ELE12 Teaching Arts in the Elementary Grades Prof. Emelita N. Cada COURSE SYLLABUS 1. Course Code : ELE 12 2. Course Title : Teaching Arts in the Elementary Grades 3. Pre-requisite : none 4. Co-requisite : one 5. Credit/ Class Schedule : 3 units, MWF 1:30 - 2:30 Via google meet BEEd IIA 3 units, MWF 2:30 - :30 Via google meet BEEd IIB First Semester, AY 2022 - 2023 6. Course Description : This course deals with the educational foundations of Arts as these apply to teaching and learning in the elementary grades. Various teaching strategies and assessment appropriate for each area shall be given emphases in the course. Course Outline and Timeframe: Week 1 2-3 4-5 6 7 Topics 1. ORIENTATION 1.1 SLSU Vision, Mission and Core Values 1.2 Overview of the Subject 1.3 Subject Requirements 1.4 Course goals and expected outcomes 1.5 Classroom policies 1.6 Grading system 1.7 Climate change 2. ART EDUCATION IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES 2.1. Art Education in the Philippines 2.2. The Artist Mindset in the Early Ages 2.3. The K-12 Elementary Art Education 3. INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING IN THE VISUAL ARTS 3.1. Instructional Planning 3.2. Setting the Objectives SUBMISSION and COMPLETION of the REQUIREMENTS PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 3.3. Choosing Art Activities 3.4. Instructional Framework 8 9 10 - 11 12 13 14 15 16 - 17 18 3.5. Developing an Activity Plan 4. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES IN TEACHING VISUAL ARTS 4.1. Strategies for Engagement and Getting Inspiration 4.2. Instructional Strategies in Teaching Visual Arts 4.3. The Creative Process: Developing Activity 4.4. Contextualization, Adaption, and Classroom Management SUBMISSION and COMPLETION of the REQUIREMENTS MIDTERM EXAMINATION 5. ART APPRECIATION AND ASSESMENT 5.1. Art Appreciation 5.2. Authentic Art Appreciation 5.3. Showcasing Art Through Exhibitions 6. Preparation of Lesson Plan 7. Submission of Lesson Plan 8. Preparation of Teaching Demo ( Recording ) FINAL TERM EXAMINATION Teaching Demonstration 10. Required Reading (Textbook): Precious Jewel Gamboa Tizon; Eigen T. Ignacio ( Authors ) , Greg Tabios Pawilen, A Course Module for Teaching Visual Arts In the Elementary Grades Manila. REX Bookstore, Inc. 11. Suggested Readings and References: Alcodia, Editha M. (2012). Creative Arts, Music and Drama for Young Children. Manila. REX Bookstore, Inc. Caslib, Bernardo Nicolas Jr. et.al. (2018). Art Appreciation. Manila: REX Bookstore, Inc. Constantino, Bienvenido Batallones Jr. (2014). ARTS. Mandaluyong City: Books Atbp. Publishing Corp. Mayesky, Mary. (2012). Creative Activities for Young Children. 10th Ed. USA: Wadsworth , Cengage Learning. 12. Course Requirements: Students must earn 60% or higher in order to pass the course. Requirements submitted and examination taken. Must be able to participate in the online class discussion and present data with the application of technology. Submit soft/hard copy of the different activities. Submit Lesson Plan Submit articles related to teaching art in elementary grades. Students present Teaching Demonstration in Arts through Video presentation 13. Grading System: Students must earn 60% or higher in order to pass this course. Requirements’ submission and students’ work will be evaluated accordingly: Performance Outputs Recitation Long Examinations Quizzes Total 40% 15% 25% 20% 100% 14. Classroom Policies: Aside from academic deficiency, other grounds for a failing grade are: Students who are not enrolled in Google Classroom will not be considered as enrolled in the course. Participation in Virtual Class via different platform Each student is expected to participate such as doing oral reports, engaging in small group/socialized discussion, projects and workshops, committee work and all activities which require involvement of all students in the class Missed Exams/Assignments A student shall be allowed to take an examination which he she missed and or submit a paper/activities on the due date. The test can be the same test as the one taken by the whole class or an alternate form. The rating for late examinations and papers shall be given the next lower grade as used in the grading system. Failure to take term examinations may mean failing academic standing Academic Dishonesty Academic dishonesty shall be in no way to be tolerated Attendance Student must attend in the online class as schedule by the instructor. 15. Consultation Hours: Students may contact/consult the professor at her email address (firstname.lastname@example.org), cellphone number (09196724042) or FB Group Messenger Account WEEK 2 UNIT I Art Education in the Elementary Grades A. Art Education in the Philippines Learning Outcome 1. Familiarize yourself with how and why visual art has been taught in the Philippines in the past decades. 2. Gain cursory knowledge of the arguments in favor of having art subjects in the curriculum. 