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ENCADA ELE12 LM WEEK 2 Teaching Arts in the Elementary Grades

in the
Prof. Emelita N. Cada
1. Course Code
: ELE 12
2. Course Title
: Teaching Arts in the Elementary Grades
3. Pre-requisite
: none
4. Co-requisite
5. Credit/ Class Schedule
3 units, MWF 1:30 - 2:30 Via google meet
3 units, MWF 2:30 - :30 Via google meet
First Semester, AY 2022 - 2023
Course Description
: This course deals with the educational foundations of
Arts as these apply to teaching and learning in the
elementary grades. Various teaching strategies and
assessment appropriate for each area shall be given
emphases in the course.
Course Outline and Timeframe:
1.1 SLSU Vision, Mission and Core Values
1.2 Overview of the Subject
1.3 Subject Requirements
1.4 Course goals and expected outcomes
1.5 Classroom policies
1.6 Grading system
1.7 Climate change
2.1. Art Education in the Philippines
2.2. The Artist Mindset in the Early Ages
2.3. The K-12 Elementary Art Education
3.1. Instructional Planning
3.2. Setting the Objectives
3.3. Choosing Art Activities
3.4. Instructional Framework
10 - 11
16 - 17
3.5. Developing an Activity Plan
4.1. Strategies for Engagement and Getting Inspiration
4.2. Instructional Strategies in Teaching Visual Arts
4.3. The Creative Process: Developing Activity
4.4. Contextualization, Adaption, and Classroom
5.1. Art Appreciation
5.2. Authentic Art Appreciation
5.3. Showcasing Art Through Exhibitions
6. Preparation of Lesson Plan
7. Submission of Lesson Plan
8. Preparation of Teaching Demo ( Recording )
Teaching Demonstration
10. Required Reading (Textbook):
Precious Jewel Gamboa Tizon; Eigen T. Ignacio ( Authors ) , Greg Tabios
Pawilen, A Course Module for Teaching Visual Arts In the Elementary Grades
Manila. REX Bookstore, Inc.
11. Suggested Readings and References:
Alcodia, Editha M. (2012). Creative Arts, Music and Drama for Young
Children. Manila. REX Bookstore, Inc.
Caslib, Bernardo Nicolas Jr. et.al. (2018). Art Appreciation. Manila: REX Bookstore,
Constantino, Bienvenido Batallones Jr. (2014). ARTS. Mandaluyong City: Books
Atbp. Publishing Corp.
Mayesky, Mary. (2012). Creative Activities for Young Children. 10th Ed. USA:
Wadsworth , Cengage Learning.
12. Course Requirements:
 Students must earn 60% or higher in order to pass the course. Requirements
submitted and examination taken.
 Must be able to participate in the online class discussion and present data with the
application of technology.
 Submit soft/hard copy of the different activities.
 Submit Lesson Plan
 Submit articles related to teaching art in elementary grades.
 Students present Teaching Demonstration in Arts through Video presentation
13. Grading System:
Students must earn 60% or higher in order to pass this course. Requirements’
submission and students’ work will be evaluated accordingly:
Performance Outputs
Long Examinations
14. Classroom Policies:
Aside from academic deficiency, other grounds for a failing grade are:
Students who are not enrolled in Google Classroom will not be considered
as enrolled in the course.
Participation in Virtual Class via different platform
Each student is expected to participate such as doing oral reports, engaging
in small group/socialized discussion, projects and workshops, committee
work and all activities which require involvement of all students in the class
Missed Exams/Assignments
A student shall be allowed to take an examination which he she missed and
or submit a paper/activities on the due date. The test can be the same test
as the one taken by the whole class or an alternate form. The rating for late
examinations and papers shall be given the next lower grade as used in the
grading system. Failure to take term examinations may mean failing
academic standing
Academic Dishonesty
Academic dishonesty shall be in no way to be tolerated
Student must attend in the online class as schedule by the instructor.
15. Consultation Hours:
Students may contact/consult the professor at her email address
(ecada@slsu.edu.ph), cellphone number (09196724042) or FB Group Messenger
Art Education in the Elementary Grades
A. Art Education in the Philippines
Learning Outcome
1. Familiarize yourself with how and why visual art has been taught in the
Philippines in the past decades.
