolution which brought two independent sovereign dominions in the sub-continent. He called it unprecedented because there is no example in the world like this revolution. Q3. How did Quaid-e-Azam express his feelings about bribery, corruption, nepotism and jobbery? Ans. Quaid-e-Azam said about it that "I want to make it quite clear that I shall never tolerate any kind of jobbery, nepotism or any influence directly or indirectly brought upon me". Q4. What were Muhammad Ali Jinnah's views about partition of India? Describe in few lines? Ans. According to the ideology of Quaid, there was no other solution except the partition in order to protect the rights of the Muslims who were in minority in the sub-continent. He, then said that as the decision had been taken so now it is the responsibility on the shoulders of every one of us to serve diligently and follow the rules and regulations sincerely so as to be the true citizens of either Pakistan or Hindustan. He put emphasis on the need for the vision of India by saying that it would also be beneficial to India's constitutional problem. He advocated for the rights of the minorities who were facing intense oppression by the people in the majority in united India. Q5. What, in the eyes of Quaid, was the biggest hindrance in the way of India to attain freedom from foreign occupation? Ans. In the eyes of Quaid, the biggest hindrance in the way of India to attain freedom from foreign occupation was the angularities of communities of majority and minority like there were Muslims and Hindus living in India. He said that as Muslims you have Pathans, Punjabis, shias, Sunni, and so on and among the Hindus you have Brahmins, Vashnavas, Khatris, also Bengalis, Madrasis and so on. Quaid referred these angularities and difference among communities the biggest obstacle in achieving freedom from foreign forces. Q6. Describe Quid-e-Azam's view about minorities as expressed in his first address to constituent assembly. Ans. Muslims lived on the land of the sub-continent as a minority that's why they suffered a lot of hardships from the majority side i.e. Hindus. With respect to the minorities that would comprise the land of Pakistan, he was sure that it would not take a long time to erase the differences between the majority and minority community and no one could ever have to face the same adversity as they had experienced in united India. He further strengthened his point of view by giving true liberty to the minorities in a sense that they would definitely be free to go to their temples or to mosques or any other place of worship. Caste, colour, creed or religion would never come in the way of the success of Pakistan . Q7. What kind of freedom did MA Jinnah envision for the people of Pakistan in general? Ans. The foundation of M.A Jinnah's speech rests on true freedom which the Muslims of the sub-continent would soon be enjoying in an independent state. The freedom tree which M. A Jinnah seeded for the people of Pakistan had given birth to a number of leafy branches in the form of different kinds of freedom such as: > Freedom from subjugated acts of Hindus and English > Freedom to practice religious beliefs > Freedom from the evil of bribery and corruption > Freedom to observe law and order > Freedom from nepotism and jobbery > Freedom from the thought of discriminating people on the basis of caste, color, or creed > Freedom to enjoy equal rights. Privileges, and obligations > Freedom to work in co-operation for the betterment of the country Q8. What did M A Jinnah mean by "Hindus would cease to be Hindus, and Muslims would cease to be Muslims"? Explain. Ans. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a true believer in treating every individual who would be considered as a citizen of Pakistan equally either on the basis of religious beliefs or political standing. During his speech, he said that "Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims". By saying this, he wanted to make it clear to all the people belonging to any religion or having a difference of opinion that they would never face any subjugation according to the constitutional framework of Pakistan. Hindus would never be asked to alter their religion nor would they be forced to modify their political thoughts. In the same way, he believed in the Muslims of Pakistan . Q9. After reading this important speech of Quid-eAzam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, what do you think was his vision of Pakistan? Ans. After reading the speech of Quaid, we come to know that he wanted to see his people free from subjugated acts of Hindus and English. He also wanted to treat every individual equally on the basis of all walks of life. He said all people will be treated equally in his pakistan Q10. Read the last paragraph of this speech and state as to what were the guiding principles of