3. Become familiar with the issues facing Art Education in the country today. "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." - George Santayana THINK "Art Education"-as the term is used in the Philippines refers to the teaching and learning of the visual arts, i.e., drawing, painting, sculpture, etc. This is to distinguish it from education in other artistic fields, such as music, dance, and theater. As future teachers in the field, you are expected to have a competent grasp of the various skills required to produce works of visual art in a variety of contexts and with a variety of materials. This text is meant to guide the learning of how to teach to othersparticularly-children-what you already know. A Short History of Art Education in the Philippines According to Santiago (2013), Art Education in the country as we know it today is the by-product of the American philosophy of education which the Americans brought with them as they supplanted the Spanish as colonizers of the country at the start of the 20th century. As the Filipino’s latent artistic talents came to the fore, the Americans saw it fit that they play a part in the development of Philippine education as a whole, and so this day, art still taught as part of the Basic Education in the country. Santiago (2013) defines Art Education in the country as being comprised of three distinct periods: 1. The Experimental Period (1915-1935) – During this time, Art Education was primarily drawing ( it was literally called “ Drawing “ in the curriculum ), where the students learned via imitation, and the instructional methods were “ dull and authoritarian." Early attempts were made to correlate drawing with other subjects, such as English, Industrial works, and language. 2. The New Movement (1935-1950) – Vicente Dizon is credited by Santiago with starting the New Movement in Art Education characterized by a growing understanding of the desired philosophy for teaching art not only in the elementary grades, but also in high school and college, and an increasing practicality in the teaching of art. 3. The Newer Movement (1950-present) – It was in 1950 that “ Drawing “ became "Art Education" and when Pablo Victoria and art professor at the then Philippine Normal College, pioneered integrating art with other subjects in the curriculum. His 1959 book, Art in the Elementary School, clarifies and elaborates on the role of both teachers and learners in art education. Today, the National Commission for Culture the Arts ( NCCA ) primary policymaking body for Philippine culture and the arts. Its programs and policies are what guide government efforts in conserving historical artworks, giving public exposure to the works of Filipino artists, and encouraging new generation to explore and invest in Filipino arts. Today, art education has been integrated into the Basic Education Curriculum under the Music, Arts, Physical Education, and Health (MAPEH) Subject, which receives 4 hours of instruction weekly from Grades 1 to 10 ( Department Education 2012 ). In 2016, the Department of Education introduced a specialized Arts Track for senior high students under the K to 12 program with approximately 4,400 students nationwide as of 2017 ( Geronimo 2016; Samodio 2017) The field is still beset by a number of issues to be discussed later that make a career in the field challenging, but at the same time afford a great deal of satisfaction and fulfillment for those educators who are able to find solutions to them, no matter how large or small the scale of the solution might be. Benefits of Art Education As future teachers in the field, it is important for you to be fully convinced in your minds of the benefits of Art Education and its presence in the curriculum. Often viewed as expendable by curriculum designers due to its nature of self-expression, art teachers must be fully aware that the benefits of art extend well beyond simply "expressing oneself." Beyond the obvious benefits of relaxing and enjoyable self-expression, education in the arts has a number of non-artistic benefits, such as the development of creativityuseful in any subject area-and being open and receptive to new ideas-also useful in any subject area. The Seneca Academy (2017) lists ten benefits to having Art as part of school curriculum: 1. Working in the arts helps learners develop creative problem-solving skills. 2. Teaching through the arts can present difficult concepts visually, making them more easy to understand. 3. Art instruction helps children with the development of motor skills, language skills, social skills, decision-making, risk-taking, and inventiveness. 4. Visual arts teach learners about color, layout, perspective, and balance: all techniques that are necessary in presentations (visual, digital) of academic work. 5. Integrating art with other disciplines reaches students who might not otherwise be engaged in classwork. 6. Arts experiences boost critical thinking, teaching students to take the time to . be more careful and thorough in how they observe the world. 7. The arts provide challenges for learners at all levels. 8. Art education connects students with their own culture as well as with the wider world. 9. Young people who participate regularly in the arts (three hours a day on three days each week through one full year) are four times more likely to be recognized for academic achievement, to participate in a Math and Science fair, or to win an award for writing an essay or poem than children who do not participate (Heath, Soep, and Roach 1998). 