Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Availableonline onlineatatwww.sciencedirect.com www.sciencedirect.com Available Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000 ScienceDirect ScienceDirect ScienceDirect Energy Procedia 00 158 (2018) 000–000 Energy Procedia 3246–3252 Energy Procedia 00(2019) (2017) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China 10th Drivers International on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 in August 2018, Hong Kong, The 15th International Symposium on District Heating andthe Cooling ofConference Sustainable Construction Practices Zambian China Construction Industry Assessing the feasibility of using the heat demand-outdoor Drivers ofa Sustainable Construction Practices in the Zambiana a a Ayodeji Oke , function Douglas Aghimien *, Clinton Aigbavboa , and demand Chanda Musenga temperature for a long-term district heat forecast Construction Industry Andrića,b,c a *, a a Sustainable Human Settlement and Construction Research Centre, a a b c of Engineering and the Built Environment, I. A. PinaFaculty , P. Ferrão , O. Le Correc a , J. Fournier ., B. Lacarrière a University of South Africa Ayodeji Oke , Douglas Aghimien *,Johannesburg, Clinton Aigbavboa , and Chanda Musengaa IN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research - Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal a b Sustainable&Human Settlement and Construction Research Centre, Veolia Recherche Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France Faculty of Engineering and theAtlantique, Built Environment, c Abstract Département Systèmes Énergétiques et Environnement - IMT 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44300 Nantes, France University of Johannesburg, South Africa While the construction industry plays a crucial role in the social and economic growth of a country; on the other hand, it is known to be a major contributor to the degradation of the environment. This has led to the quest for a sustainable environment Abstract Abstractthrough sustainable construction (SC) in countries around the world. This paper presents the results of the assessment of achieved SC in Zambian Construction Industry (ZCI). A quantitative approach was adopted for the study and a questionnaire survey was While theheating construction industry plays a crucial role in and as economic growth a country; on thefor other hand, itThe is conducted on the construction Analysis of the the social data gathered wasofdone using descriptive methods. District networks areprofessionals. commonly addressed in literature one the mostofappropriate effective solutions decreasing the knownindicated to be a majorthere contributor to thelevel degradation of theofenvironment. This has led to the quest for a sustainable environment study is from an average ofsector. awareness SC practices among however the level of greenhouse gasthat emissions the building These systems require high construction investments professionals; which are returned through the heat achieved throughofsustainable construction (SC) countries around the the world. This paper theinclude; results oflegislation the assessment of implementation practices is low. The in major adoption SCpresents practices or legal sales. Due to the these changed climate conditions and drivers buildingtowards renovation policies,ofheat demand in the future could decrease, SC in Zambian Construction Industry (ZCI). Aand quantitative approach was adopted for the study and aand questionnaire survey was requirement, building regulations, advocacy awareness, developing regulatory mechanisms, clients demand. The prolongingonthe investment return period. conducted construction professionals. Analysis of the data gatheredtowas using appropriate methods. The adoption ofscope thethe various sustainable construction practices a the solution thedone many challenges withindescriptive the ZCI. for Thus, adopting The main of this paper is to assess theoffeasibility ofoffers using heat demand – outdoor temperature function heat demand study indicated that thereidentified is an average level awareness of SCtopractices amongofconstruction professionals; however the level of the use of the various practices will not only aid the greening the country, but result in the preservation of forecast. The district ofpractices Alvalade, Lisbon (Portugal), as a of case Theinclude; district legislation is consistedoroflegal 665 implementation of these is located low. Theinmajor drivers towardswas theused adoption SCstudy. practices resources and improve quality of life. buildings thatbuilding vary in regulations, both construction period typology. developing Three weather scenarios (low, medium, three district requirement, advocacy andand awareness, regulatory mechanisms, and high) clientsanddemand. The scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, To to estimate theConstruction error, obtained heat demand values were Keywords: Sustainable construction practices; Sustainable development; Sustainability; Zambian Industry. adoption of the various sustainable construction offers adeep). solution the many challenges within the ZCI. Thus, adopting ©renovation 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. practices compared withvarious resultsarticle from aunder dynamic heatBY-NC-ND demand developed and country, validatedbut by the authors. This is an access the CC license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) the use ofopen the identified practices will not model, only aidpreviously to the greening of the result in the preservation of Peer-review responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAE2018 – The of 10th International Conferencefor onsome Applied Energy. The results showed that whenofonly weather change is considered, the margin error could be acceptable applications resources andunder improve quality life. 1.