# PATTERNS AND NUMBERS IN NATURE AND THE WORLD

```Patterns and
Numbers in Nature
and the World
LESSON 2
M AT H E M AT I C S I N O U R W O R L D
After going through this lesson, you are expected to
1. What is patterns?
2. Identify patterns in nature and regularities in the world.
3. Classify objects according to symmetry.
4. Explain Fibonacci numbers and their origin.
5. Illustrate how the Fibonacci sequence is expressed in nature.
What is Patterns?
➢ A patterns are regular, repeated or recurring forms
or designs.
Example: layout of floor tiles, design of buildings.
➢ It also shows what may have come before
and it organizes information to bring
order where there is disorder.
➢ Mathematics is the study of patterns .
Hence, those who use patterns to analyze
and solve problems often find success
compared with those who cannot.
The importance of Patterns
➢ Patterns helps us to find logical
connections as well to form generations.
Predictions and even identifying relations
➢ Patterns help us organize thoughts and establish
order to our lives. As we begin to connect patterns
in nature and life, they bring a sense of harmony to
our minds. Patterns lead to and build math,
vocabulary and cognitive concepts. Patterns are
excellent in helping us establish priorities.
➢ Everything in our life has only patterns.
PATTERNS AND NUMBERS IN
NATURE AND THE WORLD
Patterns in nature are visible regularities
of form found in the natural world and
can also be seen in the universe.
Examples of some of these patterns and you
may be able to spot a few the next time you
go for a walk.
1. Patterns can be observed even in stars
which move in circles across the sky each
day.
PATTERNS AND NUMBERS IN
NATURE AND THE WORLD
2. The weather season cycle each year. All
snowflakes contain sixfold symmetry
which no two are exactly the same.
How are snowflakes form?
A snowflake begins to form when an
extremely cold water droplet freezes onto a
pollen or dust particle in the sky. This
creates an ice crystal. As the ice crystal falls
to the ground, water vapor freezes onto the
primary crystal, building new crystals – the
six arms of the snowflake.
PATTERNS AND NUMBERS IN
NATURE AND THE WORLD
3. Patterns can be seen in fish patterns
like spotted trunkfish, spotted puffer,
blue spotted stingray, spotted moral
eel, coral grouper, red lion fish, yellow
boxfish and angel fish. These animals
and fish stripes and spots attest to
mathematical regularities in biological
growth and form.
PATTERNS AND NUMBERS IN
NATURE AND THE WORLD
4. Zebras, tigers, cats and snakes are
covered in patterns of stripes; leopards
and hyenas are covered in pattern of
spots and giraffes are covered in
pattern of blotches.
PATTERNS AND NUMBERS IN
NATURE AND THE WORLD
5. Natural patterns like the intricate
waves across the oceans; sand dunes
on deserts; formation of typhoon;
water drop with ripple and others.
These serves as clues to the rules that
govern the flow of water, sand and air.
PATTERNS AND NUMBERS IN
NATURE AND THE WORLD
6. Other patterns in nature can also be
seen in the ball of mackerel, the v
-formation of geese in the sky and the
PATTERNS AND R E G U L A R I T I E S
Patterns in nature are visible regularities of form
found in the natural world. These patterns recur in
different contexts and can sometimes be modelled
mathematically. Natural patterns include symmetries,
trees, spirals, meanders, waves, foams, tessellations,
cracks and stripes.
TYPES OF PATTERNS
 SYMMETRY
– a sense of harmonious and beautiful
proportion of balance or an object is invariant to any
various transformations (reflection, rotation or scaling.)
TYPES OF PATTERNS

a.) Bilateral Symmetry: a symmetry in which the left and
right sides of the organism can be divided into approximately
mirror image of each other along the midline. Symmetry
exists in living things such as in insects, animals, plants,
flowers and others. Animals have mainly bilateral or vertical
symmetry, even leaves of plants and some flowers such as
orchids.
TYPES OF PATTERNS

b.) Radial Symmetry ( or rotational symmetry ): a symmetry
around a fixed point known as the center and it can be classified
as either cyclic or dihedral. Plants often have radial or
rotational symmetry, as to flowers and some group of animals. A
five-fold symmetry is found in the echinoderms, the group in
which includes starfish, sea urchins and sea lilies. Radial
symmetry suits organism like sea anemones whose adults do not
move and jellyfish(dihedral-D4 symmetry). Radial symmetry is
also evident in different kinds of flowers.
TYPES OF PATTERNS
2. FRACTALS – a curve or geometric figure, each part of
which has the same statistical character as the whole. A
fractal is a never-ending pattern found in nature. The
exact same shape is replicated in a process called “self
similarity.” The pattern repeats itself over and over again at
different scales. For example, a tree grows by repetitive
branching. This same kind of branching can be seen in
lightning bolts and the veins in your body. Examine a
single fern or an aerial view of an entire river system and
you’ll see fractal patterns.
TYPES OF PATTERNS
3. SPIRALS - A logarithmic spiral or growth spiral is a selfsimilar spiral curve which often appears in nature. It was first
describe by Rene Descartes and was later investigated by
Jacob Bernoulli. A spiral is a curved pattern that focuses on
a center point and a series of circular shapes that revolve
around it. Examples of spirals are pine cones, pineapples,
hurricanes. The reason for why plants use a spiral form is
because they are constantly trying to grow but stay secure.
EXAMINING PATTERNS
Studying patterns helps students identify relationships and
find logical connections to form generalizations and make
predictions. (Aufmann, et al. 2018)
A. LOGIC PATTERNS:
It is the ability to discover meaningful patterns in strange and
unpredictable situations.

Example 1:
1. What should be the
next figure in this
sequence?
A. LOGIC PATTERNS:
2. What will be the next figure in this sequence?
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