Uploaded by Khushi Lamba

political science sem 2 ppt

By Khushi Lamba
Roll no.- 2066
The word ‘democracy’ has its origins in the Greek language. It combines two shorter words:
‘demos’ meaning whole citizen living within a particular city-state and ‘kratos’ meaning power or
• It is generally agreed that liberal democracies are based on four main principles:
• A belief in the individual: since the individual is believed to be both moral and rational;
• A belief in reason and progress: based on the belief that growth and development is the natural
condition of mankind and politics the art of compromise;
• A belief in a society that is consensual: based on a desire for order and co-operation not
disorder and conflict;
• A belief in shared power: based on a suspicion of concentrated power (whether by
individuals, groups or governments).
• According to Mahatma Gandhi, democracy is much more than just being a form of
government. It is also a means to human betterment, economic equality and also
spiritual salvation. Mahatma Gandhi emphasis on both the theoretical and practical
aspects. He calls democracy an art and a science. As an art democracy determines
certain rules to achieve a set objective as a science , democracy informs us about the laws
and theories related to it.
Democracy has many aspects and the following are some of the examples –
Democratic Government- The form of government in which people of the
country directly or indirectly participate in the in the government. The power is
exercised for the good of all people and not for any particular person, class or
group. People are taken to be the final source of authority. A democratic
government is always answerable to aits citizens for its actions.
Democratic State- Democratic State is the state where the power is vested in its
people. The people can choose their form of government, exercise the ruling
power etc. If the ruling government fails to fulfil the demands and aspirations of
the people, people can also opt for a different government.
• Democratic Society- A system where there is no discrimination based of caste,
colour, sex, creed, religion, property etc. There is no class having special
privileges. Every citizen is entitled to lead a comfortable and dignified life.
Democratic Economic Order- In order to have a successful democracy, a strong
and compatible economic order is important. If economic order is based on
exploitation and economic inequalities exist too much, common man becomes
alienated towards the political situation. As a consequence the capitalists take over
the control and exercise illegitimate power to supress common people to selfishly
promote their interests. National income should be distributed in a such a way
that everyone reaps the benefits and there are adequate resources for everyone to
earn their living.
When you think of a democracy where people run everything, you are thinking of a
direct democracy. For laws and government changes, people vote directly rather than
having anyone represent them. Everything from fixing the roads to raising taxes
requires the people's vote. If a large group thinks something is an issue, it can be
brought to the government.
direct democracy, also called pure democracy, forms of direct participation of citizens
in democratic decision making, in contrast to indirect or representative democracy.
Representative democracy, also known as indirect democracy, is a type of
democracy where elected persons represent a group of people, in contrast
to direct democracy.
People's democracy is a theoretical concept within Marxism–
Leninism and a form of government which developed after World
War II and allows in theory for a multi-class and multi-party
democracy on the pathway to socialism.
In liberal democracy, an elected government cannot discriminate against
specific individuals or groups when it administers justice, protects basic rights
such as freedom of assembly and free speech, provides for collective security,
or distributes economic and social benefits.
1. Popular Sovereignty
2. Political Equality
3. Rights and Civil Liberties
4. Rule of Law
5. Open competition for Political Power
6. Common good for the people
7. Equality
People’s Participation
Representative Government
10. Independent and Impartial Judiciary
11. Independent Mass Media
12. Separation of Powers
13. Decentralisation of Powers
14. Accountability of Executive
15. Rule of Majority
• The merits of democracy are as under• It is based on equality. Under this system, there is no discrimination among citizens on
the basis of caste, colour, creed, religion, language, sex etc.
• It aims at the welfare of all. The government does not work for the welfare of any
particular class or section of the people.
• It is based on Public Opinion. Under this system, the administration is run by
representatives who are elected by the people.
• People get a political education.
• The government is responsible. It cannot become despotic.
• It protects the rights and liberties of the people.
• There is little chance of revolution under this form
of government.
• The government can be changed by peaceful means.
• It serves as a school for good citizenship.
• It builds character.
The demerits of democracy are as under• It gives more importance to quantity rather than quality.
• It is the rule of incompetent persons.
• There is a lot of wastage of public money and time in a democracy.
• It is a government that favours the rich only. Only rich people can fight elections and
get elected.
• All the evils of the party system are present in democracy.
• It lowers the moral standard of the people.
There is a lot of false propaganda and
promise during the elections.
• In a democracy, a dictatorship of the
majority party is possible.
• It is an unstable government, especially in
those countries which have many political
• It is a weak government. It cannot face war
and other emergencies effectively.
Some important factors are there which are responsible for the success of the
process of democracy.
1. Election:
It is the fundamental basis of democracy. The election must be free and fair.
Through the election procedure representatives are elected.
2. Political freedom:
For the success of democracy the freedom of speech, expression and association
are most essential factors.
3. Education:
Without education there can be no democracy. In the absence of educated mass,
democracy is considered as a farce.
4. Development of means of Communication
5. Independent Judiciary
6. Accountable Administration
In conclusion, democracy is the best form of government,
mostly because of its strong philosophical basis.
Democracy is important for individual, social and political
welfare, and is, therefore, the best form of government.