Quid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Also elaborate the significance of these principles. Ans. Jinnah's vision of Pakistan possessed a number of fundamental principles on which the sound ground was provided for the newly independent state to stand upright. Some of the fundamental principles mentioned in last paragraph of the speech are as follows: . All the citizens of the state would be treated equally. There will be complete justice and impartiality in the Pakistan. Solitary Reaper Unit # 03 About the Author William Wordsworth (1770-1850) is one of the greatest romantic poets from the early Victorian era. He was born at Cockermouth in 1770. He was an eminent English poet who played a central role in the English Romantic Movement. Wordsworth’s main legacy was the introduction of a new attitude toward nature as he introduced nature imagery into his work. He also presented a fresh view of the relationship between man and the natural world. Wordsworth’s literary career was quite thriving and sensational. He published his poetry collection, An Evening Walk and Descriptive Sketches in 1793. He met the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1795. It was in collaboration with him that the most significant work in the English Romantic Movement, Lyrical Ballads was produced in 1798. At the peak of his career, he published Poems, in Two Volumes, in 1807. He published Guide to the Lakes in 1810 followed by The Excursion and Loadamia in 1815. The Prelude, generally considered to be Wordsworth’s master, is an autobiographical poem that was published in 1850 after his death. Summary of the Poem The Solitary Reaper is a romantic poem. It deals with the romantic theory of poetry. Firstly, the poem deals with the life of common people. In this poem, a highland girl is a common girl. She is innocent and lovely in her charms. Secondly, the poem is full of romantic images as the field, reaping and singing, alone she cuts, highland lass, Arabian sands, springtime, etc. Thirdly, the poem is written in simple and direct language. It is written in the simple, rustic, and common people’s language. Fourthly, the girl is a representative of pure natural beauty. She appears in the poem as an object of nature. Fifthly, the chief merits of the poem are its literary and spiritual quality. Wordsworth carried the music of the girl’s song in his heart After it was heard no more. When long afterward, the poet visited a beautiful scene in Nature and liked it emotionally, he remembered the girl’s song. He associated the song with beautiful natural scenes that he visited afterward. With its simplicity, suggestiveness, pathos, and verbal music, The Solitary Reaper remains a very delightful lyric. It is not only one of the best of Wordsworth’s poems, but also one of the most wonderful lyrics in the whole literature. Explanation with the Reference to Context Stanza 1 Behold her, single in the field, Yon solitary Highland lass; Reaping and singing by herself; Stop here, or gently pass. Reference and Context These lines have been taken from the poem The Solitary Reaper written by William Wordsworth. In this poem, the poet narrates an incident. He sees a highland girl in a field. She is reaping the crop and singing a song. The poet is very much impressed by the music of her song. He compares her song with the song of the two singing birds, the nightingale, and the cuckoo. The poet remembers the melody and tone of her song every time. Explanation In these lines, Wordsworth asks his readers to look at the Highland girl. She is reaping the crop and singing a melodious song. She is all alone in the field. The poet is so much impressed both by her lovely presence and music. Her voice is so sweet and melodious that the poet is fascinated and stood there calmly listening to the song. The poet advises his readers either to stop by the side of the field to listen to her sweet song or to pass by her silently without disturbing her. Stanza 2 Alone she cuts and binds the grain, And sings a melancholy strain; O listen, for the Vale profound Is overflowing with sound. Reference and Context Same as for the first stanza Explanation In these lines, the poet describes that the maiden is all alone in the field. She is reaping and binding the crop in a bundle all alone. She is singing a sad and melodious song. The whole valley is rejoicing with the music and song of the maiden. Her lovely presence and enchanting voice have transported the poet into ecstasy. Stanza 3 No nightingale did ever chant More welcome notes to weary bands Of travelers in some shady haunt Among Arabian sands. Reference and Context Same as for the first stanza Explanation In these lines, the poet describes the enchanting voice of a maiden’s song. He says that the song of the solitary reaper is more attractive and melodious than the song of the nightingale that sings in the