10. Greater arts education leads to fewer disciplinary infractions and higher attendance, graduation rates, and test scores (Missouri Aliance for Art Education 2010). According to a 1993 study made by the Arts Education Partnership Working Group, the many benefits of a strong arts program in schools include "intensified” student motivation to learn, better school attendance, increased graduation rates improved multicultural understanding and the development of higher-order-thinking skills, creativity, and problem-solving s abilities." These findings are further echoed, by Burton, Horowitz, and Abeles ( 1999) and by Bamford and Wimmer ( 2012 ), where they argue that learning “in the arts” ( i.e. how to draw, paint, sculpt, ,etc.) can increase skills, such as exploring, imagining, observing, and reflecting. They also argue that learning “through the arts” ( i.e., using artistic activities in learning non-artistic, concepts and skills ) makes a range of other subject areas more attractive. Examples given a greater use of visualization, enhanced motivation, increased attentiveness, and improved reflection and communication. These findings and more prompt us to believe that the value of art in the curriculum does not lie solely in its skills and knowledge that are directly transferable and applicable in other subjects, but in all skills, from all subjects that are applied broadly everywhere. Thus, no subject has priority over any other subject, and so "to diminish one is to diminish all" ( Burton, Horowitz, and Abeles 1999 ). Issues in Philippine Art Education Art educators in the country face an uphill battle as they navigate the educational system and its need to prioritize its resources-often not in favor the arts. However, there are other issues facing art education in the Philippines some of which are much closer to the classroom. Several are discuss here. Problems in Artistic Values The issues discussed hereunder deal with the attitudes and mindsets of the various participants in art education regarding the teaching of art in schools. They are problems of perspective, which in turn affect policy, which then affect practice. Four broad categories are identified here: Teacher Issues, Art as a Subject, Student, Discipline, and Art as a Luxury: 1. Teacher Issues 2. Art as a Subject 3. Student Discipline It should come as no surprise that teaching as a whole is not the career of choice for a majority of Filipinos, with many of its practitioners a victim of the "mag-teacher ka na lang!" mentality in the culture. Alongside this, art educators in the country face a number of self-esteem issues expressed through statements like " I’m not talented enough to be a real artist " or " There's no money in the arts. so l teach in order to make a living. " Perhaps the biggest, most immediate issue when it comes to art educators is the lack of good training. Teachers by training are specialists, but upon being deployed in the field-often due to economic reasons-they are often called upon to teach subjects outside their specialization leading to half-baked (hilaw") teaching. Anecdotal evidence abounds teachers who had to teach art despite of having zero training and even zero exposure to art activities since childhood. Perhaps because of its initial, utilitarian roots as "drawing, art in the curriculum is still often viewed as a "subject" rather than an avenue for self-expression. This results in a teaching of art that is overly academic, focusing on facts about art rather than on the practice and creation of art. When coupled with a lack of adequate teacher training, this encourages a sterile, static view of art that is only considered "legitimate" if it is comparable to the work of the "masters," ie., museum-standard-something that simply cannot be achieved by children in the early grades. Stemming from a utilitarian view of art, many students struggle with motivation issues due to an unnecessarily vicious cycle of criticism from family, peers, and ill-equipped teachers, thereby limiting their willingness to invest the hours needed to master the skills needed to create art. Another issue noted by many teachers is the lack of student respect toward art materials. Wastefulness, neglecting to store 4. Art as a Luxury materials properly, and the lack of a general sense of order and cleanliness both while and after working are all sources of great frustration for art educators nationwide. The popular public view on art in the country is that it is a luxury-" Pangmayaman lang 'yan “ -nice to have, but nonessential to the average working Filipino. Art is considered the privilege of the elite-those who do not have to actually work for a living and can therefore devote the time, energy, and money needed to participate artistic endeavors. Consequently, art is among the lowest subjects in terms of priority when it comes to issues like budget, time, resource allocation, etc. Materials, Resources, and Workspaces The following are problems related to the physical requirements for teaching art and their availability. While a teacher in Mathematics might need little more than chalk to teach his or her subject, an art teacher requires quite a number of materials, many of which can be expensive and outside of school budget. 