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Study Guide
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Unit 1 Choosing words and structuring texts
1.1 Diction and syntax {choosing and
using words)
Formal and informal
The accive and passive voices
Using a wide range of vocabulary
Sente1ce structures: furctlo1s and types
Ag,eement within sentences
Writing speech
Sentence structures and linki rg words
1.2 Punctuation
The basics
Commas and brackets
Apostrop'les and ,nverred commas
1.3 Structuring texts: paragraphing
and organisation
What is a paragraph?
Ordering and linking paragraphs
Planning for paragraphs
Sequencing Ideas
1.4 An approach to spelling
Look, say. cover. write. check
The most commonly misspelled words
1.5 Writing sequentially and with clarity
Unit 2 Working with information
2.1 Information retrieval
Information texts in your exam
2.2 Inference, fact and opinion
2.5 Writing to inform and explain
11vnat are graphics?
Understanding signs and symbols
Use detail from graphics to answer
Interpret info·mation ·n graphics
Summarising lnformarlo, n a tab1e
Different kirds of graphics
2.4 Summarising
1Nhat is summarising?
Reading to summarise
Workirg out meaning
Identifying key poiNs
1Nriting your sum11ary
To sJmmarise ...
Unit3 Having an effect on the reader
3.1 Denotation and connotation
\.Vords and their mean ngs
Denotat ve and connotative language
Emotive use of language
Objective and subjective
3.2 Register, tone and mood
Creating mood
3.3 Narrative voice
3.4 Simile and metaphor
Fact and opin on
Conclusions based on facts and op,nions 48
2.3 Information in graphics
Before writ''lg - 5 minutes
Dun19 writirg- 35 ,iinutes
After writing - 5 minutes
Assessing writing
Narrative vo·ce
Tre wr'ter and the narrato•
The writer and tne speaker
Figurative language
3.5 Creating characters
How characters are created
Personal respo0se
Character revea ed througn
Creat,1g character through contrast
Creating character through sf)€ech
3.6 Writing to describe
Structuring descriptions
Vocabulary and imagery
Puttirg •tall together
Enhancing your descriptive skills
Ycur description
3.7 Narrative writing
Read a story
V./rire a story
Unlt4 Reading and writing non-literary
4.1 Bias
Bias through seleetion
Bias through stereotypes
Bias through language
4.2 Persuasive devices
A few persuasive devices
PersJasion In advertisement
: 00
' 12
4.3 Writing and speaking to persuade
Persuasion In speeches
Persuasive writing
4.4 Discursive writing
Dev·ces used In argument
Structuring a1d developing an argu-nent
Vo/r ting an argument
6.2 Doing well in Paper 2
About the exam
Section A: 'vVriting a summary
Section 8: Expository writing
Section C: '\Jarrative writing
Section D:~1/riting to argue or persuade
Practice exam questions
Unit 5 Answering questions on poetry
Elements of a poem
Explor'ng word choice and meaning
In poetry
Exploring the structure of a poem
Ar,alysing the tone, mood and
atmospnere in poetry
Dev,ces In poetry
Unlt6 Doing well In your exams
6.1 Doing well in Paper 1
Abo..it the exam
Mistakes to avo:d
Questions 1-25
Questions 26-60
Paper 1: Multiple-cho:ce questions
Paper 2: Pract'ce exam questions
This Study Guide has been developed exclusively with the Caribbean
Examinations Council (CXC•) to be used as an additional resource by
candidates, bot'i in and out of school. follow,ng the Caribbean Secondary
Educaron Certificate (CSEC•) programme.
It has been prepared by a team with expertise in the CSEC• syllabus,
teaching and examinatior. The contents are designed to support learnirg
by providing tools tc helpyoJ achieve your best in English A and the
features ircluded ma~e it easier for you to master tre key concepts and
require-nents cf the syllabus. Do remember to refer ro your syllabvs for full
gvidonce on rhe covrse requirements ond examination formot!
This Study Gulde is supported by a website that includes electronic
activities to assist you in deve'oping good exam,nar on techniques:
• On Your Marks activities provide sample examination-style sho·t
answer and essay type questions, witn examp'e candidate answers a1d
feedback from an examiner to show where answers could be improved.
Tnese activities will build your understanding, s,ill level and confidence
in ans·•Nering examination questions.
• Test Yourself activities are specifically desigred to provide experience
of multiple-cnoice examination questions ard helpful feedback will refer
you tc sections inside the study guide so ,t-at you can rev se problem
This unique combination of focused sy,la bus content and Interactive
examination practice will provide you with invaluab' e support tc help you
reach your full potential in CSEC• English A.
Access your support website for addi tional content and activities here:
Diction and syntax
(choosing and using words)
This Jnit will he1p you to:
• use appropriate diet'en and
grammatica forms in writing.
In this Jnit you will;
• uriderstand trie difference
between fcrmal and infor'llal
• understand r,e 'Tlpcrtance and
practise the use of a w de
• lea'" aocut sentence type,
structu·e a1d functlo1
• ma<e sure that sentence gram-nar
Is correci (tense arid agreemem)
• lrvestlgare different ways cf
wr ting soeech.
1 Separace the fellowing Into
a trose tnat are rkely to be
Formal and inform al
VVriters write fer purpose and audience. These are the factors that
determine boi l- what trey say and hew they say it. Sometimes the
writing can be informal and sometimes a fo•ma1style cf writirg s required.
Diaries are often written using an i·lformal style. This is because a d·ary
entry is usua ·y written by the writer as a personal record of their thoughts
and aaiv·ties. B,ogs a·e a relative y new form of writing that are written
onllne. In some ways similar to a diary. a blog often gives an account o'
the day-to-day details of one person's life. However, a blog has a much
wider audience. Biogs are ohen written in an informal style to give the
imp•ession that the writer is talking directly to the reader.
2 Read the following enuy, taken from a blog written using many
ct-aracte(sr cs of Creole. The most obvious cf rrese are highlighted
fo· you.
~',e sea-wal wa-k sh(Kked me to theco-e rOO:ay
tl,ouods o'plastiondoil d•Jms bang'ngagainst the steps, on the sea-sideofthe na1bo.1,
Iwonaei if11isuue, that 1he1e'sa1ea llinkbetv,~enpo,lutio' and cance1
And ftr.ere11, tner.why we still allow ·, 1, g-een and of Guyana?
Wnyv,e s;pem1auetsw1ao •,e<Jetables ana f1u t iop.astic? (lis,en, 1hefood do"'I look
appe1li"Q I,ke that 1,pemr,et cwne1~It lo,i 1eady 10 se<ve up de1th lomln,atu<e 1h10,ds)
Wtry :~ch,cken peoplese IcnickenInit? ll.ak.ng t ha lal (koshei) o::-.s make Ii whclesome?
INny we salt-fi~'1 peop'e1wap tnefiso i",it?
¥iny food vendo•s co,tln~e to sell foodInIr, then wedu'11p t. blc<l1ng-,pwe d1a,ns
\Vny we e\ it float out tosea and poison ti'-. sea-life?
lfi1 is 11uethat pol ution is aeaay,\1/ny we mooia donl shout about t?
hoho:ly doe'; give adamn no mo1e.
written in an informal sty e
b these that are 'kely to be
written In a formal style.
a diary entry; a letter cf
applica!lon for a 1ob, a note
to a friend; an email tc a
f( end; a letter to a principal;
a newspaper article; ari exam
essay; an advert targeti r.g
teenagers: a poster fer a
book sale.
For each craracter'st'c, :dentify how the word or ohrase would be
w( tten In Caribbean S1aridard Er.glish (CSE). You cou d use a table li~e
the one below. The first three have been done for yoJ.
Caribbean Standard English (CSE)
Me sea-wall walk
My walk 011 the sea wall
o' plastic
of plastic
wry we still
why do we still
3 Using Informal language write the ,ext for yo..ir own blog entry.
YoJr purpose is to srare your Ideas, feelings and/or experiences
witn yo1.1r audience. Your audience Is llkery 10 be people of your
own age.You could focus on a part icular thing that has happened
,o you this week. Aim to write 150-200 words.
4 Highlight the paces ·11 yo.ir writing where your use of language
is dearly different from CSE. By the side, 'dentlfy how the word or
phrase wourd be written In tne more formal CSE.
There are many times when writing In an Informal style is not appropria,e.
One of t'lese is writing in examinations. vVhi e you may use Creo e when
writing direct speech within a narrative, you mus1use CSE at all otrer
times. As you may well spend much of your i lme talking n Creole, this
means that you need to think carefl.ll ly about the words yoJ use and the
order in which you place them.
The active and passive voices
So far you have cons!de·ed how the use of Creole can create a more
informal style and tone.T~e word 'tone'rs used nere to describe the
attitudes a'ld feelings of the speaker to his or her sJbject You can create
e'ther an informal or a formal tone using Caribbean Standard Englis'l.
For example:
I think it's going to be a really great carnival this year.
(informal tone)
[t is thought that this year's carnival will be a truly
spccracuJar affair. (formal tone)
Copy tne table below. Sort
the senterces that follow Into
active and passive.
Highlight tre subje ct and
the ve rb In each sentence as
shown In tne example.
One way of creating a more formal tore is throJgh your use of the verb.
l placed the The book
book on Lhe was placed
Many verbs can be active or passive.
the verb is active, the subject performs the action, fo• example:
,,,-- - - - - -- - - - - - verb
I placed the book on the table,
on the table.
a A game was played by the
b The children played a game.
c Tre prayer was read qu·etly
by the woman.
This is called the active voice.
d She read the prayer quietly.
'Nhen the verb is passive, the subject Is on the receiv,r,g end of the action,
for example:
e You are considered inrocent
b' ~
su ,ect
The book was placed on the table.
f This ccurt considers you
by this court.
g A book was moved by
the boy.
This is called the passive voice.
The passive voice rs often used to create a more formal tone.
h The boy moved a book.
Using a wide range of vocabulary
To do well in your exam, you reed to show that you have aw,de
vocabulary and tre ability to choose the best words to su,t your purpose.
Using a dictionary
011e of tre mcst useful tools you have at your disposal is a p·inted or
electrorfc diet onary. It helps you to:
• find the meaning of a wo'd you do not know
• pronounce the word correct'y
• spel the word correctly.
A dictiorary is organised in alpnabetical order. It is not just the first letter
of the word thai counts. Vv'hen you rave several words starting with the
same two, three or even more leners, you have to go further into each
word to find its alpnabetical order,
6 Place each of the fellowing sets of words into alphabetical o•der,
a drastic
enve ope
b ready
c grief
grrd frit
gri I
grime grid
grizzly grin
Vv'hen you want to find a part' cular word In a dictionary, you should ook at the words in bold at tre top of the
pages.These are the lirst and last words en that page. They are called guide words. If tre word you are looking
for comes between these two words aior>abetically, you are on the correct page.
7 Look at the four words below and the guide words from four pages in a d'c(onary, Vvhich page would you
turn to In order to find each word?
a Page 966 sixteen sketcn
b Page 967 s1<ew
s kill
c Page 968 skin-tight skylark
d Page 969 skylight
YoJr dictionary will help you broaden your vocabulary. Start to use it frequently,
Using a thesaurus
The English language is rich in synonyms: words that share a similar or
related meaning. Lists of such words are contained in a book, e-book or
cnllne resource cal ed a thesaurus. Ta~e. for example, the slmp e word 'big'.
The following words are all synonyms of big:
enorn,ou s
Is it any wonder ti"a1exam:rers despair when students, hopirg to gain a
CXC qualification in English, continue to use tre word 'o'g'?
8 \II/rite down as mary words as you can wnlch have a similar
mean·ng 10 the simple word 'small'.
9 Use a thesaurus to add to your 11st.
Using words precisely
A writer can better engage ire interest cf a reader. and ,mpress an
examiner, by using words w1th precise meanirg. Take the simple sentence:
'The man walked down the path: Consider how each of tre following
creates a differe<1t impressior of how he walked:
711e 1'1,1.&IVI, &11'1,1.bLed .. .
711e 1'1,1.&1r,s swaggeyed ...
711e 1'1,1.&1"" L,1'1,1.p ea .. .
711 e 1'1,1.&1"" "1 to<rrlea ...
711e 1'1,1.tl"" t,p-t oed ...
Vo/ith each of these alternatives. the writer is creating a precise ,mpress·on
for ire reader.
10 Now take the s·mp'e sentence:
T he girl said this yesterday.
Think of different words that could be used to give a mo·e precise
impression of how the girl'said this'. for examp'e'whls!,€red'. List
your alternatives.
11 Now look up 'say' in a thesaurus to see If you can add to your Is,.
A simple sentence can be further enhanced through the use of carefully
choser adjectives and adverbs.
Take again the simple sentence:'The man walked dow<1 rhe path: Look
what happens when you change it to:
T he clderl} man walked hcsirantly d own lhe -m uddy path.
AdJect " a word wnich tells you more about a nour (person. place
Advero: a word which tells you more about a verb (a word of actio.1)
12 Show a wider vocabJlary range by wr ting down tne following
sentences and then adding well-chosen adjectives ard adverbs:
a The gir spoke to her friend.
b The house stood ori the hill.
c The toy was thrown into the room.
d The game was played in the fie d.
e The laptop was placed on the desk
13 Using two different co·ours, highlight the adjectives and adverbs
you riave used ir the sentences.
Sentence structures: functio ns
and types
A semence is a groJp of wo·ds that makes
complete sense.
Sentences can have different fu'1ct:ons. The main
functions are:
• a declaration or statement. for examp e:
'Tigers are fourd ,n eastern and southern As'a:
• a question, for example: '1Nl'-at happened next?'
• an exclamation, for examp e:'Vo/e won the
• an imperative or directive, for example:
'Drink six to eight gasses of water a day'.
There are various ways in wh ch sentences can be structured,There are
three main tyi,€s cf sertence st·ucture.
A simple sentence ·s 1he first kird of sentence you learn to write, It
consists of one main clause which maKes complete sense on Its own.
For example:
The bus was late. \'(le walked ho1ne.
main clause
ma,n clause
.o. compound sentence has two or more main clauses, usually linked by
the coordinating conjunctions ·and', 'o•' or 'but'. For examp1e:
The bus was late and we walked ho1ne.
~ - -~- ~ y ~ - -.,-- ~
main clause conjunction main clause
14 Identify each of the sentences
below as simple, compound
a The young man walked
down tre street smiling
hapo::y beca:.ise r e had got
tne job he wanted,
b He walked towards tne
reception but there was no
ore at tre desk.
c He stopped abrupt'y.
d A though it was almosr
dark, he coJld still see
e They enjoyed the carniva
ard they won the prize for
best float.
In a compound sentence, each clause could stand as a sentence In
its own right. A compound sentence can contain several main clauses.
for example:
The bus was late and we walked hon1e but it was a long wny
and we got caught in the rain.
In complex sentences, the dauses are rot of eqJal ,mporiance. One clause
(tre subordinate clause)· s dependent on tre other {the main ca use). A
subcrdirate clause cannot stand as a sentence in its own right, for example:
He said that the show would start when the audience was seated.
main clause
subordinate clause
In the example above the two c'auses are linked by the subordinating
conjunction 'when'. Otner examples of subordinating conjunaions are
'because', 'while', 'although', 'since·, 'until' a1d 'after'. These are placed at
rhe beginning of rhe s•Jbordinare clause.
1 5 Copy and annotate each of the above sentences 10 show main clauses, s1.1bordinate clauses and
coord:nating or subord:nating conjunctions.
16 Experiment using the conjunctiol'ls 'and'. 'or' or 'but' to form co.11ocund sentences by co11bining iwo or
more of the foi lowing simple sentences.
a The shopping centre was crowded.
b The young couple wert for a coffee.
c There was a long qveJe.
d They jolr,ed it.
e A lirt e girl was C'Y•1g.
f The security man spo~e to her.
1 7 Vvhen writing sentences, wr'ters make decisions
according to tre,, purpose and audience. They
vary tne st,uctvre and type cf their sentences
according to tre needs of their readers. Read the
extract to tne right. Identify the structure of each
sentence. vVny do you think tne writer has not
•Jsed complex sentences?
18 Col'ltln•Je the story about Sam and Jasmine. Use
only simple and compound sentences. Aim to
wr te between e·ght a1d ten sentences.
Another useful way of forming a sentence is shown below:
' r he young couple walked along the beach and they spotted a swimmer in trouble near the rocks.
\Vallcing along the beach, the young couple spotted a swimmer in trouble neat the rocks.
I wore my finest ou tfit and Tcheerfully joined the carnival parade.
\Vcaring m)' finest o utfit, l cheerfu lly joined che c arnival parade.
In the examples above, rhe second sentence 1.1ses the -mg form of tne verb.
19 Resrruciure tre following sentences, us1ng the -ing form of trie verb at the start.
a The boy runs in the race and he trips over at
the last hurd e.
c I saw my best friend on the otrer side of the
street and I ca ed 01.1t to her.
b The ch' ldren walked to school and they saw a
very Jnpleasant road ace dent.
d I believed tnat all would turn out for tne best
and I p•Jt my faith In God.
The -ing form of the verb can be used with various ot'1ec words, such as
'w~en', 'before', 'while', •after', ·w thou!' or 'instead o". For examp'e:
After lcavillg school, the teacher drove hom e.
Tnstead of listening to advice, the student d ecided to revise in
her own war.
You must sign the indemn ity form before entering the race.
Aim to experiment with the way you write yo Jr sentences.
Agreement within sentences
It is important 11'a1 the different parts of a sente1ce match each other.
There are some common mistakes chat st•Jdents make ard that examiners
wou'd like them to avoid.
Subject/verb agreement
The verb in a semence must agree with Its sub;ect in number and in
Verb {singular)
The child
The children
The teacher
The teachers
~/.r Jones (i.e. He)
Verb {plural)
W- r Jones and Mr Andrews ('.e. They)
Notice how it is the singular verb it-at often ends in an 's'.
Sometimes the subject of a sentence Is a collective noun. which is a
word that refers to a grcup. For exa-np e:'crcwd', 'team', 'ficck'. 'herd'. In
such cases the verb needs to be s,ngular:
The team of cr icketers trains regularly.
However, if the co'lective noun is a plural, for examp e: ·crowds', 'teams',
'floc.<s'. ·t,e•ds', the verb needs to be plural:
The reams of cricl{cters n ain regula rly.
In a long sentence it is easy to forge, the subject ar.d so fail to write the
correct form of the vero, for example:
Wayne and Carol, who used to go t0 the same school as
George, was meeting him in town.
If you ignore the subordinate c ause ('wno used to go to tne same school
as Geo,ge') you can see that this is wrong:
Wayne and Carole was meeting him in town.
As'V.Jayne and Carole', I.e. 'they; Is plural, the verb should mater this:
Wayne and Carol, who used to go to the same school as
George, were meeting him in town.
If in doubt, ask yourself:vVr at is the ma·, subject of this clause/sentence?
Is it singular or plural? Is ,he ve,b correct?
20 Correct the follow·rg sentences 10 make the
verb agree witn the subject.
a There are a herd of goats In rhe field.
b The army are fighting the enemy.
c Various teams of students Is competing In
the con,est.
d The ladies' group are going to tne shops.
e Our oar'sh are supporting that charity.
21 Se ect the correct form of the verb for eacl'I of
the fo' owlrg sente1ces.
a The sropkeeper said tha, imported goods
and local fruit (is/are) neve• sold In his place.
b Vvhen I'm running I feel free. as tncugh al my t'oJbles (ls/are) left behird me.
c The boy and his mother (searches/search) for his books.
d Neither the dog, which is very large. nor the cat. wnlch is very small, (likes/like) to drink water.
e The price of househo,d goods and c othing (is/are) ve,y reasor>able i1 that store and (makes/make) it
very competitive.
M aking pron oun s m atch
Pronouns often replace a noun In a sentence and help us to avoid
repetition, for example:
oys went fishing and th: ;_c_a_u_g_h_t _ __ ~
several large fish for diru1er.
The most common types of pronouns are:
• perso1al pronoJns: I/me. you, he/him, she/her, we/us, they/them, t
• possess;ve pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs. its.
It Is Important to make sure ti-at any nouns and pronouns used are in
22 Correct tbe fcllow·ng sentences to '11ake the underlined nouns and pronoJns agree.
a One of toe womeo selling in tre market is well krown for 1beir sweet-tasting pineapp es.
b Wnen my son came In, told !lg to go down to town and see the Court's celebratio1s.
c The ch;ldre" were crying because they rad lost Ibe,'. sweets.
eerer and I put~ food In bags and set out on tbltlt bikes for the day.
e trained at the carn'val butIDe was st, I a great day out.
Making tenses match
A te nse is a verb form that most often indicates time.
23 Correct the following
Erigllsh verbs have ,wo basic tenses: past and present.
senter,ces to maKe tne tense
of the underlined verbs agree.
These can be s·mp'e or continuous, for example:
a As she sat by the wirdow,
she thlrKs abotJt the days
sne had spent on vacation.
I run (simple)
I am running (continuovs)
b After st-e rad reacned
I ran (simple)
I was running (co1t1nvous)
They can a·so be perfect, for example:
ho11e. my mother beglf"ls
to prepare d'nner.
pr■s■nt perfvc:t
I have run
I have been running (cominuous)
c He sat on top of a covered
wel and holds a co'd botte
ofTirg in h's hand.
past perfect
I had run
I had been running (co,1cin1,;ous)
It is important to make sure il-,at your tenses match wlth'n a sentence.
for example:
d lnstagram ~ the
application I eve the
most and I am glad it was
She looks across the field and smiles at the ch ild who is
playing happily.
e I have live here all my life
T he boy slipped and fell in to a ditch because he was not
looking where he was going.
so I •Jnderstand why the
people are doing this.
T he children had been running for the bus., but they stopped
when d1ey realised it was late.
f Tl-i's~ orice a beautiful
house but now it Is Just
a ruin.
It is possible ro m·x tenses in the same se'1tence, btJt you must always use
the co•rect form, for example:
When I first came here I went to the local church, but now I IJO to the one in town.
Notice how the word 'now· ir the sentence above indicates rhe move from
rhe past to tt,e present.
Future time can be expressed in English in a number of different ways
using 'wil 'or present tenses, fo, example:
Tbe children will arrive tomorrov,,.
The children are going to arrive ro-norrow.
Tbe children will be arriving tomorrow.
The children are arriving tomorrow.
Tbe children arrive tomorrow.
24 Tne following sentences are each Written In the future tense.
a His mother is going to tell him off.
b Tne reacher is serrng a 1est tomorrow.
c 'Ne will talk when we next meet.
d Tnere will be a book sa ear the shop rext week.
How many other ways can you write these sentences In tne future
Writing speech
There are three different ways of recording the spo~en word: script, direct
speech and reported speech.
This method is usually used by writers of p'ays. It may also be used to write
the transcript of a speech or conversation.
The main features of a script are shown below:
scene scningl
On the beach a; the s11n goes down and night is
Tariq: (angril,y wrning w face 1vfatthew) \Vho told
you I'd be here?
25 \1./rire your own six 10 ten lines
of script. Dec de:
• where the co1versatlo~ will
iake place
• tre names of the two
• wbat they will say to each
You could base It on
conversations you have had In
Remember to use i re main
features s'1own above In yoJr
Matthew: Nobody told me. I just guessed this
was whe.re you 'd come. \'l(lc always used to
come here when we were kids. I just guessed ...
that's all.