(the Introduction error in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation Keywords: Sustainable construction practices; Sustainable development; Sustainability; Zambian Construction Industry. scenarios, the error value increased up to 59.5% (depending on the weather and renovation scenarios combination considered). There is an increasing awareness among scientists and scholars that the rate, at which the earth’s resources are The value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the being consumed, erodes earth’s system ; phenomenon traceable largely to the activities of the decrease in the number of the heating hourssupport of 22-139h during theaheating season (depending on the combination of weather and 1. Introduction construction industry.considered). While theOn industry plays a pivotal in theincreased social and of a(depending country , it renovation scenarios the other hand, functionrole intercept for economic 7.8-12.7% growth per decade on the has comescenarios). beincreasing known forawareness itssuggested heavy among contribution towards unsustainable development, its impactconsidered, on both are the coupled The values couldscientists be used toand modify the function parameters forand the scenarios and There istoan scholars that the rate, at which the earth’s resources economy andaccuracy the environment is worrisome. stated that the processes and products the traditional improve the of heat demand estimations. being consumed, erodes the earth’s support Baloi system; a phenomenon traceable largely toused the in activities of the construction approach have negative environmental and social Theand activities consume massive quantities construction industry. While the industry plays a pivotal role inimpact. the social economic growth of a country ,of it © 2017 Published Elsevier Ltd. has comeThe toAuthors. be known for itsbyheavy contribution towards unsustainable development, and its impact on both the Peer-review responsibility of Scientific Committee of Thethat 15ththe International on District and economy andunder the environment is the worrisome. Baloi  stated processesSymposium and products used inHeating the traditional Cooling. construction approach have negative environmental and social impact. The activities consume massive quantities of * Corresponding author. Tel.: +27-63-873-9661 Keywords: Heat demand; Forecast; Climate change E-mail address: email@example.com 1876-6102 Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. * Corresponding author. under Tel.: +27-63-873-9661 Selection and peer-review responsibility of the scientific committee of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018). E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org 1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Peer-review under responsibility of theLtd. Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling. 1876-6102 Copyright © 2018 Elsevier All by rights reserved. © 2019 The Authors. Published Elsevier Ltd. This is anand open access article the CCofBY-NC-ND (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) Selection peer-review under under responsibility the scientificlicense committee of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018). Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAE2018 – The 10th International Conference on Applied Energy. 10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.995 2 Ayodeji Oke et al. / Energy Procedia 158 (2019) 3246–3252 A Oke et al/ Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000 3247 natural resources including numerous energy sources and water. Extraction of raw materials, manufacturing and transportation tend to lead to a reduction of resources and losses of biological diversity, whilst acid rain and global warming are the result of high energy consumption. With the current rate at which the earth’s resources are being depleted, there is a growing urgency to restructure the construction industry globally. In response to this, sustainable construction (SC) was proposed as a way of making the construction processes, activities and practices more economically, socially and environmentally responsive . This was motivated by the goal of securing the future generations ability to meet their needs through the application of sustainable development principles in meeting present needs. Considering the constant call for sustainability in construction; one that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs , it is important for Zambia to keep pace with this global movement by adopting