1. Limited Materials 2. Workspaces 3. Management Issues Due to lack of adequate support, art materials are scarce in the average classroom, with art educators relying on the students themselves to provide the necessary art supplies the class requires. Stemming from the elitist view of art, there is also a lack of recognition of the alternative art materials that are available in the immediate environment. This serves to only propagate the perception that unless it is created with the so-called "mainstream" art materials ( e.g. acrylic/oil paints, charcoals, pastels, etc. ), then it is not really art. Related to the previous problem, many schools have no dedicated space for art classes, let alone extracurricular artistic pursuits. Students must make do with regular classrooms illsuited for the purpose. As a result, some forms of artistic expression simply cannot be explored, particularly those that require more than one class meeting (e.g., painting on canvas, sculpture carving, etc.), as they raise issues concerning cleanup, storage, maintaining the integrity of unfinished student work, and so on. Related to the lack of student respect for art materials and spaces there is also a severe lack of awareness as to how to manage and organize an art class in order to maximize learning and ensure students' safety. This is especially important during art activities that involve sharp objects, like carving and sculpture. Usually, these skills are chalked up to common sense and, thus, taken for granted. However, there is a need for such management skills to be intentionally taught, as many students will be experiencing handing and storing potentially dangerous tools for the very first time in their lives. There are obviously many other issues in the teaching of art in the Philippines. Those mentioned above are simply the most likely ones that art educators like yourselves will face in the field. Knowing and preparing for them now are crucial to managing and mitigating their negative effects if and when you encounter them in your classroom. CHALLENGE Imagine you have the freedom to teach Art in whatever way you wish to a fourth grade class, but you have only three months to teach, and the only art materials you have access to are those commonly found in an educational supply store. What would you teach and in what sequence? What strategies and activities would you use to teach? HARNESS Imagine having a student with great artistic talent but does not have the support of his or her family since they believe that his or her artistic pursuits are waste of time and money. How would you convince them otherwise? B. The Artist Mindset in the Early Grades Learning Outcomes 1. Familiarize yourself with the mindset, attitude, and values that must be developed in young learners to help foster a healthy attitude toward the practice art. 2. Reflect on the presence or absence of these artistic values in your own life as an art educator, and consider how to develop them to the point that you can encourage their development in others. "Nemo dat quod non habet" (You cannot give what you do not have) - Latin Maxim Any practicing artist can tell you that art first begins in the mind, with artistic skills serving only to create what is already seen in the imagination. The skill of an artist can, thus, be seen in how faithfully it can translate what he or she imagines into a work of art. If there was nothing held in the imagination-no finished picture, painting, drawing, or sculpture-even just fleetingly, can the end product be truly into a work of art. If there was nothing held in the imagination-no finished picture, considered "art"? It is, thus, necessary to identify the habits of the mind-the mindset-that art educators should both possess and seek to develop in their students in the early grades through the teaching of art: the values, philosophical positions, and the focus needed for art to thrive in Philippine education. THINK A. Inspired by Daily Experiences and Encounters Part of the "artistic sense" is a sensitivity to beauty-not just in big and grand spectacles and experiences, but particularly in the everyday things we see and experience as we go about our lives. This is difficult to explain and likewise teach for a number of reasons: 1.Exposure - The ability to see beauty every day does not appear out of thin air; rather, it often takes someone else explaining us how something simple and commonplace can be beautiful and in terms that are appropriate for our developmental stages. Students will need to be exposed to artwork that celebrates the commonplace over the course of several occasions before the lesson sticks. 2.Context - It is almost a cliché to say that beauty is subjective; that is, what is beautiful depends on the individual. It can also be said that beauty depends on the context-we know it when we see or hear it, but when something is framed within the right context, it suddenly appears beautiful. Conversely, when something is placed in the wrong context, we do not perceive it as beautiful. The trick, then, is finding the right context for what we wish the learners to appreciate. This is where careful and deliberate manipulation of the learning environment becomes important; a quiet studio lends itself to appreciating still life arrangements, for example, as learners concentrate on reproducing simple outlines with whatever the medium of the day might be, or studying the way different angles and intensities of light cast shadows. 