Tariq: \'l(lell we're not kids anymore. [' ve got
nothing LO say co you. (shrugs and begins to
walk away)
Matthew: (following behind) \"v'air!11\ere's
someth ing I have 10 tell you. Something that
pms you in the clear.
stage directions
Direct speech
D;reci speech is often used in narratives or stor,es. It may also be used in
newspaper reports. The exact wo·ds spoken are still used bu, they r-ave to
be introduced so that the reader knows what is going on. Study the use of
direct speech ,n the narrative below and wcr~OJ I the correct answers to
the q'Jestions t~a, follow it.
r - - :ight was falling on the beach as the sun dipped
~ehind the hodzon. Tariq heard a sou nd behind
h.im and turned to face his old friend ,\,lau:hcw.
'Who told you I'd be here?' he asked angrily.
'Nobody told me,' lvlauhew replied. 'I just guessed
!his was where )•ou'd come. \1(/e always used to come
here when we were kids. Tjust guessed ... that's all.'
'Well,' 1ariq responded, with a softer tone to his
voice, 'we're not kids anymore. T'vc gor nothing to
say to you.' Tie shrugged and scarred to walk away.
'\'v'ait!' .vlatthew shou1.ed rollowing him
detcrminedi)'. 'There's someth ing r have to tell you.
Something that puls you in the clear.'
26 The spoken wo•ds are contained within:
a capital letters
b inverted commas
c aposuoohes.
27 Each t me someone beg'ns to speak, rhe writer:
a leaves a lire out
b continues writing on the same line
c starts a new paragraph,
b a capital letter or inverted commas
c a new line or a question.
28 Every sentence spoken starts with:
a an exclamation or a full stop
29 Every p ece of speech is followed oy:
a a question mark
b an exdama,ion morK
c a punctuation mark.
30 Look back at the script you wrote In Acr1v·ty 25. Rewrite It as narrative.
Underline the spoken words in your script and check ,hat you have presented tnem correctly.
Reported speech
Reported speech, or indirecr soeech as it is sometimes called, is often used
in official reports and newspaper articles. Reported speech gives the sa-ne
information as direct speecn, but ,n a different way.
32 Copy and complete this tab' e, rewr'ting the direct speech as reported speech:
Direct speech
Repo rted speech
•~vho told you 'd be here?' he asked angrily.
He was angry and asked who t--ad told 1lm that he
would be the'e.
'Nobody told me.' Matthew replied. 'I just g•Jessed
this was where you'd come. 1Ne a ways used co
come here wher we were kids. I Just guessed ...
that's all.'
Mat1rew replied that nobody had told him and that
he had just guessed this was where he wou d be.
He reminded him tr-at they a ways tJsed to go the•e
when trey were kids and repeated that all he had
done was guess.
'l"/ell; Tariq responded. w th a softer tone to his
voice, ·we're not kids anymore. I've got rothfng
to say to you.'
V~aitl' Matthew shouted, following him
determ,nedly. 'Trere's something I have tc tell yoJ.
Someth'ng that puts you in the clear.'
As yoJ can see, reported speech requires quite a few changes from direct speech. These are:
changes of prcnoJns, fo• example: nobody to'd me ➔ nobody had told him
cl'-anges of terse, for example: I just guessed ➔ he had just guessed
cl'-anges of words to do with time and place, for example: I'd be here ➔ he would oe there
cl'-anges of verbs, for example: always used to come here ➔ always used to go trere.
33 Rewrite the direct speech in your own narrative as reported speech. Read it a oud to check that It makes
clear sense.
Sentence structures and linking words
Good wrte•s consider how to vary sentence structure and length to ma~e
their wr'ting more diverse ard interesting. There are many ways of doing this.
l ook at the following se11erces:
John and San, are close friends.1"hey met
at pri mary school. T hey are both l 5 years
old . They both enjoy listening to music.
These s·'Tlp'e sentences are very repetitive. However,
as you saw ear:ler. short sentences can be built up into
longer sente1ces by using tre conjunct'on 'ard'. But
that too ca~ make sentences so:.md ve·y repetitive if
used too much:
John and San, are close friends and they ,n et
at primary school and they are both 15 years
old and they both enjoy listening to music.
However, there are several othe· ways in wh'ch the details In th's sentence
coJld be o•ganised to give empnasis to different points, for example:
• Two fifteen-year-old boys who enjoy listen ing Lo 111usic,
Joh n and Sam, have re1nained close friends since they n1et
at primar y school.
• I-laving 1net at primar y school, fifteen-yeaT-old John and San1
aTe still close friends and they both enjoy listening to 1nusic.
• John and Sam, close friends who fi rst met at p ri1nary
school and are now 15, enj oy li stening to music.
• At 15 years old, John and Sain , who 1n et at primary school
and are still close friends, enjoy listening to 1n usic.
Experimenting with different sentence structures s one of the best ways
cf ensurirg that your writing In the examination Is varied and irteresting.
34 Experiment by rewriting the info·mation contained In the
following short sentences In one longer seritence. Try to write
three different longer sentences for each set of sentences, as In
this examp.e:
Swarmi ran for the school tcrun. E-Ic came first lf) the
LOO metres. His tcarn maces applauded him.
• H-avi"-0 oow..t -(i,rst """ tvie :1.00 w..etres wvie"" .,,..""""'""El
for tvie scviooLtea ...... swar""' was appla«.clecl b!'.l l'lis
tta""'- 1<1<.ates.
• swar!M.i's ttaw.. 1M.t1tts applaucltcl VIL"'- btca «.St l'lt caw..e
-(i,rst ,.._, tl'le :1.00 w..etres wvie"" .,,.....,...,,~ for tvit scl'looL
• Wvit"" .,,.....,...,."-0 for tvie scl'locL tea1<1<., swarw.., caw..e -(i,rst
i"' tl'le :1.00 w..etrts a""cl l'lls tt"-"'- w..ates al'l'Laucltcl l'l•""-·
a Ky1ie was crowned carrival queer,. She was delighted. She won
a free makeover for her motner.
b Larissa and Kamal went to the park. They sat on a bench.They
talked about tbe,r ho lday.
c The girl loo~ed through the window. It was dark inside. She
could see a mysterio•Js figure.
In order to vary senrerce strvctures you reed to be able to:
• vary the order In which you present detail to the reader
• use the right lir-king words and phrases.
Linking wo·ds and phrases have a number of different purposes.
35 The mostw'de'y used 'nking words and phrases are listed below, Trey have a numoer of different purposes.
Copy tne following table and sort the words and pl-irases accordir,g to their purpose. You will find that two
columns contain more words than the otners.
with time
Words that
identify a person
or thing
Words that
i11 m·der to
Words that
Words that
Words that
show contrast
so that
b efore
in order
.,e that"
36 Choose ten of the linKing words or phrases listed above. For each word you choose, write a sentence
coNainfng that word.
There ;s a link between tre length of sentences and t'ie kind of thing the
writer is trying to say i1 them. Short se1tences are uscally c ear and tc the
point. They are Ideal for giving instrua io1s.
37 f you were a motorst, wh·ch of the following sets of direct ons wou!d you find most helpful? Expla·n the
reaso'ls fer your choice.
, ~ tUln
At the road Junet ,o..
'ght. Proceed for about
200 metres. AS soon
you pass the traffic lights,
rn left, Continue for
~upproxlmately 2 kilometres.
Pass the city park.ihe for is
school you are looking
immediately on your left.
When you get to the roadJunctl
W/r/ch is often ve
lunch h
r:y busY, especially at
our, you should take a ri~lrt h d
turn· Y<ou ''I1, pass some • h
o • an
~ opsanda
supermarket and ""55/bly • k
a van
you get to some traffic fights
avout 200 mn
res a,ong the road.
you get to the5" traffic I' h
turn left and con
,g t s
roadthr,-u h
" 9 some more b
with /t>t s ofsh
usy s treets
ops tlnd some bus/nss~
ntres, After about 2 k"
, 11
you" come to the cl
where all th
ty park, tvh/oh Is
e malnp'iirade
little bit fu
s s tart, Gt> a
rther on past th,
you 'II find the h
,spark and
5C oo/ Set back a bit
the left-hand side ofth
38 Using short sentences, write a set of dear dlrectio~s for how to get from yo•Jr ~ome to another place you
know well.
This •Jnit will he!p you to:
• use suitab e punctuation to
convey meaning dearly.
lri this Jnit you will:
• work cut why we use
punctuation w~en we write
• rev se how to vse a wide ·a1ge
of ovnctuatior mar«s
• practise JS r.g a range
o' pJncn;atlon mar<s
The bas ics
\Ne do not use punctuation when we speak, so why do we need tc use
punctuation when we write? Read tre extract below and work out some
answers tc m·s question.
wistfu' lybefo·eslcwlyrisingfromherchaircntheverandaandmov,ng
You have probably worked out trat when we speak we use:
• pauses 10 separate wo•ds and sentences
• tone io give emphasis to questions and exclamations.
Vvhen we write we need io:
• leave spaces betweer words so the reader can see clearly where one
word ends and arotrer starts
• use punctuation to help the reader 'llake sense of what we have written withoJt puncn1ar on, it s almost impossible fer a reader to follow what
we have w(tten.
You are row go·ng to revise and practise how tc purctuate sentences
• capital etters
• fu1 scops
• quesr en marks
• exclamation marks
• semicolons.
Capital letters
Capital letters are used for a range of different reasons:
• At the start of each sentence: T he lady stopped and put
her bag down. She looked around her with a puzzled
expression. T his town had changed so much.
• For the perso"lal pronoJn I.
• For the first ietter of proper nouns (peop1e's names. place names. names
of days and months): On T uesday Clarence will see Karen and he'll
ask her if she's coming to the dance in June.
• For the first letter of titles of people and organlsatio1s: They asked
P rincipal Jameson and 1\irs Smith to attend the meeting of the
Voluntary Association C ommittee.
• A, the beginning of a new piece of d'rect speech: Angrily, he replied,
'T hey didn't tell us where they were going.'
• For t~e main words Ir. titles cf bco<s, plays, games, films, etc: His favourite
book is T iu, Cay and his favourite film is T he L ord of 1he R ings,
1 The following extract has all tre correct punctuation apart from cap'tal letters. Rewrite the exrract
placing capital letters where needed.
hindus in u-inidad celebrate the lesser-known religious
festival of ga nga dashara in 'youth ful stages' of the
marianne river in the month of june. devotees spend
the day paying homage to several hindu deities, the
most important being ganga ma, the river goddess who
brought water co die earth.
a second religious river festival known as oshun takes
place in august ac the mouth of the salybia river in
balandra. this orisha festival is similar to ganga dashara
in many ways.
Twenty cap 1al letters were needed to correct the extract. Check your work and see if you identified them all. If
not, try again.
Full stops
The main use of a full stop is to mark the end of a sentence:
·rhe alley was dark and narrow and full of shadows. The
child ren crept nervously through it.
If you do not use full stops to punctuate sentences correctly, readers will
find ii ver1 difficult to follow wt-at you ~ave writcen.
3 Tbe following paragraph contains six senier,ces.The sentences have no capital letters at the sta-i
and no full stops at the end of them. Read the paragraph through f.rsr to make sense of it and
to identify tne six sentences.
88C l'vildiife ,Hagazine, April 2006
Now rewrite the paragraph using cao1ta letters and full stops In the correct places.
s Read your pt.mctuated ve·sion aloud. It should make clear sense. If It does not, you need to reth'nk where
you have placed your pJnctuation marks.
leeches arc segmented worms with a sucker at each end forest species hang by their rea r sucker when
a victim brushes past, they catch hold using the front sucker and start fcecling leeches that feed on
humans are common in rainforests in fndia they come out during chc monsoon leeches usually fall off
after fecd.i ,,g, but can anach themselves inside the nostrils of animals and, more rarely, to people who
drink from streams
Question marks and exclamation marks
There are two oiber punciuat,cn marks that can be used at the end of
a sentence.
The quest'on mark ·s used to mark the end of a quest'on:
1-fow old a re you? \~'ho is that girl sitting at the back?
Tre exclamaticn mark is used to show express·on and it Is a
command/lmoerative. It also marks tne end of a sentence:
Get out now!
The exclamation mark may also be used at the end of a, Interjection:
Oh 110 !
6 Decide wnether tr e following ser tences should end Ir a full stop, a
question mark or an exclamat'on mark and rewrite the paragraph.
ave you ever read a book you just couldn't put do"~l\\lell, if not, you need to a·y Smokescreen_ It's the
action book with everything needed 10 keep you on che edge
o f your seat until the very lase page- Like all the other
books in this series, this one's a winner_ Read it now_
Tbe semicolon can be used to take tbe place of a ~JII stop between
sentences that are close,y linked in meaning, for examp,e:
The first book was more interesting, with tales of mystcr)'
a nd advenrurc; the second one was just plain boring.
The semicolon may also be used to separate items in a 11st. wnen ,he items
are too lo~g to be separated by ccmmas (see below), for examp1e:
The class raised the grand total by staging a wide range of events:
a sponsored run through the centre of town ; daily cake stalls
throughout N ovember; a book sale in the chu rch hall; and, to their
teachers' great delight, a sponsored silence.
The use of the sem colon is often very subtle. Look out for it in your
general reading and make a note of how d:fferent writers use it.
Commas and brackets
Commas to separate items in a list
vVher you a·e writing lists in a sentence you need to separate the
ilems vlth commas. The final comma before tre'and'is usually left
out. For example:
If you ever explore this area you will find you can go swimming in
the warm ocean , play football o n the g reen, visit a range o f cxciring
shops and cat the most delicious foods.
7 Copy the following sentences. Place commas between the items in
the lists to make 1~e sentences eas:er to follow.
a He opened ,be bag warily and ins'de fourd a crumpled note
a rusty ~ey some foreign co,ns a faded photograpn and a
s•Jspicious-lcok:'1g parcel.
b Arni-virus software Is provided to protect computers against
infected files provide support systems and a1.11oma1ically update
virus definitions.
Commas to mark off extra information
~\/hen you g,ve extra informa1io1 about so-nethlrg or
somebody, you use commas to separate it from the ma·,
sen,erce. Fo· example:
Alf Johnson , 32, claimed he had bought the ca r the day before.
,\,lr Joh nson , a father of four, was u nable co show a rece ipt and
Judge Benjamin Carr, a n1ost respected member of the Court of
Justice, found him guilry of theft.
8 Copy the fol owlrg sentences. Unde•line the words that give you
extra informat on and put co-nmas arourd them:
The street \Vatched in \VOnder when Charlie
Sooner the well-known local hero was up to
his tricks again. This time Charlie 72 cli1nbed a
ladder tO rescue his neighbour's cal. i\11.rs Elkin
Charlie's neighbour for 27 years had called for
help \vhen her cat had chased a bird up a rree and
got stuck. Charlie war veteran and grandfather of
eighl did n't hesiLate.
Commas to separate different parts of a sentence
Commas also help the reade· to make sense of what you have
written. They ma' k a pause, In the same way as we would pause
when speaking. Say the following sentence aloud:
Alchough the bus was lace he still got to school on time.
To make clear sense of the semence. you reed to pause after'late'.That is
where you place your comma:
Although the bus was lace, he still got
LO school on
The best ways 10 learn how to use commas well are to:
• take not'ce of how otner w( ters use them
• read your writing aloud. co help yoJ wo·k cut where you need top.ace
the commas.
9 Read the following sentences
aloJd. Decide where commas
snould be placed.
a He stil ' go: to schoo1 on
time even though the bJs
was late.
b On the otner hand rhe'e
might be a way to fix It
c Having set the alarm
incorrectly Carl was very
late for work.
d Before you open the gate
make sJre the dog is in
1o Rewrite tne sentences plac·ng
the commas correct ly.
11 Read the fol owing extract from a compl.fler manual. Notice how
the commas have been used to help the reader fellow the meanlrg.
Your computer can catch a virus fro1n disks, a
local nel\vork or the internet. Just as a cold vir us
attaches itself to a human host, a computer virus
attaches itself to a program. And just like a cold, it is
contagious. Like vii-uses, worms replicate themselves.
However, instead of spreadi ng fron1 fi le to file, they
spread fron1 co1nputer to co1nputer, infecting an
entire systen1.
12 VVrite a paragraph that could be used in a manual or gu:de. It can
be based on a thing or a place 11--at you know something aoout.
Aim to wnte 60- 70 words and use sente'lces that need commas.
Brackets may also be used to separate a section of writing from the
main text so as not to d'srupt tre fiowof tre sentence. For example:
Kingston, the capital of Jamaica, is situated on the rich plains of
Liguanea (an ancient Arawak Indian name pronounced L ig-a-nee)
between the cays and banks of che eastern coast a nd the mighty
Blue .~'!oun tains.
I arrived late for the bus (by more than thirty minutes) but, due to
the rains, it still had not arrived.
Apostrophes and inverted commas
Tre apostrophe has two uses:
• to show where one or more letters have been missed out
, to show tr at something belongs to someore or something
Using apostrophes for omission
Instead of saying I am. we ofien use the sho"<ened form of I'm.
missing out the letter a. The apostrophe is used In writirg to shew
that a letter or lelters have been missed out.
we are
they have
is not
The apostrophe ,s placed in the exact spot where the missing letter er
letters would have appeared.
There are a few commonly used words that do not follow the no·mal rule.
You need to learn these.
wili not becomes won'r
shall not becomes shan't
1 3 Use apostrophes to write Ovl shortened forms cf the fellowing.
tis ➔
have ➔
_ __
John is ➔ _ _ _
l wlll ➔
_ __
they a'e ➔ -
they would ➔ ___
should not ➔ -
we have ➔ _ __
14 Copy ard complete the fol owing message. Use apostropnes to shorten the urderlined words.
Dear :Vlary,
[ would really li ke 10 join you on your biithday. Unfortunately. I have a meeting
planned for 1he same date. HopefuJJy, I wi ll be able 10 leave a bit early so it should
llQl be too late to meet up with you. It will be good to see you again. Hope you are
keepi ng well and havi. not had 100 many problems with work.
Best wishes,
Using apostrophes for possession
We rarely say the house of my friend.Vve would be more li'<ely to
say my friends house. n this case the apostrophe is used to show
that the house belongs to the friend.Tre friend is tne possessor.
V•/here you place the apostropre depends on whether tne possessor is
singular or plural.
Plural, ending ins
Plural, not ending ins
When the possessor isshgular, as in
\.I/hen the possessor is plural and
the case of Pav/, the apostrophe is
already ends 11 ans, we just add an
placed afierthe word and ans Is added. apost·ophe.
INhen the possessor is plural but
does not end in ans, we add an
apostrophe and ans.
Fo· example:
the friend of Paul ➔
Paul's friend
For example:
the children of [he men ➔
the men's children
For example:
the school of the girls ➔
the girls' school
1s Copy and complete the following, using apostrophes to show
a the daughter of tne woman ➔ _________
b trle football k:ts of the boys ➔ --------
c the homes of the women ➔ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
d the passengers of the boat ➔ --------e the staffroom of the teacners ➔ _________
f the toys of tbe children ➔ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
It is important to remember rbat the possessive words yours, his. hers, irs,
ours, rheirs are not writ1en with an apostrophe.The word ir's should only
have an apostrop'ie when it ·s being used as the s~ortened form of it is.
16 The fot1owlrg passage shou d contain seven apostrophes to shovv
possession. Rewr'te tbe passage putting the apost'opnes in tne
correct p,aces.
Abduls mother t old him not to go to Muhammeds
house at all during the weeks holiday. However,
while she was at work, he borrowed his brothers
bike and went straight there. There was no one
in, t hough the you nger chlldrens toys were still
out on the lawn. Abduls window was open and
Muhammed climbed in t hrough it, intending to
wait for him. Un fortunat ely for Muhammed, he was
spotted by the neighbours dog and t hen by t he
neighbour .. .
Inverted commas
You have already revised how to use inverted commas In direct
speech. Look back to pages 11 - 13 to refresn yo..ir memory.
The second main use for Inverted commas ·s w'len a writer Is quoting
frcm another text, for example:
The recipe instructed the chef to ' stir in chc spices' .
This is why Inverted commas are sometimes called ·quotation marks'.
Study tne use of inverted co11mas for quotation by completing tbe
following acriv:ries.
17 Read the advert for holidays in Barbados. then study the student's writing below It. The annotat'ons help you
to u~derstand how to quote correctly from a texr.
The place for you.
t bJdo
is " ,m.ill
blll l)<JutJ(ul i;,IJn
•lh stunning h.:'J,;hc.<.
t • rnuch 10 «<
rr,c.ndl> pcop c.
do • ><-'l'Cnc ,111n
J art
r the be>I
and ;omen
Qlnl)bea ,~
Looking for un islan<1 o~
C11rib«Jn ho11c) moo11
you~ rt,ado., you \\tll find the
h 8e1a"' ••>·
P~•,ckagcs, n •llld "-Cddin~
• nether
:!II f"n,11~
honc, n,~
, ''II
, -vn
cu1io11 or
• n
ii)', ~'<011.)
a &roup
~""" the 11lc,,1 ,-.~n llarb.,dos
,or )ou
t.e, us hcl
:!J Ptrfee1 8;1rbap·'You lind lhc
}Our C•w~.bbc
u o~ ~•• ...,~rl f'o
t c
re.on., llnd h
Ill ....,,
In J Can.,.~
...._0 n r,:rorLS for
= ··
h Ohday!
. r
commas are
pla,ed bebre
and after I oe
worcs laken
from the
advert semeo1
-me writert,,w0ets ti-le recioler oli.rectLt, bt, =i-vcg ti-le
worol 't,ou' cit tlile ctose of t i-le tLtl.t. The recioler i.s snow""
tlicit -sci ...bciolos i,s su1-tcibte fol' oiLfferei,,,,t tt,pes of
Ii ot.i.ol ci t, s, l'CI veg L""0 fro w.. 'ci c ci rt b bea"" 11 o""et, w..oo ""'
to ci 'group l1 ot1-olci!::J'· The appeat to oli.ffeYe""t gyoups LS
ew..plilcisi.seol 1-"" t i-le*" of 'Lei.eat ciccow..w..oolciti.o"" for
ci LL. The ciolvertLser revecits 1-ts fu""ctto"" i,"" ti-le se""te""ce:
'Let us 11eLp t,ou ft.~ tlie perfect -scirbaolos resort f or
t,our cci l't-bbeci"" l10LLola t, l '
18 Copy the following
passage, which
is also aboJ, tne
Add inverted
commas a-1d
a coon where
Mcie tt'- an or.e
quotatlor c~n ll1!
useo In r.he same
b,i ase:d tc g Ve
~'lipo;isl\ t<) ~
p~rt c~lor word
or phase.
A co on can be
used to lntrodu,e
a onger quotation.
