Reading literacy is defined as “understanding, using, and reflecting on written texts, in
order to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential, and to participate in
society” (Therrien, 2004). According to Therrien, in order to achieve literacy there are five
important skills one must learn: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary instruction, text
comprehension strategies, and reading fluency. Reading literacy is not only a foundation for
basic learning but also a prerequisite for successful participation in most areas of youth or adult
life (Linnakyla et al., 2004).
The future success of children lies in the ability to read fluently and understand what is
read. SAN ENRIQUE CENTRAL SCHOOL shows that at least 2 out of 10 pupils have significant
difficulty in reading acquisition. Problems with reading tend to begin at the onset of reading
instruction, persist and become more severe with time.
Furthermore, most pupils do not detect fluency or comprehension difficulties until the
second or third grade because the reading skills focused on until the fourth grade are
phonemic, and not based on fluency and comprehension. As students reach grade six, it shows
fluency does not increase even comprehension.
To increase the reading fluency and comprehension of students who encounter such
problems, various strategies, such as assisted reading, peer/cross-age tutoring, big brother/ big
sister has been implemented.
The remedial reading is a supplemental reading program that consists of re-reading
unfamiliar text until a satisfactory level of fluency is reached. Remedial reading is a strategy that
implements assisted reading, reading while listening, and paired reading. The remedial reading
strategy is likely successful because it incorporates feedback from the instructor to the student
reader. Intervention programs involving comprehension-building skills, like remedial reading,
strengthen vocabulary. This method of practice increases language skills and builds general
knowledge setting a foundation for basic life skills.
Yet, interventions were made and identified the levels of pupils but this discusses the
causes and reasons of reading difficulties of non-readers and frustration level readers. What are
the main factors and reasons for one’s pupil reading difficulty? There are various factors that
lead to reading failure, including impoverished exposure to language and early literacy
activities, lack of adequate instruction, and/or more biologically based risk factors.
Understanding the root causes of non-readers and the signs that put children at risk for reading
problems can facilitate early identification, and therefore early intervention.
For a child to become a successful reader, a variety of different skills need to come
together. Understanding these basic components of reading development and, more
important, using teaching approaches we know work are critical components of both general
and special education. Intervention and remedial reading will be successful if tutors/ teachers
acknowledge the factors that affect one’s pupil’s reasons for his reading difficulty. This can
greatly help teachers deal with the problem. It is believed that reading, as well as language
competencies, are both the means and the end to educational achievement (Jordaan, 2011)
Therefore the end justifies the means.
Research Questions
This study aims to make an action plan for the poor reading difficulties of grade six
pupils in San Enrique central school Elementary School.
Specifically it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. Why pupils in grade five and six were at the non-reader and frustration level?
2. What are the main factors that affects their reading difficulty?
3. How pupils in grade five and six will be helped by the teacher to address difficulty in
learning to read?
Proposed Innovation/ Intervention/ Strategy
This study proposed that information should be presented in different ways to
assist the teachers in dealing with strugglers. The objective of this study is to identify the
main reasons why despite there are strugglers and despite of intervention in remedial
reading there are still pupils who can’t achieved reading recognition and comprehension.
In this way, teachers can adjust and identify the best strategy to be used in remedial
reading program. Teachers can learn to attack or deal with their pupils.The interventions
will be implemented on the 1st week of January 2022 until last week of March 2022.
The teacher will be preparing different communication letters to the principal, barangay
captains and parents. Then the researchers will collect personal data information of identified
pupils in their advisers. Distribute the survey questioners, conduct interview and gather data. Pro
Data gathered will be utilized in conducting remedial reading program. This will serve as
guide for the teachers and will help them in their strategy to be used in conducting the remedial.
Action Research Methods
This action research used the descriptive correlational method of research. Descriptive
research involves description, recording, analysis and interpretation of conditions that currently
exist. The main aims are to describe the nature of a condition as it exists at the time of the
study and to explore the causes of the particular situation.
This action research utilized the triangulation method as a data-gathering procedure through a
survey questionnaire, observation, interview and field notes.
Subjects of the study will include 35 Pupils of Grade Five and Six of San Enrique Central
School for the school year 2021 -2022. These pupils underwent the assessment using the Phil.
IRI in English as a tool to identify their level of word recognition and comprehension skills. They
belong to frustration level or struggling readers.
Data Gathering Methods
Data gathering instruments will be utilized to measure and determine the main factors
why some pupils have difficulty in reading. The researcher will apply a primary data collection
instrument such as a survey questionnaire, interview, observation, and field notes. Profiling will
be done such as:
Profile of the respondents in terms of Gender
Profile of the respondents in terms of Monthly Income of
Profile of the Respondents in terms of Nutritional Status
Profile of the respondents in terms of educational attainment of mother
Profile of the respondents in terms of educational attainment of father
Ethical Issues
A letter of request will be secured from the School Principal. Upon its approval, proper
coordination with the class advisers and parents of the pupil respondents.
The researcher will be personally administered the questionnaire to ensure that all
items will be answered and 100% percent retrieval will be attained. The interview, observation,
and field notes will be personally done by the researcher.
Data Analysis Plan
A data analysis plan is a roadmap for how you're going to organize and analyze your
survey data—and it should help you achieve three objectives that relate to the goal you set
before you started your survey: Answer your top research questions. Use more specific survey
questions to understand those answers.
The researcher will provide survey questioner, conduct interview to the parents and
pupils, observed pupils and have some field notes. After these, answers will be validated.
Descriptive statistics such as mean and rank will be used in the study in treating the data
The formula that will be used were the following:
= mean
= total score
n = number of respondents
Action Research Plan
Assessment on Reading
( English)
Identifying Strugglers
Remedial Reading Conducted
Feed backing
Preparing for Action
Research Proposal
Submission of Proposal for
Validation of Questionnaires
Securing Permit to Conduct
the Study
Administration of Survey
September 13- 17
5 days
September 20- 24
September 27 – November
December 6-10
December 13-17
5 days
January 3-7,2022
5 days
January 10-14
5 days
January 24-28
5 days
February 1-11
9 days
5 days
5 days
Gathering Data
Analysis of Results
Submission of Results
Preparing the Final
Printing the Final Manuscript
Submission of Research
February 14- March 30
April 1-13
April 18-22
45 days
13 days
5 days
May 2- 13
May 16- 20
May 23-27
September 13, 2021- May
10 days
5 days
5 days
200 days
Materials and Cost
bond paper
Grand Total
4 bottles
5 reams
36 sets
Unit Cost
Php. 295.00
Php. 180.00
Php. 24.00
72 meal sets
Total cost
Php. 1 180.00
Php. 864.00
Php. 2 000.00
Php.2 160.00
Php. 7 104.00
Plan for Disseminations and Advocacy
The result of this study will be disseminated to teachers who conducted the remedial
reading program. Also, this will be discussed during teachers meeting like LAC Session, subject
meeting and during INSET.
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MacInnis, Eric., 2015, Teaching Students with Reading Difficulties and Disabilities,
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