3.Age - Children are naturally drawn to the novel, the unusual, and the exciting. Bigger, bolder, faster, brighter, louder are a guaranteed formula to gain the interest of children. Action and movement excite them, whereas the comparatively slow, methodical pace of everyday life does not. Educators will need to tailor the experiences they have planned for young learners so that they both communicate the lesson while holding the learners' interest. Man has been inspired by nature since the dawn of the time of man, and the ability to appreciate beauty in nature appears to be innate. Mountains, lakes, animals, trees, flowers, insects, and the like are all fair game for artists of all ages. It should not be difficult to get young learners to desire to commit scenes from nature-real or imaginary-to paper, as it is an almost natural thing to do, and relatively easy as well. Events have also been a great source of inspiration for artists. If we consider ancient art-the kind found in the prehistoric cave systems of Europe, the pyramids of Egypt, bas-relief sculptures from Mesopotamia, and so on, we find that most if not all of them depict events-a successful hunt, the victory of the king over his enemies, the death of an important political or religious leader, or even the ancient incarnation of the Olympic Games are all examples of events that have been committed in one way or another to works of art. An easily overlooked opportunity to teach beauty in the everyday context is in the simple act of coloring a picture. The picture can be chosen to be exciting, dynamic, full of movement and action, or simple and quiet, with nothing particularly exciting going onwhatever the teacher deems appropriate for the class at that particular time. The actual lesson is in the process of coloring- the quiet concentration, the stirring up of the desire to color well when exposed to examples the children consider "better," and so on. Within the context of coloring pictures, lessons on form, light, shading, color harmony, and the like can be taught organically (i.e., as the need arises) and with relative ease. B. Constantly Curious While curiosity is often cited as a characteristic of scientists, it is also an essential part of being an artist, albeit that while a scientist might be curious as to what is in the design of a bird's wing that enables it to fly, an artist might be curious as to how to make the wing "look alive" even when rendered in a static, unmoving work of art. Where a scientist is curious regarding the how and why of natural phenomena, an artist should be curious regarding how to make beautiful things given a set of limitations and parameters. Because there will always be limitations and boundaries (e.g., lack of materials, lack of time, lack of conducive environments, etc.), artists should also be constantly looking for ways to integrate art into areas and disciplines where art has not traditionally been part of. These areas and disciplines will have their own boundaries and limitations, which for the artists can provide the impetus for artistic innovations not possible anywhere else. A good example of this can be found in Singapore's Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations, where artwork has been integrated into the walls of the commuter walkways, adding pops of color and interest into what would otherwise be a functional but drab commute. C. Open-Minded Related to curiosity is "open-mindedness," which is the willingness to be exposed to new ideas and to consider them on their own merits. It is the quality of not being "locked down" by a particular set of rules or principles for the sake of tradition, but rather a willingness to wrestle with ideas and ways of doing things that might be very different from our own-all with the attitude of learning new things to add to one's "toolbox" of techniques and perspectives. Some areas where an open mind is an artistic asset are: 1. Lack of resources 2. The idea of perfection 3. Criticism The practice of art can be an expensive endeavor-the best-quality materials are never affordable even when available, and so where certain techniques and processes are not feasible due to lack of the proper materials, an open mind is needed to perceive and embrace that which is possible given what is available. Open-mindedness is also an asset when it comes to the idea of "perfection" in art-a concept which artists reject. After all, what does perfection in art mean? Fidelity to reality? Then what do we make of cartoons, comics, and animation? The truth is that there is no such thing as "perfect" in art without an objective standard, and what most people hold as the standard for evaluating art is their subjective ideas of what is and is not beautiful. Accepting that perfection in art is a fool's errand