The ope""L""0 Li.st wLtli i.ts .stu""....L""0 becicliles, fne111,olLt, J>eopLe,
w..uc11 to see a""ol olo i,s olesL0~ol to tew..pt ti-le Yeaoler. The ""°ti,0111,
t l1cit t l1ts Ls ti-le best J>Lace to 00 to 1-s ew..pncisi.seol bt, tne =e of ti-le
worol perfect. rt i,s Yecow..""'e~eol cis ci Yow..ci""ttc Locatt-0111, tlil'ou01i1
1-ts ol1-rect appeat to vs.ewLt, weol.s W>o~i.vcg fo r a"" 1-sl.tl111,ol fol' t,oul'
ccir1-bbea"" l<lo~t,w..oo""? Toe oiLYect Lves use i;i111,ol select furtner
tcir0et i;i111,ol pe.,suciole ti-le recioler.
Structuring texts:
paragraphing and
This unit will help yoJ to:
• use suitable paragraphing to
organise yovr wrting and put
across yoJr meaning clearly
• organise and sequence ·deas
in order to communicate
effect'vely In w(ting.
11 this Jnit you will.
• u1derstand how to use top1c
• lea-r row to make l''1ks wthin
and between oaragraphs
• know how to put a series of
paragraphs 11 lcglcal order
, practise seque1cing Ideas in a
se(es of paragraphs
• learn about rnovlrg from the
gerera to t'le spec "c.
What is a paragraph?
Mostwriti'lg is organised into paragraphs. Tnis helps the reader to fo•low
more easily the points be'ng made. Each paragraol-i mar:<S a new stage or
·dea in the w(ting. In randwritten texts, a new paragraph is usJally signalled
by the writer startirg a nevv rne about an inch in from tre margin. In typed
texts. paragrap'1s are often separated by a blank line (as they are In this book).
The fi•st sentence of a paragraph is sometimes called tne topic sentence.
It often gives you a clue as to what ire paragraph Is going robe about.
Read 'A Star is Born' 01 page 25 and use the topic sentences to help you
identify what each paragraph is about.
Sentence order
Semences should follow a logical order wit1in a parag'aph. Here is a
sentence breakdown of the first paragraph of the article on Barbadian
singer Rihanna on page 25:
Sentence 1 - statement about Rihanna's childrood
Sentence 2 - info:mation about her birth
Sentence 3 - information about her parer.ts
Sentence 4 - info·mation about the school she attended when rer
parents split up
Sentence 5 - information about her Interest in mus·c at this time
There was nothing too unusual about ;Rihanna's childhood. She
was born as iRobvn
. Rihanna Fentv, on 20 February
. 1988 in the
Parish or St Michael, Barbados.. Her father Ronald was Bajan
and her molher, l'vlonica, was Gllyanese-; lhey split when Rihanna
was fourteen. At the time she was attending the Combermere 5
High School in \1/aterford, St Michael. She always enjoyed
singing to friends and family and it was al about this time that
she formed a musical group with a couple of hef classmates.
As you can see, there is a logical order in tre way the details are given to
the reader.
As well as having a log'cal order, the sentences of a paragraph must be
coherently lin!<ed. Hlghllght,ng parts of tre sente0ces can help you to see
the ccnnecticns bePNeen sentences.The highlighted parts of the following
paragraph srow you the conneetions of ideas with,n and between sentences.
1 Look again at the parag·aph above. List:
• all the direct references to Rihanna (date of birth, etc.)
• all references to the year Rihanna turred fourteen.
2 Now look at the second paragraph of the article
below. Track the references to the highllgrted
words through the paragraph and highlight them.
Things changed for the young Rihanna in
'December 2003. A friend introduced her ro
Evan Rogers, a music producer from New
York Chy who was on holiday in Barbados.
From Lhat point on, she never looked back. 5
Together with Rogers, and co•producer Carl
Sturken, she produced a demo CD containing
twelve songs. The demo disc was sent to
various record labels and people in the music
industry and eventually it led to her signing a 10
deal with the label Def Jam Recordings.
3 \~/rite a coherent paragraph about yourself tnat
could be Included In a b'ography. Remember that
• need to follow a logical order
• should make links w,thln and between
4 Highlight the links you I-ave made within your
There was nothing too unusual
containing twelve songs. The
about Rihanna's childhood. She
demo disc was sent to various
was born as Robyn Rihanna 30 rec-0rd labels and people in the
Fenty on 20 February 1988
music industry and eventually
5 in the Parish of St 1vlichael,
it led to her signing a deal with
Barbados. Her father Rona Id
the label Def Jam Recordings.
was Bajan and her mother,
Success was soon to follow.
they split when Rihanna was
10 fourteen. At the time she was 35 In August 2005, the Def Jam
label launched Rihanna's debut
attending the C-Ombermere
album entitled A1usic of the S1111
High School in Vvaterford, St
'Favorite R&B Artist' at the 2017
which made number IO on the
l'vfichael. She always enjoyed
l.'eople's Choice Awards. In 2008
US Billboard 200 chart. In less
singing to friends and family
15 and it was at about this time 40 than a year, Rihanna's second 55 she also received the first of her
many Grammy Awards: 'Best
album entitled A Girl Like J\1e
that she formed a musical group
Rap/Sung Collaboration' for her
was released. It turned platinum
with a couple of her classmates.
single 'Umbrella'. Rihanna is also
and its first single, 'SOS', topped
renowned for her philruithropy.
the charts, with a serond entitled
Things changed for the young 45 'Unfaithful' also becoming an 60 In 2012, she founded the Clara
Lionel Foundation which
Rihanna in December 2003.
international hit.
supports education programmes
20 A friend introduced her to
and delivers scbolarships to
E:van Rogers, a music producer
Since the beginning. or her career,
from New York City who was
Rihanna has sold miUions of 65 countries auending college m
on holiday in Barbados. From
the United States. ln February
albums all over the world and
thal point on. she never looked
2017, she was honoured with the
25 back. Together with Rogers. 50 has won a nmnber of awards
Harvard Humanitarian of the
including the "Billboard Chart
and co•producer Carl Sturkeu,
Year award.
Achievement Award' in 2016 and
she produced a demo CD
Ordering and linking paragraphs
As you have seen. you need to organise your ideas in a logical order witnin
a paragraph. The paragraohs memselves also need to be sequenced in a
iogical orde·.
A.1ournallst Is wr ting an art'cle entitled 'Touris'll in the Caribbean'.
Below is a list of the seven d,fferem areas he intends to cover in
seven paragraphs. Decide the best o•der In wr'ch to cover these
a The Importance of tourism to the Car'bbean economy
b VVhy toJrists co'Tle to tne Caribbean
c How tourls'TI can be improved
d Problems created by wur srn
e Popular tourist destinations
f VVhat ,re local people say about toJrists
g The hls,ory of to•Jrism in ,re Caribbean
As you will have realised, there are a number of different ways In wliich
these paragraphs could be organised ogically. The journalist fir ally
decided to p!ace his tirst four paragraphs in the following order:
• The history of tourism in tne Ca•ibbea'l
• vl/hy tourists <:ome to the Car'bbean
• Popu ar tourist destinations
• Tt-e importance of toJrism to the Cariboean eco'lomy
Having a paragraph outline made the writi,g easier. As the journalist was
not using subhead'ngs, he then had to ensure that his paragraphs were
Iinked in a logical way. vl/hile each paragrap'i moves the reader 0 1, to a
new area, ire paragraphs are I nKed by their opening sente'lces.
6 Read t,ie four paragraphs wrirren by the journalist
on the next page.
7 Correctly match the fol owirg annotations to the
opening sentence of eacn paragrapt-.
• Refers to tourists of the past and today
• Refers to tourists of t,ie past
• Refers 10 tourists of today and tourists of the
• Refers to tourists of today
8 The journalist still 'las three parag·aphs to write.
They are aboJt:
• how tour sm can be ·'Tlp'oved
• problems created by tour;srn
• wrat the local people say about tourists.
\/✓rite an
appropriate opening sentence for each
of these paragraphs.
Tourism in the Caribbean
Tourists have been coming to sample the
delights of the Caribbean for over 200 years.
The Bath Hotel on the island of Nevis opened
in 1778, the nearby hot springs being oneof its
main attractionsfor foreign visi tors, and by the 5
late nineteenth century the Caribbean was a
popular destination for the wealthy and those
with the time to make the journey. However,
it was not until theadven t of regular non-stop
international airplane flights in the1960s that 10
the market started to open up to the less rich
but equally adventurous traveller.
Today, millions of tourists visit the
Caribbean each year. They come both by air
and by sea, some staying for just a few hours as 15
they hop from island to island.The attractions
of the islands remain as they always were:
warm seas; dazzling coral reefs; beautiful
beaches; stunning sunsets; and, of course. a
warm and welcoming people. Visi tors come 20
to experience the frenzy of the carnival, the
trials and triumphs of the golf course and
the never-ending array of delicious foods.
While early tourists favoured islands
according to their nationality, with the 25
English visiti ng Nevis, Barbados and
Jamaica, and the French heading for
Martinique, today's tourist is more likely
to pick an island for what it offers, rather
than for its historical associations. Many 30
visit Barbados for its beaches, while the
waterfalls of Dominica draw a wide range
of visitors, as does the Blue Hole of Belize.
Scuba divers often head toTurks and Caicos,
while those in search of romance, and even 35
a wedding, might head for St Lucia.
With visitor numbers being so high,
tourism clearly plays an important part in the
Caribbean economy. For countries such as
Antigua and Barbuda, and the Virgin Islands, 40
tourism is the biggest contributor, and it is
not just the tour operators and hoteliers who
make money. Farmers, fishermen, merchants
and those in the construction trade all
benefit from the steady stream of people 45
with money to spend. Thus, the Caribbean is
not only vulnerable to the effects of climate
change but also depends on a healthy global
economy. Concern is growing as to what will
happen if the visitors stop coming.
Planning for paragraphs
The writer of the article aboJi touris11 in the Ca(ooean foJnd It helpful
to have an outline of what he wanted to write about in each paragraph.
Before you can develop a paragraph plan, you need to think about your
subject and gatrer Ideas connected with 't.
Take. fer example, the fellowing task:
V\lrlte an article for a schoo' magazire in which yoJ 1forr1 Ot'1er students
and parents aocut a 'ecent sc1ool even.
Start by identifying the pJrocse (what you are hoping to achieve) and tre
auolence (who you are writing for) and highlight tnese in the question.
The next step s to make a note of ideas connected witn the subject. You
could list these or use a spidergram, as shown below.
r p.w... o"".,J"<"'-'t - p~re.,,,ts
staff/ps,:pli.s - a ..otitlo"-li
a~ re~earsat.s
OCw..t - tvtr1:10"'-'t
sl~l"'-3/ola """'"'-3/
w..a0ie/eow..eGt1:j - worst - - ~ - ~
a"'°"' best aots - votes fer
best aet i"" eaov, eatt0C'1:J
Jt.<.ol!3ts -
__...- ttaU pae~ol
tie~ts .S:'.1.
- COV'M.11\A,,l,O\,tt!j
MC"'-'tl:I gci~ to s«ppcrt
sev,cct sports tea....,.
01ce you have Ideas, they need to be grouped and put in orde'. You coJld
use four headings fo· your ideas. for example:
'Parag,apvi 1 - preparatlol¼
'Pa ragrllpVI 2 - per{orncll"-CtS
'Pa rag rap vi 3 - juole•"'-0
'Paragrapvi 4
- sv<ccess
Each paragraph reading can now be used as a'hook' on which to ha.19
your Ideas, and you may think of new ideas to add. For examp,e:
• Preparations: audit,ons and rehearsals - 7 p.m. on 6 June - school
l'>all - pareNs come - Principal's speecn
• Performances: everyo1e very nervous - singing/dancirg/11agic/
comedy - worst and best acts
• Judging: Judges - no teachers - community leaders - votes for oest
act in each category- tension - winners
• Success: ha! packed - app!ause at end - everyo1e i'appy- tickets
$2 - $300 raised for school sports teams
9 Choose 01e of the follow,19 writing tasks.
• Y./rite an art'cle for your local newspaper adv'sing parents on
tre most effect've ways cf dea 1119 with their teenage children.
• 1ewellery should net be allowed in schools'.1/vrite an essay
glv'rg yoJr views on ir·s subject.
• Vvrite a letter 10 an aunt w"o has been living In the US fer tne
past 20 years and is coming to visit you and yo Jr family. Describe
the place you live in and tell her of your pans for rer visit.
1o Identify your audience and purpose.
11 Draw a spidergram to connect as many ideas as you can with
your subject.
1 2 Decide 01 four paragraph headings under which to group your
1 3 Sort your ideas according 10 these paragraph beadings. adding
new ideas If yoJ have them.
Linking words
As you saw on page 24, writers scmeti'lles link paragrap'ls through
the topic sentences. It is also possible to make connections betwee-1
paragraphs by using a range of linking wo·ds and phrases. Here are some
wo·ds and phrases that are useful for linking paragraphs.
Thirdly ...
Nevertheless ...
Similarly ...
However .. .
With regard ro ..
Notwithstanding ...
Secondly ...
This does not mean that .. .
In contrast to ...
Sequencing ideas
Putting ideas in a logical order or sequence caf"I be Important when
explaining a process. In recipes. fo· example, ,tis Important to exp'ain
what to do in the correct order.
14 The directions a-g are taken from a recipe fo,
macaroni pie. They are In the wrong order. Use
clues in tbe wording and yoJr common sense
to place them in the correct order and complete
the table below.
a Add In the remaining irgredients apart from
a oz of cheese.
b Place in oven at 350'F.
f Transfer to a large bowl.
g Piace the macaroni mix intc an ovenproof
dish and grate the 4oz cheese o~ top as a
15 Think of a household or outdoor task that you
c Pie is finished when the top cheese crust
starts to loo~ sl 'ghtly brown.
d First cook the macarorii in a pan a1d drain.
do. Name rhe task and write clear instructions
on how to carry it out. Remember to o'der your
Instructions ch·onologically.
e Mix everych'ng together with a spoon.
You have arrarged the simple explaration in the previous activity 1n
chronological order, which is the order in which the actions need to oe
carried our In o·der tc coo~ the macaroni pie. Many exposito•y texts are
ordered Ir this way. Hovvever, there are other ways of strucwring the ideas.
Read Texts A and Bbefore completing the activities on page 31. Both texts
are about vo.car,oes.
Text A
Hlhy do volcanoes erupt?
Volcanoes us uall)' cake a long time co erupt.
F irstl)•, a volcano makes something called
magma from melted rock. This magma forms
at the bonom of the volcano and slowly works
ils way up to the main vent, which is a hole in 5
the volcano. As rhe magma goes up the main
vent it gets honer. B)' the time it is halfway up
the main vent it tu rns inro a very hot liquid
known as lava.Th is lava continues slowly
up the main vent, steadily increasing in heat. ;q
\Xlhen the lava reaches the oop of the main
vent, the volcano erupts. At this p oint, tl1c lava
blasts out of the volcano, along with ash, rocks
and a cloud of thick dust. Finally, the lava
moves down the side of the volcano, burning
everything in its path and sometimes causing
loss of human life.
Volca noes have fascinated and terrorised
peoples across the Earth, from ancient times
to 1.hc present da)'. Named after Vulcan, r.hc
Roman god of fire, they have wreaked havoc
on the lives of man)' throughout r.he histor)'
of mankind. From Tndonesia t0 California,
fro m Alaska co New Zealan d, volcanoes
continue to threaten the livelihoods and even
t.he lives of those who live in their dangerou s
shadows. Across the wodd today, somewhere 10
between JO and 20 volcanoes are hurling ash
and molten rock fron, their cavernous vents.
The Caribbean has ics fair share of
volcanoes, man)' o f which arc named
Soufriere, after the French for 'sulphur outlet'. IS
Whilst many of these lie dormant. La Grande
Soufiicre in G11adeloupe erupted violent!)' in
the l 8th and l 9th centuries, a nd in l 902 killed
1,680 people. Furthermore, the recent activity
of the Soufriere volcano in J\>loncserrai. which 20
in 1997 wiped out the island's evacuated
capical of Pl)•mouth and killed J 9 people,
shov.'S there is no room for complacency.
Concern is now focused on Dominica,
which is home to nine of the Caribbcan's
active volcanoes. With no major eruptions
since Columbus visited the island, there is a
general belief that one is long overdue.
16 Texts A and B start vvith a general statement to Introduce the topic. Identify and write down tne opening
statements of Text A and Text B.
17 Text A is writte1 to answer a specific quesfon. Ir Is written in chronological order, i.e. it follows the process of
a volcano eruptlrg. Vvhy :s chronological order the best choice to structure th·s text?
18 Text Bis not struClured chronologically. \/>/hat Is paragraph 1 about?Vvhat is paragraph 2 about?Vvhat is
paragraph 3 about?
19 As you will have seeri, Text 8 moves from the general (the world) to the more specific (the Caribbean), to the
even more specific (Oomrn·ca), V'/hy is this an effective way cf ~ructurlng this text?
20 look at rhe words and pnrases used at the starr cf all sentences except tne first one in Text A These are used
to I nk the sentences and the Ideas. List all tr.e linking words and/or phrases that are used.
2 1 YoJ are going tc write an informative text based en either your schco: O' tne p.ace where you live. You
S'lould structure your wriring by moVing from tre gene·a to c~e spec•fic. You ~'lould write three paragraphs.
He•e are two possio•e structures for you co choose from and adapt:
Where I live
Paragraph 1: hrstory of my school; information aoout
its s·tuation and external appearance
Paragraph 1: Information about 1he country in
wh:ch you live, e.g. na-'Tie. population. geog·aphlcal
position, trad·tions
Paragraph 2: details about tre inside cf tne building,
poss·b!y refer·ing to number ard types of classrooms
(e.g. Englisri, Home Economics, Mus"c, Art); school
hal,s, sports facilities
Paragraph 3: Information aboJr the classroom
you are currently sitting in and the people wro
surround you
Paragraph 2: lnformatlo1 about the area cf the
country in which you 1;ve, e.g. ~ame, rura'/u•bari,
population, local customs and nad tiof's
Paragraph 3: information about ,re build,ng that you
cal rorne, e.g. what your home is like, the people
you share your heme with
\/>/hen you are writing remember to:
• start with a sentence that acts as a genera' imroductlon
• organise your writ ng Into clearly visible paragrapns
• use appropriate linking words to connect senterces a'ld ideas.
An approach to spelling
This •Jnit will he!p you to:
• wr·te with accuracy of spelling
In dlffere~t forms of expression.
Accurate spelling is -nportant. Of course. co'rect spelling wii I earn you
mar~s In tre exam, bJt, more lmportaf'\lly. in working life peoole are often
judged by how wel I they can write - particularly witr regard to spelling.
Look, say, cover, write, check
There are mary methods people use to try to Improve the accuracy of their
spelling. The best known, and p:obably the most successful, is 'Look. Say,
Cover, vVrite, Check: For any word tr,at you have difficulty spelling correctly,
look up the correct spelling, the1 go through the following short rout,ne:
In this Jnit you will:
LOOK at the correct spelling of the wo-d
• work with a st of commonly
m ssp,f led words
• learn a sh1ple system to imp•cve
yoJr spelling.
SAY the word by breaking it down into syllables
COVER the word
WRITE it down
CHECK that yo~ have got it right
Here are five short lists of words that are commor y used and frequently
con&cient lou&
a rgument
a ppropriate
competit ion
1 Go through each list in turn. Use the 'Look, Say, Cover...' system to
fx tne spelling of each word in your mind.
2 f poss,b.e, find someone 10 o·ck wo·ds at random from these lists
10 create a spelling test for you. This will nelp you check row wel
you have earred the spellings.
3 For any words tharycu spell lncorrealy when rested, apply tne
'Lcok. Say. Cover ... ·system again several rimes unti you are sure
you can spell the word correctly every time.
The most commonly misspelled words
Below yoJ will tind the words rhat are most commo,ly misspelled in
writing done under exam co,dltio"ls. Set yourse:t the challenge of learnirg
to spel all of them accurate y before you sit your exams.
ackn.o wledge
acqua intance
comm ission
embarr assed
envir onment
inter esting
unnecessar y
Writing sequentially
and with clarity
This •Jnit will he!p you to:
• communicate in w•it ng clearly,
concisely and effectively.
One of the most important ways in which you can make your wr'ring clear
and logically sequerced is by Js·ng connectives. These are usually single
words (althoug'1 they can be two or three words 1019) ti'at appear at
the beginnlrg cf a senterce or a paragraph, ar,d, as their name tells you.
connect two ideas together.
There are rwo main types:
In this Jnit you will:
• focus 01 maKlrg you• wrlr19
dear and easy to follow
• learn to use connectives to
seqJence your writ ng.
• time connectives (sometimes called 'chronological' or 'temporal'
• process cor,nectives.
Time connectives
Here are tMe most commonly used t me connectives:
~ -finally
previ ously
·, . i
i. .,'i
firs ...
"I;then ...
1 Choose five of the time connectives listed above. For each one,
write two sentences tha1 are joined by your chosen word.Tbe
connective you choose will usually appear at rhe beginring of tl'-e
second sentence.
2 Can you think of ar.y other time connectives? Remember that you
do not have to st.ck to one word, so yoJ cou!d 1ave, for example,
'The fol owing day .. .'
Process connectives
P•ccess connectives are usually (but net always!) single words that suggest
the next stage in a process, or, In simple terrns.'wha, f'appens rext'.
The most common precess co~nectives used in the kinds of writing that
yo·J will need to produce for your exams are:
3 Vvrite a paragraoh abol.ll the
f•st stages In making a cake.
Aim 10 use at leas, two precess
connecrves in your paragraph.
4 Choose two further process
connectives. Think about what
sort of writing trey might
appear in and write a sample
oaragraph using your chosen
connect'ves effectively.
Can you think of more orocess
connectives, consisfng of more
than one word. to add tc tre
words shown here 1
This u11ir has focused en trie bas·cs o' writing accurate·y ard effectvely. Copy and complete the fo lowing table
to assess where you th'nk your strengths and weaknesses lie in this area of you• worK.
I am confident that
I can do this,
I think I can do this This is one of my
but need a bit more weaker areas, so I
need more practice.
I can use appropriate diction a11d grammatical
forms ;11 writing.
I can use suitable punctuatior ro convey
mean nq clearly.
I ca11 use suitable paragraphing to o,ganlse
mv wrltlna and out across mv meanina cearlv.
I can organise and sequence· deas ir o·de· to
communicate effectivelv In wr'.tina.
I can write w th accuracy of spelling in
different forms of exoression.
I can communicate In writing clearly, corcise'y
ard effect velv.
Draw up a plan show,ng how yo-.1 will improve any sk' I wnere you have Identified a weakness, then be sure
ta carry it out.
·· 21..;W
or-king witfi inforimation
2.1 ..
Information retrieval
This 'Jnit will he!p you to:
• work successfJlly with texts
that airn to inform.
Informat ion t exts in your exam
Texts tnat 'nform or explain are sometimes called expository texts; this type
of writing is sometimes called exposition. The CSEC exam puts a good deal
of weig~t on expos·tory writi 19 - both writing it ard understanding it - so
it is important that you grasp and practise tne basic prirciples Involved.
Much of what you read In everyday life is Informative: its purpose is to give
or explain informaton in a c ear and concise way.
'.lead texts A. B. C. D and E and complete the act ivities that fo'low.
lri this unit you will'
• leaT 1,vhat expository writlGg Is
• prac,lse 'etr evlng Information
frorn expository texts.