2. Gain cursory knowledge of the arguments in favor of having art subjects in the
3. Become familiar with the issues facing Art Education in the country today.
"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."
- George Santayana
"Art Education"-as the term is used in the Philippines refers to the teaching and
learning of the visual arts, i.e., drawing, painting, sculpture, etc. This is to distinguish it
from education in other artistic fields, such as music, dance, and theater.
As future teachers in the field, you are expected to have a competent grasp of
the various skills required to produce works of visual art in a variety of contexts and with
a variety of materials. This text is meant to guide the learning of how to teach to othersparticularly-children-what you already know.
A Short History of Art Education in the Philippines
According to Santiago (2013), Art Education in the country as we know it today is the
by-product of the American philosophy of education which the Americans brought with
them as they supplanted the Spanish as colonizers of the country at the start of the 20th
century. As the
Filipino’s latent artistic talents came to the fore, the Americans saw it fit that they play a
part in the development of Philippine education as a whole, and so this day, art still
taught as part of the Basic Education in the country.
Santiago (2013) defines Art Education in the country as being comprised of
three distinct periods:
1. The Experimental Period (1915-1935) – During this time, Art Education was
primarily drawing ( it was literally called “ Drawing “ in the curriculum ), where the
students learned via imitation, and the instructional methods were “ dull and
authoritarian." Early attempts were made to correlate drawing with other subjects,
such as English, Industrial works, and language.
2. The New Movement (1935-1950) – Vicente Dizon is credited by Santiago with
starting the New Movement in Art Education characterized by a growing
understanding of the desired philosophy for teaching art not only in the
elementary grades, but also in high school and college, and an increasing practicality in
the teaching of art.
3. The Newer Movement (1950-present) – It was in 1950 that “ Drawing “
became "Art Education" and when Pablo Victoria and art professor at the then
Philippine Normal College, pioneered integrating art with other subjects in the
curriculum. His 1959 book, Art in the Elementary School, clarifies and elaborates on the
role of both teachers and learners in art education.
Today, the National Commission for Culture the Arts ( NCCA ) primary policymaking body for Philippine culture and the arts. Its programs and policies are what
guide government efforts in conserving historical artworks, giving public exposure to the
works of Filipino artists, and encouraging new generation to explore and invest in
Filipino arts.
Today, art education has been integrated into the Basic Education Curriculum
under the Music, Arts, Physical Education, and Health (MAPEH) Subject, which
receives 4 hours of instruction weekly from Grades 1 to 10 ( Department Education
2012 ). In 2016, the Department of Education introduced a specialized Arts Track for
senior high students under the K to 12 program with approximately 4,400 students
nationwide as of 2017 ( Geronimo 2016; Samodio 2017)
The field is still beset by a number of issues to be discussed later that make a
career in the field challenging, but at the same time afford a great deal of satisfaction
and fulfillment for those educators who are able to find solutions to them, no matter how
large or small the scale of the solution might be.
Benefits of Art Education
As future teachers in the field, it is important for you to be fully convinced in your
minds of the benefits of Art Education and its presence in the curriculum. Often viewed
as expendable by curriculum designers due to its nature of self-expression, art teachers
must be fully aware that the benefits of art extend well beyond simply "expressing
Beyond the obvious benefits of relaxing and enjoyable self-expression, education
in the arts has a number of non-artistic benefits, such as the development of creativityuseful in any subject area-and being open and receptive to new ideas-also useful in any
subject area. The Seneca Academy (2017) lists ten benefits to having Art as part of
school curriculum:
1. Working in the arts helps learners develop creative problem-solving skills.
2. Teaching through the arts can present difficult concepts visually, making them
more easy to understand.
3. Art instruction helps children with the development of motor skills, language
skills, social skills, decision-making, risk-taking, and inventiveness.
4. Visual arts teach learners about color, layout, perspective, and balance: all
techniques that are necessary in presentations (visual, digital) of academic work.
5. Integrating art with other disciplines reaches students who might not otherwise
be engaged in classwork.
6. Arts experiences boost critical thinking, teaching students to take the time to . be
more careful and thorough in how they observe the world.
