ANALYZING PRIMARY EVIDENCE SOURCES AUTHOR Who wrote it? What was their position in society? Are they a reliable source? What other beliefs might the author hold? AUTHOR'S PURPOSE What was the author's purpose? Why was it created when it was? Why has it survived? AUDIENCE Who is it for? Does the audience affect the content? CONTENT What's the point? What does it not say? FORMAT What is the format? Does the source's format or genre add meaning? LIMITATIONS How is the author's knowledge limited? What other sources could fill in the gaps? ARGUMENTATION THESIS HISTORICAL THINKING SKILLS EVIDENCE EVIDENCE EVIDENCE CAUSE EFFECT EVENT What were the reasons for this event? What factors contributed to a specific pattern or trend? What prompted this person or group to act this way? RESULT What resulted from this event, pattern, or action? What were the short-term and long-term effects? SIGNIFICANCE What cause seemed to be the most significant? What effect seemed to be the most significant? EXPERIENCE How do assessments from historians concerning causation differ from those who experienced the event, pattern, or action? PATTERNS OF CHANGE What changed within a specific time period? What remained the same during a specific time period? What can explain why some things have changed while others have not? How are continuity and change represented in different types of sources? What might be the reasons behind different depictions of continuity and change? CONTINUITY OVER TIME COMPARE & CONTRAST DEVELOPMENTS How are separate developments from the same time period similar or different? EFFECT How and why did an event or development affect different groups in different ways? VIEWPOINT How does a viewpoint compare with another when discussing the same event or historical development? CONTEXTUALIZATION WHEN? When and where was a source created? WHERE? How does the context in which a source is read or viewed inform how it is understood? PROCESS? EVENT? How do larger processes or patterns shape specific events? How does a specific event related to a larger process or pattern? INFLUENCE? RELIABILITY? REGION? What contemporaneous events influenced the source or its creator? How does the context influence the reliability of the source? What was happening at the specific place or region where an event occured? INTERPRETATION SECONDARY SOURCES MAIN IDEAS What is the main idea or argument of a historian? DIFFERENT CONCLUSIONS Why might historians develop different arguments about the same set of event or development? EVIDENCE What is one piece of information that supports the argument of this historian? What is one that undermines the argument? PERIODIZATION What are the specific dates chosen to start and end a period of history? Why were these dates chosen? What are common characteristics of a historical period? EVENT, IDEA, CONCEPT TURNING POINT EVENT, IDEA, CONCEPT Why do different sources sometimes start or end periods at different times? How would choosing a different beginning or ending change the telling of history?