Uploaded by jocel manalang


Grades 11/12
Teaching Dates and Time
Grade Level 11/12
Learning Area Earth and Life Science
Quarter 1st
A. Content Standards
The learners demonstrate the understanding the origin and environment of formation of common minerals and rocks
B. Performance Standards
The learners shall be able to
 Conduct a survey to assess the origin and environment of formation of common minerals and rocks
C. Learning Competencies/
Write the LC code for each
At the end of the session, students are expected to:
1. Demonstrate understanding about physical and chemical properties of minerals
2. Identify some common rock-forming minerals
3. Classify minerals based on chemical affinity
Unpacked LC:
1. The learners shall be able to make a plan that the community may use to conserve and protect its resources for future generations. The learners shall
be able to identify common rock-forming minerals using their physical and chemical properties
LESSON 6: Minerals and Rocks
A. References
1. Teacher’s Guide pages
2. Learner’s Materials pages
3. Textbook pages
4. Additional Materials from Learning
Resource (LR) portal
B. Other Learning Resources
(1) Laboratory Manual for Physical Geology – Mineral Identification. Retrieved from https://gln.dcccd.edu/ Geology_Demo/content/LAB03/LAB_Man_03.pdf
(2) Mindat.org. (n.d.). Definition of rock-forming minerals. Retrieved from http://www.mindat.org/glossary/rockforming_mineral
(3) Monroe, J. S., Wicaner, R. &Hazlett, R. (2007). Physical Geology Exploring the Earth (6th ed., pp. 80-90). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
(4) Prestidge, D. (2012, May). Earth: Portrait of a planet (Chapter 5 - Patterns in Nature: Minerals). Retrieved from
(5) How to identify mineral. Retrieved from http:// www.instructables.com/id/How-to-identify-a-Mineral/ step3/Hardness/
A. Reviewing previous lesson or
presenting the new lesson
B. Establishing a purpose for the
Communicate learning objectives
1. Introduce the following learning objectives using the suggested protocols (Verbatim, Own Words, Read-aloud)
A. I can identify and describe the different properties of minerals.
B. I can group the minerals based on chemical composition.
C. I can identify several common rock-forming minerals.
2. Enumerate the five important properties which define a mineral.
A. Mineral — a naturally occurring (not man-made or machine generated), inorganic (not a byproduct of living things) solid with an orderly crystalline structure and
a definite chemical composition
B. Minerals are the basic building blocks of rocks.
(5 MINS)
Questions for the learners
1. Do you consider water a mineral? Answer: No. It is not solid and crystalline.
C. Presenting examples/instances of
the new lesson
How about snowflake, or tube ice? Are these minerals?
Answer: Tube ice is not a mineral, because it is not naturally occurring.
But a snowflake possesses all the properties under the definition of a mineral.
1. Use table salt or halite to demonstrate the different mineral properties.
2. Tabulate the answers on the board using the template below.
Mineral Name
Halite (table Salt)
Chemical composition NaCl
Luster Non
Luster Non
Luster Non
Luster Non
Luster Non
Luster Non
Luster Non
Luster Non
Chemical composition NaCl
metallic – vitreous; transparent to
transluscent Harndess Soft (2
metallic – vitreous; transparent to
transluscent Harndess Soft (2
metallic – vitreous; transparent to
transluscent Harndess Soft (2
metallic – vitreous; transparent to
transluscent Harndess Soft (2
metallic – vitreous; transparent to
transluscent Harndess Soft (2
metallic – vitreous; transparent to
transluscent Harndess Soft (2
metallic – vitreous; transparent to
transluscent Harndess Soft (2
metallic – vitreous; transparent to
transluscent Harndess Soft (2
D. Discussing new concepts and
practicing new skills #1
Activity: Show the pictures to the learners and try to identify the crystal forms / habits. Provide more pictures if needed.
E. Discussing new concepts and
practicing new skills #2
Activity: How to identify minerals. Present the Mineral Decision Tree to the class, as a visual guide in explaining the methods used by geologists to identify
minerals.. Sou 1. Show a mineral sample (or picture) that the class will try to identify.
2. Use the diagram below to narrow down the mineral choices into groups A to F. Then refer to the provided mineral chart for the list of possible minerals.
3. Test the other properties provided in the chart to identify the mineral.
F. Developing mastery (leads to
Formative Assessment 3)
Note 1. Rock-forming minerals make up large masses of rocks, such as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks. Rockforming minerals are essential for the
classification of rocks, whereas accessory minerals can be ignored in this endeavor. 2. Almost 85% of the atoms in the earth’s crust are oxygen and silicon.
Therefore, the most common and abundant rock-forming minerals are silicates. Some carbonates are also abundant. The most common rockforming minerals are
tabulated on the right.
Ask the students in groups to identify one or more minerals. Or ask individual students to come to the front to demonstrate the process of identification to the
a. Provide all students with a copy of the mineral charts.
b. Provide a mineral sample (can be an actual mineral, or a picture).
You may also begin by supplying some properties needed to identify the mineral.
G. Finding practical applications of
concepts and skills in daily living
Cite examples of minerals used in our daily lives
H. Making generalizations and
abstractions about the lesson
The teacher will conclude the importance of minerals in our daily lives
Evaluating learning
1. Summarize the different characteristics that define a mineral. Answer: inorganic, naturally occurring, crystalline, solid and must have a consistent chemical
2. Which among the following mineral groups, if any, contain silicon: halides, carbonates or sulfides? Explain. Answer: None. The identified mineral groups are
3. Which is more abundant in the Earth’s crust: silicates or all the other mineral groups combined? Explain. Answer: Silicates. Silicon and oxygen are the main
components of silicates and these are the two most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust.
4. An unknown opaque mineral has a black streak and has a density of 18g/cm3. Is the mineral metallic or non-metallic? Answer: The mineral is more likely to be
metallic because it is opaque and metallic minerals are usually heavy and with dark streaks
5. How does streak differ from color, and why is it more reliable for rock identification? Answer: Streak is the color of a mineral in powdered form. It is more
reliable because it is inherent to most minerals. Color is not reliable because a mineral can be formed with varieties of color, an effect of impurities and
6. Differentiate between habit and a cleavage plane. Answer: Habit is the external shape of a crystal that is developed during the formation of the mineral. A
cleavage plane is a plane of weakness that may develop after the crystal formation.
7. Is it possible for a mineral to have a prismatic habit without having any cleavage? Why or why not? If yes, give an example. Answer: Yes, the prismatic habit
is simultaneously developed while the mineral is growing. During the process, there is no repetitive plane of weakness being created which makes the mineral
break only by fracturing. An example of this scenario is quartz.
8. Define “rock-forming mineral,” and give three examples. Answer: A rock-forming mineral is a mineral that is common and abundant in the Earth's crust; one
making up large masses of rock.
J. Additional activities for application Additional Activity:
List five minerals and their common uses. Identify the specific property/properties that makes the mineral suitable for those uses. For example, graphite, having a
or remediation
black streak and hardness of 1-2, is used in pencils due to its ability to leave marks on paper and other objects.