# c2

```Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
True/False Questions
1. Within the relevant range, a change in activity results in a change in total variable cost
and the per unit fixed cost.
Ans: True AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Medium
2. The reluctance of managers to lay off employees when activity declines in the shortrun leads to an increase in the ratio of variable to fixed costs.
Ans: False AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Hard
3. A variable cost fluctuates in total as activity changes but remains constant on a per
unit basis over the relevant range.
Ans: True AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
4. A cost that is classified as variable with respect to one measure of activity could be
classified as fixed with respect to a different measure of activity.
Ans: True AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Hard
5. Fixed costs remain constant in total, but vary inversely with changes in activity when
expressed on a per unit basis.
Ans: True AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
6. Committed fixed costs have a short-term planning horizon--usually one year.
Ans: False AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
7. The following costs are all examples of committed fixed costs: depreciation on
buildings, advertising, insurance, and management development and training.
Ans: False AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Medium
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-5
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
8. The time frame in which discretionary fixed costs are controllable is usually much
shorter than the time frame for committed fixed costs.
Ans: True AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
9. The high-low method is generally more accurate than the least-squares regression
method in analyzing cost behavior.
Ans: False AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3,5 Level: Easy
10. A major problem with the high-low method of cost estimation is that some data are
omitted from the analysis.
Ans: True AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
11. The high and low points used in the high-low method tend to be unusual and therefore
the cost formula may not accurately represent all of the data.
Ans: True AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
12. Contribution margin and gross margin mean the same thing.
Ans: False AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Medium
13. Contribution margin equals revenue minus all variable costs.
Ans: True AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Easy
14. The traditional income statement organizes costs on the basis of cost behavior.
Ans: False AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
5-6
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
15. It is necessary to break mixed costs into their variable and fixed cost components in
order to construct an income statement using the contribution approach.
Ans: True AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Easy
Multiple Choice Questions
16. A is a fixed cost; B is a variable cost. During the current year the level of activity has
decreased but is still within the relevant range. We would expect that:
A) The cost per unit of A has remained unchanged.
B) The cost per unit of B has decreased.
C) The cost per unit of A has decreased.
D) The cost per unit of B has remained unchanged.
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Medium
17. Which costs will change with an increase in activity within the relevant range?
A) Unit fixed cost and total fixed cost
B) Unit variable cost and total variable cost
C) Unit fixed cost and total variable cost
D) Unit fixed cost and unit variable cost
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Medium
18. Salaries of accounts receivable clerks when one clerical worker is needed for every
750 accounts receivable is an example of a:
A) fixed cost
B) step-variable cost
C) mixed cost
D) curvilinear cost
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Medium
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-7
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
19. Limousine Conversion Company purchases ordinary Cadillacs, cuts them in half, and
then adds a middle section to the vehicles to create stretch limousines. With respect to
the number of cars converted, the cost of the Cadillacs purchased for conversion by
Limousine Conversion Company would best be described as a:
A) fixed cost
B) mixed cost
C) step-variable cost
D) variable cost
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
20. For an automobile manufacturer, the cost of a driver's side air bag purchased from a
supplier and installed in every automobile would best be described as a:
A) fixed cost.
B) mixed cost.
C) step-variable cost.
D) variable cost.
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
21. With respect to a fixed cost, an increase in the activity level within the relevant range
results in:
A) an increase in fixed cost per unit.
B) a proportionate increase in total fixed costs.
C) an unchanged fixed cost per unit.
D) a decrease in fixed cost per unit.
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
22. In the standard cost formula Y = a + bX, what does the “Y” represent?
A) total cost
B) total fixed cost
C) total variable cost
D) variable cost per unit
Ans: A AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
5-8
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
23. In the standard cost formula Y = a + bX, what does the “a” represent?
A) total cost
B) total fixed cost
C) total variable cost
D) variable cost per unit
Ans: B AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
24. In the standard cost formula Y = a + bX, what does the “b” represent?
A) total cost
B) total fixed cost
C) total variable cost
D) variable cost per unit
Ans: D AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Medium
25. In the standard cost formula Y = a + bX, what does the “X” represent?
A) total cost
B) total fixed cost
C) units of activity
D) variable cost per unit
Ans: C AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
26. Which of the following would usually be considered a discretionary fixed cost for a
soft drink bottling company?
A) the cost of advertising its products
B) the cost of fire insurance on its factory building
C) depreciation on its manufacturing equipment
D) both a and b above
Ans: A AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Medium
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-9
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
27. Which of the following is a weakness of the quick-and-dirty scattergraph method of
analyzing mixed cost?
A) It is impossible to determine variable cost per unit.
B) Only two data points are used and the rest are ignored in drawing the
scattergraph.
C) Different people will have different answers even though they are analyzing the
same set of data.
D) Both B and C above
Ans: C AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 2 Level: Easy
28. Which of the following statements is true when referring to the high-low method of
cost analysis?
A) The high-low method has no major weaknesses.
B) The high-low method is very hard to apply.
C) In essence, the high-low method draws a straight line through two data points.
D) None of the above is true.
Ans: C AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
29. Contribution margin is computed as sales revenue minus:
A) fixed expenses
B) variable expenses
C) cost of goods sold
D) cost of goods manufactured
Ans: B AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
5-10
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
30. Which of the following approaches to preparing an income statement calculates gross
margin?
A)
B)
C)
D)
Approach
Approach
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
Ans: B AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement LO: 4 Level: Medium
31. The least-squares regression method:
A) fits a regression line by minimizing the sum of the squared errors from the
regression line.
B) is generally less accurate than the scattergraph method.
C) can be used only if the fixed cost element is larger than the variable cost
element.
D) is the only method acceptable under generally accepted accounting principles.
Ans: A AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 5 Level: Medium
32. Multiple regression analysis is used when:
A) more than one cost category must be analyzed.
B) when more than one factor causes variation in a cost.
C) the high-low method cannot be used because there is only one observation.
D) all of the points on a scattergraph fall exactly on a regression line.
Ans: B AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 5 Level: Medium
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-11
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
33. Iacono Corporation is a wholesaler that sells a single product. Management has
provided the following cost data for two levels of monthly sales volume. The company
sells the product for \$127.20 per unit.
Sales volume (units) ..................................
5,000
6,000
Cost of sales............................................... \$419,000 \$502,800
Selling and administrative costs ................ \$186,500 \$202,200
The best estimate of the total contribution margin when 5,300 units are sold is:
A) \$230,020
B) \$51,410
C) \$146,810
D) \$32,330
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3,4 Level: Hard
Solution:
Variable component of cost of goods sold:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$502,800 − \$419,000)/(6,000 − 5,000)
Variable cost = \$83.80 per unit
Variable component of selling and administrative expenses:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$202,200 − \$186,500)/(6,000 − 5,000)
Variable cost = \$15.70 per unit
Sales revenue (\$127.20 &times; 5,300) .........................
\$674,160
Variable expenses:
Variable cost of goods sold (\$83.80 &times; 5,300) .. \$444,140
83,210
527,350
(\$15.70 &times; 5,300) ...........................................
Contribution margin ............................................
\$ 146,810
5-12
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
34. Utility costs at Service, Inc. are a mixture of fixed and variable components. Records
indicate that utility costs are an average of \$0.40 per hour at an activity level of 9,000
machine hours and \$0.25 per hour at an activity level of 18,000 machine hours.
Assuming that this activity is within the relevant range, what is the expected total
utility cost if the company works 13,000 machine hours?
A) \$4,225
B) \$5,200
C) \$4,000
D) \$3,250
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
Solution:
MachineHours
High activity level ..... 18,000
Low activity level ...... 9,000
Average
Cost per
Hour
\$0.25
\$0.40
Total Utility Cost
(machine-hours &times;
average cost per hour)
\$4,500
\$3,600
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$4,500 − \$3,600) &divide; (18,000 – 9,000) = \$0.10
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$4,500 − (\$0.10 &times; 18,000) = \$2,700
Therefore, the cost formula for total utility cost is \$2,700 per period plus \$0.10 per
machine-hour, or Y = \$2,700 + \$0.10X.
At an activity level of 13,000 machine-hours, total cost is estimated to be:
Y = \$2,700 + (\$0.10 &times; 13,000) = \$4,000
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-13
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
35. Clerical costs in the billing department of Craig Company are a mixture of variable
and fixed components. Records indicate that average unit processing costs are \$0.50
per account processed at an activity level of 32,000 accounts. When only 22,000
accounts are processed, the total cost of processing is \$12,500. Assuming that this
activity is within the relevant range, at a budgeted level of 25,000 accounts:
A) processing costs are expected to total \$8,750.
B) fixed processing costs are expected to be \$10,400.
C) the variable processing costs are expected to be \$0.35 per account processed.
D) processing costs are expected to total \$14,975.
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
Solution:
Accounts
High activity level ..... 32,000
Low activity level ...... 22,000
*Given
Average
Cost per
Account
Processed
\$0.50
Total Utility Cost
(accounts &times; average
cost per account
processed)
\$16,000
\$12,500*
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$16,000 − \$12,500) &divide; (32,000 – 22,000) = \$0.35
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$16,000 − (\$0.35 &times; 32,000) = \$4,800
Therefore, the cost formula for total utility cost is \$4,800 per period plus \$0.35 per
account processed, or Y = \$4,800 + \$0.35X.
At an activity level of 25,000 accounts, total cost is estimated to be:
Y = \$4,800 + (\$0.35 &times; 25,000) = \$13,550
5-14
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
36. Shipping cost at Junk Food Imports is a mixed cost with variable and fixed
components. Past records indicate total shipping cost was \$18,000 for 16,000 pounds
shipped and \$22,500 for 22,000 pounds shipped. Assuming that this activity is within
the relevant range, if the company plans to ship 18,000 pounds next month, the
expected shipping cost is:
A) \$18,500
B) \$20,400
C) \$19,500
D) \$24,000
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Medium
Solution:
High activity level .....
Low activity level ......
Pounds Shipped
22,000
16,000
Shipping
Cost
\$22,500
\$18,000
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$22,500 − \$18,000) &divide; (22,000 − 16,000) = \$0.75
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$22,500 − (\$0.75 &times; 22,000) = \$6,000
Therefore, the cost formula for total shipping cost is \$6,000 per period plus \$0.75 per
pound shipped, or Y = \$6,000 + \$0.75X.
At an activity level of 18,000 pounds shipped, total cost is estimated to be:
Y = \$6,000 + (\$0.75 &times; 18,000) = \$19,500
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-15
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
37. Larson Brothers, Inc., used the high-low method to derive its cost formula for
electrical power cost. According to the cost formula, the variable cost per unit of
activity is \$3 per machine-hour. Total electrical power cost at the high level of activity
was \$7,600 and at the low level of activity was \$7,300. If the high level of activity was
1,200 machine hours, then the low level of activity was:
A) 800 machine hours
B) 900 machine hours
C) 1,000 machine hours
D) 1,100 machine hours
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$7,600 − \$7,300) &divide; (1,200 − X) = \$3, where X = low level of activity
=&gt; \$300 &divide; (1,200 – X) = \$3
=&gt; \$300 = \$3 &times; (1,200 – X)
=&gt; \$100 = \$1,200 – X
=&gt; X = \$1,100
5-16
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
38. The following production and average cost data for a month's operations have been
supplied by a company that produces a single product.
Production volume ........................
1,000 units
2,000 units
Direct materials ............................. \$4.00 per unit \$4.00 per unit
Direct labor .................................... \$3.50 per unit \$3.50 per unit
Manufacturing overhead................ \$10.00 per unit \$6.20 per unit
The total fixed manufacturing cost and variable manufacturing cost per unit are as
follows:
A) \$3,600; \$7.50
B) \$3,600; \$9.90
C) \$7,600; \$7.50
D) \$7,600; \$9.90
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard Source: CIMA, adapted
Solution:
First, calculate the variable manufacturing cost per unit:
Production
Volume
(Units)
High activity level ..... 2,000
Low activity level ...... 1,000
Average
Cost per
Unit
\$6.20
\$10.00
Total Manufacturing
&times; average cost per
unit)
\$12,400
\$10,000
Variable manufacturing overhead cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$12,400 − \$10,000) &divide; (2,000 – 1,000) = \$2.40
Fixed cost element of manufacturing overhead = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$12,400 − (\$2.40 &times; 2,000) = \$7,600
Total variable cost per unit = Direct material + Direct labor + Variable manufacturing
overhead = \$4.00 + \$3.50 + \$2.40 = \$9.90
There are no fixed direct materials or direct labor, so the total fixed costs would be
equal to the fixed cost portion of manufacturing overhead, or \$7,600.