Text A
Lion, Red Brigade in Flow final
Delending champions Boys' Town and Humble Lion adva nced
to lhe final of tne Flow Champions Cup all-island knockout
competition with contrasting wins at the Anthony Spaulding
Sports Complex yesterday
Tn the curtain-raiser which started at 3.00 p.m. S
Cla1·endon's Humble 1..ion edged St Georges SC of Portland
I 0, while Boys' Town got lhe better of Arnett Gardens in a
seven-goa l thriller, 4-3.
Renae Lloyd grabbed a three-timer for Boys'Town in the 23rd,
75th and 81 st minutes. with l'Vlichael Campbell netting the other 10
in the 69th minuce.
Ke,•in l( ing scored Lwice for Arnett in the 28th and 79th
minutes, along with Newton Stirling in the 31st minute in a very
exciting game worth going miles co see.
Jamaica Observer, Monday 29 fvfarch 20 I0
1 List five facts that you know
about the rnatches in the Flow
Cha-np'ons Cuo covered In this
Grenada is popularly known as the 'Spice
Island' since It is one of the largest producers
and exporters of nutmeg in the world. In
addition to nutmeg, Grenada produces spices
such as cinnamon, ginger, clove, bay leaves
and mauby bark. With the expansion of the
agricultural sector, the cultivation of spices
for export has been given much emphasis in
Grenada. This is expected to boost the nation's
economy in the near future. Generally, spices 10
grow very well in Grenada due to the country's
warm climate, mountainous terrain and
fertile soil. Tourists who visit Grenada recount experiences of the aroma of strong spices permeating from
the houses all over the island. It is accepted that Grenada's most popular gift for travellers is a basket of
exotic smelling spices. The symbol of a clove of nutmeg is represented on the Grenadian national flag.
This reveals the importance of the crop to the island and links it to the name 'Isle of Spice'.
2 Give two reasor,s why Grenada is called tbe 'Spice Island'.
Text C
Why you should not smoke
Tobacco is a very dangerous
drug, even though it is legal
a nd used widely. T housands of
peopk die every year as a result
5 ofsmokingcigareues. Smoking
has been linked directly ro
lung cancer, heart disease
and other major illnesses. Tr
is also widely recognised as
10 being damaging LO the unborn
Furi:hermore, secondary or
passive smoking can put the
health of others at risk.
Although there has been a
drop in the number of adults
who smoke in recent years,
young people a rc continuing
to take up the habit. And i•et
half o f all teenagers who
arc cu rrently smoking wiU
die from d iseases caused by
tobacco if they cont.inue to
smoke throughout their lives.
T h is is because the combined
effects of nicotine, which is
the main d(ug in robacco, and
ocher gases which cncer the
lungs when smoked, greatl1•
increase the chance of disease
and ill-hcald1.
As evidence suggcscs that
the earlier you start to smoke
the more d ifficult it is to give
up, the obvious answer is noc
to smrt. Bllt, for those of you
who have, now is definitely
the time to stop!
3 Give two examo,es cf tne dangers of smo,ing.
4 Wr'Y Is the writer concerned about young people?
\-Vhat does the evidence suggest about those who s,art to smoke
ea•ly in Iife?
Read Text D about ,re cricket hero Brian Lara. It info•ms tre reader about
his past and his cricketing record. It also explains why Lara Is sucn a
popular figure in t'le Caribbean.
Lara is a linle man with a warm smile and
qllick wit. He has a sharp, clever mi.nd and
appears to think ahead o f his peers. He
was an 'A' studen t at Trinidad's p restig ious
Fatima College secondary school and
could have gone on to higher education if
his cricket had failed.
J-ie is an iconic figu re in his homeland
and is revered across the rest of the West
Indies. ln' rrinidad, the coun try's most
popular spot in the capital, Port of Spain,
is called the Lara Promenade. He was
g iven the country's highest honollr, The
1"rinity C ross, for his amazing 375 in I994.
The government built a huge three-storey IS
house, which stands su preme in the hills
overlooking g reater Port of Spain, for
him. An airline gave him 375,000 miles in
With cd cket being the most popular sport 20
a nd the only o ne in which the \'>v'cst [nd ics
has an international team, this makes him
the No. I figure io the region. In an eta
when paparazzi search for every movement
o f a world figure, Lara's popularity at
home and away has soared. Fie is far more
popular than any leader in the region.
That's how a man who has made 277,375,
400 not o ut, and 501 not out, can be a
champion and yec get a tongue-lashing at
the same time. ' Laramania', as it is known,
has been around for two decades now and
every cricket-playing coun tT)' in the region
has experienced it. In Lara, the people of
the West Ind ies see much of who th ey are
and, in many cases, who they would like
to be.
L ara is a man who has rokcn his talents,
worked hard and achieved goals that
maybe even he never d reamed of as a
child growing up in Sanra Cruz . H e has
remained a humble se rvant of the people
and is o ften seen rubbing shoulders with
men and women from all walks of life.
"I'h is was evide nt at Barbados' C rop over 45
Festival celebrations in ea rly August 2005,
when he joined the 50,000 pa rty goers in
the carnival's massive street parade. His
people are his ultimate release.
Philip Spooner, Laramania:Showsfrom the Ouifield
6 \A/hicfi secondary school did Lara altend 1
7 Name 1wo ways in wh;ch Trinidad has nonoured Br'an Lara.
8 According to paragraph 3, g·ve iwo reasons that would explain vvhy
Lara's popu arity has scared in the '..Vest Indies. You will need to put
these In your own words.
9 \A/hat evidence s used
1n the extract to expla;n the view that Lara's
'people are >i's ultimate release'?
This applies to Jill persons on che Derek \'lv'alcott school grounds.
In the even t of an cmcrgenc1• (e.g. fire), find che neareSt member o f
staff who will: send a messenger immediately co the Office OR inform
the Office via phone ext. 001.
1 \Varning of an emergency evacuatio n will be indicated by a
n umber of short bell rings. (In I.he case o f a power failure, this
may be a hand-held bell or sire n.)
1 o Complete the sentences
be ow. Choose no more
than three words from the
text for each answer.
a In an emergency. a
member of staff will
eitner phone the office
or ..........................
b The signal for evacuation
will normally be several
c If possible, pupils should
leave tre bu'ldi ng by
me ......................... .
d Theyw,11 then wa.k qu'cky
to the ......................... .
e ......................... will join the
teachers and pupils In tre
school playground.
f Each class teacner wil
count up his or her pupils
and mark ..........................
g After the ..........................
eve·yone will return to
h If the·e Is an emergency
at lunchtime, pupils will
gather in the playgroJnd
in ......................... and wait for
their teacher.
2 All class work will cease immediately.
3 P upils will leave their bags, books a nd other possessions where
they arc.
Teachers will rake the class register.
5 C lasses will leave the premises using the nearest staircase. If
these stairs are inaccessible, use the nearest alte rnative staircase.
Do noc use chc lifts. Do not run.
6 Each class, under the supe rvision o f the ceacher, will move
quickly and in an orderly fashion to the school playground
ou tside the canteen.
7 All ocher members o f staff will do the same .
S T he head ccacher, Mrs \'lv'alcer, will wear a red cap and will waic
with the master timetable and scaff list in he r possession .
9 Pupils will gather in che school playgrou nd with their teacher
at the time of evacuatio n.The teacher will do a head counc and
check I.he register.
IO Each teacher will send a pupil 10 the head ceacher co report
whether all pupils have been accounted for.
The head ceacher will inform the Office when all staff and pupils
have been accounted for.
All pupils and members o f staff will stay in the evacuation area
u ntil the All Clea r signal is given.
13 T he All Clear will be a long bell ring or ch ree blasts on the
siren .
Pupils will return to class in an orderly fashion under teacher
15 In the even t o f an emergency caking place during lu nch or
b reaks, pupils are to gather in their home-room groups in the
playgrou nd and awaic cheir home-room teacher.
Text F expio·es the various stages cf making video games. It also gives an
Insight into the different aspects of game maki~g, suggest',g the skills
that are needed.
The creation of video games
\Ve are in an era where video games arc in high demand on the wo rld market amo ng all age groups.
It is unrealistic to think that the creation o f video games begins and ends o n the living room couch. It
involves much more than this. Video games can be made by one or several people, caking a few days
co several months. This depends on the complex it)' of the game. Contra ry to public belief, you do
5 not have to be a game designer to make a video game; many amateurs and game fanatics do it. The
process involves four major s1,ages.
First, you must conceive o f the t)•pe of game you would Ii.kc to create. This is the developmental
stage. Herc the subject matter, gen re, setting, purpose, challenges, levels, characters and game play
must be considered. The next siage is to th ink about how to express your ideas. ' ["his is called the
10 artistic model. Here the staging, texrurc, graph ics, animations and interface must be worked ou r.
After these p roduction scages. comes the testing o r implementation suige. T-!erc the video
game is tested by both professional testers and avid 'gainers' in order co
get feedback on its functionaliry. ' rhe last a nd final stage in the process is
called the distribution stage. At lhis stage, the game
I 5 is made available to the public for pur.chasc and
use. A lot of marketing strategics can be used t0
raise interest in the game. These include clips
of the game on social media sites and public
celcvision. It is a common sight to sec c rowds
20 o f 'gamcrs' flock the video stores on the day
a popular video game is made available to
the public. Online stores record high sale
perce,uagcs on the first few days of its
debut on che market.
Arlene Owarika and Limn Dwarika
11 Using details from the text, 11st the stages of
rnak;ng a video game.
12 Why are stages one and two referred
10 as
tne production stages of
13 Based on the teXl, how would you define a
14 What is the purpose of this expository p' ece:
a to inform
b to entertain
c toexplain
15 ldent'fy the phrase o• sentence tha1 shows the
writers' opinio1 about the topic.
16 According to rhe text, wi'at sk' lls are needed to
make video games?
Inference, fact and
• •
This •Jnit will he!p you to:
• extract implied or inferred
Information from a text
• recognise facts that are stated
In t:1ls ur t you w'II:
• lear<' wt-at Is meart by'irference'
• exp ere texts ook' rg for facts
ard opinions.
'Reading between rt-e lines·is a skil I tnat ca'l be learned and pract sed.
Often it is essential in understand!r g a text fully. The technical term fo, tnls
is'inference'. wh'ch might be defired as:
working out something from evidence a nd reasoning'
As you can see, you can only infer accurately if tnere is some evdence
to support ycur reasoning.\o\/hen you read informative texts, ask yourself:
'Wrat lnfere,ce could the author be asking us to make here?' and '\o\/hat
evidence Is there trat allows me to make this irfere'lce?'
Practise witn the follow;ng text. It is an extract from an article on Mexican
food.Think carefully about how the wo·ds are used to help you infer
what the writer is saying abour the fcod, and how t,ose inferences can
infiuence your views.
Caribbean Culinary: Mexican
Cuisine - AFusion of the Past
S.lvfar Carter
uring 1.hc past year T have r:ravellcd and explored (in
complete safecy) the vast, spectacularly beautiful country
o f Mexico, and became thorough!>' en thralled with its steam)'
seaside portS, classic colonial cities, tiny fish ing villages with
wh ite beaches, chill)' mountain villages, au thentic arts and 5
crafts and itS kind, grac ious people.
Along the way I became thoroughly enth ralled with
Mexican cuisine as well. By this, I mean the au thentic cuisine
o ne finds throughout most of Mexico .. , not the 'food' found
in America tha, is passing itself off as l\llexican cuisine. In the IO
food places in these cities and villages in ,vlcxico I've yet to
sec a taco, bu rrito or chimichanga on the menu.
,vly new passion for this scrumptious, comfort-food cuisine
led me to explore its origin, which as it turns ou t is a grand
am~lgamat.ion of the food products, spices and recipes from 15
many orher coun tries, combined with the now lost recipes of
original 1\llexican cuisine. Original J'viexican recipes n1orphed
and fused, decade after d ecade, as French, Tmlian, Lebanese, Spanish, Po.cuguese and British
influences and food products were introduced co che local Mexican cooks.
TheTex-lvlex food of today, such as tacos, qucsadillas, flautas and b urrkos, is not authentic
.\1exican c uisine by any means, buc is more of a nouveau fast food with a sligh t Mexican twist
chat has become ingrained as a dietary swplc of the American consumer.
But even ,vlexican food is succumbing co the o nslaugh ts of the g reat America n Alimen tary
Apocalypse led by white bread fr.om Bimbo, ,\.-lc:D's and KF C. /vlodern-day Aztecs now
consume more Coca-Cola than Americans, and many you nger Mexicans do n't like chilliinspired d ishes because they arc too spicy. ' r hc hand-held masa dishes of the past arc being
replaced by the triple whopper, pepperoni pizza and the super-sized portions of the West ...
coo bad. Oh, for the days of yore!
lvleanwhile, if one wan ts chc authentic J\<!e xica n food o f )'Ore, chc kind that is homemade
from scratch, it can be fou nd in ever)' city, village and small town - just don't expect to find
it in the frontcras (border towns) or resorr towns (Cancun, for example) that cater co the
American rourist.
1 \ol/htch cf the following most close,y reflects tre
c It is a dietary staple of the American people.
writer's view on Mexico?
d It is mo'e of a nouveau fast food with a
Mexican twist.
a It 1s a 51eamy and chilly country.
b It 1s a safe. varied and fasclnatir.g country.
4 In tne f fth paragraph. Bimbo, McD's, KFC and
Coca-Cola are ment oned mainly 10:
c Its people are wel trave,led.
a exp,ain why Mexicans no longer eat chilli
d It s soectacular but unfriendly.
b exemplify what Is wrong with Mexican food
2 In tr e second parag,aph rhe writer places the
word 'food' In inverted commas to:
c exemplify what Is wrong with America'l food
a suggest that the food fourd In America is
d exo aln why hand-held rnasa disnes have been
b e'Tlphaslse how delicious lvlexicari food is
c suggest that the same food can be found in
America and Mexico
d emphasise that It Is not genuine Mexica,,
\ol/hat has tne writer discovered about Mexican
a It ·s sim1ar to tne Tex-Mex food of today.
b Many countries have played a part in its
vVhy. accord'ng io the writer, can authentic
Mexican food nor be found in tre borderiowns?
a American tourists do not eat there.
b American tourists do eat there.
c American tourists want authent,c Mexican
d Mexicans de not want to share their rraditiona
recipes 1,vitr Amer"cans.
Fact and opinion
Telling t he difference between fact and opinion
Depending on their pJrpose ard audience, writers may use a range of
facts a1d opiniors.
A fact is something that can be proved to be true, fo, example:
There ,we 3 i c.o<-<v.trie.s iv. the C11ribbeav.. of these,~ Rre
6""0Li.s"1 -.s-pei;ik.iv.g, fi,ve Frev.c."1 -.s-pei;ik.iv.g, t hree .spav.i.sh.s-pea k.iv.g av.a fo"'r t>"'tc11-s-peak.iv.g.
An opinio1 is a point of view. It cannot be proved to be true or untrue, for
ct LS ""'-"'ch better to Live,.,, a co"'""t'1:l where 6v.gtLSh LS t 11e-fi,r.st
6 Draw a tab,e w'th two colum11s:'fac1s'ard ·ooir'ons·. Place 11-e follow'ng statements In ire correct column.
a The name Caribbean comes from the Amerind'an e The Bolling Lake ,n Oomin·ca Is the second largest
tr'be the Carlbs.
b Callaloo soup is made of dasheen leaves. okra
and sometimes crabs.
c The coastline of Ocho R' os Is the most beautiful
In the Caribbean.
d Pan music, also krow1 as steel pan music,
s made from stee, tins o· drums, which are
fashioned to carry tunes.
bolling la Ke in the world, with temperatures that
hover be~Neen 82° and 92 •c.
f It is more difficult for an outs'der to understand
tne Creole ofTrir dad tt-an tnat of GJyana.
g Tne rat'onal flower of Oo'llinica is the Bwa Kwaib
while t is the Bougainvillea in Grenada and the
Helico.1la in Montser·a,.
h The threat from a tsunami is more frightening
than the threat from a hurricane.
You sriould have Identified five facts and three opinions.
Did you no;ice tha, opinions are or1en stated as though
they are facts? For example:
Tut c.oastLiv.e of oe-110 Rios LS tl1e IMO.st
bea "'tif"'Liv. t l1e ca ribbea ""·
This cannot be proved to be true or untrue. It is an
op:1ion, even though the writer has stated it as a fact.
vVriters often do this to influence their readers.
It is also important for a reader to be ab'e to identify
'false'facts - things that can be proved to be untrue, for
6ver1::1ov.e iv. the Caribbei;iv. s-peales sv.gtLSl1
as t 11eir first Lll""0ullge.
It is important to check 'facts; particularly 1f you are
using vV.kiped·a or some other online resource for
Fact and opinion in news reports
VVe gei much of oJr information about the wo·ld and our owr country
from newspapers. These can be bought or can often be read cnline.
Often news reports arswer questions such as 'Vvho ?'. '1N,~at?; '\.\/here?;
''Nhen?; 'Why?'and 'How?'with factual deiafls.
7 Read the following news report a'1d find tre answers to these questions.liNo have been done fo· you.
JA Promotions
Holding events
Anse la Raye youth try to stop
the violence
By Siar .Reporter I 12 February 2011
Avalon Joseph a nd Joshua Lawrence with assistance from
Bernadette Alben and Bridget Simo n a,·e part or the grou p
JA Promotions hoping to bring about social change in the
communities of Anse la R.aye/Canaries. The group's first
event is a weekend love fiesta beginning with a show at
l\,foon-river Canaries tonight and a kids' Fiesta o n Sunday
13 February. Tonight's event will feature performances by
Zionomi, Shayne R.oss, Exodus and others. Accord ing 10
Avalon it is time to ease the tension, neglect and division
brought about by politics over the years a nd to offer hope
10 the community of their birth. lv!ore on the group, their
aspirations and political views in next week's Star.
o;ip/ /stl~ciastar.com
s The report also C0'1tains an opinion. This is introduced w'th the pnrase 'According io Avalon: \.\/hat opinion
Is expressed by Avalon?
9 YoJ are going to write about something mat has happened in your schoo' or your community in
recent times.
a Start by completing a tab;e like the fo'lowlng to snow the facts you need to ·nclude.
W hen?
b Now write at least one opinion which you cou d include in your report.
c Now write your report. Aim tc wrte between 100 and 150 words.
1o \Nhen you have finished writing, hignl ght tne facts none co'our and the opinion(s) in a~other,
Mixing fact with opinion
Mary items you read in magazires and newspapers are a mixture fact
and opinio11. The ,wo elements are even mixed w,rhin single sentences.
,ead the following sentence:
lt was a Christmas presenc dreams are made of - a stunning
customised Harley Davidson, lhreatening and unposing in mact
black, sin ing on beau tiful chro me aluminium wheels.
Tne facts are:
The opln,ons are:
• ·1 was a Christmas present
• it was a Chrls,mas present
dreams are made of
• it was stunnir.g
• It was threatening and Imposing
• the wheels were beautiful.
• ·c was a custo'll•sed Harley
• it was matt black
• it had chrome aluminium whee,s.
11 Separate the fact from the opinion In each of
tre fellowing sentences. You could either 11st
tremor copy the sentences a11d highlight facts
and op·r.·ons usir,g d'fferent colours.
a Blue whales are the largest and most
fascinat ng of creatures found in cur oceans.
It is a great Hagedy that such magnificent
creatures have been hunted almost ro the
point of extinction.
b The leatherback is the most beguiling of
creatures. being the only sea tJrt e that lacks a
hard shell. It is remarkable that the 'eathe·back
survives a,most entirely on je lyfish and
deplorable that so many die by mistaken y
eat'ng p'astlc bags floaring on the water.
c The mourni rg dove Is a bird commonly
found In the Caribbean and much loved by
all Inhabitants of tre islands. Trey are Ilght
grey and b·own and, thoJgh tre males and
fema es are si m,lar In appearance. the fema es
are much more attractive.
12 \/>/rite two senterces about a Christmas prese11t.
Each se11ter.ce srould be a mixture of fact and
opinion. The first sentence snould show that the
Cnrlstmas present Is ,lked.The seco1d srould
srow that the Christmas present is not I ked.
13 H'g11light the facts and opinloris In each of your
sertences In Activity i 2.
As you can see, you need to read carefully in order to separate the fact
from the opinion.
Questioning facts
V,Je cannot always check fac,s, bui the·e are 1lmes when we need to
questio~ them, fo• example w~,en we read rbe results of surveys. A survey is
ar, examination of a panlcular issue. It is often carred out througn the use
of a quest'onnaire, In wh'ch people are as~ed to give answers to differenr
questions. The answers are then collared and used to produce statis( cs factual da"' usually invo,ving numbers. Tnese statis-:ics rr,ay appear to be
·faa': bu,, in real:iy, much depends on:
• what questions were asked
, who was irvited 10 comple1e ire questionnaire
• when and where tre questionnaire was carried out.
14 Think about the fo' ow·ng pairs o' questions. Explain why cney
might produce different ·esults.
a V\lhlch would you prefer:
• To go to war or to work together for peace?
• To go to war o· to wait until we are attacked?
b Which would you prefer:
• To wcrk for a good wage or to have no money?
• To work for a good wage or to win the loneryl
15 Think about the following Statistics based on queStionnaires and
answer tne qvestion on each 01e.
a Eighty per cent of young people's pocket money is spent
on sweets.
What difference would ic make 'fire yoJng people questioned
•.,vere eignryears old o· ur-der?
b Ninety per cent of 16-year-olds hate exams.
V\lhat differe1ce would It make f tre 16-year-olds were
quest,oned In May?
c Ninety per cent of young morhcrs suffer from stress.
What difference would it make f the questionnaire was carried
out in the week before Christmas?
d Nine out of ten prefer the beach at weekends.
What difference would it make f the survey was carried out at
the beach?
16 Think aooJt a hair p•oduct that you use or someone you krow
uses. magine you are carrying out a survey on it. Ycur aim is to
get a favourable resu1t.
• ~Vrl!e a question that would 1ead to a favourab:e answer.
• ~Vho wou d )'OU question?
• V./hen and whe·e would you conduct your sJrvey?
Investigating how facts are sel ected
There are often good reasons why writers select specific facts and ignore
otliers. These are usually lin~ed to their purpose and aud1e1ce.
A writer reporting or a game of cric~et would not g've every factual detail
of wl',at rappened; the report would be far too long. He or she would
select the ma·n facts and report these.
Similarly. when teachers wr'te reports on students. they do not reveal
everything rhey know to be tf'Je about each student. They select the
facts that are relevant to the subject and to what t~e student's parents or
g•Jardians would want ro know.
17 Leta's English ieacre· is about to write her end-
of-year report. The teac~e, knows tne following
facts aboJt Leia:
- •
- •
wears nail extensions
rarely joins in group or class discussion
sits next to J unc
took part of Juliet in school p la)'
is usuaUy cheerful
has black hair with red highlights
has a good standard of written English
was late co class o n 8 November
her handwriting is bener when she uses
a pen
., • laughed out loud at iv\ark's joke last
a Decide which of the above facts Leta's
teacher might use in the end-of-year repo•t.