sustainable construction practices. The country’s construction industry is similar to that of every other developing country where poor sustainable construction has been noted [5-8]. The country suffers from poor delivery in terms of sustainable construction . If this is to change, then more adoption of sustainable construction practices is needed. This is so, as it has been observed that if SC is to achieved in developing countries, a change in the thinking, behaviour, production and consumption within their construction industry is necessary . Aside the issue of poor SC, there seems to be paucity of information in existing literature as regards SC practices being carried out within the Zambian Construction Industry (ZCI). It is based on this knowledge that this study assessed the SC practices being adopted within the ZCI, with a view to proffering possible measures that will lead to increase in SC in the country. 2. Influences of Sustainable Construction Practice Some literature refers to SC as the formation and management of a healthy built environment through the sensible use of resources and ecological principles . SC is an approach that addresses the sustainable needs of the built environment . It is important to note that the terms high performance, green, and sustainable construction are used interchangeably in most studies. Other terms that are synonymous with sustainable construction are green building and sustainable building . According to Du Plessis , SC is an all-inclusive process with the aim of re-establishing and maintaining harmony between the built and natural environments and the creation of settlements that assert human dignity and encourage economic equity. This definition implies that SC takes a lifecycle perspective with emphasis on environmentally orientated design, operation and maintenance procedures. Majadalani  established that the main purpose of SC is to provide structures of long-term value, affordability, quality and efficiency to clients and to enhance economic sustainability whilst reducing the negative environmental impacts. Aghimien et al.  stated that SC is the delivery of construction projects that encourages the preservation of the natural habitat; promotes social wellbeing of the occupants; and provides reasonable economic stand for the investors. Bal et al.  therefore conclude that a construction project is said to be sustainable if it meets environmental challenges, responds to social and cultural demands, and delivers economic improvement. Developed and developing countries alike all share a common concern and that is the current environmental situation . The world is currently facing the effects of global warming, ozone depletion, destruction of natural habitats and loss of biodiversity. Sustainability is the way to go to avert the situation and this can be and achieved through the adoption of a multi-disciplinary approach covering several features such as: energy saving, improved use of materials, reuse and recycling and emissions control. According to  sustainability movement can only be set into motion if awareness and knowledge are in place. Abidin  described the implementation of SC as a process that starts with awareness coupled with interest which leads to gaining knowledge. Acceptance of the knowledge gained will lead to increased demand and this result in implementation. New technologies and concepts have emerged with the aim of achieving sustainability in the construction industry . Examples like Building Information Modelling (BIM) and high efficiency photovoltaic are impacting approaches to project design and collaboration. Other philosophical and scientific concepts have risen due to the paradigm shift towards sustainability. These concepts include biomimicry, cradle to cradle design, construction ecology, design for the environment, ecological economics, ecological footprint, life- cycle assessment, life-cycle costing etc. Other technological methods to enhance sustainability in the construction industry are Industrialized Building System (IBS), Value Engineering (VE) and lean construction . These innovations have been introduced and are still being improved upon through further research to bring about energy saving, improved use of materials 3248 Ayodeji Oke et al. / Energy Procedia 158 (2019) 3246–3252 A Oke et al/ Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000 3 and implementation of reuse and recycling of materials as a way of controlling emissions. The movement towards a more sustainable construction industry is influenced by many drivers for change . The term driver has different meanings among scholars. Darko et al.  from the green building perspective, identified drivers to be influences that encourage the adoption of certain green building practices and can include the possible benefits or decisions or actions that persuade people to participate in implementation of green building. According to Ayarkwa et al.  drivers have positive and enabling effects.Andelin et al.  pointed out that it is essential to note that each region has different drivers and priorities. Wang et al. (2014) found that government has an essential role to play in implementing SC practices. This can be