7. The arts provide challenges for learners at all levels.
8. Art education connects students with their own culture as well as with the wider
9. Young people who participate regularly in the arts (three hours a day on three
days each week through one full year) are four times more likely to be recognized for
academic achievement, to participate in a Math and Science fair, or to win an award for
writing an essay or poem than children who do not participate (Heath, Soep, and Roach
10. Greater arts education leads to fewer disciplinary infractions and higher
attendance, graduation rates, and test scores (Missouri Aliance for Art Education 2010).
According to a 1993 study made by the Arts Education Partnership Working Group,
the many benefits of a strong arts program in schools include "intensified” student
motivation to learn, better school attendance, increased graduation rates improved
multicultural understanding and the development of higher-order-thinking skills,
creativity, and problem-solving s
These findings are further echoed, by Burton, Horowitz, and Abeles ( 1999)
and by Bamford and Wimmer ( 2012 ), where they argue that learning “in the arts” ( i.e.
how to draw, paint, sculpt, ,etc.) can increase skills, such as exploring, imagining,
observing, and reflecting. They also argue that learning “through the arts” ( i.e., using
artistic activities in learning non-artistic, concepts and skills ) makes a range of other
subject areas more attractive. Examples given a greater use of visualization, enhanced
motivation, increased attentiveness, and improved reflection and communication.
These findings and more prompt us to believe that the value of art in the
curriculum does not lie solely in its skills and knowledge that are directly transferable
and applicable in other subjects, but in all skills, from all subjects that are applied
broadly everywhere. Thus, no subject has priority over any other subject, and so "to
diminish one is to diminish all" ( Burton, Horowitz, and Abeles 1999 ).
Issues in Philippine Art Education
Art educators in the country face an uphill battle as they navigate the educational
system and its need to prioritize its resources-often not in favor the arts. However, there
are other issues facing art education in the Philippines some of which are much closer
to the classroom. Several are discuss here.
Problems in Artistic Values
The issues discussed hereunder deal with the attitudes and mindsets of the
various participants in art education regarding the teaching of art in schools. They are
problems of perspective, which in turn affect policy, which then affect practice. Four
broad categories are identified here: Teacher Issues, Art as a Subject, Student,
Discipline, and Art as a Luxury:
1. Teacher Issues
2. Art as a Subject
3. Student
It should come as no surprise that teaching as a whole is not the
career of choice for a majority of Filipinos, with many of its
practitioners a victim of the "mag-teacher ka na lang!" mentality
in the culture. Alongside this, art educators in the country face a
number of self-esteem issues expressed through statements like
" I’m not talented enough to be a real artist " or " There's no
money in the arts. so l teach in order to make a living. "
Perhaps the biggest, most immediate issue when it comes to art
educators is the lack of good training. Teachers by training are
specialists, but upon being deployed in the field-often due to
economic reasons-they are often called upon to teach subjects
outside their specialization leading to half-baked (hilaw")
teaching. Anecdotal evidence abounds teachers who had to
teach art despite of having zero training and even zero exposure
to art activities since childhood.
Perhaps because of its initial, utilitarian roots as "drawing, art in
the curriculum is still often viewed as a "subject" rather than an
avenue for self-expression. This results in a teaching of art that
is overly academic, focusing on facts about art rather than on
the practice and creation of art.
When coupled with a lack of adequate teacher training, this
encourages a sterile, static view of art that is only considered
"legitimate" if it is comparable to the work of the "masters," ie.,
museum-standard-something that simply cannot be achieved by
children in the early grades.
Stemming from a utilitarian view of art, many students struggle
with motivation issues due to an unnecessarily vicious cycle of
criticism from family, peers, and ill-equipped teachers, thereby
limiting their willingness to invest the hours needed to master the
skills needed to create art.
Another issue noted by many teachers is the lack of student
respect toward art materials. Wastefulness, neglecting to store
4. Art as a Luxury
materials properly, and the lack of a general sense of order and
cleanliness both while and after working are all sources of great
frustration for art educators nationwide.
The popular public view on art in the country is that it is a
luxury-" Pangmayaman lang 'yan “ -nice to have, but
nonessential to the average working Filipino. Art is considered
the privilege of the elite-those who do not have to actually work
for a living and can therefore devote the time, energy, and
money needed to participate artistic endeavors.