and coming to terms with one's strengths and weaknesses as an artist are part and parcel of becoming a mature artist. Lastly, an open mind is necessary for an artist to benefit from criticism. All criticisms, valid or otherwise, involve a measure of pain for the one being criticized-we are proud of our work, after all, however middling it might be-and it takes an open mind to accept that there is always something to learn, always something that can be improved upon, even when presented to us by unpleasant people in unpleasant ways. Criticism an inevitable part of being an artist, and being able to take criticism well is vital to an artist's mental, emotional, and professional well-being. D. Art as Authentic Self-Expression Art can be defined as any expression of the inner desire to create beauty. Thus, the desire to create something that is beautiful is the defining feature of the artist - ie., it is what makes an artist produces is but an expression of that desire. Since beauty is varied multifaceted--a thunderstorm can be beautiful, just like a more pastoral landscape – art can, thus, be varied and multifaceted. The point is that art is art because the artist wishes to express something – however fleeting nebulous that something might be. This is what is meant by art as authentic self-expression. E. Art as Self-Expression Expanding this concept, we see that the teaching art is not limited to a simple technique-the how of art- must also include teaching it as a means for students to communicate feelings, experiences, interests, and desires-the why of art. We can see this idea at play in the tension between "being true to oneself" vis-a-vis "giving the people what they want." The translates to the classroom by teaching students to use their express something that they feel, rather than simply feeding off the works others-the "authentic" part of authentic self-expression " F. Valuing Authenticity Wrapped up in the mind and heart of an artist is a desire for affirmationsome outside validation that the work we produce is, in fact, beautiful in the way the artist intended it. That is, artists want to know that what they wanted to express via their art has indeed been expressed. This nuance can be easily lost to young learners, for whom validation of their artwork can feel like personal yalidation. As a result, there might be a strong desire to simply imitate the work of others for the sake of the validation it brings. This is not "authentic self-expression," rather it is a kind of "feeding off" of the works of others. Do note however that it is in the nature of learners to learn via imitation, which should be encouraged up to a point-that is, once the learners have a firm grasp of how to execute a technique (via imitation), they should be encouraged to move beyond imitating the work of others toward creating original work of their own. Because there will be a tendency for young learners to value others’ work over their own, moving them toward originality involves opening their eyes to the value of their own original work. This can be done by gently encouraging them to first modify whatever it is they are imitating to suit their own tastes or satisfy their curiosity: switching up the color palette, for example, or moving an object in a composition somewhere else. Students need to learn that this is already a valid creative exercise in and of itself, and only when they are comfortable with modifying existing work should they then be encouraged to come up with completely original work of their own. G. Enjoyment in the Process It would be very strange for an artist to not enjoy the process of creating art-after all, this is one of the reasons why he or she is an artist. An artist must enjoy the process, plain and simple-or else pursue something other than art. Let us be very clear with this: Everyone feels the desire to create beauty, but only an artist perseveres when the process of creating beauty becomes tedious, frustrating, and repetitive for the sake of producing something beautiful. This is why artists will endure long, lonely hours of drawing a pattern by hand, for example, or create sketch after sketch after sketch in repeated attempts to understand the visual physiology of something before committing it to a more permanent medium. As an art teacher, you will find learners with a varying degree of patience and grit for the process of creating art in your classroom: a few will be willing to take the time to carefully and neatly fill in areas with color, many will start well and then give up as the minutes pass, and a few will hardly care for any art exercise you give them. You might not be able to turn them into artists, but the overall goal is to expose them to a wide variety of artistic processes so that they might find one that they enjoy, as they will be more likely to pursue it to completion. Make no mistake: sooner or later, the artistic process will become difficult. When it comes to young learners, the goal should not be attaining mastery of any artistic technique-that will come with time. Instead, the goal is to teach them to love the creation of beauty, however small it might appear to us. After all, love makes the labor light.