through policy development such as standard legislation guidelines and assessment systems. The high start-up costs of sustainable buildings often deter stakeholders from embarking on projects and utilizing green materials . Financial incentives have also been identified as one of the drivers to overcoming the challenges facing the adoption of SC. The provision of these incentives should be orchestrated by the government through introduction of tax incentives and subsidies to construction firms like deficit subsidies, financial discounts, and pre-tax loans . According to Abidin and Pasquire  the client is seen to be one of the key drivers towards SC. Häkkinen and Belloni  found that client’s demand is cardinal to the development of SC. This is because the client’s demand has a direct relationship with cost, knowledge, method, supply, and value. Various scholars have found that clients demand and awareness are directly linked to education and training in the quest towards adopting SC practices [26, 27]. 3. Research Methodology This study adopted a quantitative approach using a structured questionnaire administered on construction professionals namely Quantity Surveyors, Architects, Engineers, Construction managers, and Project Managers. These professionals were selected from both the private (contractors and consultants) and public sectors. These professionals were selected from the private and public sectors in Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia. The city was selected based on its central location and because it provides administrative functions to the entire country. In addition, the city is the centre of provision of high order services such as financial and technical services, construction and even manufacturing activities. The target construction professionals were those registered with the various professional bodies in Zambia and in other parts of the Southern Africa region. This measure was considered vital for the survey to ensure that the results obtained are an accurate reflection of the populations’ view with regards to adopting SC practices in Zambia. A non-random sampling technique was used and a sample size of 75 professionals was identified. A closed-end questionnaire was prepared and this was divided into three sections. The first section sought to collect demographic information like the level of education, profession and experience from the respondents. The second part sought to assess the level of awareness of the professionals of SC practices and the level of their implementation. The last part dealt with the determination of the drivers to the adoption of SC practices. A 5 point Likert scale was adopted in assessing the SC practices and drivers. Out of the 75 questionnaires sent out, 44 were received back representing a 59% response rate. In analysing the data gathered, percentage was used in analysing the data on the background information of the respondents, while Mean Item Score (MIS) was used in ranking the level of awareness and implementation of the identified SC practices, and the drivers for successful implementation of these SC practices within the ZCI. 4. Results and Discussions 4.1 Background of Respondents Result revealed that the professionals involved in the study were represented as follows 14% architects, 30% quantity surveyors, 39% engineers, 16% construction managers, and 2% project managers. The study further indicated that 43% of the respondents were government employees whilst 59% of the respondents were employees of private organizations. Furthermore, 11% of the respondents had a diploma, 57% had a degree, 30% had a master’s degree, and 2% had a doctoral degree. The average years of experience of the respondents were 6 years and above. This indicated that the professionals had a considerable level of experience to give significant answers to the questions of the research. 4 A Oke et al/ Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000 Ayodeji Oke et al. / Energy Procedia 158 (2019) 3246–3252 3249 4.2 Awareness of Sustainable Construction Practices In assessing the awareness of construction participants with respect to SC practices, some construction practices pertinent to the delivery of SC were identified and presented to the respondents. The respondents were asked to rate these practices based on their level of awareness of practices and the level of their implementation within the ZCI. A scale of 5 to 1 was adopted, with 5 being very high awareness/implementation level, 4 being high awareness/implementation level, 3 being average awareness/implementation level, 2 being low awareness/implementation level, and 1 being very low awareness/implementation level. Result in Table 1 shows the ranking of these SC practices by the respondents. The result reveals that out of the 13 assessed practices, the respondents have considerable level of awareness for eight of them. Chief of these practices with the highest level of awareness is value management, life-cycle costing, design for the environment, life-cycle assessment, and BIM with a MIS of 4.02, 3.95, 3.86, 3.73 and 3.57 respectively. The overall level of awareness for all the SC practices combined gave a MIS of 3.20 which is just on the