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-17
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
39. Anderst Corporation has provided the following production and average cost data for
two levels of monthly production volume. The company produces a single product.
Production volume ........................
2,000 units
4,000 units
Direct materials ............................. \$50.20 per unit \$50.20 per unit
Direct labor .................................... \$45.10 per unit \$45.10 per unit
Manufacturing overhead................ \$100.90 per unit \$58.30 per unit
The best estimate of the total monthly fixed manufacturing cost is:
A) \$201,800
B) \$233,200
C) \$170,400
D) \$392,400
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
Solution:
First, calculate the variable manufacturing cost per unit:
Production
Volume
(Units)
High activity level ..... 4,000
Low activity level ...... 2,000
Average
Cost per
Unit
\$58.30
\$100.90
Total Manufacturing
&times; average cost per
unit)
\$233,200
\$201,800
Variable manufacturing overhead cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$233,200 − \$201,800) &divide; (4,000 – 2,000) = \$15.70
Fixed cost element of manufacturing overhead = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$233,200 − (\$15.70 &times; 4,000) = \$170,400
5-18
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
40. Bakeman Corporation has provided the following production and average cost data for
two levels of monthly production volume. The company produces a single product.
Production volume ........................
2,000 units
3,000 units
Direct materials ............................. \$36.10 per unit \$36.10 per unit
Direct labor .................................... \$48.00 per unit \$48.00 per unit
Manufacturing overhead................ \$51.00 per unit \$40.90 per unit
The best estimate of the total variable manufacturing cost per unit is:
A) \$104.80
B) \$36.10
C) \$20.70
D) \$84.10
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
Solution:
To calculate the variable manufacturing cost per unit:
Production
Volume
(Units)
High activity level ..... 3,000
Low activity level ...... 2,000
Average
Cost per
Unit
\$40.90
\$51.00
Total Manufacturing
(units &times; average cost
per unit)
\$122,700
\$102,000
Variable manufacturing overhead cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$122,700 − \$102,000) &divide; (3,000 – 2,000) = \$20.70
Total variable manufacturing cost per unit
= Direct materials + Direct labor + Manufacturing overhead
= \$36.10 + \$48.00 + \$20.70 = \$104.80
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-19
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
41. Carcia Corporation has provided the following production and average cost data for
two levels of monthly production volume. The company produces a single product.
Production volume ........................
6,000 units
7,000 units
Direct materials ............................. \$89.40 per unit \$89.40 per unit
Direct labor .................................... \$11.20 per unit \$11.20 per unit
Manufacturing overhead................ \$107.70 per unit \$95.70 per unit
The best estimate of the total cost to manufacture 6,300 units is closest to:
A) \$1,274,490
B) \$1,287,090
C) \$1,312,290
D) \$1,236,690
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
Solution:
To calculate the variable manufacturing cost per unit:
Production
Volume
(Units)
High activity level ..... 7,000
Low activity level ...... 6,000
Average
Cost per
Unit
\$95.70
\$107.70
Total Manufacturing
&times; average cost per
unit)
\$669,900
\$646,200
= Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$669,900 − \$646,200) &divide; (7,000 – 6,000) = \$23.70
Fixed cost element of manufacturing overhead
= Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$669,900 − (\$23.70 &times; 7,000) = \$504,000
Direct materials ...................................
Direct labor ..........................................
Total cost to manufacture 6,300 units
5-20
Per Unit
Cost
\$89.40
\$11.20
\$23.70
Number
of Units
6,300
6,300
6,300
Total Cost
\$ 563,220
70,560
149,310
504,000
\$1,287,090
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
42. Daar Corporation has provided the following production and total cost data for two
levels of monthly production volume. The company produces a single product.
Production volume ........................ 2,000 units 3,000 units
Direct materials .............................
\$188,400
\$282,600
Direct labor ....................................
\$91,800
\$137,700
\$110,400
\$127,800
The best estimate of the total monthly fixed manufacturing cost is:
A) \$75,600
B) \$390,600
C) \$469,350
D) \$548,100
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Medium
Solution:
To calculate the variable manufacturing cost per unit:
Production
Volume
(Units)
High activity level ..... 3,000
Low activity level ...... 2,000
Total Manufacturing
\$127,800
\$110,400
= Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$127,800 − \$110,400) &divide; (3,000 – 2,000) = \$17.40
Fixed cost element of manufacturing overhead
= Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$127,800 − (\$17.40 &times; 3,000) = \$75,600
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-21
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
43. Edde Corporation has provided the following production and total cost data for two
levels of monthly production volume. The company produces a single product.
Production volume ........................ 4,000 units 5,000 units
Direct materials .............................
\$291,200
\$364,000
Direct labor ....................................
\$219,600
\$274,500
\$320,400
\$343,000
The best estimate of the total variable manufacturing cost per unit is:
A) \$127.70
B) \$150.30
C) \$22.60
D) \$72.80
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Medium
Solution:
Direct material cost per unit = \$291,200 &divide; 4,000 = \$72.80
(Alternatively, direct material cost per unit = \$364,000 &divide; 5,000 = \$72.80)
Direct labor cost per unit = \$219,600 &divide; 4,000 = \$54.90
(Alternatively, direct labor cost per unit = \$274,500 &divide; 5,000 = \$54.90)
Variable manufacturing overhead cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$343,000 − \$320,400) &divide; (5,000 – 4,000) = \$22.60
Total variable manufacturing cost per unit = \$72.80 + \$54.90 + \$22.60 = \$150.30
5-22
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
44. Farah Corporation has provided the following production and total cost data for two
levels of monthly production volume. The company produces a single product.
Production volume ........................ 2,000 units 3,000 units
Direct materials .............................
\$146,200
\$219,300
Direct labor ....................................
\$37,200
\$55,800
\$146,600
\$158,100
The best estimate of the total cost to manufacture 2,300 units is closest to:
A) \$332,120
B) \$379,500
C) \$355,810
D) \$360,960
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Medium
Solution:
To calculate the variable manufacturing cost per unit:
Production
Volume
(Units)
High activity level ..... 3,000
Low activity level ...... 2,000
Total Manufacturing
\$158,100
\$146,600
= Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$158,100 − \$146,600) &divide; (3,000 – 2,000) = \$11.50
Fixed cost element of manufacturing overhead
= Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$158,100 − (\$11.50 &times; 3,000) = \$123,600
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-23
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Per Unit
Cost
\$73.10*
\$18.60**
\$11.50
Direct materials ...................................
Direct labor .........................................
Total cost to manufacture 2,300 units
Number
of Units
2,300
2,300
2,300
Total Cost
\$168,130
42,780
26,450
123,600
\$360,960
*\$219,300 &divide; 3,000 units = \$73.10 per unit
**\$55,800 &divide; 3,000 units = \$18.60 per unit
45. Gamad Corporation is a wholesaler that sells a single product. Management has
provided the following cost data for two levels of monthly sales volume. The company
sells the product for \$131.00 per unit.
Sales volume (units) ............................
4,000
5,000
Cost of sales......................................... \$262,800 \$328,500
Selling and administrative costs .......... \$230,400 \$244,500
The best estimate of the total monthly fixed cost is:
A) \$174,000
B) \$533,100
C) \$493,200
D) \$573,000
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Medium
5-24
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Solution:
Variable component of cost of goods sold:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$328,500 − \$262,800)/(5,000 − 4,000)
Variable cost = \$65.70
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$328,500 − \$65.70 &times; 5,000 = \$0
Low volume: \$262,800 − \$65.70 &times; 4,000 = \$0
Variable component of selling and administrative expenses:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$244,500 − \$230,400)/(5,000 − 4,000)
Variable cost = \$14.10 per unit
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$244,500 − \$14.10 &times; 5,000 = \$174,000
Low volume: \$230,400 − \$14.10 &times; 4,000 = \$174,000
Total variable cost per unit:
\$65.70 + \$14.10 = \$79.80
Total fixed cost:
\$0 + \$174,000 = \$174,000
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-25
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
46. Harada Corporation is a wholesaler that sells a single product. Management has
provided the following cost data for two levels of monthly sales volume. The company
sells the product for \$88.70 per unit.
Sales volume (units) ............................
4,000
5,000
Cost of sales......................................... \$273,600 \$342,000
Selling and administrative costs .......... \$56,800 \$68,000
The best estimate of the total variable cost per unit is:
A) \$68.40
B) \$79.60
C) \$82.60
D) \$82.00
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable component of cost of goods sold:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$342,000 − \$273,600)/(5,000 − 4,000)
Variable cost = \$68.40 per unit
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$342,000 − \$68.40 &times; 5,000 = \$0
Low volume: \$273,600 − \$68.40 &times; 4,000 = \$0
Variable component of selling and administrative expenses:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$68,000 − \$56,800)/(5,000 − 4,000)
Variable cost = \$11.20
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$68,000 − \$11.20 &times; 5,000 = \$12,000
Low volume: \$56,800 − \$11.20 &times; 4,000 = \$12,000
Total variable cost per unit:
\$68.40 + \$11.20 = \$79.60
Total fixed cost:
\$0 + \$12,000 = \$12,000
5-26
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
47. A company produces a single product. The following volume and average cost data
for two accounting periods have been provided by management:
Number of units .............................
Direct materials .............................
Direct labor ....................................
500
800
\$2.00 \$2.00
\$1.50 \$1.50
\$2.50 \$1.75
\$1.00 \$0.625
The best estimate for the cost formula for the total cost of producing and selling the
product (where X is the number of units produced and sold in a period) is:
A) \$1,000 + \$1.125 X
B) \$1,000 + \$3.50 X
C) \$1,500 + \$3.50 X
D) \$1,500 + \$4.00 X
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard Source: CIMA, adapted
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-27
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$1,400* − \$1,250**)/(800 − 500)
Variable cost = \$0.50
*\$1.75 &times; 800 = \$1,400
**\$2.50 &times; 500 = \$1,250
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$1,400 − \$0.50 &times; 800 = \$1,000
Low volume: \$1,250 − \$0.50 &times; 500 = \$1,000
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$500* − \$500**)/(800 − 500)
Variable cost = \$0
*\$0.625 &times; 800 = \$500
**\$1.00 &times; 500 = \$500
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$500 − \$0 &times; 800 = \$500
Low volume: \$500 − \$0 &times; 500 = \$500
Total variable cost per unit (includes direct material, direct labor, variable
\$2.00 + \$1.50 + \$0.50 + \$0 = \$4.00
Total fixed cost:
\$1,000 + \$500 = \$1,500
5-28
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
48. The employees at Mobile Sun Lotion Company roam the beaches with a tank of
premium suntan lotion strapped on their backs. For a \$2 charge, the employees will
spray sunbathers with suntan lotion. Last year, Mobile sprayed 250,000 customers and
incurred the following costs:
Total variable costs ............ \$175,000
Total fixed costs ................
50,000
Total costs.......................... \$225,000
Assuming that this activity is within the relevant range, what would Mobile's total
contribution margin have been last year if only 240,000 customers were sprayed?
A) \$255,000
B) \$262,000
C) \$305,000
D) \$312,000
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,4 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable cost per unit: \$175,000 &divide; 250,000 customers = \$0.70 per customer
Sales (\$2 &times; 240,000)........................................... \$480,000
Variable costs (\$0.70 &times; 240,000) .......................
168,000
Contribution margin ........................................... \$312,000
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-29
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
49. The following costs are budgeted for Ghana Corporation for next year:
Total variable costs ............ \$350,000
Total fixed costs ................ 240,000
Total costs.......................... \$590,000
The costs above are based on a level of activity of 10,000 units. Assuming that this
activity is within the relevant range, what would total costs be for Ghana if the level of
activity was 12,000 units?
