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task 1 communication notes

(1) Communication is circular not linear;
(2) Communication is usually equal and reciprocal;
(3) Messages require interpretation;
(4) there are three steps for communicating: encoding,
decoding and interpreting.
“In fact it is misleading to think of the communication process as
starting somewhere and ending somewhere. It is really endless. We
are really switchboard centres handling and re-routing the great
endless current of information.” (Schramm, 1955).
“semantic barriers”. Semantic barriers are specifically the values,
beliefs and background knowledge that impact how someone sends
and how someone receives messages.
This model therefore works very well to understand a face-to-face
conversation or text message exchange, for example, where both
members of the conversation will have a back-and-forth discussion.
Doesn’t recognize that communication can be unequal: There
are many circumstance where communication may involve one
authority figure talking and one (or many) listeners trying to interpret
the message. In such instances, communication is much less equal
than in Schramm’s model. Therefore, this model doesn’t tend to
work in situations where power balances exist.
Doesn’t work for mass communication: This is another time
communication is unequal.
“The emergence of this approach meant a clear break
with the traditional linear / one-way picture of
communication.” (Mcquail & Windhall, 2015, p. 20)
“A possible point of criticism of this model would lie in the
argument that the model conveys a feeling of equality in
communication. Very often communication is, on the contrary,
fairly unbalanced as far as communication resources, power,
and time given to communicate are concerned.” (Mcquail &
Windhall, 2015, p. 20)
Two major models are the linear and interactive models. Linear models assume that
language is simply a vehicle for sending information. Interactive models focus more
on complex communication processes.
Example: An example of this in a health and social care setting could be attending a
doctors appointment. An individual may have the idea that they might be unwell of some
sort, this would be the first stage of the communication cycle. The person then may take
further action and book an appointment with their doctor to see if they could help them
in some sort, this would be the second cycle of the communication cycle as the individual
would have put their thought into a code. The individual will then go see their doctor and
discuss what is wrong in several communication techniques an example could be talking
or signing if you have partial hearing or none at all, this would be the third stage as they
are sending a message to the doctor. The doctor would listen to the individual so they
can receive the message and fully understand, this would be the fourth stage, the doctor
should then decode the message so they understand and can help the individual. If the
message is fully understood the doctor will be able to help the patient out and help them
get better if they possibly can, this would be the final and sixth stage where the
message has been understood.
Written communication is another that links in with the Argyle Theory, this message is
sent and received by letter, email or even text. The message can be easy to understand
but hard if you don’t word it correctly.
According to Argyle, skilled interpersonal interaction (social skills) involves a cycle in which you have
to translate or ‘decode’ what other people are communicating and constantly adapt your own
behaviour in order to communicate effectively. Verbal and non-verbal communication is not always
straightforward. The communication cycle involves a kind of code that has to be translated. You
have to work out what another person’s behaviour really means.
Disadvantages: it's not good for groups, barriers can affect it/break the cycle and some
messages can be misunderstood/decoded wrong.
The Advantages of the communication cycle are the fact that it helps to understand the other
person clearly. It allows you to think before you speak and think how you are going to say it.
You know the correct way to say it so the message is not misunderstood. It shows reflective
Quote: Wiemann (2003, p. ix): Our ability to create and sustain our social world depends in large
measure on how well we communicate. People’s social skills are crucial to their well-being –
individually and collectively. The importance of understanding skilled behavior in all its complexities
cannot be overstated.
Ref Wiemann, J. (2003). Foreword. In J. Greene & B. Burleson (Eds.) Handbook of communication
and social interaction skills. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.