evening time. The maiden’s sweet voice pacifies the feelings of the tired travelers staying in an oasis in Arabian deserts. The Arabian Desert gives a romantic touch to these verses. This is also a romantic image. In this way, the poet admires the sweet song of the mountain girl. Stanza 4 A voice so thrilling nev’r was heard In springtime from the cuckoo bird, Breaking the silences of the seas Among the farthest Hebrides. Reference and Context Same as for the first stanza Explanation In these lines, the poet elaborates the pleasant nature of the song of the highland girl. The poet finds her voice so exciting and livelier than the voice of cuckoo, whose sweet voice breaks the silence of the seas on the island of the Hebrides near the coast of England. The poet says that the song of the girl has a more magical and inspiring effect on our ears. In short, he finds her voice matchless and unique in its music, melody, and symphony. Stanza 5 Will no one tell; me what she sings? Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow For old, unhappy, far-off things, And battles long ago. Reference and Context Same as for the first stanza Explanation These lines highlight the poet’s inability to understand the subject matter or the theme of the maiden’s song. He asks if anyone will tell him the meaning of her song. She is singing in some local dialect. The poet simply guesses its theme that her song may be about some old sad events or about some battles fought very long ago. The tune of her song is sad and sorrowful. Stanza 6 Or is it more humble lay, Familiar matter of today? Some natural sorrow, loss, or pain. That has been and maybe again? Reference and Context Same as for the first stanza Explanation The poet is deeply impressed by the lovely presence and voice of the highland girl. The girl is singing in her local dialect. The poet cannot understand the real nature of her song. The poet tells us about his guess, concerning the contents of the highland girl’s song. The song may be about some common day-to-day matter of life, or it may be about some important death or battle in the area important for the girl perhaps. It may be about some natural trouble, loss, or pain that occurs again and again in society. Stanza 7 Whatever the theme, the Maiden sang As if her song could have no ending; I saw her singing at her work, And o’re the sickle bending Reference and Context Same as for the first stanza Explanation The poet could not understand the subject matter of the song being sung by the lonely girl, who was reaping the crop in the field. But the song went on continuously as if it would never end. The girl sang fluently, as she was bending over the sickle and continuously doing her work. it was an unending song. The poem is one of the most artistic and most romantic of Wordsworth’s poems. Wordsworth very artistically shows the artistic portrayal of the girl that becomes an audiovisual picture in our mind. Stanza 8 I listened, motionless and still; And, as I mounted up the hill, The music in my heart I bore Long after it was heard no more. Reference and Context Same as for the first stanza Explanation In these lines, the poet tells us that he stood motionless and listened to the song of the girl who was singing in a field of crop. He enjoyed the sweet voice and the surroundings for a long time. The poet was highly impressed by the sweetness and melody of her song. Then he left the place behind and climbed up the hill. He carried away the sweet and melodious song in his heart. He always kept this beautiful experience in his mind and the sweet music of the girl in his heart as a happy memory. Reading Comprehension Answer the questions Q1. What is the theme of the poem "The Solitary Reaper?" Ans. The poem expresses the theme that simple moments can have extreme beauty and can soothe our souls for a long time afterwards if we stop and pay attention. In this poem, the song of a woman reaping by herself in a field in the Scottish highlands catches the attention of the narrator, who is hiking nearby. Q2. How does Wordsworth describe the song of the Solitary Reaper? Ans. The narrator describes the reaper's song as a "melancholy strain" and "plaintive." While he cannot distinguish the words of her song, they sound sad, as if she is singing of loss or pain. He likens her singing favorably to the songs of the nightingale and the cuckoo, both birds that often sing alone. The nightingale is known for its beautiful song, but here, the narrator says the solitary reaper's song is more arresting than even that. Q3. What are the poet's feelings about the song, as expressed in the second stanza of the poem “The Solitary Reaper"? Ans. The speaker is overwhelmed by the beauty of the woman's voice and her "melancholy" song as he passes by the field where she works. He compares her lovely voice to birds, suggesting that her singing is