A) \$590,000
B) \$638,000
C) \$660,000
D) \$708,000
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable cost per unit: \$350,000 &divide; 10,000 units = \$35 per unit
The cost function is:
Y = \$240,000 + \$35X
Y = \$240,000 + \$35(12,000)
Y = \$660,000
5-30
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
50. The following costs are budgeted for Harlow Corporation for next year:
Total variable costs ............ \$270,000
Total fixed costs ................ 630,000
Total costs.......................... \$900,000
The costs above are based on a level of activity of 20,000 units. Assuming that this
activity is within the relevant range, what would total cost per unit be for Harlow if the
level of activity was only 18,000 units?
A) \$45.00
B) \$46.50
C) \$48.50
D) \$50.00
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable cost per unit: \$270,000 &divide; 20,000 units = \$13.50 per unit
The cost function is:
Y = \$630,000 + \$13.50X
Y = \$630,000 + \$13.50(18,000)
Y = \$873,000
Total cost &divide; number of units = total cost per unit
\$873,000 &divide; 18,000 = \$48.50
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-31
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
51. At a volume of 20,000 direct labor hours, Tirso Company incurs \$50,000 in factory
overhead costs, including \$10,000 in fixed costs. Assuming that this activity is within
the relevant range, if volume increases to 25,000 direct labor hours, Tirso Company
would expect to incur total factory overhead costs of:
A) \$50,000
B) \$60,000
C) \$62,500
D) \$72,500
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost per direct labor hour: \$40,000 &divide; 20,000 direct labor hours = \$2.00 per
direct labor hour
The cost function is:
Y = \$10,000 + \$2.00X
Y = \$10,000 + \$2.00(25,000)
Y = \$60,000
5-32
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
52. The Frandsen Company has estimated the following cost formulas for overhead:
Lubricants ..............
Utilities ..................
Depreciation ..........
Maintenance ..........
Machine setup........
Cost Formula
\$1,500 plus \$0.50 per machine-hour
\$2,000 plus \$0.60 per machine-hour
\$1,000
\$200 plus \$0.10 per machine-hour
\$0.30 per machine-hour
Based on these cost formulas, the total overhead cost expected at an activity level of
300 machine hours is:
A) \$4,950
B) \$5,000
C) \$4,700
D) \$5,150
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Lubricants
(variable cost = \$0.50 &times; 300) ........
Utilities
(variable cost = \$0.60 &times; 300) ........
Depreciation .....................................
Maintenance
(variable cost = \$0.10 &times; 300) ........
Machine setup
(variable cost = \$0.30 &times; 300) ........
Total cost ..........................................
Fixed
Cost
Portion
Variable
Cost
Portion
Total Cost
\$1,500
\$150
\$1,650
\$2,000
\$1,000
\$180
2,180
1,000
\$200
\$30
230
\$90
90
\$5,150
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-33
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
53. Erg Manufacturing Company has developed the following overhead cost formulas:
Depreciation ..........
Set-up.....................
Lubrication ............
Utilities ..................
Cost Formula
\$500
\$400 plus \$0.20 per machine-hour
\$50 plus \$0.25 per machine-hour
\$0.40 per machine-hour
Based on these cost formulas, the total overhead cost expected for Erg Manufacturing
Company if 200 machine hours are worked is:
A) \$620
B) \$900
C) \$170
D) \$1,120
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Lubricants (variable cost = \$0.25 &times; 200)
Utilities (variable cost = \$0.40 &times; 200) .....
Depreciation ............................................
Setup (variable cost = \$0.20 &times; 200) ........
Total cost .................................................
Fixed
Cost
Portion
\$50
Variable
Cost
Portion
\$50
\$80
\$500
\$400
\$40
Total
Cost
\$ 100
80
500
440
\$1,120
54. Vicuna Wool Company manufactures and sells sweaters. Last year, Vicuna operated at
100% of capacity and had the following cost formula for total manufacturing costs:
Y = \$50,000 + \$400X
Assuming no change in cost structure, what would Vicuna's cost formula have been
last year if they only operated at 90% of production capacity?
A) Y = \$45,000 + \$360X
B) Y = \$45,000 + \$400X
C) Y = \$50,000 + \$360X
D) Y = \$50,000 + \$400X
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
5-34
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
55. Timchak Corporation reports that at an activity level of 9,900 units, its total variable
cost is \$919,116 and its total fixed cost is \$259,974. What would be the total cost, both
fixed and variable, at an activity level of 10,100 units? Assume that this level of
activity is within the relevant range.
A) \$1,197,658
B) \$1,191,000
C) \$1,179,090
D) \$1,202,910
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost per unit: \$919,116 &divide; 9,900 units = \$92.84 per unit
The cost function is:
Y = \$259,974 + \$92.84X
Y = \$259,974 + \$92.84(10,100)
Y = \$1,197,658
56. At an activity level of 8,400 machine-hours in a month, Braughton Corporation's total
variable maintenance and repair cost is \$697,284 and its total fixed maintenance and
repair cost is \$464,100. What would be the total maintenance and repair cost, both
fixed and variable, at an activity level of 8,500 units in a month? Assume that this
level of activity is within the relevant range.
A) \$1,175,210
B) \$1,169,685
C) \$1,161,384
D) \$1,168,297
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost per machine-hour: \$697,284 &divide; 8,400 hours = \$83.01 per unit
The cost function is:
Y = \$464,100 + \$83.01X
Y = \$464,100 + \$83.01(8,500)
Y = \$1,169,685
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-35
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
57. At an activity level of 7,200 machine-hours in a month, Falks Corporation's total
variable production engineering cost is \$556,416 and its total fixed production
engineering cost is \$226,008. What would be the total production engineering cost per
unit, both fixed and variable, at an activity level of 7,300 units in a month? Assume
that this level of activity is within the relevant range.
A) \$107.93
B) \$107.18
C) \$108.67
D) \$108.24
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost per machine-hour: \$556,416 &divide; 7,200 hours = \$77.28 per hour
The cost function is:
Y = \$226,008 + \$77.28X
Y = \$226,008 + \$77.28(7,300)
Y = \$790,152
58. You are applying the scattergraph method and find that the regression line you have
drawn passes through a data point with the following coordinates: 7,500 units and
\$10,000. The regression line passes through the Y axis at the \$4,000 point. Which of
the following is the cost formula that represents the slope of this line?
A) Y=\$4,000+\$1.25X
B) Y=\$4,000+\$0.80X
C) Y=\$10,000+\$1.33X
D) None of the above is true
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 2 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$10,000 – \$4,000) &divide; (7,500 – 0) = \$0.80
Since the regression line passes through the Y axis at the \$4,000 point, the \$4,000
represents the fixed costs.
Therefore, the cost formula would be Y=\$4,000+\$0.80X.
5-36
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
59. Wright Company has observed that at an activity level of 5,000 units the cost for
maintenance is \$6,500, and at 10,000 units the cost for maintenance is \$9,000. Using
the high-low method, the cost formula for maintenance is:
A) \$4,000 plus \$.50 per unit
B) \$3,000 plus \$.60 per unit
C) \$.90 per unit
D) \$1.30 per unit
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$9,000 – \$6,500) &divide; (10,000 – 5,000) = \$0.50
Fixed cost element = Total cost – Variable cost element
= \$9,000 – (\$0.50 &times; 10,000) = \$4,000
Therefore, the cost formula for total maintenance cost is \$4,000 per period plus \$0.50
per unit, or Y = \$4,000 + \$0.50X.
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-37
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
60. Jackson, Inc., is preparing a budget for next year and requires a breakdown of the cost
of steam used in its factory into fixed and variable components. The following data on
the cost of steam used and direct labor hours worked are available for the last six
months:
July ..................
August .............
September ........
October ............
November ........
December.........
Total.................
Cost of Steam Direct Labor-Hours
\$ 15,850
3,000
13,400
2,050
16,370
2,900
19,800
3,650
17,600
2,670
18,500
2,650
\$101,520
16,920
If Jackson uses the high-low method of analysis, the estimated variable cost of steam
per direct labor hour would be:
A) \$4.00
B) \$5.42
C) \$5.82
D) \$6.00
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Medium Source: CPA, adapted
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$19,800 – \$13,400) &divide; (3,650 – 2,050) = \$4.00
5-38
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
61. Shown below are units produced and total manufacturing costs for the past four
months at Minga Manufacturing Corporation:
Jul ..............
Aug ............
Sep .............
Oct .............
Units Produced Total Cost
120
\$446,000
150
\$508,000
180
\$668,000
160
\$574,000
What is Minga's cost formula for total manufacturing cost under the high-low method?
A) Y = \$2,000 + \$3,700X
B) Y = \$3,700 + \$2,000X
C) Y = \$14,000 + \$3,600X
D) Y = \$62,000 + \$3,200X
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$668,000 – \$446,000) &divide; (180 – 120) = \$3,700
Fixed cost element = Total cost – Variable cost element
= \$668,000 – (\$3,700 &times; 180) = \$2,000
Therefore, the cost formula for total cost is \$2,000 per period plus \$3,700 per unit, or
Y = \$2,000 + \$3,700X.
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-39
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
62. A consulting company would like to develop a method of predicting its total costs in a
period. The following past costs have been recorded by the company in two periods:
Number of client-hours .................
Total cost .......................................
420
515
\$82,200 \$90,275
The best estimate of the cost formula for the company (where X is the number of
client-hours) is:
A) Y = \$46,500 + \$85 X
B) Y = \$42,000 + \$95 X
C) Y = \$46,500 – \$85 X
D) Y = \$51,500 – \$95 X
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy Source: CIMA, adapted
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$90,275 – \$82,200) &divide; (515 – 420) = \$85
Fixed cost element = Total cost – Variable cost element
= \$90,275 – (\$85 &times; 515) = \$46,500
Therefore, the cost formula for total cost is \$46,500 per period plus \$85 per clienthour, or Y = \$46,500 + \$85X.
5-40
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
63. Electrical costs at one of Finfrock Corporation's factories are listed below:
March.....................
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
Machine-Hours Electrical Cost
3,642
\$40,537
3,616
\$40,319
3,667
\$40,706
3,634
\$40,462
3,665
\$40,703
3,659
\$40,680
3,644
\$40,547
3,612
\$40,268
3,624
\$40,364
Management believes that electrical cost is a mixed cost that depends on machinehours. Using the high-low method to estimate the variable and fixed components of
this cost, these estimates would be closest to:
A) \$7.96 per machine-hour; \$11,517 per month
B) \$11.13 per machine-hour; \$40,510 per month
C) \$9.61 per machine-hour; \$5,533 per month
D) \$0.13 per machine-hour; \$40,246 per month
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$40,706 − \$40,268) &divide; (3,667 − 3,612) = \$7.96
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$40,706 − (\$7.96 &times; 3,667) = \$11,517
Therefore, the cost formula for total electrical cost is \$11,517 per period plus \$7.96
per machine-hour, or Y = \$11,517 + \$7.96X
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-41
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
64. Maintenance costs at a Straiton Corporation factory are listed below:
March.....................
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
Machine-Hours Maintenance Cost
3,627
\$54,384
3,588
\$53,980
3,637
\$54,453
3,638
\$54,491
3,572
\$53,843
3,611
\$54,196
3,644
\$54,550
3,609
\$54,181
3,669
\$54,767
Management believes that maintenance cost is a mixed cost that depends on machinehours. Using the high-low method to estimate the variable and fixed components of
this cost, these estimates would be closest to:
A) \$0.10 per machine-hour; \$54,382 per month
B) \$15.00 per machine-hour; \$54,316 per month
C) \$9.12 per machine-hour; \$21,309 per month
D) \$9.53 per machine-hour; \$19,801 per month
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$54,767 − \$53,843) &divide; (3,669 − 3,572) = \$9.53
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$54,767 − (\$9.53 &times; 3,669) = \$19,801
Therefore, the cost formula for total maintenance cost is \$19,801 per period plus \$9.53
per machine-hour, or Y = \$19,801 + \$9.53X
5-42
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
65. Supply costs at Coulthard Corporation's chain of gyms are listed below:
March.....................
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
Client-Visits Supply Cost
12,855
\$23,598
12,283
\$23,278
13,104
\$23,742
12,850
\$23,607
12,493
\$23,415
12,794
\$23,562
12,686
\$23,496
12,765
\$23,541
13,018
\$23,687
Management believes that supply cost is a mixed cost that depends on client-visits.