average. This result implies that there is an average level of awareness among construction professionals within the ZCI as regards the practices needed for achieving SC within the country. In terms of implementation, result reveals that out of the 13 assessed SC practices only 4 have an implementation level of above average of 3.0. These SC practices include value management, design for the environment, construction ecology and life-cycle assessment with a MIS of 3.77, 3.50, 3.27 and 3.20 respectively. On the overall, the level of implementation of the identified SC practices with the country’s construction industry is low as a mean value of 2.70 was derived. The result from the overall awareness level of the identified sustainable construction practices shows an average level of awareness among construction experts in the country. This result contradicts that of  and  which stated that the level of sustainability awareness among developing countries such as Nigeria and Kuwait is low. The result is also in contrast with the submission of  which indicated that there was a low level of awareness about SC in Zambia. The findings of this result shows that there is some measure of increase in the level of awareness of SC among construction professionals in Zambia from a low level to an average awareness level. Therefore, more can still be done to further increase the level of awareness with the country’s construction industry. It can be said that this average level of awareness have significant impact on the level of implementation of these SC practices, as result shows a low level of implementation. Baron and Donath  have earlier observed that in Ethiopia, the major challenge of SC is not that of awareness but appropriateness. It was observed that, while there is awareness of SC, it is not implemented correctly. It is either completely neglected due to budget constraints, lack of alternative building materials, or knowledge, or it is reduced to the issue of sustainable resource management. Result from this study agrees with this submission, as some amount of awareness was observed among the construction professionals, but the actual implementation of same is low. This result also agrees with the studies done by  and  which identified that in Malaysia and South Africa respectively, there was a higher level of awareness on SC practices but very poor implementation of the same. This can be attributed to the issues like the construction industry being a client driven and as such adoption and subsequent implementation of these practices is dependent on the awareness of the clients. The increased clamor for the adoption of value management as a means of achieving sustainability in construction is evident in researches [24, 7, 30, and 31]. Findings from this study reveal that construction professionals in the ZCI are aware of the use of value management as a sustainability tool and are using it in the delivery of construction projects within the country. However, biomimicry which has been identified as a novel science and method that studies nature’s models and then emulates their forms, processes, and strategies offer a sustainable approach towards achieving sustainable environment  is yet to gain recognition within the ZCI. Thus if SC construction is to be achieved within the country, then there must be an increase in the adoption of other sustainable construction practices within the industry. Table 1: Awareness and implementation of sustainable construction practices Awareness Sustainable Construction Practices MIS STD Value management 4.02 0.902 Life-cycle costing 3.95 1.238 Design for the environment 3.86 0.979 Rank 1 2 3 MIS 3.77 2.75 3.50 Implementation STD 0.886 0.918 1.131 Rank 1 6 2 Ayodeji Oke et al. / Energy Procedia 158 (2019) 3246–3252 A Oke et al/ Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000 3250 Life - cycle assessment Building Information Modelling (BIM) Lean construction Construction ecology Industrialized Building System (IBS) Ecological footprint Ecological economics Nanotechnology Cradle to Cradle design Biomimicry Average Note: MIS = Mean Item Score, STD = Standard Deviation 3.73 3.57 3.45 3.27 3.07 2.91 2.77 2.55 2.43 1.98 3.20 1.042 1.283 1.190 1.020 1.283 1.197 1.031 1.266 1.485 1.171 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 3.20 2.61 2.86 3.27 2.48 2.45 2.61 1.80 2.02 1.82 2.70 5 0.795 1.185 1.193 1.128 1.191 1.044 0.993 0.954 1.210 1.063 4 7 5 3 8 9 7 12 10 11 4.3 Drivers to the adoption of Sustainable Construction Practices In assessing the drivers to the adoption of SC practices, some drivers were identified from literature and presented to the respondents. The respondents were asked to rate these drivers based on their level of significance. A scale of 5 to 1 was adopted, with 5 being very high, 4 being high, 3 being average, 2 being low, and 1 being very low. Result in Table 2 shows the ranking of these drivers by the respondents. Result shows that all the 23 assessed barriers were deemed significant by the respondents as they all have a MIS of well above average of 3.0. Chief of these drivers are; linking research to implementers, legislation / legal requirement, building regulations, advocacy and