Consequently, art is among the lowest subjects in terms of
priority when it comes to issues like budget, time, resource
allocation, etc.
Materials, Resources, and Workspaces
The following are problems related to the physical requirements for teaching
art and their availability. While a teacher in Mathematics might need little more
than chalk to teach his or her subject, an art teacher requires quite a number of
materials, many of which can be expensive and outside of school budget.
1. Limited
2. Workspaces
3. Management
Due to lack of adequate support, art materials are scarce in the
average classroom, with art educators relying on the students
themselves to provide the necessary art supplies the class
Stemming from the elitist view of art, there is also a lack of
recognition of the alternative art materials that are available in
the immediate environment. This serves to only propagate the
perception that unless it is created with the so-called
"mainstream" art materials ( e.g. acrylic/oil paints, charcoals,
pastels, etc. ), then it is not really art.
Related to the previous problem, many schools have no
dedicated space for art classes, let alone extracurricular artistic
pursuits. Students must make do with regular classrooms illsuited for the purpose. As a result, some forms of artistic
expression simply cannot be explored, particularly those that
require more than one class meeting (e.g., painting on canvas,
sculpture carving, etc.), as they raise issues concerning cleanup,
storage, maintaining the integrity of unfinished student work, and
so on.
Related to the lack of student respect for art materials and
spaces there is also a severe lack of awareness as to how to
manage and organize an art class in order to maximize learning
and ensure students' safety. This is especially important during
art activities that involve sharp objects, like carving and
Usually, these skills are chalked up to common sense and, thus,
taken for granted. However, there is a need for such
management skills to be intentionally taught, as many students
will be experiencing handing and storing potentially dangerous
tools for the very first time in their lives.
There are obviously many other issues in the teaching of art in the Philippines.
Those mentioned above are simply the most likely ones that art educators like
yourselves will face in the field. Knowing and preparing for them now are crucial
to managing and mitigating their negative effects if and when you encounter them in
your classroom.
Imagine you have the freedom to teach Art in whatever way you wish to a
fourth grade class, but you have only three months to teach, and the only art
materials you have access to are those commonly found in an educational supply
store. What would you teach and in what sequence? What strategies and activities
would you use to teach?
Imagine having a student with great artistic talent but does not have the support of his
or her family since they believe that his or her artistic pursuits are waste of time and
money. How would you convince them otherwise?
B. The Artist Mindset in the Early Grades
Learning Outcomes
1. Familiarize yourself with the mindset, attitude, and values that must be
developed in young learners to help foster a healthy attitude toward the practice art.
2. Reflect on the presence or absence of these artistic values in your own life as
an art educator, and consider how to develop them to the point that you can encourage
their development in others.
"Nemo dat quod non habet"
(You cannot give what you do not have)
- Latin Maxim
Any practicing artist can tell you that art first begins in the mind, with artistic skills
serving only to create what is already seen in the imagination. The skill of an artist can,
thus, be seen in how faithfully it can translate what he or she imagines into a work of art.
If there was nothing held in the imagination-no finished picture, painting, drawing, or
sculpture-even just fleetingly, can the end product be truly into a work of art. If there was
nothing held in the imagination-no finished picture, considered "art"?
It is, thus, necessary to identify the habits of the mind-the mindset-that art
educators should both possess and seek to develop in their students in the early
grades through the teaching of art: the values, philosophical positions, and the
focus needed for art to thrive in Philippine education.
A. Inspired by Daily Experiences and Encounters
Part of the "artistic sense" is a sensitivity to beauty-not just in big and grand
spectacles and experiences, but particularly in the everyday things we see and
experience as we go about our lives. This is difficult to explain and likewise teach for a
number of reasons:
1.Exposure - The ability to see beauty every day does not appear out of thin air;
rather, it often takes someone else explaining us how something simple and
commonplace can be beautiful and in terms that are appropriate for our developmental
stages. Students will need to be exposed to artwork that celebrates the commonplace
over the course of several occasions before the lesson sticks.