Using the high-low method to estimate the variable and fixed components of this cost,
those estimates would be closest to:
A) \$1.85 per client-visit; \$23,547 per month
B) \$1.77 per client-visit; \$557 per month
C) \$0.55 per client-visit; \$16,579 per month
D) \$0.57 per client-visit; \$16,273 per month
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$23,742 − \$23,278) &divide; (13,104 − 12,283) = \$0.57
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$23,742 − (\$0.57 &times; 13,104) = \$16,273
Therefore, the cost formula for total maintenance cost is \$16,273 per period plus \$0.57
per client visit, or Y = \$16,273 + \$0.57X
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-43
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
66. A jewelry manufacturer incurred the following costs: 15,000 units produced with costs
of \$557,500, and 5,000 units produced with costs of \$292,500. Which cost formula
would you estimate using the high-low method?
A) Y=\$265,000+\$37.17X
B) Y=\$160,000+\$17.67X
C) Y=\$265,000+\$58.50X
D) Y=\$160,000+\$26.50X
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$557,500 − \$292,500) &divide; (15,000 − 5,000) = \$26.50
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$557,500 − (\$26.50 &times; 15,000) = \$160,000
Therefore, the cost formula for total utility cost is \$160,000 per period plus \$26.50 per
unit, or Y = \$160,000 + \$26.50X
5-44
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
67. Sales for a retail store were \$250,000. Net operating income totaled \$30,000 and cost
of goods sold was \$110,000. If the contribution margin was \$100,000, total variable
selling and administrative expenses must have been:
A) \$40,000
B) \$100,000
C) \$70,000
D) \$150,000
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Hard
Solution:
Sales...........................................................................
Variable cost of goods sold .......................................
Variable selling and administrative expenses ...........
Contribution margin ..................................................
\$250,000
\$110,000
?
?
\$100,000
To solve this problem, it must be worked backwards. First, calculate what total
variable expenses must be by subtracting the contribution margin from sales
(\$250,000 − \$100,000 = \$150,000). Of the total variable expenses, \$110,000 is given
in the problem as the variable cost of goods sold, so we would have:
Variable selling and administrative expenses = \$150,000 − \$110,000 = \$40,000.
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-45
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
68. Glory Company's gross margin exceeded its contribution margin by \$25,000. If sales
totaled \$175,000 when net operating income equaled \$20,000 and total selling and
administrative expenses equaled \$55,000, then the contribution margin equaled:
A) \$75,000
B) \$80,000
C) \$30,000
D) \$50,000
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Hard
Solution:
Gross margin .............................................
Less selling and administrative expenses ..
Net operating income ................................
\$
?
55,000
\$20,000
Solving backwards, gross margin is \$20,000 + \$55,000 = \$75,000.
Since the information given in the problem states that the gross margin exceeds the
contribution margin by \$25,000, the contribution margin must be \$75,000 − \$25,000 =
\$50,000.
5-46
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
69. Kramer Company is a retailer. At a sales level of \$450,000, Kramer Company's gross
margin is \$90,000 less than its contribution margin, its net operating income is
\$30,000, and its selling and administrative expenses total \$140,000. The company's
total fixed expenses are:
A) \$360,000
B) \$230,000
C) \$190,000
D) \$280,000
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Hard
Solution:
Sales...............................................................
Cost of goods sold (\$450,000 − \$170,000) ...
Gross margin (\$140,000 + \$30,000 ...............
Net operating income ....................................
\$450,000
280,000
170,000
140,000
\$ 30,000
Since the gross margin is \$90,000 less than the contribution margin, the contribution
margin is \$170,000 + \$90,000, or \$260,000.
Sales ................................................................
Variable expenses (\$450,000 − \$260,000) ......
Contribution margin ........................................
Fixed expenses (\$260,000 − \$30,000) ............
Net operating income ......................................
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
\$450,000
190,000
260,000
230,000
\$ 30,000
5-47
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
70. Gudwill Corporation, a manufacturing company, has provided the following financial
data for April:
Sales........................................................... \$340,000
Variable production expense ..................... \$43,000
Variable selling expense ............................ \$21,000
Fixed production expense .......................... \$62,000
Fixed selling expense ................................ \$67,000
The company had no beginning or ending inventories. The contribution margin for
April was:
A) \$243,000
B) \$235,000
C) \$26,000
D) \$123,000
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales........................................................... \$340,000
Less variable expenses:
Variable production expense ..................
43,000
Variable selling expense.........................
21,000
33,000
Contribution margin .................................. \$243,000
5-48
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
71. The management of Bushovisky Corporation, a manufacturing company, has provided
the following financial data for January:
Sales........................................................... \$230,000
Variable production expense ..................... \$31,000
Fixed production expense .......................... \$47,000
Variable selling expense ............................ \$19,000
Fixed selling expense ................................ \$27,000
The contribution margin for January was:
A) \$15,000
B) \$152,000
C) \$91,000
D) \$154,000
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales........................................................... \$230,000
Less variable expenses:
Variable production expense ..................
31,000
Variable selling expense.........................
19,000
26,000
Contribution margin .................................. \$154,000
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-49
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
72. The management of Gilmartin Corporation, a manufacturing company, has provided
the following data for February:
Sales...........................................................
Variable production expense .....................
Fixed production expense ..........................
Variable selling expense ............................
Fixed selling expense ................................
\$550,000
\$104,000
\$122,000
\$24,000
\$102,000
\$56,000
\$116,000
The contribution margin for February was:
A) \$366,000
B) \$210,000
C) \$26,000
D) \$324,000
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales........................................................... \$550,000
Less variable expenses:
Variable production expense .................. 104,000
Variable selling expense.........................
24,000
56,000
Contribution margin .................................. \$366,000
5-50
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
73. Stuart Company is a merchandising company. During the next month, the company
expects to sell 450 units. The company has the following revenue and cost structure:
Selling price per unit .........
Cost per unit ......................
Sales commission ..............
\$230
\$120
12% of sales
\$18,000 per month
\$32,500 per month
What is the expected contribution margin next month?
A) \$66,420
B) \$37,080
C) \$50,500
D) \$53,000
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Medium
Solution:
Sales (\$230 &times; 450) ...............................................
Less variable expenses:
Variable production expense (\$120 &times; 450) ......
Sales commissions (12% &times; \$103,500) .............
Contribution margin ............................................
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
\$103,500
54,000
12,420
\$ 37,080
5-51
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
74. Cranbrook Company has the following data for the month of March:
Sales........................................................... \$30,000
Direct labor ................................................ \$7,250
Fixed selling expense ................................ \$4,625
Direct materials ......................................... \$5,150
Variable selling expense ............................ \$4,975
Assume that direct labor is variable and all units are produced and sold in the same
month. What was the total contribution margin in March for Cranbrook Company?
A) \$3,725
B) \$8,875
C) \$15,425
D) \$16,125
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Medium
Solution:
Sales...........................................................
Less variable expenses:
Direct materials ......................................
Direct labor .............................................
Variable selling expense.........................
Contribution margin ..................................
5-52
\$30,000
5,150
7,250
4,100
4,800
4,975
\$ 3,725
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
75. The management of Dinky Tree Trimming believes that the number of trees trimmed
each month is an appropriate activity measure for total operating cost. Shown below
are the number of trees trimmed and operating costs in each of the last three months:
Trees Trimmed Operating Cost
March.....................
12
\$2,600
April.......................
18
\$2,990
May ........................
20
\$3,250
What is Dinky's cost formula for monthly operating cost using the least-squares
regression method?
A) Y = \$478.40 + \$176.80X
B) Y = \$1,625 + \$81.25X
C) Y = \$1,655 + \$77.50X
D) Y = \$8,840 + \$176.80X
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting Appendix: 5A LO: 5 Level: Hard
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$77.50 per tree
intercept = \$1,655 per month
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-53
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
76. Your boss would like you to estimate the fixed and variable components of a
particular cost. Actual data for this cost over four recent periods appear below:
Period 1......
Period 2......
Period 3......
Period 4......
Activity
26
29
25
24
Cost
\$269
\$285
\$256
\$254
Using the least-squares regression method, what is the cost formula for this cost?
A) Y = \$0.00 + \$10.23X
B) Y = \$97.00 + \$6.50X
C) Y = \$91.40 + \$6.72X
D) Y = \$99.10 + \$5.11X
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting Appendix: 5A LO: 5 Level: Hard
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$6.50 per activity unit
intercept = \$97.00 per period
5-54
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
77. Seifer Inc.'s inspection costs are listed below:
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
Units Produced Inspection Costs
119
\$8,558
117
\$8,535
113
\$8,415
125
\$8,736
152
\$9,357
108
\$8,320
120
\$8,603
192
\$10,337
Management believes that inspection cost is a mixed cost that depends on the number
of units produced. Using the least-squares regression method, the estimates of the
variable and fixed components of inspection cost would be closest to:
A) \$24.08 per unit plus \$5,709 per month
B) \$67.74 per unit plus \$8,858 per month
C) \$24.37 per unit plus \$5,658 per month
D) \$24.01 per unit plus \$5,727 per month
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting Appendix: 5A LO: 5 Level: Hard
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$24.08 per unit
intercept = \$5,709 per month
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-55
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
78. The management of Hamano Corporation would like for you to analyze their repair
costs, which are listed below:
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
Machine-Hours Repair Costs
4,459
\$98,523
4,426
\$98,296
4,493
\$98,781
4,417
\$98,207
4,432
\$98,349
4,446
\$98,420
4,489
\$98,749
4,475
\$98,654
Management believes that repair cost is a mixed cost that depends on the number of
machine-hours. Using the least-squares regression method, the estimates of the
variable and fixed components of repair cost would be closest to:
A) \$22.11 per machine-hour plus \$98,497 per month
B) \$7.37 per machine-hour plus \$65,670 per month
C) \$8.19 per machine-hour plus \$62,015 per month
D) \$7.55 per machine-hour plus \$64,859 per month
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting Appendix: 5A LO: 5 Level: Hard
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$7.37 per machine-hour
intercept = \$65,670 per month
Use the following to answer questions 79-81:
Callaghan Corporation is a wholesaler that sells a single product. Management has provided
the following cost data for two levels of monthly sales volume. The company sells the product
for \$138.20 per unit.
Sales volume (units) ......................
Cost of sales ..................................
5-56
6,000
7,000
\$499,200 \$582,400
\$285,600 \$303,800
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
79. The best estimate of the total monthly fixed cost is:
A) \$176,400
B) \$835,500
C) \$784,800
D) \$886,200
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable component of cost of goods sold:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$582,400 − \$499,200)/(7,000 − 6,000)
Variable cost = \$83.20
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$582,400 − \$83.20 &times; 7,000 = \$0
Low volume: \$499,200 − \$83.20 &times; 6,000 = \$0
Variable component of selling and administrative expenses:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$303,800 − \$285,600)/(7,000 − 6,000)
Variable cost = \$18.20
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$303,800 − \$18.20 &times; 7,000 = \$176,400
Low volume: \$285,600 − \$18.20 &times; 6,000 = \$176,400
Total variable cost per unit:
\$83.20 + \$18.20 = \$101.40
Total fixed cost:
\$0 + \$176,400 = \$176,400
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-57
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
80. The best estimate of the total variable cost per unit is:
A) \$83.20
B) \$126.60
C) \$101.40
D) \$130.80
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable component of cost of goods sold:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$582,400 − \$499,200)/(7,000 − 6,000)
Variable cost = \$83.20
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$582,400 − \$83.20 &times; 7,000 = \$0
Low volume: \$499,200 − \$83.20 &times; 6,000 = \$0
Variable component of selling and administrative expenses:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$303,800 − \$285,600)/(7,000 − 6,000)
Variable cost = \$18.20
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$303,800 − \$18.20 &times; 7,000 = \$176,400
Low volume: \$285,600 − \$18.20 &times; 6,000 = \$176,400
Total variable cost per unit:
\$83.20 + \$18.20 = \$101.40
Total fixed cost:
\$0 + \$176,400 = \$176,400
5-58
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
81. The best estimate of the total contribution margin when 6,300 units are sold is:
A) \$73,080
B) \$231,840
C) \$46,620
D) \$346,500
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3,4 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable component of cost of goods sold:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$582,400 − \$499,200)/(7,000 − 6,000)
Variable cost = \$83.20
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$582,400 − \$83.20 &times; 7,000 = \$0
Low volume: \$499,200 − \$83.20 &times; 6,000 = \$0
Variable component of selling and administrative expenses:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$303,800 − \$285,600)/(7,000 − 6,000)
Variable cost = \$18.20
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$303,800 − \$18.20 &times; 7,000 = \$176,400
Low volume: \$285,600 − \$18.20 &times; 6,000 = \$176,400
Total variable cost per unit:
\$83.20 + \$18.20 = \$101.40
Total fixed cost:
\$0 + \$176,400 = \$176,400
Sales revenue (\$138.20 &times; 6,300) ........................
