SC - Arts BEED 2 San Rafael CCRD A. Instructional Planning B. Setting the Objectives C. Choosing Art Activities D. Instructional Frameworks E. Developing an Activity Plan 2 A. Art Education in the Philippines B. The Artist Mindset in the Early Grades C. The K to 12 Elementary Art Education Curriculum 3 A. Strategies for Engagement and Getting Inspiration B. Instructional Strategies in Teaching Visual Arts C. The Creative Process: Developing Creativity D. Contextualization, Adaptation, and Classroom Management 4 A. Art Appreciation B. Authentic Art Assessment C. Showcasing Art through Exhibitions 5 A. Art Education in the Philippines LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. Familiarize yourself with how and why visual art has been taught in the Philippines in the past decades. 2. Gain cursory knowledge of the arguments in favor of having art subjects in the curriculum. 3. Become familiar with the issues facing Art Education in the country today. 6 "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." - George Santayana 7 "Art Education"- as the term is used in the Philippines -refers to the teaching and learning of the visual arts, i.e., drawing, painting, sculpture, etc. This is to distinguish it from education in other artistic fields, such as music, dance, and theater. As future teachers in the field, you are expected to have a competent grasp of the various skills required to produce works of visual art in a variety of contexts and with a variety of materials. This text is meant to guide the learning of how to teach to others-particularly children-what you already know. 8 A Short History of Art Education in the Philippines According to Santiago (2013), Art Education in the country as we know it today is the by-product of the American philosophy of education which the Americans brought with them as they supplanted the Spanish as colonizers of the country at the start of the 20th century. As the Filipinos' latent artistic talents came to the fore, the Americans saw it fit that they play a part in the development of Philippine education as a whole, and so to this day, art is still taught as part of Basic Education in the country. Santiago (2013) defines Art Education in the country as being comprised of three distinct periods: 9 During this time, Art Education was primarily drawing (it was literally called "Drawing" in the curriculum), where the students learned via imitation, and the instructional methods were "dull and authoritarian." Early attempts were made to correlate drawing with other subjects, such as English, industrial works, and language. Vicente Dizon is credited by Santiago with starting the New Movement in Art Education, characterized by a growing understanding of the desired philosophy for teaching art not only in the elementary grades, but also in high school and college, and an increasing practicality in the teaching of art. It was in 1950 that "Drawing" became "Art Education" and when Pablo Victoria, an art professor at the then Philippine Normal College, pioneered integrating art with other subjects in the curriculum. His 1959 book, Art in the Elementary School, clarifies and elaborates on the role of both teachers and learners in art education. Today, the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) is the primary policy-making body for Philippine culture and the arts. Its programs and policies are what guide government efforts in conserving historical artworks, giving public exposure to the works of Filipino artists, and encouraging a new generation to explore and invest in Filipino arts. Today, art education has been integrated into the Basic Education Curriculum under the Music, Arts, Physical Education, and Health (MAPEH) subject, which receives 4 hours of instruction weekly from Grades 1 to 10 (Department of Education 2012). In 2016, the Department of Education introduced a specialized Arts Track for senior high students under the K to 12 program with approximately 4,400 students nationwide as of 2017 (Geronimo 2016; Samodio 2017). As future teachers in the field, it is important for you to be fully convinced in your minds of the benefits of Art Education and its presence in the curriculum. Often viewed as expendable by curriculum designers due to its nature of self-expression, art teachers must be fully aware that the benefits of art extend well beyond simply "expressing oneself." Beyond the obvious benefits of relaxing and enjoyable selfexpression, education in the arts has a number of non-artistic benefits, such as the development of creativity-useful in any subject area--and being open and receptive to new ideas-also useful in any subject area. The Seneca Academy (2017) lists ten benefits to having Art as part of school curriculum: 1. Working in the arts helps learners develop creative problem-solving skills. 2. Teaching through the arts can present difficult concepts visually, making them easier to understand. 3. Art instruction helps children with the development of motor skills, language skills, social skills, decision-making, risk-taking, and inventiveness. 4. Visual arts teach learners about color, layout, perspective, and balance: all techniques that are necessary in presentations (visual, digital) of academic work. 5. Integrating art with other disciplines reaches students who might not otherwise be engaged in classwork. 6. Arts experiences boost critical thinking, teaching students to take the time to be more careful and thorough in how they observe the world. 7. The arts provide challenges for learners at all levels. 8. Art education connects students with their own culture as well as with the wider world. 9. Young people who participate regularly in the arts (three hours a day on three days each week through one full year) are four times more likely to be recognized for academic achievement, to participate in a Math and Science fair, or to win an award for writing an essay or poem than children who do not participate 10. Greater arts education leads to fewer disciplinary infractions and higher attendance, graduation rates, and test scores. According to a 1993 study made by the Arts Education Partnership Working Group, the many benefits of a strong arts program in schools include "intensified student motivation to learn, better school attendance, increased graduation rates, improved multicultural understanding, and the development of higher-order thinking skills, creativity, and problemsolving abilities." These findings are further echoed by Burton, Horowitz, and Abeles (1999) and by Bamford and Wimmer (2012), where they argue that learning "in the arts" (i.e., learning how to draw, paint, sculpt, etc.) can increase skills, such as exploring, imagining, observing, and reflecting. They also argue