Place them in order of Importance.
b \.Vrite a report 01 Leta that is no more than
100 wo~ds. Write ma·n1y In the present
tense and make sure you include tre most
lmporia'lt facts from the English teacher's
point of v·ew.
• looked tired on !v!onday morning
• has completed all her homework on time
.,_ • says she does not understand poetry
of,en talks to JV!arcial.
f ·
Conclusions based on facts and opinions
vVriters often draw conclusions based on facts. Fo• example:
Angel Falls in Venezuela is
979 metres in height, with an
uninterrupted drop of 807 metres.
Tugela Falls in South Africa has
a height of 947 metres. All other S
waterfalls are 800 metres or less
In height. Therefore, Angel Falls is
the highest waterfall in the world.
Conclusions may also be based on opinions, as can be seer in the
following extract. The hlghl ights in the first paragraph show you how
much of the text ,s opinion-based. Read the whole text c1osely before
completing the activities that fo ow.
P rotectin g the c onsumer
Consumer protection is a pressing issue in the Caribbean,
especially as $tandards of lil'ing arc on the rise and people have
more djgposable income LO spend /Nan,rally, this has res ulted in
an increasing number of p roduces and services available on the
local marke\. ~Iowever, there still remain a nu mber of service
p roviders and busi11esses who simply rip off consu mers who have
little o r no a1•enuc for redress as consumer protection laws and
§)'Sterns have not evolved adequately to eradjcate these p roblems.
For i11stance, in the transport sector, m inibus operators have a
somerirnes warranted reputation for poor service - for example,
overloading passengers, inappropriate language and behaviour,
and lou d music, etc.
In add ition, some market traders and grocery stores sell poorquality food items that are short-weighted and o ften overp riced .
Commercial stores have been kn own to sell s ub-standard
equipment, such as fu rniture, at a p re mium. This is not the sole
domain of the private sector - in the public sector there a re
frequent b illing and disconnection problems with GPL a nd
\V\);'1; unscheduled blackouts arc a regular occurrence in the case
of the former.
ln fact, the instances and var iety of a-ansgressions consumers
enco unter fro m goods and service providers is coo large to be
outlined here.
1"herefore there is a requirement for a concerted effort to
protect hapless consumers. Steps could be taken to ensure closer
collaboration between consumer protection agencies and more
intensive consumer education programmes.
18 ldertify and list three opinio11s that the writer holds and expresses
in paragraphs 2-5. For each one, explain why it is an opinion and
not a fact.
19 Expla·n, using your own words, the co1cluslon that the writer
comes to in the final parag•aph.
20 Notice how the writer uses the word 'therefo,e'to introduce his
condus on. Alternative words and phrases tnat can be used 10
introduce a conclusion are:
It would s•em that ...
A s a resuIt . . .
This suggests that .. ,
In conclusion ...
quently .,,
Taken togeth11 ...
'"" co""seque=e of t!,ie cibove ...
Copy these and start co •J se them In your own wrting.
Information in graphics
What are graphics?
Graphics· s a general term used to cover the many different ways in which
·nformation can be presented vis•Jally. Photographs. drawings, maps.
graphs, diagrams, charts and tab' es can al! be g·ouoed under the genera
term'graphlcs'. Graphics often combine written text, illustration and
colour. There are usual y very good reasons for presenting information
graphically, which you will explore in the acfviries be,ow.
This unit we relp you to:
• extracr specific information
from what Is read
• interp·et and respond to tables
and p ctorlal or g'aphlca
commun cation.
In this Jnit you will·
• learn about the use of graphics
In a range of texts
• locate detail in graphics
• lrtero•et lnfo•ma,101
contaired within g•aphlcs
• summarise i-ifo•matior
extracted f'o'll tables.
9,,. ,,1
,:r8'1 R
~ S:Mdl~A't
.....___- ··
St David
Look closely at the map of Grenada 01 the previous page.
1 Use the info•mation on tre map to explain to a visitor where the
differert paris~es of Grenada can be found.
2 \.Yri1e a paragraph for visitors explaining where i re beaches ,n
Grenada can be found.
Think about rhe two tas~s you have jusr completed. ~Vhy is a map a
more efficient way of oresenrng this information?
Unde rstanding signs and symbols
Sig11s are marks or pictures that represer 1a particular thirg.They are used
Instead of words. o,e of the places where s1gns are used rT'OSt frequenily is
en roads. 1-iere are a 'ew that you may be fami'"ar with, as they are used in the
Caribbean. Can you dentify wha1 each sign means?
Symbols also tend to take the form of drawings. They are used ins;ead
of wo•ds. Likes gns. symbols are used in many places. It is often possible
10 guess the meaning of a symbol even if you have not seen r, before.
Many IT'aps have a key which lists symbols and signs tha1 help you
•ead 1he map.
4 Look again at the map of Grenada. It uses a range of signs and symbols which are listed below. Identify a
poss' ble meaning for each one in the following key.
5 Suggest rwo reasons why these signs ard symbols would
be useful to vis'tors ro Grenada.
Use detail from graphics to answer questions
In an examination you may be asked rouse detail from tab es and/or
graphs in order to ar,swe, specific questions.
Tc do this correctly yoJ need to locate the appropriate detail.
Study the table below and ar,swer the questior,s to test your understanding.
The destination Whicn had tne highest number
of arrivals In 20i4 was:
a Dominican Repub,ic
d St Maarten
7 The highest Ir.crease in ar•ivals In 2014 was In:
11 The figures of wh:ch destinatlo-is cover the
shortest period of time?
a Be·muda
a Guade'oupe
b Jamaica
c Trinidad ar.d Tobago
d Bona·re
b Jamaica
c Bahamas
1o The figures of wh ch destinatio,1 are not
b Ar,tigua and Barbuda
c St Maarten
a Barbados and Dominca
d Martinique
c Bahamas and Dominican RepubFc
b Grenada and Cura~ao
d Be
How many dest'nat:ons 'lad an Ir.crease In
arrivals cf· 0 per cent or mere in 2014?
a 9
12 \,lirire tnree sentences in which you exp'ain:
a which two destif1atlons saw the greatest
percentage fall In cruise passenger arrivals
between 20· 3 and 20'. 4
The lowest number of arrivals 1n 20 1 3 was in:
a Martinique
b Saint Lucia
in cruise passerger arr'vals between 2013
ar,d 2014.
d Trln dad ar,d Tobago
C t"uisc DH$Sc n g cr l'.lrt·iva ls to t h e Caribbean in 2013 an d 2014
D c.flinatian
British Virtrin Islands
Ca,..man fahmds
Do minica
D ominican Reoublic
G renada
Puerto Rico
Saine Lucia
St Masrten
St Vincent & the G ren adine~
Trinidad &Tobago
LS Virc.•in Islands
b which two destlf1atlons saw the greatest
percentage rise in cruise passenger arrivals
between 2013 and 2014
c wnich two destlf1atlons saw the least charge
c Brit'shVirgin Islands
Ancic,ua & Barbuda
ze and St Vincent ar,d the Grenadines
3867 574
968 131
629 145
3 17365
235 I 40
662 403
I 423797
11 54 079
64 I 452
200 1996
85 170
533 933
4 709 236
340 030
I 375872
4239 10
1 265268
I 176343
594 I 18
1 785 670
80 185
329 15
I 998S79
% chan,...
- 2.2
-1 5.1
-I 7.9
- 15.9
-25. t
- l.9
12. 1
30. 1
Nou::Toul crui,c ptl.1$Cl",&tr .uriva?1 &1 ll\'Ct\ abq,.-e rcpre.1mt 11'.,c twn <>fa,ni\•ab 1.~ indhid1,11I dcHi1m loitt H owc-vc r, bttl'Jlt lnQlt c::,1,1isc ,hl1n HOP 1.~ more ,r_.l\
1.>r.c dcuinarlon, til:1 fiiu:n: ii cor.t~t11bly la,Je;' than Mt ru;r.1bcr of cN.i1c pLSllen,e.s ,·illitini the rc,wn.
Interpret information in graphics
The use of graphics presents an ideal way of providing complex
,nformation simply. If ,he information contained In ,he table in ,he
previous activity were written in prose, the passage would be very
long and very ·epetitlve. Tables can contain key po,nrs and supporting
detail s. just as prose can.The test is for tne reader to find these and d·aw
corclusions based on ,rem.
13 Study the table below closely and answer the following questions.
a \A/ho do you think Is the Intended audlerce of this table? Give two re«sons to expla'n
your answer.
b What Is the 'TIOSt highly rated feature of Antigua? Give three other features that are also reasonab•y rated.
c Vvhich country appears to have fewest problems with both petty and major crime?
d Vv'hat is surprising aboJt the indi,ators of crime on Dominica?
e If you ran a business dependent on telecommu1ications, which co1,1nvy would b€ most and which
country the least attractive to you?
f YoJr priorities are cost of ving and education. \.Yh'ch two countr'es would you consider?
g YoJ are an elderly person thinking of buying a property In Nevis. '✓•/hat 1wo features would be most likely
to dissuade )'OU from doing this? Explain the reasons for your cr.oice.
h Did you lnterp•et tre stars co·rectly? Lock aga' n at the footnote ard check your a!"lswers.
Caribbean countries: comparis on
.'vledic,aJ facilities
Crime + petty
+ major
Buying property
Land/iea accessibility
lm-estmt:nt value
General welcome
EmplO)ring srnff
Cos. of Hdng {housingifood)
( excl. water spc,rr$)
Food and domestic goods
+ fresh local food
+ goods and sen-ices
..... ...
•• ..
... ••.. ...
... ... ...
.... ... ... ···~ .. ...
• . . ... ·.. .. .....
..... ... ..• ...
... ....•• •• ... • ......
St Kins
lt't cit*
-/l"otlll 1'
;11:l't . . .
ll'. 1';
•;i ;•---
BVT Grenada Domini(a St Lucia Amigtta Dom. R.ep. Caymans
«111 ~ 1'(
;o;* *"'"'
... ..
..•....•• •...
..... ...
'liir;, ...
'.'t!';l't *
...... ...-·· ..-·
..... .... ....
• 5 stars indicate the best, with lower scores indicating a lower $tandard, or incrt:ascd difficulty.
Summarising information in a table
As you have d'scovered, you can get informat,on from a table in different
ways. Yo J cari:
• read along the rows to make comparisons between the countries
• read down the col umr s to fi rd out different things about each
If you were to write In words all ,he Information contained In tre table
on the previoJs page. it would take yoJ a Ieng time and would be very
•epet tive, for example:
mt iMtoi •eaL faelttt,es '"" Ne-As aye Low, wltvi O"'-L!:J ov.e sta,:
s t K.ltts, 'll,VI al'\.Ol '1Ytl'\,Qola have two sta Ys. t>O"'-' ""lea, st
l.4<.e,a al'\.Ol Av.tle"-" vi ave t h Yee s tars. The ca !:J"'-"""5 vi ave
fo"-r s taY5 al'\.Ol t he best ov.e ,s ti-le t>O""'-'""'e""" R.ej>L<.bLle,
wit h fi:Je staY5. Pett!::! C.YL""'-t , ..,, Nevls I-las foL<., staY5 al'\.Ol
""1.ajor e,lme has fi,ve stars ...
If you want to select details from a table and use them for a specific
purpose, you need to develop yo Jr skil Is in summarising. Remember that a
summary focuses on the Key points rather than the suoporti1g details.
Consider me following fami y:
Mr and Mrs Corbett are looKing for a property to buy in one of rhe
countries r,amed In the table on page 53.
Dwayne. 9 years old, loves playing a w:de range of sports.
Sarah, 14 years old, also enjoys ~po•ts. She has asthma. which
sometimes •equires hospitalisation.
The family are looking for a friendly island where tne cost of
lving is reasoriable and they can buy plenty of local fresh food.
The parents a'e hoping 10 fird a good school for the'r children
10 attend.
14 You have thetas~ of wr'ting a report to advfse the family on
which island er islarids they might like to focus on. To do this
well you should first:
• cons'der tne needs of the fami y
• place these in order of importance.
1s Then you need to study the table on page 53 to help you:
• find me island or islands most suited to tne Co•betts
• identify the key points about these Islands.
16 Fif'lally. you reed to write your report.
Different kin ds of gra phics
Sc far you have ccns:dered lnformar on preser,ted in maps, through
signs ar,d symbols, and in tables. There is however, a range of other ways
cf presenting informatio1 graphically. Below are three graphics, each
conta,n,ng so-ne Information about Jamaica. Study the graphics closely
before completing tne activities below.
A: Bar chart
Total rainfall in Jamaica
Total 801 mm
_ 300
Cinchona Gardens
Total 2335 mm
a: 100
C: Pie chart
Stopover visitors to Jamaica
by homo country
Average Monthly Temperatures
■ Kingston
New York
■ London
Olt'ler europ,t
llO 711
n 10'1
0 6 ' % ~ 02%
'--,..-rrt""'-,- - 01he<
0 ,n.,
175 363 -f., 10%
1 190 721
' D'
To:.a! s00povor 1ou,111s 1 878 905
~ : % sg1,,"ts aut rov~d so do no,1 a:xt \II)» ~
lly 100,
17 a Lock at A.
Which has tr.e most
rainfall, Kingston or
Cinchona Gardens?
ii In wh'ch two
consecutive months
does most rain fail In
iii In wh·ch two
consecutive months
does most rain fa In
Cinchona Gardens?
b Look at B,
vVh:ch month is the co dest
in all three cit'es?
ii In which months are people
in NewYorkand Lo"ldon
most li~ely to visit Kingston
If they are wanting to escape
from cold weather ai home?
iii \-Vr ch place has the most
variat;on In temperature
across the year?
iv vVh ch place has the least
var'at on In temperature
across the year?
c Look at C.
vVhat percentage of stop·
over visitors to Jama'ca are
from the UK?
ii vVhat percentage of stopover visitors are from North
America (USA and Canada)?
iii How many people visited
Jamaica from wltnln the
Caribbean region?
What is summarising?
This Ul'it will help yoJ to:
Summaris'ng is a skill tnat we all use ·r, our everyday lives in general
conversation. Think aboJt the following questions:
• communicate factual
Information clearly ard concise,y.
What did you do today?
What 's the book about?
,rs unit yoJ will:
• understard '1ow toga n an
cver,lew of an article er extraci
• wo·k out :re r,eaning cf
unfamiliar wo•ds
• ldenilfy key points Ir, a text
• develop your s<llls In read rg to
• develop your s<llls in w,iting
what's he like?
How did the match go?
What did she say?
Imagine tra1 In reply to the first questio1 '\/./hat did you do today?')'OU
recounted every single detai I of what you had done n the day. Hew Ieng
would it take? \~/hy might yoJr listener lose interest?
In order to answe, the question 'vVnat did you do today?' you need to:
• think about the whole day
• pie< OJt the main things
• link trem together.
1 Think about wrat you did yesterday. ldent'fy five main th'ngs
ccnreoed with wnat yov did. List them.
Place the tnlngs in your list in a sensible order - for example, you
would not place ·went to bed' before 'went to school'.
Write one or two sentences in which you link the things on your st
and summarise what you d'd yesterday.
\Ne use summary a lot of the time when we are talking. In your
exam'naticn you wil l be rested 0'1 yoJr ability to summarise an extract.
Just as with speaking, yoJ need to:
• t'link about wl'sat you are reading
• pick oJtthe main details
• link tre'll together.
To summarise we , you need to develop both your reading al'd your
wr'ting s<ills.
Reading to summarise
The first thing you need to oo is get an overall view of what a text is about
and how the different parts rela:e to each other. Read tne article on page 57
closely before completing me aetivities ,hat fol ow.
Caribbean Coral Reefs
For 111any nations v:ithin the Caribbean
Sea, coral reefs provide vital protection
fro1n the rages of frequent summer
hurricanes and fron1 coastal erosion,
as well as helping to build the region's
beautiful \Vhite sand beaches. Many
island and coastal residents are also highly
d ependent on coral reef fisheries for both
their food supplies and livelihoods. Coral
reef-related touris1n, particularly scuba
diving, also represents a major source of
revenue across the Caribbean .
Caribbean coral reefs comprise about
8 per cent (by surface area) of the world's
coral reefs. The term ' Ca ribbean coral
reefs' (as used herein) is not used in the
strict sense of the Caribbean Sea proper,
but rather is taken to include reefs of the
en tire G reater Caribbean region, in cluding
Florida, The Bahamas, Berinuda an d the
north-eastern coast of South A1nerica.
T he G reater Caribbean region is heavily
do111inated by fringing reefs, \Vhich are reef
systems t hat grow fairly close to or directly
from shore, v:ith an entire shallow lagoon
or no lagoon at al l. In 1nany cases these are
quite extensive and well developed, such
as those that parallel 1nuch of the coast
of Cuba, and the east coasts of Andros
Island and Eleuthera in The Bahamas.
Fringing reefs also en circle 1nos t of the
smaller islands of the Caribbean region,
such as Aruba, Bonaire, Antigua and the
Cay1nan Islands, providing some of the
best Car ibbean snorkelling opportunities
to be had.
Because they are situated relatively close
to island or mainland shores, fringing
reefs are generally the most su sceptible to
coastal development, agricul ture, pollution
and other hu1nan activities that result in
sedimentation and freshwater r unoff. Over
the last 30 years, Caribbean coral reefs have
suffered enonnous declines both in ter111s
of overall cora l reef ecosyste1n 'health' 45
and the productivity of reef fisheries.
Overdevelopment of coastal areas, overuse
of particular reefs for recreational diving
5 and snorkelling, and concurrent declines
in \Yater q uality have in 1nany cases led 50
to large areas of hard coral becoming
overgrown witlJ smo tlJering algae, leaving
a devastated w1d envater seascape \\'here
10 once stood thriving hard coral colonies.
That this is caused by human activity
cannot be in doubt. While the condition and
extent of Bahamian reefs have dras tically
declined near the 1nore developed and
popu lated islands, they re1nain in generally
30 good condition on 1nore isolated outer
islands largely because of low levels of
hu111an impact.
I n recognition of the in trinsic value and
vulnerability of tl1eir cora l reef ecosystems,
35 1nany Caribbean nations are developing
1nore i\tiar ine Protected Areas (MPAs) and
increasin gly Stringent regulations aimed
at better protecting their coral reefs and
associated marine life, and ensuring the
40 continued quality of Caribbean diving for
future generations.
Adapted from: www.coral-reef-info.com
4 1Nhich of the fol lowing sentences best reflects the content of the
a•ticle 'Caribbean Cora Reefs'?
a It exptains the importarce of coral reefs to t~e Caribbean
economy, showing that people are reliant 01 the reefs for fshlng
ard for maintaining the tounst IGdustry.
b It explains that tre reefs found in tre Caribbean are mainly
fringing reefs and mat these p'ovide protectio1 from hurrcanes
ard also relp to protect 11e coastline from eros·on.
c It descrioes the main type of cora reefs found in tr.e Caribbean
and comments 01 their importarce to the economy and the
damage being done to them by huma,, activity.
d It describes fr,nging reefs and explains where trey are fovnd In
tre Caribbea1~ and why tney are of particular importance 10 the
Island and coastal residents and to the 10Jrists.
It is fmoortant to be able to wo'k out the relationship between
differert parts of a text. Explain how the article's paragraphs relate
to each orner:
• first and fourth
• second and thi'd
• foJrth and fifth
• first and last.
Working out meaning
Studen,s sometimes worr)' when they meet an unfamiliar word. They think
this might prevent mem from writing an accurate s1,1mmary. However, It
is often possible to work out the meaning of a word by picking up clues
from how and where it Is used. For example:
revenue across me 1..,anooean.
Caribbean coral reefs co1nprise about
8 per cent (by surface area) of the world's
coral reefs. The term 'Caribbean coral
(~c n<:Prl
hr-rPin\ ic.:: nnr 11cu:,.rl in t h P
As this sentence lin'<s Carbbean co,al reefs with trose of the world a1d
refers tc 8 per cent of surface area, i, would be reasonable to guess that
comprise means ·makes up' or 'is equivalent to'.
6 Find each of the following words in the article. Use clues in
the sentences in which they appear tc help you wo•k our tre· r
meaning. \.Vrlte tne vvord and the mea1lng you think t has:
a susceptible
b concurrent
c lntrnsic
d stringent
7 Now check the meaning of each of the words above in a diet·onary.
How good was your'educated gJess'?
Remember: you do not have to know tre meaning of every word in
a text - but you do need to be able to make an educated guess.
Identifying key points
As yoJ know, texts generally have a range of key points and supporting
detail s. It is essential that all key points are ir,cluded in a summary.
One good way to rep Identify ~ey points is to examine each paragraph
separately and highlight key words, for example:
For many n ations within the Caribbean
Sea, corol reefs provide vital p ro tection
frotn the rages of frequent summer
hu rricanes and from coastal er os ion
as well as helping to b uild th e region's
beautifu l w hite sand beaches. Many
island and coastal r esiden ts are a lso h ighly
depen dent on coral ree f fisheries for both
their food supp lies and livel ihoods . Coral
reef-related tou rism, particularly scuba
diving, also represen ts a n1ajor source of
revenue across the Car ibbean.
r.~rlhhP..on r"rn.l reef~ rnmnri,Qp aho11r
This could then be summarised as:
cora Lrufs i..,, tloe ca ribbea"" sea provide proteet:i.c"" fro""'hum.ea ""es a~ ecasti;;iL erosi.c""- M""'!:J restde..ts ar-e
depe~evct O"- tloe reef fi.sheries for their food a~ LtveL,hoods,
wlth r-ell'lted tourislM btl"'-9 a "'-"'Jo.- sour-et of reve=.
Sometimes. after highlighting key words. you might decide to use mem
In a differen, order. Look at the key words highl ghted in the second
a'--.1 v:,:,
UIC \.,,ill J.VUt:i1U.
Caribbean coral reefs co1nprise about
8 per cent (by surface area) of the world's
coral reefs. The tenn 'Caribbean coral
reefs' (as used herein) is not used in the
strict sense of the Caribbean Sea proper,
but rather is taken to include reefs of the
en tire Greater Caribbean region, including
Florida, The Bahamas, Bennuda and the
north-eastern coast of South America.
ThP Gre:ltl":r r.!leihh~n re<rinn ;~ he}l·vilv
These could be summar sed as:
co.-i;;i Lreefs '"' tloe e"'tlr-e c;reater- caribbei;;i"" reg to"' accou""t
for about l? per ce""t of tloe wo.-Ld's cor-aL reefs.
Abo"-t l? per ce..t of the wo.-Ld's ecr-aLreefs are fou~ """ the
c;.-ei;;iter- caribbea"" reelo""noru,-t:a~lt:rn t:ou~t o.t .:>OULU /"\Jfit:nt.:a.
8 Look at tre third paragraoh. Key
words nave been h ghllghted
ir it. Use these to help you
summarise rhe content of the
9 Now ook back at paragraphs
4. 5 and 6 In the main text.
For each one:
• ident;fy the key words
• write one or two ~entences to
summarise the paragraph.
The Greater Caribbean region is heavily
dominated by fringing reefs, \Vhich are reef
systems that gro,v fairly close to or d irectly
fro1n shore, with an entirely shallo,v lagoon
or no lagoon at all. In n1any cases these are
quite e:,..1:ensive and well developed, such
as those tl1at parallel much of the coast
of Cuba, and the east coasts of Andros
Island and Eleuthera in The Baha1nas.