\$870,660
Variable expenses:
Variable cost of goods sold (\$83.20 &times; 6,300) . \$524,160
(\$18.20 &times; 6,300) ........................................... 114,660
638,820
Contribution margin............................................
\$ 231,840
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-59
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Use the following to answer questions 82-84:
Comparative income statements for Boggs Sports Equipment Company for the last two
months are presented below:
Sales in units ...................................................
Sales ................................................................
Cost of goods sold ...........................................
Gross margin ...................................................
Rent ..............................................................
Sales commissions .......................................
Maintenance expenses..................................
Clerical expense ...........................................
Net operating income ......................................
July
August
11,000
10,000
\$165,000 \$150,000
72,600
66,000
92,400
84,000
12,000
13,200
13,500
16,000
54,700
\$ 37,700
12,000
12,000
13,000
15,000
52,000
\$ 32,000
All of the company's costs are either fixed, variable, or a mixture of the two (i.e., mixed).
Assume that the relevant range includes all of the activity levels mentioned in this problem.
82. Which of the selling and administrative expenses of the company is variable?
A) Rent
B) Sales Commissions
C) Maintenance Expense
D) Clerical Expense
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
83. The total monthly fixed cost for Boggs Sporting Equipment Company is:
A) \$12,000
B) \$22,500
C) \$25,000
D) \$40,000
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
5-60
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Solution:
Variable component of sales commissions:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$13,200 − \$12,000)/(11,000 − 10,000)
Variable cost = \$1.20
Fixed cost of sales commissions:
High volume: \$13,200 − \$1.20 &times; 11,000 = \$0 (answer will be zero fixed costs,
because these sales commissions are variable, not mixed)
Low volume: \$12,000 − \$1.20 &times; 10,000 = \$0
Variable component of maintenance expenses:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$13,500 − \$13,000)/(11,000 − 10,000)
Variable cost = \$0.50
Fixed cost of maintenance expenses:
High volume: \$13,500 − \$0.50 &times; 11,000 = \$8,000
Low volume: \$13,000 − \$0.50 &times; 10,000 = \$8,000
Variable component of clerical expense:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$16,000 − \$15,000)/(11,000 − 10,000)
Variable cost = \$1.00
Fixed cost of clerical expense:
High volume: \$16,000 − \$1.00 &times; 11,000 = \$5,000
Low volume: \$15,000 − \$1.00 &times; 10,000 = \$5,000
Total variable cost per unit:
\$1.20 + \$0.50 + \$1.00 = \$2.70
Total fixed cost:
\$0 + \$8,000 + \$5,000 + \$12,000* = \$25,000
*Rent
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-61
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
84. If sales are projected to be 8,000 units in September, total expected selling and
A) \$49,300
B) \$41,600
C) \$44,750
D) \$46,600
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable component of sales commissions:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$13,200 − \$12,000)/(11,000 − 10,000)
Variable cost = \$1.20
Fixed cost of sales commissions:
High volume: \$13,200 − \$1.20 &times; 11,000 = \$0 (answer will be zero fixed costs,
because these sales commissions are variable, not mixed)
Low volume: \$12,000 − \$1.20 &times; 10,000 = \$0
Variable component of maintenance expenses:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$13,500 − \$13,000)/(11,000 − 10,000)
Variable cost = \$0.50
Fixed cost of maintenance expenses:
High volume: \$13,500 − \$0.50 &times; 11,000 = \$8,000
Low volume: \$13,000 − \$0.50 &times; 10,000 = \$8,000
Variable component of clerical expense:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$16,000 − \$15,000)/(11,000 − 10,000)
Variable cost = \$1.00
Fixed cost of clerical expense:
High volume: \$16,000 − \$1.00 &times; 11,000 = \$5,000
Low volume: \$15,000 − \$1.00 &times; 10,000 = \$5,000
5-62
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Total variable cost per unit:
\$1.20 + \$0.50 + \$1.00 = \$2.70
Total fixed cost:
\$0 + \$8,000 + \$5,000 + \$12,000* = \$25,000
*Rent
Use the following to answer questions 85-87:
The following production and average cost data for two levels of monthly production volume
have been supplied by a company that produces a single product:
Production volume ........................
Direct materials .............................
Direct labor....................................
2,000 units
5,000 units
\$75.70 per unit \$75.70 per unit
\$28.40 per unit \$28.40 per unit
\$113.60 per unit \$58.10 per unit
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-63
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
85. The best estimate of the total monthly fixed manufacturing cost is:
A) \$227,200
B) \$185,000
C) \$435,400
D) \$290,500
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
Solution:
To calculate the variable manufacturing cost per unit:
Production
Volume
(Units)
High activity level ..... 5,000
Low activity level ...... 2,000
Average
Cost per
Unit
\$58.10
\$113.60
Total Manufacturing
(units &times; average cost
per unit)
\$290,500
\$227,200
= Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$290,500 − \$227,200) &divide; (5,000 – 2,000) = \$21.10
Fixed cost element of manufacturing overhead
= Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$290,500 − (\$21.10 &times; 5,000) = \$185,000
5-64
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
86. The best estimate of the total variable manufacturing cost per unit is:
A) \$21.10
B) \$125.20
C) \$104.10
D) \$75.70
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
Solution:
To calculate the variable manufacturing cost per unit:
Production
Volume
(Units)
High activity level ..... 5,000
Low activity level ...... 2,000
Average
Cost per
Unit
\$58.10
\$113.60
Total Manufacturing
(units &times; average cost
per unit)
\$290,500
\$227,200
= Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$290,500 − \$227,200) &divide; (5,000 – 2,000) = \$21.10
Fixed cost element of manufacturing overhead
= Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$290,500 − (\$21.20 &times; 5,000) = \$185,000
Total variable manufacturing cost per unit
= (Direct materials + Direct labor + Manufacturing overhead)
= \$75.70 + \$28.40 + \$21.10 = \$125.20
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-65
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
87. The best estimate of the total cost to manufacture 2,200 units is closest to:
A) \$356,840
B) \$460,440
C) \$417,890
D) \$478,940
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
Solution:
To calculate the variable manufacturing cost per unit:
Production
Volume
(Units)
High activity level ..... 5,000
Low activity level ...... 2,000
Average
Cost per
Unit
\$58.10
\$113.60
Total Manufacturing
(units &times; average cost
per unit)
\$290,500
\$227,200
= Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$290,500 − \$227,200) &divide; (5,000 – 2,000) = \$21.10
Fixed cost element of manufacturing overhead
= Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$290,500 − (\$21.10 &times; 5,000) = \$185,000
Total variable manufacturing cost per unit
= (Direct materials + Direct labor + Manufacturing overhead)
= \$75.70 + \$28.40 + \$21.10 = \$125.20
Y = \$185,000 + \$125.20(2,200)
Y = \$460,440
5-66
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Use the following to answer questions 88-91:
Gasson Company is a merchandising firm. Next month the company expects to sell 800 units.
The following data describe the company's revenue and cost structure:
Selling price per unit .................................
Sales commission ......................................
Purchase price (cost) per unit ....................
\$40
5%
\$18
\$4,000 per month
\$4,500 per month plus 15% of sales
Assume that all activity mentioned in this problem is within the relevant range.
88. The expected gross margin next month is:
A) \$17,600
B) \$11,200
C) \$14,400
D) \$16,000
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,4 Level: Medium
Solution:
Sales...........................................................
Cost of goods sold .....................................
Gross margin .............................................
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
\$32,000
14,400
\$17,600
5-67
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
89. The expected total administrative expense next month is:
A) \$4,800
B) \$13,300
C) \$9,300
D) \$14,900
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable administrative expenses (15% &times; \$32,000*).....
*\$40 &times; 800 = \$32,000
\$4,500
4,800
\$9,300
90. The expected contribution margin next month is:
A) \$17,600
B) \$11,200
C) \$14,400
D) \$16,000
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,4 Level: Medium
Solution:
Sales (\$40 &times; 800) .......................................
Variable expenses:
Cost of goods sold (\$18 &times; 800) ..............
Sales commissions (5% &times; \$32,000) .......
Contribution margin ..................................
5-68
\$32,000
\$14,400
1,600
4,800
20,800
\$11,200
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
91. The expected net operating income next month is:
A) \$7,500
B) \$5,100
C) \$2,700
D) \$11,200
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1,4 Level: Medium
Solution:
Sales (\$40 &times; 800) .......................................
Variable expenses:
Cost of goods sold (\$18 &times; 800) ..............
Sales commissions (5% &times; \$32,000) .......
Contribution margin ..................................
Fixed expenses:
Net operating income ................................
\$32,000
\$14,400
1,600
4,800
4,000
4,500
20,800
11,200
8,500
\$ 2,700
Use the following to answer questions 92-94:
In the O'Donnell Manufacturing Company, at an activity level of 80,000 machine hours, total
overhead costs were \$223,000. Of this amount, utilities were \$48,000 (all variable) and
depreciation was \$60,000 (all fixed). The balance of the overhead cost consisted of
maintenance cost (mixed). At 100,000 machine hours, maintenance costs were \$130,000.
Assume that all of the activity levels mentioned in this problem are within the relevant range.
92. The variable cost for maintenance per machine hour is:
A) \$1.30
B) \$1.44
C) \$0.75
D) \$1.35
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Hard
Solution:
Variable maintenance cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$130,000 – \$115,000) &divide; (100,000 – 80,000) = \$0.75
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-69
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
93. The total fixed overhead cost for O'Donnell is:
A) \$115,000
B) \$130,000
C) \$60,000
D) \$55,000
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Hard
Solution:
Variable maintenance cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$130,000 − \$115,000) &divide; (100,000 − 80,000) = \$0.75
Fixed cost element of maintenance cost = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$115,000 − (\$0.75 &times; 80,000) = \$55,000
Total fixed overhead cost will be the total of the fixed maintenance cost and the fixed
depreciation cost, or \$55,000 + \$60,000 = \$115,000
5-70
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
94. If 110,000 machine hours of activity are projected for next period, total expected
A) \$256,000
B) \$263,500
C) \$306,625
D) \$242,500
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Hard
Solution:
Variable maintenance cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$130,000 − \$115,000) &divide; (100,000 − 80,000) = \$0.75
Fixed cost element of maintenance cost = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$115,000 − (\$0.75 &times; 80,000) = \$55,000
Total fixed overhead cost will be the total of the fixed maintenance cost and the fixed
depreciation cost, or \$55,000 + \$60,000 = \$115,000
Variable utilities cost per machine hour = \$48,000 &divide; 80,000 = \$0.60
Total variable cost per machine hour is the total of the variable utilities cost per
machine hour and the variable maintenance cost per machine hour, or \$0.60 + \$0.75 =
\$1.35
Y = \$115,000 + \$1.35 (110,000)
Y = \$263,500
Use the following to answer questions 95-96:
Oerther Corporation reports that at an activity level of 5,000 units, its total variable cost is
\$131,750 and its total fixed cost is \$31,200.
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-71
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
95. What would be the total variable cost at an activity level of 5,200 units? Assume that
this level of activity is within the relevant range.
A) \$137,020
B) \$131,750
C) \$162,950
D) \$32,448
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost per unit: \$131,750 &divide; 5,000= \$26.35
Total variable cost = 5,200 &times; \$26.35 = \$137,020
96. What would be the average fixed cost per unit at an activity level of 5,200 units?
Assume that this level of activity is within the relevant range.