awareness, developing regulatory mechanisms, and clients demand with a MIS of 4.23, 4.18, 4.14, 4.11, 4.09 and 4.07 respectively. This finding is in line with the submission of  which stated that government has an essential role to play in implementing SC practices, through policy development such as standard legislation guidelines and assessment systems. Findings from this study also agrees with the submission of  and  that the client is a key driver towards SC as the demand for SC plays a vital role in the attainment of a sustainable environment. Pitt et al.  observed that providing financial incentives in conjunction with appropriated regulations should be used to help drive the demand for adoption of SC practices by all the stakeholders. However, although the use of financial incentive is not ranked among the top driver, it still have a high mean value, which implies that it is equally significant in the quest of achieving SC within the ZCI. Shi et al.  believes that the provision of these incentives should be orchestrated by the government through introduction of tax incentives and subsidies to construction firms like deficit subsidies, financial discounts and pre-tax loans. Table 2: Drivers of adopting sustainable construction practices Drivers Linking research to implementers Legislation / Legal Requirement Building regulations Advocacy and awareness Developing regulatory mechanisms Client Demand Strengthening implementing mechanisms Knowledge sharing Planning policy Resource efficiency Educational programs Co-operation and partnerships MIS 4.23 4.18 4.14 4.11 4.09 4.07 4.05 4.02 4.02 4.00 4.00 4.00 STD 0.677 0.971 0.852 0.813 0.772 0.759 0.914 0.821 0.902 0.778 0.863 0.915 Rk 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Drivers Creation of technologies of the future Reputation / Image Financial incentives Creation of technologies to mitigate impacts Competitive Advantage Creating regional centres of excellence Clarification of roles and responsibilities Benchmarking and assessment Changing the construction process Cost reduction Attract and retain good employees MIS 3.95 3.95 3.95 3.93 3.84 3.82 3.77 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.70 STD 0.888 0.888 0.963 0.974 0.834 1.063 0.803 0.866 0.918 0.991 1.047 Rk 13 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Note: MIS = Mean Item Scores; STD = Standard deviation, Rk = Rank 5. Conclusion and Recommendations This study set out to assess sustainable construction practices in the ZCI. Using a survey approach with quantitative data gathered from construction professionals within the construction industry, the study has been able to ascertain the level of awareness and implementation of SC practices with the ZCI. It has also been able to ascertain the major drivers of the adoption of these SC practices. Based on the findings, the study concludes that there is an average level of awareness of SC practices among construction professionals, while the level of implementation of these practices is poor. The major areas being adopted are value management, design for the Ayodeji Oke et al. / Energy Procedia 158 (2019) 3246–3252 A Oke et al/ Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000 6 3251 environment, construction ecology and life-cycle assessment, with lesser focus on other key practices such as biomimicry. The subsequent findings in similarity with the literature revealed that there are a number of drivers that can enhance the adoption of sustainable construction practices with the major ones being linking research to implementers, legislation or legal requirement, building regulations, advocacy and awareness, developing regulatory mechanisms, and clients demand. These results indicated that there is need for government to spearhead the adoption of sustainable construction practices through collaboration with academics and most importantly through enforcement of regulations and formulation of legislation supporting sustainable construction. The construction industry plays a vital role in the economic development of Zambia despite the impacts that it has on the environment and on the general wellbeing of the people as identified in the study. Therefore, it is essential that the various stakeholders be made aware of the sustainable practices that have been developed to ensure that the various projects that are being carried out in the country are sustainable. Thus, it is recommended that a module relating to SC should be introduced in the universities and in the school curriculum. Government should develop a framework for the adoption of SC in the country, and also show its commitment to the adoption of SC through introduction of legislation and incentives. Government should encourage collaboration with the various professional bodies to ensure enforcement of regulations. Training and education of the various professionals should be encouraged through continuous professional development by different professional bodies. There is also the need for collaboration with countries with established green building councils like South Africa, UK, USA, among others. References                    Ametepey, S. O. and Aigbavboa, C. 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