Fringing reefs also encircle n10st of the
smaller islands of the Caribbean region,
such as Aruba, Bonaire, Antigua and the
Cayman Islands, providing s01ne of the
best Caribbean snorkelling opportunities
to be bad.
c.it:.11urP d ....r4l!lot:ii[eh,~c.JncA
- -II
Writing yo ur summary
Sc far you have identified key words and used i~em to summa•ise key
points. You now have a list of key points similar tc the foilowirg:
• CcYat Ytefs '"" t,ie caribbeai,,., Sell 'J'YOvlole 'J'YOteetio""
fYO""'- ;i.,yy,ell""'S a""ol eo&1st&1Lerosto"". Mll""l:j rtslolt""ts
art olt'J't""oleVlk O"'- the rtef fi.sher"ts for thttr foool ll~
Llvttl,ioools, w£th Yelliteol to.,,.s,,,,., bl'"-0 a mqjoY so.,ree
of rev,.,,.,e.
• Abol,(,t l? l'e-Yee""t of t,ie world's eorat reefs art fol,(~ '""
the ,:;,eater caribbea 111. regto"".
' • Fr•"-0'""0 Yeefs tilo,,,,.,,V1,&1te tht ,:;yeater cartbbell"" Yeglo111..
c;rowt"-0 ctose to s,iore, fr•"-0'""0 Yeefs art txte""5lVe
a111.d weLL dtveLol'ea. Si<ll""'-l'tes are to be fol,(~ o"" t,ie
eoast of C1<.bll or a,o.,_~ tsta""as. These fti"-0•"'0
reefs ,,,ovtde so""'-t of t ,ie best cartbbea"" s111.ortuLLl""9
• f'ri"-0•""0 reefs are "'-Ort Sl,(,SC.t'J'ttbte t<:> h"'ma111.
aetlvlttes a""ol ,iave s"'fftYtcl e""°"""'o"'s olec.Lt"'-ts '"" t;ie
Last 30 l:jears '"" teYms of boti,, ·,ieaLth' a""ol 'J'YOcl.,ettvltl:j. oven::levtlo'J'mtV\k of' eollsta LavtQs
a111.a rec.rtat,o"""L l,(,$e >1llve Letil to tayge areas bt•"-0 overgrow"" wlt,i S"'-Ot>1er•""9 algae.
• Tht.S ts 1,(,111,dol,(,bteoltl:j a"'e to ""'-""'a"" aettvi.t:l:j as t ,ie 1!,.av,a,,,,.,,a.., reefs have drastleaLL!:j olec.Ll...eot
111.eartf1e devetO'J'ecl tsta~ a""ol Ye""'-"'""'"" gooa eo~tt,0111. 111.eartf1e mort tsotatea o""'s.
• Ma""l:j caribbea"" 111.lltLO"'-S ave oleveLO'J'•"-0 Mari"" 'Proteettd Areas (MJ>As), wtt;i srrl""9e""t
, eg.,Latto""s to l'roteet the f.,t.,,e of thelY eorat reefs.
, • ·•
This is where tne reading skills end a~d 1he writing skills begin.Tnere are
three areas you need to focus on and you are reminded of these In the
examination instructiors, as set ou1 below.
Summarise in no more than 120 words: You need to take the
word count seriously. In the list above, the asterisk(·) shows where
120 words have oeen counted. The rest o: the summary woulc not
be markeo; two of the six key poin,s would have been missed.
'Nnen irylng to reduce your word coJnt:
• loo~ for repetition of wo•ds a~d phrases, e.g. Ca•ibbeari
• delete words that are redurdant. e.g. M;;r,y.
• ecvaL reefs'"' the caribbea""Stll 'J'rovtae -proteetlo""
fro""- h"'mea"-ts a~ eo&1stat eroslo""- Mtt,ci, restaei'lks
llre clt'J'e~e"'t o"" tf1e reef fi.sheries foy t"1et,- foot:i a"'a
Ltvetthooas, wtth ret11teol tol,(,rts""' bt•"-0 &1 ""'-"Jo,- so"'ree
of YtVt"-~• Abot,tt l? -per eel'l.t of the world's eovat reefs a,-e fo"'"""' '""
tf1e ,:;,-eater caribbea"' ,-eglo"'. (s:1. words)
Then think about how best to express what you have leh:
Abo«t e -per e-e""t t>f the world's coral reefs. are fo"'~ '""
tl1e c;reater car,bbeti"" reg[o111,, -provld[111,g reslde111,ts wlt11
food, tl1e1.,,. llvel,11oods. a111,d -protectlo""f"o""' h"'mca"'-ts.
a111,d coastal eros.lo"'-. Related to1Ar.SV1<. ls also a ""-aJoy
YeVe"'"'e so1Aree. (3)'-worvls)
1 o Look at the third bullet in the 11st of key points:
Fri."'!:l""'!:l reefs. do...,[111,ate tl1e c;reater cari.bbea"" reg,0111,.
c;rowl""!:l close to shore, fr•"'!:l""'!:l reefs are e.Kte=lve
a~ well developed. sxa...,-ples are to be fo"'~ o"' t11e
coast t>f C1Aba or aro«111,d ls.La~. -mese fr•"'!:l•""!:l
reefs -prov.de s.0V1<.e of the best S"'-Omeltl""!:l
o-p-port«.111,lt,es.. (44 words)
Rewrite these four sentences to one or two sentences, reducing the
word cour t by between 6 and 10 words.
Use your own words as far as po ssible: Th:s does not mean ti°'at
you cannot use any of the wo·ds In the arfcle. It does mean that at
times you will choose your owr. ·Nords that capt•Jre the meaning
correctly and show yoJr understandirg. Take. for example, the
fourth bullet po:nt:
Fri.""!:l""'!:l reefs are .-..o.-e SOtSe~ to 1,"'""'a"" acti.v.tles.
a~ l1&1ve s.«.ffered decll"'-ts. '"" title ltis.t 30 !:jta\'$
""'te,..,.,s of lieth 'health' a111,d -prod"'ctlvlt!:J. overdeveto-p""-'...t
t>f co£lstal areas a~ recreatlo""'l «.s.e have bet;H,o Large areas
bel""!:l overgrow"" witl1 s ..<-ethe••~ algtie. '(_
""- res1Alted [111,
11 Copy the fift~ a'ld sixth bu et points as shown below. Replace the
underlined wo•ds ard phrases witn yoJr own ,
• 1l'lls 1.s "-~o«btedll::J d"'e to "'"-""'""' actlvi.t!:J, as t11e
-S.£ll1aV1<.l£l111, reefs 1,ave dr£1stlct1ll1;:1 ,:;lee,l(111,ec( "'-t£lr tl1e
developed ls.la111,ds £l~ re""'ti'"" '"" 900d co~ltlo"" 111,ear
the Vl<.Ore lsoLated O"'-ts..
• Mll""!:J carlbbea"" "'-"t•o= are develo-p•"'!:l Marl"'-t
J>rotecte,:,l Areas (MJ>As), with stri."':9e"'t reg1Alat[o>'1,S to
-protect t11e f"'t"'re t>f tl1e1.r coYal reefs.
Write in continuous prose: This means that you organ·se your
writing into fluently connected words. sentences and paragraphs.
liNc paragrapns s>iould be enough.
1 2 ,9ead the fo!lowing summary of'Caribbean Coral Reefs'. It uses many features of summary writing. Copy ,re
summary and annotate t as described in the bul,et points below. Keep th s as a useful model to help you
write effective summaries.
• Reorganise material (e.g. placing first a detail that comes last In the text)
• Use own words (e.g. 'strict rules· for 'stringent regu at/ons')
• Use pronouns (e.g. tnese, their, tney)
• Collate de,all In a l'st (e.g. food. their llve'ihoods, and protectlo1 from hurr'cares aGd coastal erosion)
• Use connectives to link ·deas fluently (e.g. also, as. however, with)
• Organise Ideas into parag•aphs
,:;:?' Ma""lj caribbea"" .w:ttlo....s aye oleve1.cpt.,.g Mari""e PYotecteol AYeas (MPAs), wlti,i strlct
,.:, rules -protect•~ t"1e 8 -per ceVl.t cf the woYLol's ccyaL reefs fow.~ '"" the yeglo"". These provlole
reslcle"'ts wlth foool, t"1elY lh/ell"1oocls a"',:;( protectlo"' fyow. hw.rrica 11\.ts a"'-l'l coastal
~ ~ •.roslo"'-. R.tlateol tow.risw., -partlcu!.a rll::J SII\.Orlulll~, also provfoles slg"'-lfi-ca"'t reve"""'-e.
..,,,,.;;, Frl~l~ reefs, clow.lll\.il"'t '"" the yeglo"", grow close to shore a.,,,:;( are txte....slve, as O"'tloe coast cf cw.ba or arou"'ol lsla~ Ll~e AYw.ba. Tht)j are, "1oweve,; e"'cla~ereol blj
~ overdeveLopw.eVl.t a""d reeyeatloll\.i!L use, "1t1vl""9 s"'-ffereol serio= oleeLlll\.ts ' "' rece""t ljea rs,
wlti,i La yge areas sw.ot"1ereol blj algae. Thls ls eertal""Llj olue to hw.w.a"' actlvltlj, as the
-:r- 'Sa haw.la"' Yttfs have clecLl""ecl "1ugeLt1 ll\.ti!Yt"1e oleveLo-peci lsLa~ a~ rew.al"" 'heaLt"1!j'
"'-taY the w.ore lsolateol oll\.ts. (1.20 worols)
Clearly you do not wam to waste time counting words. Make sure you know how many words you usually write
in a line and the number of lines you need to write to equal 120 words. This g·ves you a good guide to how long
your summary should be.
To summarise ...
Ir order to write a good summary you reed to work qulckiy and witn
concentration. Follow these steps (a rough time gu'de Is given for each one).
1 Read the full text to gain an overview and to work out how the
different parts are connected. (5 minutes)
2 Identify key words and use these to summarise key points in each
pa•agraph. Make a list of the key points to be included in the
summary. (10 minutes)
3 Cut your word count by dele,lrg unnecessary repetition and detail.
Replace words and phrases w'th your own words as far as ocssible.
4 \<I/rite your summary, organisirg and linking your key points. Aim to
write two paragraphs. ( 10 minutes)
5 Chee~ your word count a1d make any further helpful c~anges.
(5 minutes)
Writing to inform and
This •Jnit will he!p you to:
• commun·ca,e factua'
lnformatior, clear y, co1cisely and
adequately mrough summaries,
reports ard expo sir ons
• use appropriate gramma• and
stylistic fea,ures 10 convey
meaning c,early.
In this Jnit you will:
• practise wrlrlng re Inform and
• plari and complete an extended
piece of info•marlve wr ring
• chec~ you· progress In triis ur t
as a whole.
In the course of this unit you have read a range of expos rory cexts. You
uncerstand better how expos'tory texts are put together and you have
looked closely at the skill of summarising. You can now vse that sk'II ano
uncerstanding to wr"te your own sum-nar/, report or other informat ve text.
,ead the following tasi<:
A fan1ily is 1noving to your area fron1 another region.
The parents have many questions about what your area and
its people are like, where they can shop, where the children
will go to school and what they can do in their leisu re tin1e.
Write an essay which informs then1 abou t your area and
eiqJlains the answers to their questions.
There are certain things yoJ need to do before, durirg and after wr'ting.
The following steps take you tnrough the process to ensure yoJ do ,he
best you can. Follow them closely.
Before writing - 5 minutes
Tne first tning you need to do is read the question carefully and
wor:<out your sJbject, purpose and audierce.
(_ A fan1ily is 1noving to your area fron1 another region.
TI1e parent. have many questions about what your area and
its people are like, where they can shop, where the children
\\·ill go to school and what th ey can do .in their leisure time.
\"1rite an essay which informs •t he1n about your area and
eiq,lains the answers to) their questi~
\___ P"-"J>Cse
Remember rhar. as well as writing fo• a family. you also have tne examiner
as your audience.
Now copy the question, the highlights and t1e annorations.
ft Make a note of a rarge of ideas conrected with the subject. Trese
I.I are your notes. They will not be marked. You do nor need to write
In sentences. Use words rhat wi I prompt your memory and
abbreviat' ons where appropriate. The aim is to gather as many
ideas as you can.
Think abcut ire order In whlcr yoJ are going to place your ideas.
Aim to plan for aoout five developed parag•aphs. For example,
you could group your ideas arourd answers to questions the
fumily have:
• Paragraph 1: the area
• Paragraph 2: the people
• Paragraph 3: the shops
• Paragraph .t: the schools
• Paragraph 5: leisure time
Now group your ideas into paragraphs. You do not have to use all your
Ideas and you may have some new ores to add at this stage.
Remind yourse'f of tre skills you need to demonstrate in your
writing.These are listed at the Slart of this unit. Read them again
now and look back through this unit if you reed further reminders.
During writing - 35 minutes
Tnink of an irteresting opening that will immediately gain your
reader's attention. Tren Siart writing, fo• example:
wl1e"" i::,ol,( first vLSit ""'ti a ,ea, i::,ol,( w,LLLoo~ &1Y01,t"'-v( i::,o"'-
with vleLigh t/si,,oelvC-0"'-fl<.S La"'-lnOrYOY I
weLc.o!Mt t o ("""!Mt of a,ea) !
Cheese your opening sentence and start to write your essay.
After each paragrap'l, read through what you nave written.
. . Chee~ tha::
• your ideas are clearly expressed and linked
• you are still writing with your purpose. audience and subject firmly
in mind.
After writing - 5 minutes
Read through your essay carefully. It is Important to read what you
have wr't!en and not what you think you have written. Imagine you
are the examiner. Make sure that you have:
• used wo-ds effectively
• punctuated and spelled accurate'y.
Make ary helpful Improvements and co<rections.
Assessing writing
One student wrote a very good essay in response to the task you have just
completed, as shown on page 6!;. Some of the features of the wriilr,g that
the examirer noted have been anro;ated for you. At tre end you will fi nd
the examiner's comment on tre wr ting.
M!::J llttte l'.-tlgvibo«-rnoool, Pat"'- Ti'tt Cjrove, provloles a coot a"'ol calVM.
addresses reader
tV\,VlYo""VM.t""" '"" whlch !::JO"-Y ✓ cvillo!Yt"" ca"" gyow. ThtYt ls 11\,Q otvieY place
O"- the pl.avcet tviat co«.Lol be better, Vl,l,OYe cviurful oY f•<Ll of perso""s who
act"'allt, caye abo«.t others a""ol ""otj"'st t vieV1,1,Setves . ibp•oftvie-ll~
tol"'catlo"" a""ol "'-Oolt""' snoppl"'-0 1M.&1tts geaYtd to t"'-ttrtal""VM.t"'-t Qrt soVM.t
d _ _ _ _ _ _ &1dtlltlo1A,Q
~_a sscµ ✓ to be fo«-"'-ol l"" Pat..,., Ti'tt CjroVt.
_ _,.....::,,-:-'"-personal pronoun
to Include reader
Th0'-<9Vl 111,Qt VtYl::J blg, all aye wtL<>oVM.t to ,o«-r ✓ s"""atl dlstriet '"" west
StJaVM.ts. Mtdl«.Vl,l,•slzed ho"'ses wlth frlevcdll::J fa111,1,lttes of va 'l::J""'-0
"""'111,1,bers art ""or111,1,al. e;veri::,o""e vieYe Loo~ O"-t for each otvier, s"1arl""0
"""" hetpl"'-0 tl1ose wl,\o w.tl struggle occaslo""all!::J "-""tlt t"1e!:j recover:
CoMloltrlvcg thls "-""'t!::J, cri111,1,e Levels &1rt veri::, tow'"" t"1ls aYea. '"" t'1e
30 11ears tviat tl1ls olevelop"'-e""t has exlsted, thtrt has ~vey bee"' a
111,1,1,(Ydtr Ytcon:ltd; ✓ the most StYlo«-s offe=e caVM.t as a Yts"-lt of soVM.t
excellent use of
semicolon - - - - - - - ~ ~ - ~ - - ~'
darlvcg bo11s who evcgageol '"" a tv,yowlvcg cc""test a~ eaL<.Sw some
proptrtl::J ola1M.&19e. yo«- wltt 111,Qt be llvlvcg '"" a state of ftaY oVtr the saftt!:j
of t!O"-r fa111,1,ll!::J '"" Pal""- Ti'U CjYOVt.
paragraph marks
1f ✓ UOI,( aye womttl abo«.t t vie eol«.catlo"" OY t V\,ttrtal"'-VM.t"'-t t l,\at '-'O"-Y
shift in focus - - - - - - - ~J
ehlldYe"'- will Ytcelve, agal"", viave vco fear: me C,Yove pyovlcles bothJ«-"'-lOYS
a~ se,.,,loYs wlt"1 t vie best tcl«-catlo"" '"" tvie Yeglo"'-. Ma""!:l of t vie cl,\ltdYt""
atte""dl"'-9 O«-Y dlstYlct py[111,1,ari::, school, whlteviatlj "'"'-'OYS, pass t vielY
C..O"'-mO"" 6"'-tYa"'-ct 6Xa""-l"'-"tlo= for- tl,\e top sc"1ooLs '"" t vie lsta~, ol'.-t
of whlch ls also tocateol "1er-e, -SaYYOW Mt"'-OYla l seco""tlari::,. Rtct""tlt:1
the schools "1ave bee"" re...,odeltw to allow co"'--p«-ttY•asslstecl tea=lvcg
"""" t"1ls '1as boosted t vie ,,.,,ter-est a""d ,,.,,votVeVM.t""" of alt t"1e chltdrt""uses connectives to
, •
.. -1
A .....J ot,t,oV\,alt
u, ✓ eacvi sc"1oot has a wett-...._. evetope"'_. phus,cQl
link ideas - - - - - - ~ - - ~
""" a r-a"'-9t of
paragraph well
gaVM.ts l=L«-dl"'-9 football, criclut, ""etball, hoclui::,, table te"""""s a"'ol
developed with
range of relevant
f.elol. ✓
Wvie"" ""ot st"'ol!:jl"'-0, botvi !::JO"-Y chlLdYt""
!::JO"-, t"1elr-paYt""ts, ca""
Ytl.ax '"" o«-r 'all••"'-•O~' 111,1,alt. -s"'llt to save co1M.1M.«.tl""9 to the ceVltrat
eltl::J of the lsta"'-ol, lt co""tal= ar-c&1cles foY t'1e l::J0"-""9 chllolre"" to -plat! ""'
varied and controlled
a""' 1M.ake ~w frit"-ols . It also has a """'111,1,beY of tr-e~!::J sviops for- l::JO«-rsentence structures
tee"'-"gtrs a""', foy t"1t t""tlYt fa1M.lL1-j, t viere ar-e both Ytsta«.Ya"'-ts a""ol
cl""e""-as to e"':Jo11. ✓ 1f, viowever, ,.,,,oloor t"'-tertal"""'-eVlt ls too taiM.t, t"1e""
uses words to influence
!:jO"-r fetiM.lL!::J ca"" ollscover- ✓ o«.toloors t vie r-easo"" foy O"-Y towws "'-"VM.t.
the reader
c,u,ccler t vie 1M.a"'-!:j pat.... tr-ees, we spe""' ...,ost ...,o,.,,th•e""'s viavl"'-9 "
co111,1,1M.«."""tl::J coo~"'t, wltvi ga"'-ts t"1at ™"" li,1,to tl,\t ,.,,[g"1t to e~ wlth a
sesslo"" of ~Y&1oke.
h ' {
PallM. n-ee C,YOVt vias everi::,thlvcg !::JOl,l V\,eeol, /;IV\,d IM.OYt, /;IV\,d I am S«.Ye
cone1us,on emp as1se.s
cent ral message
!:jO"- a""ol t!O"-Y fa1M.lll::J will ""eVtY Ytgret tvie oltclslo"" t o IM.OVe htYt. ✓
Examiner's comment
The writin9
is clearly or9onised. It is closely focused on purpose and audience.
with the writer addressin9 the reader directly on several occasions. The ideas a.re
clearly espressed and linked and appropriotely developed within the paragraphs.
The openin9 and concluding sentences ore well- focused and balonced. In addition,
sentence structures are varied and there is cleor evidence of sophisticated use of
vocabulary. This is an effective piece of writing and has a hi9h level ol accuracy
in speJling a.nd. punctuation.
1 Annotate tne fea,ures of your writing ,hat you think woJld Impress
an examiner. You can use anro1ations from t>ie example where
2 Make a note of areas wne·e you could have improved your w(ting. Focus
on these areas before your examination.
Read the fo'lowing dialogue between an investigating policeman, Mr
S,ep~en ~Vai scn, and tne eye-witness cf ar incident of ,~eft, Mrs Kathy
As the investigating policeman, write a report for tbe Superlrtendent of
yo,Jr local police station, giving factval and relevant details. Pay atte1tion
to the pJrpose and audience of the report and be sure io relate the
Incident logically.
( Our side rhe fr onr por ch of Mrs Ruperr)
Mr Watson: Mrs Rupert, can you tell t he poli ce what you saw today ,
concer ni ng t he burglary i n Dr Boot oo · s r esi de nce?
Mrs Rupert: Well, i t was qui t e cl ear . At about 8 . 30 t his morni ng ,
I was havi ng a c up of t e a o n t he f ront porc h, minding my
own busi ness, when I no ticed a t all man j umpi ng over the
wall o f t he Boot oos ' resi de nce . I magine t he gall of t hat
man t o come int o our ne i ghbourhood in broad dayl ight.
Mr Watson : Can you describe t he person?
Mrs Rupert: He 111as wearing a dirty-l oo king gr ey s hirt, wit h a pair
of t orn, faded blue jeans. Don ' t ask me t he type of
j eans . He 111as o f Eas t I ndian descent, wi t h a dar k brown
c omplexi o n. His hair was dar k and scruffy . From t he
dis tance, I not iced he was quit e muscular a nd agil e , of
course, to j ump over t he five- f oot wall .
Mr Wa t son : What else di d you notice?
Mrs Rupert: Well, coming to think of i t , I noticed his hair was
braided and he had a red clot h dangli ng from his back
Mr Watson: What happened next ?
Mrs Rupert: I start e d t o shout. I t old him to get out of t here. I
a1so told him t hat i f he ever t hought of coming into my
home, he would regret i t.
Mr Watson: What happened after t his?
Mrs Rupert: Well, my shouti ng did not s t op hi m and a few minutes
la t er, I saw him t hro,v a bag over t he fence and t hen jump
over . After t his he hopped ont o a bicycle that he had
hidden in the nea~by bushes and quickly rode down the
street. What boldness, I thought.
Mr Watson: What d i d you do a t t his time?
Mrs Rupert: I ran ins i de and called the St Madeli ne
di s t rict police. Then I called the next
door neighbours to i nform t hem.
Unfort unat ely they were not at home .
I also called the ot her neighbo=s
t o put them on alert t o look for
the thief. Officer, you need to
do your j ob and pa t rol these
street s more often. This is the
f i fth time a·n incident of theft
has occ=red on this s t reet in
one month. Crime in this country
of o=s is gett i ng worse
and no one seems t o care.