actually beautiful. Q4. Describe in your own words the visual images depicted in the first stanza of the poem “The Solitary Reaper" Ans. Imagery is used to make readers perceive things involving their five senses. In the first stanza of the poem the poet uses imagery. He says that girl is "single in the field" and "singing by herself". Q5. Give the examples of alliteration from 'The Solitary Reaper'. Ans. Wordsworth's use of alliteration in the poem helps a great deal in making his poem more musical. Some examples that stand out are the repetition of the "S" sound, particularly in the first stanza, or the repetition of the "A" and "W" sounds in the second stanza: "More welcome notes to weary bands of travelers in some shady haunt, Among Arabian sands" Q6. As you read the third stanza of “The Solitary Reaper” what pictures of the situation do you make in your mind? Ans. After reading the third stanza of the poem there come pictures of situation like no nightingale can make happy the travelers of Arabian sand than of the song of Solitary Reaper. Q7. Explain the last stanza of the poem “The Solitary Reaper" in your own words. Ans. In the last stanza of the poem the poet says that first he listened to her song standing still and motionless. But as he mounted up the hill of Scotland, the tune of the song was so sweet that it struck the heart of the poet. He was so impressed that he carried the melody of the song with him long after the song was ended by the girl. Actually, the poet, being a poet of nature, was profoundly impressed by this natural scene. He remembered this song for its natural melodious effect. Q8. What is the dominant theme of the poem “The Solitary Reaper"? Ans. The dominant theme of the poem is the power of human imagination to see the transcendent in the everyday. "The Solitary Reaper" is about the power of the imagination to transform common, everyday events into representations of a larger reality. Truck Art Unit# 04 Reading Comprehension Answer the questions Q1. Explain the connection which the writer makes between the camel caravans of past and modern decoration of trucks. Ans. Writer makes an important connection between the camel caravans of past and modern decoration of trucks. She says that camel caravans used to decorate their camels in a beautiful manner and now in present time tuckers decorate their trucks according to their ethnic group or tradition. Q2. Which point is the writer illustrating when she gives the examples of decorations of trucks from Peshawar and Rawalpindi? Ans. By giving the examples of decoration of truck from Peshawar and Rawalpindi writer wants to illustrate the point that this truck art tells trader's about various ethnic group. After watching the art on the truck one can easily come to know that where the truck has come from. Q3. Which point is the writer illustrating in the lesson “Truck Art by giving examples of the specialists' works? Ans. By giving the examples of specialists' works writer wants to illustrate the point that this is a big business in Pakistan. Various specialists show their skills while working on the truck. Q4. Why do truckers spend so much money on decorating their trucks? Ans. These truckers are the successors of many generations of traders who used to spent money on the decoration of trucks. Now truckers in the present time do so because they inherited this from their old generations. There is also a type of entertainment for truck drivers to spend too much time around the workshops. Q5. Briefly describe how truck art developed from 1940s to 1970s. Ans. Truck art has developed over the decades. It was 1940 when trucks first began to deliver goods. Initially truck art came from camel caravans and after in 1950s Haji Husain affected enormous change. He had previously painted murals and frescoes in palaces in Gujrat, but when he settled in Karachi, he turned his skills to painting house carriages and trucks with floral borders. In 1960 British built Bedford truck became famous. Because of wealth increase during 60s and 70s truck art became more and more popular. Q6. Why are truck drivers ‘nostalgic about Bedford trucks? Ans. Truck drivers are nostalgic about British built Bedford due to its indestructibility. Those trucks had the ability to haul loads up to twenty five tons. In the early nineties when the production of Bedford trucks was stopped by Vauxhall, the mighty Bedford trucks were supplanted by Japanese imported Hino and Nissan. However the Bedford trucks always had a nostalgia among truck drivers. Q7. Explain how truck art at the present time can | be seen as having reached 'some kind of apogee'? Ans. In the present time truck art has been reached on the highest point of development. There is too much beauty and invention in the decoration of trucks. All skills which are being used in the decoration of truck have everlasting beauty.