Committee: Unicef Topic: Preventing and Treating Malnutrition Among Children Country: Russia School: Hillcrest Highschool Although coverage of Russia often dominates the American news cycle, people give little attention to the prevalence of poverty in the country. Many Russians live in unacceptably impoverished conditions and face food insecurity. Hunger in Russia is on a downward trend and both NGOs and the government are undergoing concerted efforts to address both poverty and food insecurity in the country. Poverty is the primary factor behind hunger in Russia. Other than those living in dire poverty, most of the population consumes over 2,1000 calories daily —well above the 1,900 calories a day guideline that the Food and Agricultural Organizations of the United Nations (FAO) set. Those with higher incomes in Russia ingest over 3,000 calories a day, like those living in developed nations.1 People with disabilities, older people with little sources of income, and families with children are some of the populations who face the most food insecurity in Russia. Another population that often faces food insecurity is people with HIV and those who inject drugs (PWIJ) and these make up an estimated 2.3 percent of the population. The irregular schedule and often low socioeconomic status of PWIJ means they often face hunger and malnutrition. 2 Due to covid, the government was not able to properly provide nutrients to people that are less fortunate because they were trying to slow the spread of Covid-19. Efforts to stop the spread of COVID-19 have unfortunately seriously compromised that resilience and heightened the existing global nutrition crisis. Containment measures have disrupted food systems, upended nutrition services, and threatened food security for vulnerable children and their families.3 Families from third-world countries are going through a dangerous surge with a lack of food. Malnutrition is a silent threat to millions of children. The damage it does can be irreversible, robbing children of their mental and physical potential.4 Unicef works hard to make sure malnourished children are provided with help all around the world. Undernutrition is linked to nearly half of all deaths of children under age 5. And for millions of children, chronic malnutrition will result in stunting — a largely irreversible condition that stunts their physical and mental growth. It's expected that an additional 6.7 million children will likely suffer from wasting due to COVID-19.5 Unicef paired up with Ready-touse to create packages of food ready to use for up to 2 years for children suffering from the most severe cases of malnutrition as an effective tool to treat acute and severe acute malnutrition. One carton of RUTF contains 150 packets, enough for one six- to eight-week course of treatment to restore the health of a severely malnourished child. All parents have to do is open the packet, give it to their children and watch them grow healthy and strong. ___________________________________ Work Cited Kislitskyn. “Lunchless Russian Schoolchildren Fainting From Hunger, Ombudsman Says.” Radio Free Europe, 23 January 2019, https://www.rferl.org/a/schoolchildrenfainting-from-hunger-more-frequently-russian-ombudsman-says/29726403.html. Accessed 4 March 2022. Pulley, Chace. “10 Facts About Hunger in Russia.” The Borgen Project, 20 November 2019, https://borgenproject.org/10-facts-about-hunger-in-russia/. Accessed 4 March 2022. NHSMUN. “UNICEF.” IMUNA, https://imuna.org/wpcontent/uploads/2021/10/NHSMUN-2022-Background-Guide-UNICEF.pdf. Accessed 4 March 2022. “2020 Global Nutrition Report.” Global Nutrition Report, https://globalnutritionreport.org/reports/2020-global-nutrition-report/. Accessed 4 March 2022. Committee: Unicef Topic: Addressing & Preventing Child Marriage Country: Russia School: Hillcrest Highschool Child and forced marriage is a human rights violation and a harmful practice that disproportionately affects women and girls globally. Worldwide, more than 650 million women alive today were married as children. Every year, at least 12 million girls are married before they reach the age of 18. This is 28 girls every minute. Child marriage often compromises a girl’s development by resulting in early pregnancy and social isolation, interrupting her schooling, limiting her opportunities for career and vocational advancement, and placing her at increased risk of domestic violence.1 Depending on the age at marriage, child marriage increases total fertility for women by 17% to 26%. The literature suggests that adolescent girls have in many countries a higher level of maternal morbidity and mortality than women ages 20-24. At the same time, while avoiding pregnancy at a very young age is essential, it does not follow that ending child marriage and thereby reducing early childbirths would necessarily result in a decrease in maternal mortality ratios at the national level.2 Besides child pregnancy & mortality rates, child marriage also has a negative impact on one's education. Estimates for sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and South Asia suggest a statistically significant impact of child marriage on secondary school enrollment and completion.3 In a survey, parents were asked why children in their households dropped out of school & many led back to child marriage. This is confirmed by the fact that the option for (or given to) girls in many countries is often to either be married or be in school, and once a girl is married, it is very rare that she is also in school. Further, Child marriage may increase the risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. It may also be associated with lower psychological well-being. Programs aiming to empower girls are typically implemented together with efforts to engage parents and communities so that an “enabling environment” is created and the stigma associated with increasing marriage is reduced.4 Lowering the rates of child marriage is imperative to increasing the education rates and success rates of young females. “COVID-19 has made an already difficult situation for millions of girls even worse. Shuttered schools, isolation from friends and support networks, and rising poverty have added fuel to a fire the world was already struggling to put out. But we can and we must extinguish child marriage”, said UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore.5 Pandemic-related travel restrictions and physical distancing make it difficult for girls to access the health care, social services, and community support that protect them from child marriage, unwanted pregnancy, and gender-based violence. In countries all over the world where child marriage occurs such as Russia, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and India, they’ve decided that by reopening schools, implementing effective laws and policies, ensuring access to health and social services including sexual and reproductive health services, child marriage will be reduced.6 With so Russia wants help from every country as a “union” to create similar laws banning and putting a stop to child marriage. For programs to succeed, everyone needs to work together to help transform harmful beliefs and practices. Works Cited (Bibliography) 1. Kislitskyn. “Lunchless Russian Schoolchildren Fainting From Hunger, Ombudsman Says.” Radio Free Europe, 23 January 2019, https://www.rferl.org/a/schoolchildrenfainting-from-hunger-more-frequently-russian-ombudsman-says/29726403.html. Accessed 4 March 2022. 2. NHSMUN. “UNICEF.” IMUNA, https://imuna.org/wpcontent/uploads/2021/10/NHSMUN-2022-Background-Guide-UNICEF.pdf. Accessed 4 March 2022. 3. Pulley, Chace. “10 Facts About Hunger in Russia.” The Borgen Project, 20 November 2019, https://borgenproject.org/10-facts-about-hunger-in-russia/. Accessed 4 March 2022. 4. “10 million additional girls at risk of child marriage due to COVID-19 – UNICEF.” 5. 2020 Global Nutrition Report.” Global Nutrition Report, 6. https://globalnutritionreport.org/reports/2020-global-nutrition-report/. Accessed 4 March 2022.UNICEF, 8 March 2021, https://www.unicef.org/eap/press-releases/10-millionadditional-girls-risk-child-marriage-due-covid-19-unicef. Accessed 4 March 2022. 7. “UNFPA-UNICEF Global Programme to End Child Marriage.” UNICEF, https://www.unicef.org/protection/unfpa-unicef-global-programme-end-child-marriage. Accessed 4 March 2022. 8. Wodon, Quentin, and Ada Nayihouba. “GLOBAL SYNTHESIS REPORT.” Widows' Rights International, 27 June 2017, https://www.icrw.org/wpcontent/uploads/2017/06/EICM-Global-Conference-Edition-June-27-FINAL.pdf. Accessed 4 March 2022. 9. “Child marriage.” UNICEF, https://www.unicef.org/protection/child-marriage. Accessed 4 March 2022.