Schramm (1) Communication is circular not linear; (2) Communication is usually equal and reciprocal; (3) Messages require interpretation; (4) there are three steps for communicating: encoding, decoding and interpreting. “In fact it is misleading to think of the communication process as starting somewhere and ending somewhere. It is really endless. We are really switchboard centres handling and re-routing the great endless current of information.” (Schramm, 1955). “semantic barriers”. Semantic barriers are specifically the values, beliefs and background knowledge that impact how someone sends and how someone receives messages. This model therefore works very well to understand a face-to-face conversation or text message exchange, for example, where both members of the conversation will have a back-and-forth discussion. Doesn’t recognize that communication can be unequal: There are many circumstance where communication may involve one authority figure talking and one (or many) listeners trying to interpret the message. In such instances, communication is much less equal than in Schramm’s model. Therefore, this model doesn’t tend to work in situations where power balances exist. Doesn’t work for mass communication: This is another time communication is unequal. “The emergence of this approach meant a clear break with the traditional linear / one-way picture of communication.” (Mcquail & Windhall, 2015, p. 20) “A possible point of criticism of this model would lie in the argument that the model conveys a feeling of equality in communication. Very often communication is, on the contrary, fairly unbalanced as far as communication resources, power, and time given to communicate are concerned.” (Mcquail & Windhall, 2015, p. 20) Two major models are the linear and interactive models. Linear models assume that language is simply a vehicle for sending information. Interactive models focus more on complex communication processes. Argyle Example: An example of this in a health and social care setting could be attending a doctors appointment. An individual may have the idea that they might be unwell of some sort, this would be the first stage of the communication cycle. The person then may take further action and book an appointment with their doctor to see if they could help them in some sort, this would be the second cycle of the communication cycle as the individual would have put their thought into a code. The individual will then go see their doctor and discuss what is wrong in several communication techniques an example could be talking or signing if you have partial hearing or none at all, this would be the third stage as they are sending a message to the doctor. The doctor would listen to the individual so they can receive the message and fully understand, this would be the fourth stage, the doctor should then decode the message so they understand and can help the individual. If the message is fully understood the doctor will be able to help the patient out and help them get better if they possibly can, this would be the final and sixth stage where the message has been understood. Written communication is another that links in with the Argyle Theory, this message is sent and received by letter, email or even text. The message can be easy to understand but hard if you don’t word it correctly. According to Argyle, skilled interpersonal interaction (social skills) involves a cycle in which you have to translate or ‘decode’ what other people are communicating and constantly adapt your own behaviour in order to communicate effectively. Verbal and non-verbal communication is not always straightforward. The communication cycle involves a kind of code that has to be translated. You have to work out what another person’s behaviour really means. Disadvantages: it's not good for groups, barriers can affect it/break the cycle and some messages can be misunderstood/decoded wrong. The Advantages of the communication cycle are the fact that it helps to understand the other person clearly. It allows you to think before you speak and think how you are going to say it. You know the correct way to say it so the message is not misunderstood. It shows reflective listening. Quote: Wiemann (2003, p. ix): Our ability to create and sustain our social world depends in large measure on how well we communicate. People’s social skills are crucial to their well-being – individually and collectively. The importance of understanding skilled behavior in all its complexities cannot be overstated. Ref Wiemann, J. (2003). Foreword. In J. Greene & B. Burleson (Eds.) Handbook of communication and social interaction skills. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.