Officer, would you li ke
a cup of t ea?
Mr Watson: No, thank you
Ma dam, but t hank
you for your time.
We wi ll stay in
t ouch . If you have
any further informati on
you can visit us at the
St Madeline police stati on
at number 4 , Elvin Street.
Read the fo.'owlng extrao: carefully and then write a s1.m,mary In not more than 120words.Your summary
must be In cont•n~ous prose, in paragraph form and, as far as posslb e. in your own words.
What is a consumer?
A consume' is someone who pvrchases goods ard services. And that includes all of us. To survive. we
reed to consvme.'Ne have ro cho·ce. ~Ve do, rowever, have a choice about what we consume, wrc we
buy our goods fro11 and how much we corsume. The tr:'1gs we 'eq vire for an acceptab equality of life
are called our needs,Trese include food, clothes and sre ter. ~Ve can describe everything else, such as
computers and ielev·sions, as our wont$.
Vie do not just need p'iysical Items ,o stay well: we also need ,o consume serv ces. Services are t1ings
r ke electricity and gas nat oowe, our heating. our cookers a1d our telephones. We also co1sume
1on-essential services - such as oeauty treaimems, financ:al adv ce, a haircut or tutcr:ng.
Co1sumers can be Individuals. groJps O' insritufons. lndiv:dual consumers mig1t buy a chocolate
bar from a snop. G·oup co1sumers might be a family eat'ng an evening mea, lnstinitions t'lat
consume include hotels that buy food on a la·ge scale. and businesses that buy ots of electrical items
and statlore'Y,
rnst,ruticns buy products In bulk stra ght from the ma1ufacturer. Other consumers. such as higglers and
shop owrers, also bu ><-buy products from manufacturers 1rat they then sel l en to corsumers. Some
families bJy In bu,~ too, but only fi,om who'esa ers. and Just fo, their own consumption.
Co1sumers can only buy what providers sell, but providers can or y se·I what consumers will buy. If a
shoo owrer purchases a bulk supply of a pa•ticular cake that no one buys, the shop owner will Iese
money. ~I/her there s a large qJartity of a prodJct available, but little demard for it, we say there Is a
glurcfrre product. Vvnen r~·s happens, tre price of the product usually falls.
However, ,fa shop ow1e· finds OJ! exactl)' what "lls customers wart ne wi l make a good profir. For
example, people wlil always have headaches so a pharmacist should always sell pa'nklller tab ets.
Tinned Items such as corned beef are popu ar ard keep we! , so t'lese are good products fer a food
shop to stock. Th s re ationshlp between what the consumer wants and what shops sell is called supply
and demand.
Copy and complete tile following table to assess where you tnink your strengths and weaknesses lie in this area
of you, work.
I am confident that
I can do this.
I think I can do this This Is one of my
but need a bit more weaker areas, so I
need more practice.
can work successful y with texts w'1ose main
pJrpose is informative.
can extract Implied or inferred information
from a text.
can recognise faets that are stated explicitly.
can extract specific information from vvnat
s read.
can Interpret and respond to tables and
p,ctoria or 9rapri1ca1commun,c;nlor,.
car ccmmur cate in wririrg clearly, concisely
and effective,y.
can use appropriate grammar ard srylisric
features to convey meaning clearly.
D:aw up a plan srowlrg row you wll improve any sKill wrere you have identified a weakress. Be sure to allocate
time to practise the skills In your weaker areas.
Denotation and connotation
This 'Jnit will he!p you to:
• recognise the diffe:erce
between denotative and
connoiatlve language
• understand meaning co,1veyed
through wo•d choice.
Words and their meanings
The Engl'sh la'lguage contains a vast number of words, and new words
enter tre vocabulary each day. With the rapid rise In widely used
techrologies, there has been a d·amat'c increase In the number of new
wo•ds. Some of these are:
• combinations of words that already existed. such as 'website' and 'laptop'
• existing words that have been given a nev-1 meaning. such as'moJse:
'text' and 'tweet'
• completely new words, such as 'IPod' and 'blog'.
In ;h's unit you will:
• understard the difference
between de1otatlo1 and
• exolo•e how a writer chooses
words to nfluence a •eader
• use emotive language
• write subject vely and
1 Read tre fellowing new words. They are combinations of existing
words. For each one, work out:
• which two words are being combined
• the mea~:ngs of each of the two words being combined
• the meaning of the new word.
2 The folloving words have been given a new mear·ng. For each one,
• the traditional meaning
• the new meaning.
Denotative and connotative language
Vvnen we want to find OJ! the meaning of a wo·d, the first place to loo< is
in the dictionary.
The dictionary defin tion s sometimes called the denotation. It identifies the
main mean:ng of the word with which everyone would agree, for example:
country: the defined area o f land occupied by
a particular nation and u nder one government
In cont·ast. connotation refers to the personal aspects of meaning.
These may vary from one person to another, depending on tneir personal
So, for example. people with a positive experience may associate the wo·d
'co·Jntry' with:
Those witn a negative experierce may associate ire word'coJntry'with:
There are so-ne words, however. that 1end to have a shared se, of co1rotatio1s.
Take, fo, examp'e, the word '<;ity'. Ad ctionary may derote thisas meaning:
city: any large or important town; usua lly the centre of a region
Co'llmonly held connotat'o:1s of the word woJld include:
The notion of connotation becomes easy 10 understard if you think
abot.1t colours. vVe associate certain colours with certain ideas, moods
and feellrgs. Take, fo, example, the co our red:
3 Think abovl the following
colours. Fo· each one,
bra·nstorm the ideas, moods
and feellrgs you associate
with them,
4 Think aboJt tne following
words. list the assoc a1ions or
connotations they have for you.
The colour red is also mentioned in some well-known phrases: 'like a red
rag to a bull'. ·seeing red', 'red-handed', ·red-blooded'.
VVriters know that wo·ds have both denotative and conro1a1ive meanings.
They sometimes use this knowledge to influerce rhe reader.
Think about the following sentence:
T hey arc millionaires.
This tells you that 'they'have a lot of money. It does not make any
judgement en whether that is a good or a bad thing.
Now think about the following
pairs of words and what they
mean to you. Copy the pa 'S
and highl lgr,t the word in each
pair that you think carr'es tre
greatest conrotatlve meaning.
house- home
Now tnink about this sentence:
slender - skinny
overweight - obese
T hey arc obscenely rich.
hungry - starving
This also tells you that 'they' have a lot of money. However. the use of the
p1rase 'obscenely rich' suggests that tne writer finds this to be unpleasant
and wants tne reader to think so too.
unt'dy- slovenly
6 Think about tre following pairs of sentences. Vv'hat is suggested by rhe second sentence In each pair?
a The game was played in ,he sradium.
Tre battle was lougnt in tne stadium.
b The your,g men stood on the corner.
The youths loitered on the co·ner.
c She asked the young person to eave.
She ordered tne child to leave.
d There we'e c ouds in the sKy.
The sky was forbidd'ng and dangerous.
Emotive use of language
As you have seen, writers use vvords to rry to ;nfiuence the vvay we think.
They also use words to infiuence rhe way we feel.
l ook again ar the extract below ta<en fro,m the passage on volcanoes that
you read on page 31.
Volcanoes have fascinated and terrorised peoples across tne Eartn from ancient times to
the present day. Na-ned after Vulcan, the Roman god of fire, they have wreaked t->avoc
on the lives of many th•oJghout the history of mankird. From Indonesia to California,
from Alaska to New Zealand, volcanoes continue to threaten the livelihoods and even tr1e
ves of those who live in their dangerous shadows. Across rhe world today, somewhere
between 10 and 20 vo canoes are burling ash and molten rock from their caverno•Js
The highlighted words show you how the writer has chosen words to
emphasise the danger and ferocity of the volcarces sucn as the Soufriere
Hills ir Montserrat (see photograph on previous page) that destroyed the
cap'tal Plymouth in 1997, Ii, o·der to make tre reader feel fear and awe.
we talk about i re emotive use of language. we are refe•ring tc the
connotative meanirg of words ard the emotions that they evoKe.
The writers of newspaper artic es use emotive language 1n neadlines when
they wan1 to provoke a part cular emotion in tneir reade·s. Consider the
different impact the following readllnes would t,ave on a reader:
fire at school
l'\atnpag;e in street
Player strikes referee
Emot've langJage is also often used in cr ar'ty appeals. where the writer
nopes to encourage action by affecting the readers'feelings, for examp.e:
Help stop this violent abuse now!
7 Think about tne following phrases. Change
the unde•lined word to make the pnrase more
a worried motrer
b young person Injured
c scared •esidents
d soldiers .l!.ilJ er.emy
8 V\lrite your own newspaper readlines for
each o' the fellow ng. Alm to use language
• An argument about a decision taken in a cric<et
• An old man is robbed on the street
• A hurr'cane destroys a building
• A local schoo wins a competition
9 Copy tne following extracts taken from a range
of crar'ry appeals. In each one:
• underline the words the writer has used ro
lnAuence the feelings of the reader
• exolain how these words are likely to make the
reader feel.
a Weak ard vulnerable children lie unaided on
the pavements.
b Their parents look on helplessly and
c One small child stares defiantly at i re
camera, bravely protect irg his younger
b•other who silently clings to him.
d This unjust and d'shonest state of affairs
must end.
1o Think about a charity which you support in
p•inciple. It may be local or rational. \.Vrite an
appeal or behalf cf this cnarity.Your aim Is
to gain your reader's suppo~. Use larguage
emotively to ensure you p•ompt action by
affecting your reader's feelings.
Objective and subjective
V\lrlters write in different ways depending 01 their purpose.Tne writer
of a scientific report. for example, ,s likely to p:esent factua Information
with little use of connotative language. vVren writing is not distorted by
emotion or personal bias (see page 118), we say it ·s objective.
The writer cf a sports report, however, may well use language to influence
the response of the reader. vVrer, wr;ting Is ·nfi uenced by persor,al
feelings, we say it is subjective.
Read Reports A and B. which are wr"nen about t~e same netball match.
Then answe· tne questions 11",at follow.
Report A
The talented Sunshine Girls never got a chance. From
the moment thewhistle blew, the umpirewas against
them and repeatedly awarded penalty passes to the
undeseiving opposition. It was no surprise then that
one of their most outstanding players, Kylee Palmer, 5
was unfairly sent off in the third quarter. Left with
only six players, the Sunshine Girls continued to play
their hearts and souls out for their team. Meanwhile
the favoured Spice Lights continued to taunt and
bully their way to an unjust victory.
The much overrared Sunshme Girls were given more
undeserved chances rhon ony orner ream in the
comperirion. Ir was clear rhoi rhe referee was on rheir
side. allovting the vile and vicfovs Palmer ro re/Tloin
for m1.1ch of the game. 1/fhen finally reduceo ,o six,
the Sunshine Gins simply gave up, :J/aying some of
the vtorse netball seen in the championship. The
opposing Spice Ugh rs remained determine~, arrccked
bravely and were rev1arded w1rh on ovtsranding and
memoroole vfcrory
Clear,y not all spo·ts reports are subjective. Read Report Con the same match:
In 1he 1hird quarter of 1he
game between the Sunshine
G irls and theSpi.ce Lights, the
Sunshine Girls were reduced
to six player.; with the sending
off o f their wing artackec,
Kylee Pa lmer, following a
clear infringe111ent. The game
continued, buL the Sunshine
G irls were unable 10 sustain
their defence against the
continued a1tack of the Spice
Lights. The final score was
I 1-9 in favour of the Spice
In Report C. the writer Just presents the details cf the game and does not use
lang-.,age ,o inflJence the reader. This report is objective. An objective report
·s likely to be more reliable tha1 a subjective ere. Now attempt Activit es
1' -1 3 on the follow·ng page, w~ich relate to ,eports A and B above.
11 vVhfch of the following
s1a1ements Is uue?
a Tne ...v(ters of both
reports favour ire
SJnsnlne Girls.
b Tne ...v(ters of both
reports favour tre Soice
c The w(ter of A favoJrs
the Sunshine Gir s.
d Tne ...v(ter of B favours
the Sunshine Gir s.
12 vVhich of the following
statements is rrue?
a The referee was on tne
side of the Sunsh'ne Girls.
b Tre referee was on rhe
s'de of the Spice Lights.
c Tre referee was rot
interested in who won
the game.
d Both writers accuse the
referee of being on the
s'de of cne team.
As yoJ have probably rea,ised, both accounts are subjective. The
writer of A is on tre side of tne Sunshine Girls and tne writer of B·s
on the side of the So1ce Lights. This ·s revealed through the words
rhey choose.
13 The tab e below shows some phrases from Report A The words
that revea the writer's feel lngs are highlighted. Find the matching
phrases in Report Band highlight the words tha1 s>iow b;as. The
first ore t-as been do1e for you.
Report A
The ta erted Sunshi1e Girls
Report B
The much ove·rated
Sunshine Girls
01e of ,re' r MOS[ OJts;andlng
players. Kylee Pa mer
the Sunshine Girls cont»1Jed to
play rneir rearts ard sous o~t
the favow·ed S;,-ce Lights
continued to :aJnt and bully
their way
an unjust victory
14 Vv'rite an objective report on 01e of the fcllow,ng:
• a sports match
• an Incident in scrocl
• an accident in tne street.
You can make up the deta s if you like. Your report should be
about 100 words ·r ergth. Use Repo•t C as an example.
15 Now rewrite your report. but this time making ycur pe•sonal
feelings dear. HlgnFght the words you have used that shew
your subjectivity.
Register, tone and mood
The ways ,n which you present your subject depend on your audience a'ld
your purpose. Read the following texts.
This 'Jnit will he!p you to:
• appreciate tre approi:,,iateness
of different uses of register, tore
and mood
• use larguage, and particularly
reglste·, tone ard mood,
appropriate to particular
situat ons and co1texts.
In tr s unit yoJ •Nill:
• lear'l abolJt register and tone
• use regisie· ard tore
appropriate y In W'it,ig
• understard one ,•,ay In w,iicr
mood is created
• create mood ii' a o·ece cf
Dear Ell ise,
Someihi ng very sad happened today when I was walki ng
home. A little girl was walk ing along the roadside with
her Nlama. She dropped he r ball and it bounced onto tl1e
road. Befo re her Mm11a could stop her, she'd rushed after
it. Her }.1ama called her but she kept o n runni ng a fter the
ball and was hit by a car. Soon a lo t of people gatJ1ered
and an a mbulance arrived and look her away. r think she
was goi ng LO be o kay tl1ough, a.~ a poli ceman told me she'd
broken her leg but nothing worse than that ...
Traffic was halted on rhc coast
road yesterday as an ambulance
rushed to the scene of an
,1c<:idcnt. Nathifa Jones, aged 3,
rushed into the road chasing
u ball and, before her mother
could halt her, she was hit by
an oncoming vehicle.
The accident attracted the
attention of a large crowd of 10
onlookers, presenting police
with additional ptoblems.
Fortunately an ambulance
was able to swiftly negotiate
the traffic and Nathifa
was taken to hospital. It is
believed that the child is
suffering from a broken
leg, though many witnesses
feared much worse.
1 Think abovt a school event
you have attended. It CO'Jld be
anytning from a conce•t to a
sports toJrnament.
2 Vl'rite the first paragraph of a
etter to a friend In which you
tell him or her about the event
(Caribbean Standard Englisn:
3 Then write a report on
event for your ocal newspaper
(Caribbean Standard English:
Each cf the above texts deals with tne same subject. However. they have
a different purpose and a,Jdience. In eacn case tre content remai~s the
same, but the register - the way in wr·ch each teXt is written - differs.
It is i'nportant to use a registent>at is appropriate to your purpose and
audience. Caribbean Stardard English is used In botn cf the examp es
above.There is, however. a difference ,n the degree of formality of 1he
wr'ting.Tne writing in the email is less fo·mal. The writer says 'Soon a lot
cf people gathered ...'. This idea is expressed more fcr.mally in the news
repo:1: 'The accident attracted t,~e attention of a large crowd ...'.
1Nhen we speak, we can use the same words to co.1vey different meaning
simply by ct-angirg the tone of voice we use. In writing we car show to1e
by 11'-e words we choose and the way we use them.
4 Think about the fellowing sentences.Try saying them in different ways to show rhe different meanings shown
in brac~ets.
Of course I believe you.
Do you really think so?
How much did you say
it was?
I don't believe a
word you say.
I think you are mad
to have those ideas.
I'm Interested In
your ideas.
o O O -----...._ __
I want to know
what it cost.
I think it was
ridiculously expensive.
Now read tne opening of Holes by Louis Sacha,. Th"r~ about rhe tone tre
writer creates before working rhroJgh the actiVi!}' ,hat follows.
There s no la~e at Camp Green Lake. There was once a
very 'arge lake here, tre largest lake in Texas. That was over
a hundred years ago. '\low It Is just a dry, fiat wasieland.
There used to be a town of Green Lake as well. The
town shrivelled and dr'ed up along with the lake, ard the
peop'e who lived there.
During tne summer the daytime tempe•ature hovers
arourd nine!}'•five degrees in the shade - if you can find
any shade. There's not much s'1ade In a big dry lake.
The only trees are two old oaks on the eastern edge of
the'1ake'. A hammock Is stretcred between tne ~No trees
and a log cabin stands behind that.
Tne campers are forbidden to I' e in tne hammock. It
belongs to ire Vilarden. The 1Narden ovvns rre shade.
Out on the lake, rattlesnakes and sco·plons find shade
Jnder rocks and in t~e holes dug by the campers.
Here's a good rule to remembe• about rattlesnaKes and
scorpions: ,f you don't bother them, they won't bother you.
Usual y.
Being bitten by a scorpion or even a rattiesna·<e is rot the worsi thing trat can happen to you.
You won't die.
Sometimes a camper will try to be bitten by a scorpion, or even a rattles<1ake.Ther he will get
to spend a day or two recover rg in his tent, instead of hav;ng to dig a hole out on the la<e.
But you don't want to be bitten by a yellow-spotted lizard. That's the worst thing tnat can
happen to yo•J. You will die a sow and painful death.
If you get bitten by a yellow-spotted lizard. you might as well go Into the shade of the oak
trees and l,e In the hammock.
There rs nothing anyone can do to you anymore.
Louis Sacnar, .Holes
Louis Sachar creates tcne by using a number of techniques, as shown In tre fcllowi 19 extract. Read through
the annotatlo1s below before matching rhem to the appropriate places numbered In the iext.
- -
.........._,.............- - - - - - -
During tne summer t'le daytime temperature hovers 1
around r inety-five degrees in the shade - if ycu Z can find
any shade.There's not much shade in a big dry ,ake. 3
4 The only trees are two o!d oaks on the eastern edge of the
' ake'. A ha11mcck is stretcred between the two trees and a log
cabin stands behlrd that.
The campers are forbidden to lie in the hammock. It belor,gs
to the ~Varden. 5 The 'iVarden owns the shade. 6
a Uses sarcasm to emp'iasise the obvious.
b V•/(res ,n the present tense to create a sense of immediacy.
c Uses simple se1tence svuctJres for empbasi s.
d Addresses the reader directly to place you there ar.d he,p )'OU picture what it s like.
e Uses short paragraphs to punctuate the detail for emphasis and to make t sound very matter-of-fact.
f Uses sa·casm to show that something is ridicJlous.
6 Look back at the extract en page 77. Find and write down twc further examples of eacn cf the following
• use of sarcasm
• address· rg rhe reader direct)'
• s1ort paragraphs to punctuate tne detail for emphas,s
• snort sentences 10 empnaslse each point.
7 Using wt-at you have learned from Activities 4 ard 5, what do you tnlnk the narrator thinks ar.d feels aboJt
Ca11p Green Lake? Explain wny you think this.
Now that you have studied the ways in which Louis Sachar creates tone, you are going 10 use some of these
techniques to create tone n your own descriptio1 cf a place.
8 Tnink about a place yoJ know we' , fo· example, a classroom, a doctor's wait"rg room, a bJs stop o• a street.
'iVrite a negative description of the place, creat'ng tone through your use of:
• sarc;ism
• s>iort paragraphs to pt,mctuate the detail
• snort sentences.
\\/rite your description In the present tense. Am to write no more than 250 words.
We all experience a wide range of moods. 1Ne can be happy, sad. argry,
serious, light-hearted, depressed and so on. V•/riters use words to create
particu ar moods.
Study the following poem, 'Island Man' by Grace Nichols.
Island Man
(for a Caribbean island inan in London
who still wak.es up to 1he sound of rhe sea)
and island man wakes up
to the sound of blue surf
in his head
the steady breaking and wo,nbing
\Vild seabirds
and fishermen pushing out to sea
the sun surfacing defiantly
fron1 the east
of his small emerald island
he always co1n es back groggily groggily
Comes back to sands
of a grey metallic soar
to surge of wheels
to dull North C ircular* roar
1nuffl ing muffl ing
his crumpled pillow ,vaves
island man heaves hi,nself
Another London day
Grace Nichols, 'Island Man·
• The North Circular. a major ring road arour.d north London, UK.
'Island Man' is full of imagery. The writer chooses words to creaie pictures
and ideas in ,he reader's mind. These ,n turn create ,~e mood. Take, for
examp,e, the phrase:
the steady breaking and wo,n bing
mt regular rl-i!'.Jt~ M. of tviet~wu v,,.a[v. wor}.s - ste.:i;;Ui:,,
brt.ii-<.li:v,,g, wol¾b/Lv,,g - suggests ti-leSOt<,.,cl of t~t sec, V¾ov,~.g
Lv. ::ivw. cut ovtrtV1e s~v,,c;. 'Wt worol 'woMb[v,,g· suggts;S
COM.fort ~v.d. tlo.e pltlct of o,t.e:L" - tvie wov,.b i.s cuv fi,-,st ~OV¾t.
ll>it reo.1A.lar r'vi1,1t~M.,
coMblvteo! ·,A.t'vi covw,.bt~tlov..s o£tvie
worol ',,10V¾o,v,g', Cr'ftites .i stv..st of secur!.t1:J till\,i/. sa~ettt, Tvils
"';eLw.g tl1at tiiei,oet c-rttitts Ls tne w.bool.
9 Think about the images the poet creates. Copy the following table and make rotes on what the words
suggest to you.
The words
rhe sun swrfacing defiantly
1is small emerald Island
a grey metallic soar
surge of wheels
to dul North Circular roar
1is crump ed pillow waves
Island man heaves himself
Another Londo,~day
1o Use your notes to help yo\.l idenrlfy:
• the mood Nlcho s creates when writing abovt the slard
• the mood Nichols creates when writing about London.
You m ght want to choose a seieetion of words from the following list to describe the mood in each part of tne
poem. Some words may apply to both.
pessimist ic
11 Now think about the whole poem. \oVhat do the different moods created oy N'cho' s show you about the
island man's feelings?
Places are often d'.fferent at different times of da)'.
They ~ave a different feel to tnem - a different mood.
12 Study the pairs of photographs above. List
th·ee words that capture the mood of each
photograph In each pair.
13 Create an mage by using words effecfvely to
suit each photo in each pair.
You could record yoJr answers to Activ'ties 12 and 13
In a chart l,ke the one be'ow. An examp e of what you
could do for tne first photograph has been given.