A) \$6.24
B) \$6.00
C) \$14.94
D) \$32.59
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Average fixed cost per unit = Total fixed costs &divide; total units
Average fixed cost per unit = \$31,200 &divide; 5,200 = \$6.00
Use the following to answer questions 97-98:
At an activity level of 9,000 machine-hours in a month, Moffatt Corporation's total variable
maintenance cost is \$390,240 and its total fixed maintenance cost is \$368,280.
5-72
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
97. What would be the total variable maintenance cost at an activity level of 9,300
machine-hours in a month? Assume that this level of activity is within the relevant
range.
A) \$758,520
B) \$403,248
C) \$390,240
D) \$380,556
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost per unit: \$390,240 &divide; 9,000 hours = \$43.36 per hour
Total variable cost = 9,300 &times; \$43.36 = \$403,248
98. What would be the average fixed maintenance cost per unit at an activity level of
9,300 units in a month? Assume that this level of activity is within the relevant range.
A) \$40.92
B) \$84.28
C) \$39.60
D) \$54.93
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Average fixed cost per unit = Total fixed costs &divide; total units
Average fixed cost per unit = \$368,280 &divide; 9,300 = \$39.60
Use the following to answer questions 99-100:
Schuler Inc. reports that at an activity level of 2,100 machine-hours in a month, its total
variable inspection cost is \$69,846 and its total fixed inspection cost is \$9,072.
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-73
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
99. What would be the average fixed inspection cost per unit at an activity level of 2,400
units in a month? Assume that this level of activity is within the relevant range.
A) \$37.58
B) \$4.32
C) \$15.23
D) \$3.78
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
Total fixed costs &divide; total units = Average fixed cost per unit
\$9,072 &divide; 2,400 units = \$3.78 per unit
100. What would be the total variable inspection cost at an activity level of 2,400 machinehours in a month? Assume that this level of activity is within the relevant range.
A) \$78,918
B) \$69,846
C) \$79,824
D) \$10,368
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 1 Level: Easy
Solution:
First, calculate the variable inspection cost per hour by:
Total variable inspection costs &divide; total machine hours = variable inspection cost per
unit
\$69,846 &divide; 2,100 machine-hours = \$33.26 per machine-hour
Next, calculate the total variable inspection costs by:
Total variable inspection costs @ 2,400 machine-hours = \$33.26 &times; 2,400 = \$79,824
5-74
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Use the following to answer questions 101-104:
Johnson Company has provided the following data for the first five months of the year:
January ..................
February ................
March ....................
April ......................
May .......................
Machine Hours Lubrication Cost
120
\$750
160
\$800
200
\$870
150
\$790
170
\$840
101. Using the high-low method of analysis, the estimated variable lubrication cost per
machine hour is closest to:
A) \$1.40
B) \$1.25
C) \$0.67
D) \$1.50
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$870 – \$750) &divide; (200 – 120) = \$1.50
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-75
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
102. Using the high-low method of analysis, the estimated monthly fixed component of
lubrication cost is closest to:
A) \$570
B) \$560
C) \$585
D) \$565
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$870 − \$750) &divide; (200 − 120) = \$1.50
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$870 − (\$1.50 &times; 200) = \$570
103. Using the least-squares regression method of analysis, the estimated variable
lubrication cost per machine hour is closest to:
A) \$0.80
B) \$1.56
C) \$1.40
D) \$1.28
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting Appendix: 5A LO: 5 Level: Hard
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$1.56 per machine-hour
5-76
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
104. Using the least-squares regression method of analysis, the estimated monthly fixed
component of lubrication cost is closest to:
A) \$561
B) \$580
C) \$525
D) \$572
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting Appendix: 5A LO: 5 Level: Hard
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
intercept = \$561 per month
Use the following to answer questions 105-106:
Wilson Company's activity for the first six of the current year is as follows:
Month
January ..................
February ................
March ....................
April ......................
May .......................
June .......................
Machine Hours Electrical Cost
2,000
\$1,560
3,000
\$2,200
2,400
\$1,750
1,900
\$1,520
1,800
\$1,480
2,100
\$1,600
105. Using the high-low method, the variable cost per machine hour would be:
A) \$0.67
B) \$0.64
C) \$0.40
D) \$0.60
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$2,200 – \$1,480) &divide; (3,000 – 1,800) = \$0.60
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-77
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
106. Using the high-low method, the fixed portion of the electrical cost each month would
be:
A) \$400
B) \$760
C) \$280
D) \$190
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Medium
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$2,200 − \$1,480) &divide; (3,000 − 1,800) = \$0.60
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$2,200 − (\$0.60 &times; 3,000) = \$400
Use the following to answer questions 107-108:
Electrical costs at one of Rome Corporation's factories are listed below:
March ....................
April ......................
May .......................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
Machine-Hours Electrical Cost
458
\$1,007
423
\$934
440
\$979
409
\$902
426
\$952
372
\$822
414
\$926
431
\$949
468
\$1,025
Management believes that electrical cost is a mixed cost that depends on machine-hours.
5-78
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
107. Using the high-low method, the estimate of the variable component of electrical cost
per machine-hour is closest to:
A) \$2.11
B) \$1.80
C) \$2.21
D) \$0.47
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$1,025 – \$822) &divide; (468 – 372) = \$2.11
108. Using the high-low method, the estimate of the fixed component of electrical cost per
month is closest to:
A) \$822
B) \$743
C) \$38
D) \$944
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$1,025 − \$822) &divide; (468 − 372) = \$2.11
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$1,025 − (\$2.11 &times; 468) = \$37.52 = \$38 (rounded)
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-79
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Use the following to answer questions 109-110:
Inspection costs at one of Ratulowski Corporation's factories are listed below:
April ......................
May .......................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Units Produced Inspection Cost
777
\$10,176
807
\$10,404
798
\$10,355
835
\$10,665
822
\$10,542
795
\$10,313
805
\$10,409
853
\$10,795
796
\$10,310
Management believes that inspection cost is a mixed cost that depends on units produced.
109. Using the high-low method, the estimate of the variable component of inspection cost
per unit produced is closest to:
A) \$8.14
B) \$7.05
C) \$0.12
D) \$12.89
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$10,795 – \$10,176) &divide; (853 – 777) = \$8.14
5-80
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
110. Using the high-low method, the estimate of the fixed component of inspection cost per
month is closest to:
A) \$10,344
B) \$10,441
C) \$3,852
D) \$10,176
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$10,795 − \$10,176) &divide; (853 − 777) = \$8.14
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$10,795 − (\$8.14 &times; 853) = \$3,851.58 = \$3,852 (rounded)
Use the following to answer questions 111-112:
Wuensch Inc., an escrow agent, has provided the following data concerning its office
expenses:
April ......................
May .......................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Escrows Completed Office Expenses
53
\$7,427
94
\$9,201
37
\$6,769
87
\$8,902
40
\$6,875
38
\$6,797
82
\$8,681
35
\$6,678
62
\$7,836
Management believes that office expense is a mixed cost that depends on the number of
escrows completed. Note: Real estate purchases usually involve the services of an escrow
agent that holds funds and prepares documents to complete the transaction.
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-81
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
111. Using the high-low method, the estimate of the variable component of office expense
per escrow completed is closest to:
A) \$45.44
B) \$42.76
C) \$88.22
D) \$131.00
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$9,201 – \$6,678) &divide; (94 – 35) = \$42.76
112. Using the high-low method, the estimate of the fixed component of office expense per
month is closest to:
A) \$7,685
B) \$7,182
C) \$6,678
D) \$5,182
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 3 Level: Easy
Solution:
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$9,201 − \$6,678) &divide; (94 − 35) = \$42.76
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$9,201 − (\$42.76 &times; 94) = \$5,181.56 = \$5,182 (rounded)
5-82
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Use the following to answer questions 113-114:
The following information has been provided by the Evans Retail Stores, Inc., for the first
quarter of the year:
Sales ..........................................................
Variable selling expense ...........................
Fixed selling expenses...............................
Cost of goods sold .....................................
\$350,000
\$35,000
\$25,000
\$160,000
\$55,000
\$15,000
113. The gross margin of Evans Retail Stores, Inc. for the first quarter is:
A) \$210,000
B) \$140,000
C) \$220,000
D) \$190,000
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales...................................
Cost of goods sold .............
Gross margin .....................
\$350,000
160,000
190,000
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-83
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
114. The contribution margin of Evans Retail Stores, Inc. for the first quarter is:
A) \$300,000
B) \$140,000
C) \$210,000
D) \$190,000
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales...................................
Variable expenses:
Cost of goods sold ..........
Selling expense ...............
Contribution margin ..........
\$350,000
\$160,000
35,000
15,000
210,000
\$140,000
Use the following to answer questions 115-117:
An income statement for Crandall's Bookstore for the first quarter of the current year is
presented below:
Sales ..........................................................
Cost of goods sold .....................................
Gross margin .............................................
Selling ....................................................
Net operating income ................................
\$800,000
560,000
240,000
\$98,000
98,000
196,000
\$ 44,000
On average, a book sells for \$50. Variable selling expenses are \$5.50 per book, with the
remaining selling expenses being fixed. The variable administrative expenses are 3% of sales,
with the remainder being fixed.
5-84
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
115. The contribution margin for Crandall's Bookstore for the first quarter is:
A) \$688,000
B) \$128,000
C) \$152,000
D) \$240,000
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Hard
Solution:
Sales...........................................................
Variable expenses:
Cost of goods sold ..................................
\$560,000
24,000
Selling expense (\$5.50 &times; 16,000*) .........
88,000
Contribution margin ..................................
* \$800,000 &divide; \$50 average price per unit = 16,000 units sold
\$800,000
672,000
\$128,000
116. The net operating income using the contribution approach for the first quarter is:
A) \$240,000
B) \$152,000
C) \$44,000
D) \$128,000
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Medium
Solution:
Sales ........................................................................
Variable expenses:
Cost of goods sold ............................................... \$560,000
24,000
Selling expense (\$5.50 &times; 16,000*) ......................
88,000
Contribution margin ................................................
Fixed expenses:
74,000
Selling expense (\$98,000 − \$88,000) ..................
10,000
Net operating income ..............................................
* \$800,000 &divide; \$50 average price per unit = 16,000 units sold
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
\$800,000
672,000
128,000
84,000
\$ 44,000
5-85
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
117. The cost formula for selling and administrative expenses with “X” equal to the number
of books sold is:
A) Y = \$84,000 + \$35X
B) Y = \$84,000 + \$42X
C) Y = \$98,000 + \$35X
D) Y = \$98,000 + \$42X
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 4 Level: Hard
Solution:
Sales......................................................................
Variable expenses:
Cost of goods sold ............................................. \$560,000
24,000
Selling expense (\$5.50 &times; 16,000*) ....................
88,000
Contribution margin .............................................
Fixed expenses:
Administrative expense (\$98,000 − \$24,000) ...
74,000
Selling expense (\$98,000 − \$88,000) ................
10,000
Net operating income ...........................................
* \$800,000 &divide; \$50 average sales price = 16,000 units sold
\$800,000
672,000
128,000
84,000
\$ 44,000
Total variable cost per unit = \$672,000 &divide; 16,000 units = \$42 per unit
Total fixed costs = \$10,000 + \$74,000 = \$84,000
Y = \$84,000 + \$42X
5-86
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Use the following to answer questions 118-119:
In December, Barkes Corporation, a manufacturing company, reported the following financial
data:
Sales ..........................................................
Variable production expense .....................
Fixed production expense .........................
Variable selling expense ...........................
Fixed selling expense ................................
\$270,000
\$27,000
\$42,000
\$28,000
\$43,000
\$34,000
\$64,000
The company had no beginning or ending inventories.
118. The contribution margin for December was:
A) \$201,000
B) \$181,000
C) \$32,000
D) \$121,000
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales...................................
Variable expenses:
Production expense ........
Selling expense ...............
Contribution margin ..........
\$270,000
\$27,000
28,000
34,000
89,000
\$181,000
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-87
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
119. The gross margin for December was:
A) \$121,000
B) \$32,000
C) \$181,000
D) \$201,000
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales...........................................................
Cost of goods sold (\$27,000 + \$42,000) ...
Gross margin .............................................
\$270,000
69,000
\$201,000
Use the following to answer questions 120-121:
The management of Edrington Corporation, a manufacturing company, would like your help
in contrasting the traditional and contribution approaches to the income statement. The
company has provided the following financial data for April:
Sales ..........................................................