2.Context - It is almost a cliché to say that beauty is subjective; that is, what is
beautiful depends on the individual. It can also be said that beauty depends on the
context-we know it when we see or hear it, but when something is framed within the
right context, it suddenly appears beautiful. Conversely, when something is placed in
the wrong context, we do not perceive it as beautiful. The trick, then, is finding the right
context for what we wish the learners to appreciate.
This is where careful and deliberate manipulation of the learning environment
becomes important; a quiet studio lends itself to appreciating still life arrangements, for
example, as learners concentrate on reproducing simple outlines with whatever the
medium of the day might be, or studying the way different angles and intensities of light
cast shadows.
3.Age - Children are naturally drawn to the novel, the unusual, and the exciting.
Bigger, bolder, faster, brighter, louder are a guaranteed formula to gain the interest of
children. Action and movement excite them, whereas the comparatively slow,
methodical pace of everyday life does not. Educators will need to tailor the experiences
they have planned for young learners so that they both communicate the lesson while
holding the learners' interest.
Man has been inspired by nature since the dawn of the time of man, and the
ability to appreciate beauty in nature appears to be innate. Mountains, lakes, animals,
trees, flowers, insects, and the like are all fair game for artists of all ages. It should not
be difficult to get young learners to desire to commit scenes from nature-real or
imaginary-to paper, as it is an almost natural thing to do, and relatively easy as well.
Events have also been a great source of inspiration for artists. If we consider
ancient art-the kind found in the prehistoric cave systems of Europe, the pyramids of
Egypt, bas-relief sculptures from Mesopotamia, and so on, we find that most if not all of
them depict events-a successful hunt, the victory of the king over his enemies, the
death of an important political or religious leader, or even the ancient incarnation of the
Olympic Games are all examples of events that have been committed in one way or
another to works of art.
An easily overlooked opportunity to teach beauty in the everyday context is in the
simple act of coloring a picture. The picture can be chosen to be exciting, dynamic, full
of movement and action, or simple and quiet, with nothing particularly exciting going onwhatever the teacher deems appropriate for the class at that particular time. The actual
lesson is in the process of coloring- the quiet concentration, the stirring up of the desire
to color well when exposed to examples the children consider "better," and so on.
Within the context of coloring pictures, lessons on form, light, shading, color harmony,
and the like can be taught organically (i.e., as the need arises) and with relative ease.
B. Constantly Curious
While curiosity is often cited as a characteristic of scientists, it is also an essential
part of being an artist, albeit that while a scientist might be curious as to what is in the
design of a bird's wing that enables it to fly, an artist might be curious as to how to make
the wing "look alive" even when rendered in a static, unmoving work of art. Where a
scientist is curious regarding the how and why of natural phenomena, an artist should
be curious regarding how to make beautiful things given a set of limitations and
Because there will always be limitations and boundaries (e.g., lack of materials,
lack of time, lack of conducive environments, etc.), artists should also be constantly
looking for ways to integrate art into areas and disciplines where art has not traditionally
been part of. These areas and disciplines will have their own boundaries and limitations,
which for the artists can provide the impetus for artistic innovations not possible
anywhere else. A good example of this can be found in Singapore's Mass Rapid Transit
(MRT) stations, where artwork has been integrated into the walls of the commuter
walkways, adding pops of color and interest into what would otherwise be a functional
but drab commute.
C. Open-Minded
Related to curiosity is "open-mindedness," which is the willingness to be exposed
to new ideas and to consider them on their own merits. It is the quality of not being
"locked down" by a particular set of rules or principles for the sake of tradition, but rather
a willingness to wrestle with ideas and ways of doing things that might be very different
from our own-all with the attitude of learning new things to add to one's "toolbox" of
techniques and perspectives.
Some areas where an open mind is an artistic asset are:
1. Lack of resources
2. The idea of perfection
3. Criticism
The practice of art can be an expensive endeavor-the best-quality materials are
never affordable even when available, and so where certain techniques and processes
are not feasible due to lack of the proper materials, an open mind is needed to perceive
and embrace that which is possible given what is available.