that learning "through the arts" (i.e., using artistic activities in learning nonartistic concepts and skills) makes a range of other subject areas more attractive. Examples given are greater use of visualization, enhanced motivation, increased attentiveness, and improved reflection and communication. These findings and more prompt us to believe that the value of art in the curriculum does not lie solely in its skills and knowledge that are directly transferable and applicable in other subjects, but in all skills, from all subjects that are applied broadly everywhere. Thus, no subject has priority over any other subject, and so "to diminish one is to diminish all" (Burton, Horowitz, and Abeles 1999). Art educators in the country face an uphill battle as they navigate the educational system and its need to prioritize its resources--often not in favor of the arts. However, there are other issues facing art education in the Philippines, some of which are much closer to the classroom. Several are discussed here. The issues discussed hereunder deal with the attitudes and mindsets of the various participants in art education regarding the teaching of art in schools. They are problems of perspective, which in turn affect policy, which then affect practice. Four broad categories are identified here: Teacher Issues, Art as a Subject, Student Discipline, and Art as a Luxury: 1. Teacher Issues Perhaps the biggest, most immediate issue when it comes to art educators is the lack of good training. Teachers by training are specialists, but upon being deployed in the field- often due to economic reasons they are often called upon to teach subjects outside their specialization, leading to half-baked ("hilaw") teaching. Anecdotal evidence abounds teachers who had to teach art despite of having zero training and even zero exposure to art activities since childhood. 2. Art as a Subject Perhaps because of its initial, utilitarian roots as "drawing," art in the curriculum is still often viewed as a "subject" rather than an avenue for self-expression. This results in a teaching of art that is overly academic, focusing on facts about art rather than on the practice and creation of art. When coupled with a lack of adequate teacher training, this encourages a sterile, static view of art that is only considered "legitimate" if it is comparable to the work of the "masters," i.e., museum-standard something that simply cannot be achieved by children in the early grades. 3.Student Discipline Stemming from a utilitarian view of art, many students struggle with motivation issues due to an unnecessarily vicious cycle of criticism from family, peers, and ill-equipped teachers, thereby limiting their willingness to invest the hours needed to master the skills needed to create art. Another issue noted by many teachers is the lack of student respect toward art materials. Wastefulness, neglecting to store materials properly, and the lack of a general sense of order and cleanliness both while and after working are all sources of great frustration for art educators nationwide. 4. Art as a Luxury The popular public view on art in the country is that it is a luxury--"Pangmayaman lang 'yan"nice to have, but nonessential to the average working Filipino. Art is considered the privilege of the elite-those who do not have to actually work for a living and can therefore devote the time, energy, and money needed to participate in artistic endeavors. Consequently, art is among the lowest subjects in terms of priority when it comes to issues like budget, time, resource allocation, etc. The following are problems related to the physical requirements for teaching art and their availability. While a teacher in Mathematics might need little more than chalk to teach his or her subject, an art teacher requires quite a number of materials, many of which can be expensive and outside of school budget. Due to lack of adequate support, art materials are scarce in the average classroom, with art educators relying on the students themselves to provide the necessary art supplies the class requires. Stemming from the elitist view of art, there is also a lack of recognition of the alternative art materials that are available in the immediate environment. This serves to only propagate the perception that unless it is created with the so-called "mainstream" art materials (e.g., acrylic/oil paints, charcoals, pastels, etc. ), then it is not really art. Related to the previous problem, many schools have no dedicated space for art classes, let alone extracurricular artistic pursuits. Students must make do with regular classrooms illsuited for the purpose. As a result, some forms of artistic expression simply cannot be explored, particularly those that require more than one class meeting (e.g., painting on canvas, sculpture carving, etc.), as they raise issues concerning cleanup, storage, maintaining the integrity of unfinished student work, and so on. Related to the lack of student respect for art materials and spaces, there is also a severe lack of awareness as to how to manage and organize an art class in order to maximize learning and ensure students' safety. This is especially important during art activities that involve sharp objects, like carving and sculpture. Usually, these skills are chalked up to common sense and, thus, taken for granted. However, there is a need for such management skills to be intentionally taught, as many students will be experiencing handling and storing potentially dangerous tools for the very first time in their lives. The field is still beset by a number of issues to be discussed later that make a career in the field challenging, but at the same time afford a great deal of satisfaction and fulfillment for those educators who are able to find solutions to them, no matter how large or small the scale of the solution might be. GROUP ACTIVITY 1.1 EXPERIENCE If possible, interview an older art teacher about the challenges he or she faced in teaching art. Ask him or her why he or she thought teaching art as a viable career choice. What made him or her want to teach? What things does he or she wish he or she could have done better? Discuss the following questions in groups and present a summary of your discussion in class: 1. Reflect on your Art subject back in your elementary years. What was good about it? What could have been better? Which issues among those discussed above did you witness? 2. Did your being exposed to Art in your elementary and maybe high school education influence your desire to pursue a career in Art Education today? If yes, what was it about your early experiences with art that influenced you? If no, what experiences outside of the art classroom inspired you to pursue Art Education now?