Variable production expense .....................
Fixed production expense .........................
Variable selling expense ...........................
Fixed selling expense ................................
\$280,000
\$30,000
\$57,000
\$27,000
\$48,000
\$34,000
\$73,000
The company had no beginning or ending inventories.
5-88
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
120. The gross margin for April was:
A) \$193,000
B) \$11,000
C) \$102,000
D) \$189,000
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales...........................................................
Cost of goods sold (\$30,000 + \$57,000) ...
Gross margin .............................................
\$280,000
87,000
\$193,000
121. The contribution margin for April was:
A) \$102,000
B) \$189,000
C) \$11,000
D) \$193,000
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales...................................
Variable expenses:
Cost of goods sold .........
Selling expense ...............
Contribution margin ..........
\$280,000
\$30,000
27,000
34,000
91,000
\$189,000
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-89
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Use the following to answer questions 122-123:
Monsivais Corporation, a manufacturing company, has provided the following financial data
for February:
Sales ..........................................................
Variable production expense .....................
Variable selling expense ...........................
Fixed production expense .........................
Fixed selling expense ................................
\$470,000
\$81,000
\$11,000
\$40,000
\$86,000
\$73,000
\$139,000
The company had no beginning or ending inventories.
122. The gross margin for February was:
A) \$338,000
B) \$303,000
C) \$172,000
D) \$40,000
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales...........................................................
Cost of goods sold (\$81,000 + \$86,000) ...
Gross margin .............................................
5-90
\$470,000
167,000
\$303,000
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
123. The contribution margin for February was:
A) \$338,000
B) \$303,000
C) \$172,000
D) \$40,000
Ans: A AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Solution:
Sales...........................................................
Variable expenses:
Cost of goods sold ..................................
Selling expense .......................................
Contribution margin ..................................
\$470,000
\$81,000
11,000
40,000
132,000
\$338,000
Use the following to answer questions 124-125:
(Appendix 5A) Lacourse Inc.'s inspection costs are listed below:
January ..................
February ................
March ....................
April ......................
May .......................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
Units Produced Inspection Costs
647
\$15,309
724
\$15,965
694
\$15,715
645
\$15,271
696
\$15,745
665
\$15,442
718
\$15,933
699
\$15,739
Management believes that inspection cost is a mixed cost that depends on units produced.
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-91
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
124. Using the least-squares regression method, the estimate of the variable component of
inspection cost per unit produced is closest to:
A) \$22.80
B) \$8.82
C) \$8.27
D) \$8.78
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 5 Level: Medium
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$8.82 per unit produced
125. Using the least-squares regression method, the estimate of the fixed component of
inspection cost per month is closest to:
A) \$9,608
B) \$15,640
C) \$9,587
D) \$15,271
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 5 Level: Medium
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
intercept = \$9,587 per month
5-92
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Use the following to answer questions 126-127:
(Appendix 5A) Recent maintenance costs of Divers Corporation are listed below:
February ................
March ....................
April ......................
May .......................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
Machine-Hours Maintenance Costs
527
\$5,144
499
\$5,033
542
\$5,220
541
\$5,196
489
\$4,973
543
\$5,200
558
\$5,288
513
\$5,060
Management believes that maintenance cost is a mixed cost that depends on machine-hours.
126. Using the least-squares regression method, the estimate of the variable component of
maintenance cost per machine-hour is closest to:
A) \$9.76
B) \$6.00
C) \$4.43
D) \$4.57
Ans: C AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 5 Level: Medium
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$4.43 per machine-hour
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-93
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
127. Using the least-squares regression method, the estimate of the fixed component of
maintenance cost per month is closest to:
A) \$5,139
B) \$2,806
C) \$4,973
D) \$2,738
Ans: B AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 5 Level: Medium
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
intercept = \$2,806 per month
Use the following to answer questions 128-129:
(Appendix 5A) Gaumer Corporation's recent utility costs are listed below:
May .......................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Machine-Hours Utility Costs
1,708
\$20,511
1,770
\$21,016
1,703
\$20,449
1,734
\$20,699
1,787
\$21,142
1,756
\$20,912
1,731
\$20,693
1,798
\$21,252
Management believes that utility cost is a mixed cost that depends on machine-hours.
5-94
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
128. Using the least-squares regression method, the estimate of the variable component of
utility cost per machine-hour is closest to:
A) \$8.45
B) \$8.23
C) \$11.92
D) \$8.31
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 5 Level: Medium
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$8.31 per machine-hour
129. Using the least-squares regression method, the estimate of the fixed component of
utility cost per month is closest to:
A) \$20,834
B) \$20,449
C) \$6,059
D) \$6,314
Ans: D AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting LO: 5 Level: Medium
Solution:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
intercept = \$6,314 per month
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-95
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Essay Questions
130. ABC Company's total overhead costs at various levels of activity are presented below:
March.........
April...........
May ............
June............
60,000
\$216,800
50,000
\$194,000
70,000
\$239,600
80,000
\$262,400
Assume that the overhead costs above consist of utilities, supervisory salaries, and
maintenance. At the 50,000 machine-hour level of activity these costs are:
Utilities (V).................................... \$ 54,000
Supervisory salaries (F) .................
62,000
Maintenance (M) ...........................
78,000
V = Variable; F = Fixed; M = Mixed
The company wants to break down the maintenance cost into its basic variable and
fixed cost elements.
Required:
a. Estimate the maintenance cost for June.
b. Use the high-low method to estimate the cost formula for maintenance cost.
c. Estimate the total overhead cost at an activity level of 55,000 machine hours.
5-96
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Ans:
a. Total overhead cost at 80,000 machine hours ....................... \$262,400
Less:
Utilities (\$54,000/50,000) &times; 80,000 ..................................
86,400
Supervisory salaries (fixed) ...............................................
62,000
Portion of overhead for June that represents maintenance ... \$114,000
b. High-low analysis of maintenance cost:
Maintenance Cost Machine-Hours
High point ....................
\$114,000
80,000
Low point ....................
78,000
50,000
Change observed .........
\$ 36,000
30,000
Variable cost:
Change in cost/Change in activity = \$36,000/30,000 MHs = \$1.20 per MHs
Total fixed cost:
Total maintenance cost at the low point .................................. \$78,000
Less variable cost element (50,000 MHs &times; \$1.20 per MH) .... 60,000
Fixed cost element ................................................................... \$18,000
The cost formula is: Y = \$18,000 + \$1.20X
c. Total overhead at 55,000 machine hours:
Utilities (\$54,000/50,000) &times; 55,000 ................
\$ 59,400
Supervisory salaries .........................................
62,000
Maintenance cost:
Variable (55,000 MHs &times; \$1.20 per MH) ...... \$66,000
Fixed ............................................................. 18,000
84,000
Total overhead cost at 55,000 MH ..................
\$205,400
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
LO: 1,3 Level: Hard
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
AICPA FN: Reporting
5-97
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
131. Hinrichs Corporation reports that at an activity level of 2,400 units, its total variable
cost is \$174,504 and its total fixed cost is \$55,080.
Required:
For the activity level of 2,700 units, compute: (a) the total variable cost; (b) the total
fixed cost; (c) the total cost; (d) the average variable cost per unit; (e) the average
fixed cost per unit; and (f) the average total cost per unit. Assume that this activity
level is within the relevant range.
Ans:
Variable cost = \$174,504/2,400 units = \$72.71 per unit
Activity level ...................................................................
2,700
Total cost:
Variable cost (a) [2,700 units &times; \$72.71 per unit] ......... \$196,317
Fixed cost (b) ................................................................
55,080
Total (c) ........................................................................ \$251,397
Cost per unit:
Variable cost (d) ...........................................................
\$72.71
Fixed cost (e) [\$55,080/2,700 units] ............................
20.40
Total (f) ........................................................................
\$93.11
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
LO: 1 Level: Easy
5-98
AICPA FN: Reporting
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
132. At an activity level of 6,800 units, Henkes Corporation's total variable cost is
\$125,188 and its total fixed cost is \$164,152.
Required:
For the activity level of 7,100 units, compute: (a) the total variable cost; (b) the total
fixed cost; (c) the total cost; (d) the average variable cost per unit; (e) the average
fixed cost per unit; and (f) the average total cost per unit. Assume that this activity
level is within the relevant range.
Ans:
Variable cost = \$125,188/6,800 units = \$18.41 per unit
Activity level ...................................................................
7,100
Total cost:
Variable cost (a) [7,100 units &times; \$18.41 per unit] ......... \$130,711
Fixed cost (b) ................................................................ 164,152
Total (c) ........................................................................ \$294,863
Cost per unit:
Variable cost (d) ...........................................................
\$18.41
Fixed cost (e) [\$164,152/7,100 units] ..........................
23.12
Total (f) ........................................................................
\$41.53
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
LO: 1 Level: Easy
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
AICPA FN: Reporting
5-99
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
133. The Pate Company reported the following:
Units sold ......
Cost A ...........
Cost B ...........
Cost C ...........
Cost D ...........
Cost E ...........
Cost F ...........
Cost G ...........
Cost H ...........
Cost I ............
Cost J ............
Month 1 Month 2
6,000
8,000
\$35,000 \$36,000
\$16,000 \$16,000
\$1,500
\$2,000
\$12,000 \$16,000
\$6,000
\$8,000
\$2,000
\$2,000
\$4,200
\$8,400
\$37,300 \$44,600
\$13,000 \$13,500
\$10,000 \$12,200
Required:
Indicate whether each of the costs above is probably a variable, mixed or fixed cost.
Cost A _______________
Cost B _______________
Cost C _______________
Cost D _______________
Cost E _______________
Cost F _______________
Cost G _______________
Cost H _______________
Cost I _______________
Cost J _______________
Ans:
Cost A: Mixed
Cost B: Fixed
Cost C: Variable
Cost D: Variable
Cost E: Variable
Cost F: Fixed
Cost G: Mixed
Cost H: Mixed
Cost I: Mixed
Cost J: Mixed
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
LO: 1 Level: Easy
5-100
AICPA FN: Reporting
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
134. Stuart Manufacturing produces metal picture frames. The company's income
statements for the last two years are given below:
Last year
This year
Units sold ...................................................
50,000
70,000
Sales........................................................... \$800,000 \$1,120,000
Cost of goods sold ..................................... 550,000
710,000
Gross margin ............................................. 250,000
410,000
Selling and administrative expense ........... 150,000
190,000
Net operating income ................................ \$100,000 \$ 220,000
The company has no beginning or ending inventories.
Required:
a. Estimate the company's total variable cost per unit and its total fixed costs per
year. (Remember that this is a manufacturing firm.)
b. Compute the company's contribution margin for this year.
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-101
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Ans:
a. Variable component of cost of goods sold:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$710,000 − \$550,000)/(70,000 − 50,000)
Variable cost = \$8.00
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$710,000 − \$8.00&times;70,000 = \$150,000
Low volume: \$550,000 − \$8.00&times;50,000 = \$150,000
Variable component of selling and administrative expenses:
Variable cost = Change in costs/Change in units
Variable cost = (\$190,000 − \$150,000)/(70,000 − 50,000)
Variable cost = \$2.00
Fixed cost:
High volume: \$190,000 − \$2.00&times;70,000 = \$50,000
Low volume: \$150,000 − \$2.00&times;50,000 = \$50,000
Total variable cost per unit:
\$8.00 + \$2.00 = \$10.00
Total fixed cost:
\$150,000 + \$50,000 = \$200,000
b. Sales revenue .......................................................
\$1,120,000
Variable expenses:
Variable cost of goods sold .............................. \$560,000
Variable selling and administrative expense .... 140,000
700,000
Contribution margin ............................................
\$ 420,000
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
LO: 3,4 Level: Medium
5-102
AICPA FN: Reporting
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
135. Selected data about Pitkin Company's manufacturing operations at two levels of
activity are given below:
Number of units produced .............
10,000
15,000
Total manufacturing costs ............. \$157,000 \$225,000
Direct material cost per unit ..........
\$4
\$4
Direct labor cost per unit ...............
\$6
\$6
Required:
Using the high-low method, estimate the cost formula for manufacturing overhead.
Assume that both direct material and direct labor are variable costs.