Open-mindedness is also an asset when it comes to the idea of "perfection" in
art-a concept which artists reject. After all, what does perfection in art mean? Fidelity to
reality? Then what do we make of cartoons, comics, and animation? The truth is that
there is no such thing as "perfect" in art without an objective standard, and what most
people hold as the standard for evaluating art is their subjective ideas of what is and is
not beautiful. Accepting that perfection in art is a fool's errand and coming to terms with
one's strengths and weaknesses as an artist are part and parcel of becoming
a mature artist.
Lastly, an open mind is necessary for an artist to benefit from criticism. All
criticisms, valid or otherwise, involve a measure of pain for the one being criticized-we
are proud of our work, after all, however middling it might be-and it takes an open mind
to accept that there is always something to learn, always something that can be
improved upon, even when presented to us by unpleasant people in unpleasant ways.
Criticism an inevitable part of being an artist, and being able to take criticism well is vital
to an artist's mental, emotional, and professional well-being.
D. Art as Authentic Self-Expression
Art can be defined as any expression of the inner desire to create beauty. Thus,
the desire to create something that is beautiful is the defining feature of the artist - ie., it
is what makes an artist produces is but an expression of that desire. Since beauty is
varied multifaceted--a thunderstorm can be beautiful, just like a more pastoral
landscape – art can, thus, be varied and multifaceted.
The point is that art is art because the artist wishes to express something –
however fleeting nebulous that something might be. This is what is meant by art as
authentic self-expression.
E. Art as Self-Expression
Expanding this concept, we see that the teaching art is not limited to a simple
technique-the how of art- must also include teaching it as a means for students to
communicate feelings, experiences, interests, and desires-the why of art. We can see
this idea at play in the tension between "being true to oneself" vis-a-vis "giving the
people what they want."
The translates to the classroom by teaching students to use their
express something that they feel, rather than simply feeding off the works
others-the "authentic" part of authentic self-expression "
F. Valuing Authenticity
Wrapped up in the mind and heart of an artist is a desire for affirmationsome outside validation that the work we produce is, in fact, beautiful in the
way the artist intended it. That is, artists want to know that what they wanted
to express via their art has indeed been expressed.
This nuance can be easily lost to young learners, for whom validation of
their artwork can feel like personal yalidation. As a result, there might be a
strong desire to simply imitate the work of others for the sake of the validation
it brings. This is not "authentic self-expression," rather it is a kind of "feeding
off" of the works of others.
Do note however that it is in the nature of learners to learn via imitation, which
should be encouraged up to a point-that is, once the learners have a firm grasp
of how to execute a technique (via imitation), they should be encouraged to move
beyond imitating the work of others toward creating original work of their own.
Because there will be a tendency for young learners to value others’ work over
their own, moving them toward originality involves opening their eyes to the value of
their own original work. This can be done by gently encouraging them to first modify
whatever it is they are imitating to suit their own tastes or satisfy their curiosity:
switching up the color palette, for example, or moving an object in a composition
somewhere else. Students need to learn that this is already a valid creative exercise in
and of itself, and only when they are comfortable with modifying existing work should
they then be encouraged to come up with completely original work of their own.
G. Enjoyment in the Process
It would be very strange for an artist to not enjoy the process of creating art-after
all, this is one of the reasons why he or she is an artist. An artist must enjoy the
process, plain and simple-or else pursue something other than art.
Let us be very clear with this: Everyone feels the desire to create beauty, but only
an artist perseveres when the process of creating beauty becomes tedious, frustrating,
and repetitive for the sake of producing something beautiful. This is why artists will
endure long, lonely hours of drawing a pattern by hand, for example, or create sketch
after sketch after sketch in repeated attempts to understand the visual physiology of
something before committing it to a more permanent medium.
As an art teacher, you will find learners with a varying degree of patience and grit
for the process of creating art in your classroom: a few will be willing to take the time to
carefully and neatly fill in areas with color, many will start well and then give up as the
minutes pass, and a few will hardly care for any art exercise you give them. You might
not be able to turn them into artists, but the overall goal is to expose them to a wide
variety of artistic processes so that they might find one that they enjoy, as they will be
more likely to pursue it to completion.
Make no mistake: sooner or later, the artistic process will become difficult. When
it comes to young learners, the goal should not be attaining mastery of any artistic
technique-that will come with time. Instead, the goal is to teach them to love the creation
of beauty, however small it might appear to us. After all, love makes the labor light.