Ans:
Low
High
Total manufacturing costs .............................................................................
\$157,000 \$225,000
Less:
Direct materials
(\$4 &times; 10,000 and \$4 &times; 15,000, respectively) ..........................................
40,000
60,000
Direct labor
(\$6 &times; 10,000 and \$6 &times; 15,000, respectively) ..........................................
60,000
90,000
\$ 57,000 \$ 75,000
Cost
Activity
High level of activity ..................... \$75,000 15,000 units
Low level of activity ..................... 57,000 10,000 units
Change ........................................... \$18,000 5,000 units
\$18,000 &divide; 5,000 units = \$3.60 per unit
Total cost at the high level of activity .............................
Less variable element (\$3.60 per unit &times; 15,000 units) ....
Fixed cost element ...........................................................
\$75,000
54,000
\$21,000
Therefore, the cost formula for manufacturing overhead is \$21,000 per period plus
\$3.60 per unit produced, or Y = \$21,000 + \$3.60X.
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
LO: 3 Level: Medium
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
AICPA FN: Reporting
5-103
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
136. Utility costs at one of Hannemann Corporation's factories are listed below:
March.....................
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
Machine-Hours Utility Cost
5,021
\$52,824
5,076
\$53,287
5,074
\$53,263
5,040
\$52,991
5,087
\$53,371
5,073
\$53,251
5,075
\$53,252
5,034
\$52,916
5,062
\$53,137
Management believes that utility cost is a mixed cost that depends on machine-hours.
Required:
Estimate the variable cost per machine-hour and the fixed cost per month using the
Ans:
High activity level .....
Low activity level ......
Machine-Hours
5,087
5,021
Utility Cost
\$53,371
\$52,824
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$53,371 − \$52,824) &divide; (5,087 − 5,021) = \$8.29
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$52,824 − (\$8.29 &times; 5,021) = \$11,200
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
LO: 3 Level: Easy
5-104
AICPA FN: Reporting
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
137. Swofford Inc. has provided the following data concerning its maintenance costs:
March.....................
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
Machine-Hours Maintenance Cost
4,440
\$50,950
4,431
\$50,877
4,412
\$50,696
4,460
\$51,113
4,414
\$50,711
4,433
\$50,900
4,443
\$50,976
4,415
\$50,730
4,391
\$50,530
Management believes that maintenance cost is a mixed cost that depends on machinehours.
Required:
Estimate the variable cost per machine-hour and the fixed cost per month using the
Ans:
Machine-Hours Maintenance Cost
High activity level .............
4,460
\$51,113
Low activity level ..............
4,391
\$50,530
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$51,113 − \$50,530) &divide; (4,460 − 4,391) = \$8.45
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$50,530 − (\$8.45 &times; 4,391) = \$13,426
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
LO: 3 Level: Easy
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
AICPA FN: Reporting
5-105
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
138. The management of Dethlefsen Corporation would like to have a better understanding
of the behavior of its inspection costs. The company has provided the following data:
January...................
February.................
March.....................
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
Direct Labor-Hours Inspection Cost
5,089
\$33,122
5,042
\$32,929
5,026
\$32,870
5,073
\$33,065
5,029
\$32,906
5,040
\$32,913
5,070
\$33,050
5,027
\$32,875
4,995
\$32,746
Management believes that inspection cost is a mixed cost that depends on direct laborhours.
Required:
Estimate the variable cost per direct labor-hour and the fixed cost per month using the
Ans:
High activity level .............
Low activity level ..............
Direct Labor-Hours Inspection Cost
5,089
\$33,122
4,995
\$32,746
Variable cost = Change in cost &divide; Change in activity
= (\$33,122 − \$32,746) &divide; (5,089 − 4,995) = \$4.00
Fixed cost element = Total cost − Variable cost element
= \$32,746 − (\$4.00 &times; 4,995) = \$12,766
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
LO: 3 Level: Easy
5-106
AICPA FN: Reporting
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
139. The accounting department of Archer Company, a merchandising company, has
prepared the following analysis:
Cost of goods sold .........................
Sales commissions .........................
Billing expense ..............................
Depreciation expense ....................
Cost Formula
\$56 per unit
12% of sales
\$300,000 per month
\$160,000 per month
?
\$62,000 per month
The accounting department feels that billing expense is a mixed cost, containing both
fixed and variable cost elements. The billing expenses and sales in units over the last
several months follow:
January...................
February.................
March.....................
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
Units Sold
(000)
9
11
14
17
15
12
Billing
Expense
\$30,000
\$33,000
\$36,000
\$42,000
\$39,000
\$35,000
The accounting department now plans to develop a cost formula for billing expense so
that a contribution format income statement can be prepared for management's use.
Required:
a. Using the least-squares method, estimate the cost formula for billing expense.
b. Assume that the company plans to sell 30,000 units during July at a selling price of
\$100 per unit. Prepare a budgeted income statement for the month, using the
contribution format.
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-107
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Ans:
a. Using least-squares regression, the cost formula is Y = \$16,952 + \$1,452X, where
X is a thousand units
b
Sales (\$100 &times; 30,000) ................................
Variable expenses:
Cost of goods sold (\$56 &times; 30,000) .........
Commissions (0.12 &times; \$3,000,000) .........
Billing expense (\$1,452 &times; 30) ................
Contribution margin ..................................
Fixed expenses:
Billing expense .......................................
Depreciation expense .............................
Net operating income ................................
\$3,000,000
\$1,680,000
360,000
43,560
300,000
160,000
16,952
62,000
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
Appendix: 5A LO: 4,5 Level: Hard
2,083,560
916,440
538,952
\$ 377,488
AICPA FN: Reporting
140. In January, Verba Corporation, a manufacturing company, reported the following
financial data:
Sales........................................................... \$460,000
Variable production expense ..................... \$84,000
Fixed production expense .......................... \$100,000
Variable selling expense ............................ \$12,000
Fixed selling expense ................................ \$47,000
The company had no beginning or ending inventories.
Required:
a. Prepare an income statement in good form for January using the traditional
approach.
b. Prepare an income statement in good form for January using the contribution
approach.
5-108
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Ans:
Sales...........................................................
Cost of goods sold .....................................
Gross margin .............................................
Selling.....................................................
Net operating income ................................
b. Contribution approach
Sales...........................................................
Variable expenses:
Variable production expense ..................
Variable selling expense.........................
Contribution margin ..................................
Fixed expenses:
Fixed production expense.......................
Fixed selling expense .............................
Net operating income ................................
\$460,000
184,000
276,000
\$ 59,000
165,000
224,000
\$ 52,000
\$460,000
\$84,000
12,000
33,000
100,000
47,000
132,000
129,000
331,000
279,000
\$ 52,000
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-109
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
141. Novakovich Inc., a manufacturing company, has provided the following financial data
for January:
Sales........................................................... \$430,000
Variable production expense ..................... \$84,000
Variable selling expense ............................ \$16,000
Fixed production expense .......................... \$102,000
Fixed selling expense ................................ \$44,000
The company had no beginning or ending inventories.
Required:
a. Prepare an income statement in good form for January using the traditional
approach.
b. Prepare an income statement in good form for January using the contribution
approach.
5-110
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Ans:
Sales...........................................................
Cost of goods sold .....................................
Gross margin .............................................
Selling.....................................................
Net operating income ................................
b. Contribution approach
Sales...........................................................
Variable expenses:
Variable production expense ..................
Variable selling expense.........................
Contribution margin ..................................
Fixed expenses:
Fixed production expense.......................
Fixed selling expense .............................
Net operating income ................................
\$430,000
186,000
244,000
\$ 60,000
149,000
209,000
\$ 35,000
\$430,000
\$84,000
16,000
28,000
102,000
44,000
121,000
128,000
302,000
267,000
\$ 35,000
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-111
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
142. In July, Haertel Corporation, a manufacturing company, reported the following
financial data:
Sales........................................................... \$390,000
Variable production expense ..................... \$74,000
Fixed production expense .......................... \$67,000
Variable selling expense ............................ \$15,000
Fixed selling expense ................................ \$72,000
Required:
Prepare an income statement in good form for July using the contribution approach.
Ans:
Sales...........................................................
Variable expenses:
Variable production expense ..................
Variable selling expense.........................
Contribution margin ..................................
Fixed expenses:
Fixed production expense.......................
Fixed selling expense .............................
Net operating income ................................
\$390,000
\$74,000
15,000
52,000
67,000
72,000
86,000
141,000
249,000
225,000
\$ 24,000
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
5-112
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Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
143. Crabbe Inc., a manufacturing company, has provided the following data for October:
Sales........................................................... \$270,000
Variable production expense ..................... \$53,000
Variable selling expense ............................ \$23,000
Fixed production expense .......................... \$50,000
Fixed selling expense ................................ \$34,000
Required:
Prepare an income statement in good form for October using the contribution
approach.
Ans:
Sales...........................................................
\$270,000
Variable expenses:
Variable production expense .................. \$53,000
Variable selling expense......................... 23,000
92,000
Contribution margin ..................................
178,000
Fixed expenses:
Fixed production expense....................... 50,000
Fixed selling expense ............................. 34,000
Fixed administrative expense ................. 77,000 161,000
Net operating income ................................
\$ 17,000
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Reporting, Measurement LO: 4 Level: Easy
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
5-113
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
144. Below are cost and activity data for a particular cost over the last four periods. Your
boss has asked you to analyze this cost so that management will have a better
understanding of how this cost changes in response to changes in activity.
Period 1......
Period 2......
Period 3......
Period 4......
Activity
40
47
45
41
Cost
\$637
\$693
\$675
\$646
Required:
Using the least-squares regression method, estimate the cost formula for this cost.
Ans: Using least-squares regression, the cost formula is Y = \$324 + \$7.82X.
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
Appendix: 5A LO: 5 Level: Hard
AICPA FN: Reporting
145. Grawburg Inc. maintains a call center to take orders, answer questions, and handle
complaints. The costs of the call center for a number of recent months are listed
below:
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
Calls Taken Call Center Cost
9,030
\$112,323
9,017
\$112,278
9,035
\$112,341
9,065
\$112,458
9,015
\$112,290
9,061
\$112,419
9,070
\$112,463
9,067
\$112,439
Management believes that the cost of the call center is a mixed cost that depends on
the number of calls taken.
Required:
Estimate the variable cost per call and fixed cost per month using the least-squares
regression method.
5-114
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Ans:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$3.27 per call
intercept = \$82,758 per month
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
Appendix: 5A LO: 5 Level: Hard
AICPA FN: Reporting
146. The management of Rutledge Corporation would like to better understand the
behavior of the company's warranty costs. Those costs are listed below for a number
of recent months:
March.....................
April.......................
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
Product Returns Warranty Cost
30
\$3,648
37
\$4,074
43
\$4,460
41
\$4,330
32
\$3,756
48
\$4,782
35
\$3,932
33
\$3,823
Management believes that warranty cost is a mixed cost that depends on the number of
product returns.
Required:
Estimate the variable cost per product return and the fixed cost per month using the
least-squares regression method.
Ans:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$63.59 per product return
intercept = \$1,724 per month
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
Appendix: 5A LO: 5 Level: Hard
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
AICPA FN: Reporting
5-115
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
147. Furlan Printing Corp., a book printer, has provided the following data:
May ........................
June........................
July ........................
August ...................
September ..............
October ..................
November ..............
December...............
Titles Printed Press Setup Cost
40
\$6,649
38
\$6,438
25
\$5,307
28
\$5,564
33
\$6,030
27
\$5,505
39
\$6,551
36
\$6,275
Management believes that the press setup cost is a mixed cost that depends on the
number of titles printed. (A specific book that is to be printed is called a “title”.
Typically, thousands of copies will be printed of each title. Specific steps must be
taken to setup the presses for printing each title-for example, changing the printing
plates. The costs of these steps are the press setup costs.)
Required:
Estimate the variable cost per title printed and the fixed cost per month using the leastsquares regression method.
Ans:
The solution using Microsoft Excel functions is:
slope = \$88.21 per title printed
intercept = \$3,107 per month
AACSB: Analytic AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
Appendix: 5A LO: 5 Level: Hard
5-116
AICPA FN: Reporting
Garrison/Noreen/Brewer, Managerial Accounting, Twelfth Edition
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