I vely
oranges battle
with mangoes
wrer t is busy; the other shou d be about the
place when it is quiet. Use your own knowledge
of places such as this, as well as wrat you see
in tre photographs. Your aim s to capture tre
different moods. Follow these stages:
a Start oy gathering and planning your ideas.
Make a note of the details you want to
Include n your poem. Think about how you
ca'1 use words to create pictures for yo Jr
reader. Think also about how those words
reflect the mood of the place.
b Decide on wrether to start when the p1ace is
busy or quiet.
c Look bac~ at Grace Nlcho's's poem to remind
yourself of how she expressed her ideas. You
can use a similar format if you wish.
8 ii
d \l>/(te your poem.
14 Choose one of tne pairs of p~,otographs. You
e Read through your poem and ma~e any
are going to write a poem about th·s place. One
ha f of your poem showld be about the place
changes that help 10 emphasise the mood.
Narrative voice
Narrative voice
• recognise e:ements of tre
wr' ter's craft
• recognise and resoond io the
means used by an author co
ach eve a particular effect
Sometimes a writer speaks directly co a reader. using 'I' or tne •first person'.
This Is particularly true of autobiograpl-iy, where tbe writer is presentirg
deta'ls of h,s or her own life. In many types of writing, however, the a1.1thor
will vvrite from a different viewpoint. using perhaps 'he' or 'she' or 'they·co
desc·ibe people and events. In other cases. the writer may be a character in
the story or poem itself.Tre wr,ter uses'l'but is referrirg not to himself o•
herself but to the persona taken on in orde• to present the teXl effecrively.
• choose a v·ewpoint or voice for
writing wrilch is appropr'ate to
create an effect on the reader.
vnderstanding tne narrative voice is part of appreciating whar a writer is
doing ard what effect this is having ori the reader. Conversely, selecting an
appropr'aie rarrative voice is ·mportant when writing creatively.
This 'Jnit will he!p you to:
Read the followirg ,ext and answer questions I to S. They test your abil'ty 10
identify literal detail and your abil'ty to infer meaning from wbat you read.
I was bom in l 939. A world away, war had started, and
the cogs and wheels of conflict and industr)' whirred. But
on a land grant oo the Pomerooo River in the Essequibo,
In t'lls ur·r ycu w II:
my parents, descended from Portuguese immigrants, were
• learn about the viewpolr,; or
building a life that was far removed from all of that.
voice In w~ich a texr is written
i'v1)' father was a farmer. TJc had a small estate on the
• urde·stanr;I ,re diffe•erce
sweet side of the river; the salt side backed up on the Adantic,
between rre writer and ,re
b ut the sweet side savannah lands were fertile and verv
productive. He mainly grew coffee, oranges and avocados.
• w•ite ir the first person.
i'vly father was a serious man. Y.le was the th ird generation of
Portuguese immigrants who had come to Guyana to make
their fortunes as indentured labourers after slavery was abolished . He was, I suppose, possessed o f n
single sense of purpose, which was to provide for his fom ily above any other concern.
/vly mother wns a warm counterpoi11t to my fother's seriousness; she was affectionate and
embracing. She didn't work outside of the home. t suppose when you arc the wifo of a farmer. there
is no surprise at your having nine ch ildren. She d evoted most o f her life to our upbringing. My father
relied on m)' mother very much for famil)• matters and she would go out to look for business on his
behalf. She was a very good commun icacor and a respected woman in her own right.
The sea.son of my binh, I was later told, had been n panicularly wet one. The rains were
tremendous and the local midwife, concerned about complications, persuaded my mother co make
the rrek to Georgetown to deliver me. Sne made the twelve-nour journey by boat, rrain and bus to
her siste r's in Hadfield Street, Georgetown where Twas born a few days larer.'l'hat was how I came
to be the only one of nine children to be born in the capital. Though I was bom there, Georgetown
would only be a dista,u rcalicy for many years. T could not have anticipated how la1cr it would play
such an important role in my life. Until I was six years old all I was to know was country life on the
Pomeroon and the river named for it wh ich was an integral part of my life g rowing up.
' rhere is a kind of p u reness about country life which is hard to explain to anyone who hails from
the cicy. l g rew up on the bank of a river. For the first six years o f my life I knew no thing about city
life; I knew nothing about street lights, about rad io or airplanes and [ only rarely ever saw a motor
car. I was a country boy, a country bumpkin. L ife was simple, pu re and ver)' beautiful.
Joseph'Reds 1 Perrera, L•vmg Ni; 0:eoms
1 ~Vhat is the main purpose of the writer in the first paragraph?
a to establish when ard where he was born
b to explain when he was born and where his pare1ts I ved
c to explain that he was born in a time of wa•
d ro explain that he was of Portuguese descent.
2 \Nhich of t,ie following best refiects ,he writer's view of his father?
a He was a hard-working man who warted to make a lot of
b He was a farmer who took his work seriously.
c He was an indentured laboure' of Portuguese descent.
d He was a farmer who wanted 10 de the best for his family.
3 \o\/hich of tne following best reflects the writer's view of his mother?
a She was tne wife of a farmer and had n·ne children.
b She was affect onate, widely respected and a good mater for
his faire•.
c She was devoted to her children.
d She was a geed communicator and a business woman.
4 Georgetowf'I sImportant to the writer because ...
a his mother travelled there 10 give birth to him
b his aunt lived in Hadfield Street, Georgetowr
c he was born there and returned In late' life
d twas a dstant real"ty for many years.
Tre writer regards life in the country as ...
a one wh ch is hard to explai"
b a life without streeillghts. radio or airplanes
c simple, pwre and beautiful
d only suited to coumry bumpk•ns.
6 Write the opening three paragraphs of your autobiography.
Remember to write In the lirst person. You could use some of the
following headings io he1p group your Ideas Into paragraphs:
Where I was born
My guardians
Brothers and sisters My parents
My childhood friends
My first day at school
The people I grew up with
The writer and the narrator
Sometimes a wr:ter will use the first person but will rot be speaking
directly 10 the reader. He or she ·NIii ,el I the story from tre point of view of
one of the characters in it. Use of the first-perso1 narrative allows the reader
to see and experience events through the narrator's senses and feel lngs.
It must be remembered, however, trat the narrator is a fia oral craracter
created by the writer, just as are all the other characters In tne story. He or s"le
cannot give the thoughts and feel:1gsof other characters in the story unless
clearly to!d them. I; is i'Tlportant for the reader to work out as much as possible
about the charoaer of the narrator In order to decide what'really'happens.
7 Read tne following extract closely. Vvhat do you learn about:
• the rarrator's past l"fe?
• how t~e rarrator feels about his past ife?
• tr.e narrator's present life and how he seems to fee, about 't?
became what I am today at
the age of rwelve, on a frigid
overcast day in the winter of
I97 5 . Looki ng back now, r
realize r have been peeking in to s
that deserted alley for the last
cwcnry-six years.
One day last summer, my
friend Rahim Khan called
from PakiStan. He asked me to 10
come see him. Standing in the
kitchen with the receiver to my
car, I knew it wasn't just Rahim
Khan on the line. Tt was my
past or unaroned sins. After I 15
hu ng up, rwent for a walk along
Spreckels Lake on the northern edge of G olden Gate Park. The earl)'-afternoon sun
sparkled on the water where dozens of miniature boats sailed, propelled bi• a crisp
breeze. Then I glanced up and saw a pair of kites, red with long blue mils soaring
in the sk)•. They danced high above the trees on the west end of the park, over the
windm ills, floating side by side like a pair of eyes looking down on San Francisco, the
city r now call home. And suddenly Hassan 's voice whispered in my head: For you, a
thousand times over. Hassan the harelipped kite runner.
1 sat on a park bench near a willow u:ee. J thought aboul something Rahim Khan
said just be fore he hung up, almost as an afterthough t. 77iere is a way w be good
again. r looked up at those twin kites. r 1hought about Hassan. T houghl about Baba.
Ali. K abu l. I thought of Lhc life I had lived un til the win ter of I 97 5 came along and
changed everything. An d made me what J am today.
X:hc:led Hosseini, Tne K,re Rvr.r.er
Using language to convey meaning
A writer's too's are words. ~Vriters choose mem derbera tely to convey
meaning to the reader. Below Is an a1alysis of how t~e writer has used
words in the first sentence. Read it carefully.
..._ -e.~rt we ~ V\,/;•11 av-t::t,-,lv,0 ~; ~ (L ~ccv.t wh~t v,.i,,,,e,,,ec! cv. tv ls .tat::, t,-,e wr,ctr v.ses •,icrd.s ta
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8 Think about the highlighted words in the following senier.ces. Consider the possible alterr,af ves the writer
could have chosen and then copy and complete the tab'e below. The first two rows rave been completed
using tre examp'es from above.
[ remember lhc p recise moment, crouching behind a crumbling mud wall, pecking into
the alley near the frozen creek. That was a long time ago, bur it's wrong what they say
about the past, I've learned, about how you can bu.ry it. Because the past claws its wa)' out.
Word chosen
Alternative word choices
What the chosen word suggests o r implies
• cold
• freezirg
lack of affect ion and human warmrh
• grey
• dul
things beir,g covered over or obscured
9 Now lock ar the follO'.<Ving sentences. which describe the kites in the park. Identify words that you thlr>x the
writer has used to create a different mood to that of the opening paragraph ar.d explain why you think they
have been chosen.
Then Tglanced up and saw a pair of kites, red with long blue tails soaring in the sky.'f he y
danced high above the trees on the west end of the park, over the windmills, floating side
by side like a pair of eyes looking down on San Francisco, the c.ity r now call home.
The write r and the speaker
V\l( ters sometimes tell their story from the point of view of someone
outside t. Th's is call ed a third-person narrative. Characters In the
story are identif ed as 're· or 'she' (t'i' rd person sing ular) or 'they' (third
person p!ural). As the narrator Is not a character, he or she is able
to have an overview of everything that occurs and is said, thought
and fe t.
Read careful y the opening of a short stocy o~ the
next page and then answer the questio1s.
1o Basirg your answer on the conversation
betweeri Adele ard Joshua (lines 1-1 1), what
do you discover about:
• Adele's views about the and?
• Joshua's views about the lard?
• the re,a,ionship between Ade e and Joshua?
11 Think aboJt lines 12-2A.. Vo/hat does rhe narrator
,ell you about
• Joshua's first impressions of Miss Miriam?
• how ard why his opinion of her had changed
over the years?
12 Now mink about tne conversation betvveen
Miss rvhriam and Joshua (lines 29-.35). 1Nrat do
you learn about:
• how M'ss Minam regards Joshva?
• Maas George?
As you can see, writers reveal th' ~gs tnrcugh what
tt-.e narrator says ard what the characters say.
They also often g've readers elves about what will
happen in their story.
13 Basing your answer on tt-e eXtract, explain
what you think wil I happen n the story,
Explain a!so ycur reasons for thinking this.
(You will be able to check your prediction In
Unit 3.5.)
Land of the Purple Evening
by Diane Browne
Joshua 1\l!organ thought about the meeting with grave 1nisgivings. He knew it
would not go well . But Adele had said, 'Go! Go and tell [he old red man that you
won't work any longer unless you get the land at the bottom side of the hill.'
' Adele, is too soon,' he had replied. 'i\,liss Miriam not dead a month yet.'
'Then now is the time,' she had said. 'Now is the ri,ne, before the children come
and tell bim what to do with the property'
'But Adele, a jus' can't tell !vlaas George to give me the land. A not entitle to it.'
'Not entitle to it! After you work all you life with the family! You 'fraid of him?
You a man or a slave? Besides,' she added coaxingly, 'h im always say him would
give you a piece of land one day. Him not using the land. H im depend on you, you
know, man. Ask him.'
So Joshua had dressed himself in his suit shiny with age. T he early morning dew
dampened his shoes as he walked through the thick grass. At the bottom of the
hill he scopped and gazed affectionately at the large old house wi[h its verandah
running along three sides. I-le had worked on th is property from he and ,\,!aas
George had both beeo }'oung men. He remembered the day /\1aas George had
returned from his trip co England with Miss ,\l!iriam, a tall thin English girl with
a figure like a boy and straight stiff brown hair. The family had been pleased, as
had the servants. But Joshua had averted his eyes when he was introduced to
her. T here were so many pretty Jamaican girls around. \~'hy had ,\l!aas George
chosen this foreign woman, who to add to her Jack of beauty would no doubt lack
understanding of their ways?
,\,tiriam, however, had learnt quicldy and she u nderstood many things. /\•iany
misunderstandings berween Joshua and George were made smooth by her
intervention beh ind the scenes; and wilh me years she had even ceased robe ugly.
A week before she had died, when she had been taking her usual walk through
the orange groves, she had stopped bedside Joshua as he stood gazing at the
fungus-covered branches or the rrees. He had noticed then how her cranspare,u
white skin ba rely covered the veins of her face and haods.
'Old a-ees, old house, old people, eh Joshua; she had said in her dry abrupt way.
T hen she had added, 'You know,Joshua, I have greatly appreciated your help all these
years, and I know I can count on you ro look after iv!aas George when I'm gone.'
'Gone, !vliss ,\l!iriam?You not going anywhere, ma'am.You stronger than me.'
'Stronger than you, eh? Of course I am,' she had laughed, pulli ng her old blue
sweater around her even though the morning was already warm . 'Just remember,
Joshua, George is a stubborn old man buc he really cannot do without you.'
No, thought Joshua as he walked slowly up the hill. He did not see how [his
meeting could go well, and there was no longer ,\l! iss Miriam to set things right.
Simile and metaphor
This •Jnit will he!p you to:
• recognise and respond to the
means vsed by a writer to
influence or br ng new insights
to a reader
• respond to lterature and
to how writess create and
sustain feelings, descriptions
or atmosphere.
11 this Jnic you will:
• understand wnat similes and
metaphors are
• learr aoout now wr ters
use these literary dev ces to
st' mJlate a ·ea de r's enjoyment
of a text.
Figurative language
INriters do not always use wcrds literally.They sometimes use wcrds to nelp
create a specific i11age and expect their readers to interpret these words.
I'm Not a Rockl
I can't be your rock anymore
I'm just a tiny, roiling stone
That 1--asn't got a place In 11fe
That rasn't got a ho11e
Scmehow got stopped as I ·oiled by
By forces in my way
And all this dirt that stuck to me's
Now begun to wash away
I cannot be your rock at all
I'm really just a lot . ..
Of dirr that all got crushed togethe•
I am not a rock!
lv1 randa Sealy, 'Im Not a Rock!'
1 Read the poem above and answer tne questions thai follow.
a Clearly a writer ca'lnot be a ·ock. What does the Image of a rock
suggest to you?\/./ha, is the writer suggesting by saying this?
b Vvhat is ire effect of he- describing herself as a tiny, rollirg stone?
c Can you suggest what she ·s referring to in the line: 'And a I this
d'rt that stuck tome's'?
d Vvhat dces tne line 'Of dirt .t,at al l got c,ushed togetner' suggest
to you about the writer's feelings about her life?
In the aoove poem the wrter is using words figuratively: Sre refers to rerself as
a specific object. a stone that has gathered dirt, to help the reader understand
the point she is mak·ng.Th s typeof figu·eof speech is called a metaphor.
Sometimes, rather than say something is so,nethirg else, a writer will say
something is like something else. For examole:
She stood li nn like a rock in times of trouble.
She was like a tiny, rolli ng stone that gathered d irt
along the way.
This type of figuse of speech is cal ed a simile.
\A/hicfi of the following figures o' speecn are
metaphors and wh'ch are s1ml'es?
3 For each o' the phrases a-f, state what effect 1s
a Love Is a fragile blossom aboJt to flower.
4 Try writing your own metaohors and similes
b The newbo•n baoy was as cute as a c•Jpcake.
c The kite danced 1n the air like a carnival q~een.
d Tne lake was a shimmerlrg m·rror. gracefully
reflecting tne tower ng nills.
e He focused the telescope and watc~ed carefully
like a menacing bird of prey.
created by the use of i re figure of speed,.
by completing rhe fo' owing sentences using
language figuratively.
Love Is ...
The moon shone on the sea like a ...
The swimmer was a .. .
He ate hungrily like a .. ..
f The crocodile opened his mouth to reveal a row
of shining white daggers.
Extended similes and metaphors
Sometimes a writer wil develop and extend a simile, for example:
The school children crashed through the playground
like a bunch of wild an.iinals prepar u1g to corner and
devour their prey.
a His anger •ose quickl)' and
fiercely like a tire ..
b The t eacher swept through
the room like a hurricare ...
Somet111es a w•iter will develop and extend a metaphor. In the following
passage the poet develops the idea of the city si1glng. The highlighted
wo•ds sr ow you hew the metaphor has been extended.
If you listen, you can hear it.
The ciry it ings.
If you srand qu ietly, ar the foot of a garden, in the middle of a
street, on the roof of a house.
!e's clearest ac night, when the sound cuis more sharp!)<across the
surface of things, when che song reaches ouc co a place inside you.
!e's a word less song, for the most, but il's a song all the same, and
nobod)' hearing it could doubt what it sings.
And the song sings the loudest when you p ick ouc each note.
The )ow soolh ing hum of air-conditioners, fanning out the heat 10
and the smells of shops and cafcs and offices across the city,
winding up a nd winding down, long b reaths layered upon each
other, a lullaby hum for tired streets.
Jon 1/icGregor, .'fNobody Speaks ofPemork.oble ':'h;ngs
6 Think about the sourds you hear In a playgroJnd ard
1st them.
Now use your ideas to develop yoJr own extended metapbcr.You
could use rhe fol'owirg sentences as your opening:
If you listen, you can hear it. T he playground is an orchestra.
Extend tne followirg similes.
Creating characters
This •Jnit will he!p you to:
• unde•stand and use the methods
employed by writers to ach'eve
the intended effect In p·esent ng
and developing a character.
How characters are created
INriters give a lor of thougn1 and t,me to rheir characters - tne people
who inhabit their stories.Trey want to make them seem rea to the
reader. To do this, they must choose their words very carefully. In this
unit you will examine some of the different ways writers reveal their
·" writer may choose to tell the reader things abovt a character direct,y.
At other times a write' may decide to let the ·eader come to his or her
own conclusions. YoJ can work out things aboJt characters from:
• t'leir thoughts and fee lngs
In this un t you w II:
• the things they say
• exp·cre rhe ways In wr ch a
w•ite' reveals a character to
tne •eader
• draw corclusions about a
cnaraeter from wrat you read.
• their actrons and reactions to other ct-aracters.
In Unit 3.3 yov read ire start of a snort stor)'. In this unit you will read the
rest of that story and focus on now the ·Nriter reveals the characters to
the reader. Before moving on, re-read the openlrg of 'Land cf the Purp,e
Evening' on page 87.
Now read the next part cf the story on page 91. Then a'lswer these
1 Think about ,re phrase'to manage him with her concern'ln line 2.
What does this show you about George's feelings towards the r-ew
How does George fee, about Miriam? How do you krcw this?
Base yoJr answer on the first paragraph.
3 How do George and Joshua sometimes spend tneir evenings?
Base your answer on the second paragrao'i.
4 1Nrat does George intend to do for Joshua? \>/hat does this shew
you about George?
Base yoJr answer on tne third parag,aon.
liVrat details are you given to suggest that George Is elderly?
Think about the full extract.
6 1Nrat impression are yo•J given of Adele?
Support your answer with deta s from the extract.
George Long grumbled ro himself as he hu rried to fix his morn ing tea. J-Je wanted co be done
before the new house-keeper came in ro manage him with her concern. His grey eyes, now cloudy
white, watered as he thought of quiet mornings with ,v!iriam. Damn ir! \'(/here was Joshua? T-Ie was
just about to call him loudly when he remembered that Joshua had gone home last night co Adele.
5 Long ago he had offered them
a place to stay in the servants'
quarters bur Adele had refused.
Her facher had left her a house
and she would live in it, she
10 had said. And besides, she had
a litllc pastry business in the
So Joshua had stayed on
che property sometimes, and
sometimes in rown with Adele.
He did nor really work any more.
He would just walk around the
property, then he and George
would sir on !he front steps George at the top and Joshua on
rhc bottom step - and smoke,
making never-to-be-executed
plans for the land long into the
purple evening.
But now that M iriam had
gone, thought George, Joshua
would have to stay with him.
There were no other servants
living there. Joshua and Adele
could have the en tire serva nts'
q uarters t0 themselves. And he
would g ive Joshua the piece o f
land at the bottom of the hill.
Joshua was too old to work it
but he could pass it on to his and Adele's children. George pictured Joshua's reaction. Josh ua would
pull himself up to his dignified full height and say, 'A will pay you little b)' li ttle for ic, 1\1aas George.'
George smiled as he mouthed his reply. 'Pay! No man!You have earned it by your faithftd service.
This is 1·our pension.' He would not say, but Joshua would know that it freed him from dependence
o n Adele and her father's house and her pastry business.
George's hand, speckled yellow-brown with age, shook as he walked slowly onto the verandah,
and the cup rattled in its saucer. He lowered his tall angula r frame in to the old cane chair. A man
was coming up the hill in a suit. In the morning su nlight he could not make out who it was.The man
was at the bottom of the steps before he recognised him.
Now read the rext part of tre sto' y below ard then answer the questions.
7 \"/hat feeling Is revealed In George's openirg ser'es
of questions?
8 \Nhy do you think Joshua begins 10 get angry?
\"/hat does this suggest about his character?
9 Explain why George secret y hoped Adele's
business was In trouble.
1o Look c osely at the conversation between
George and Joshua. \"/hat do you learn about
each man from what they say and how they
say It?
11 Vo/hich man do you feel most sympathy for?
Explain why.
'Joshua, is you, man. But what happen?\\:1hy you in )'OU su it? Anything happen co Adele
or any of the child ren? You grandson sick aga in?' George trembled, death was still so
close co him, misfortune waiting all a rou nd.
'Everybody fine, Maas George,' Joshua laughed nervously. ' (s jus' a little b usiness a
come lO talk over with you.'
'Ah,' sighed George, 'what is Adele up to now? She is a real business woman, chi
\Xlcll, man, what is the problem?'
George leant forward from his seat. Once he would have stood up to talk to Joshu a
on a serious matter of business, but now he was tired. He ctid not ask Joshua to come up
on the verandah. Joshua d id not expect him to. He remained smnding at the bottom of
the steps.
Joshua shifted his weight from one leg to the other. He did not have the words to say
what he had to say. t..Je did not wan t £O say what Adele had told h im to say. l..Je bega n to
get angry.
''(1(1hat has happened to Adele now, man?' said George in his booming voice. " rhat
politician lawyer of a landlord g iving her a hard time with the cake shop?' It su rp rised
him co d iscover that secretly he hoped Adele's business was in trouble so she would be
more willing to accept his offer. 'f hen he and Joshua would walk over the property in
the mornings and evenings just as they had done when they were young. Joshua was his
friend - more than his friend, real!)' - his second self.
At last Joshua found the words. '\Veil, a come to tell you a can't work any longer.. A too
old now.'The words came out more roughly than he had intended.
George's face went pale. E-lis bony hand gripped the arm of the chair. He did not
understand. 'Eh man? Eh, what you say, Joshua? But you don't work, man . You come
and go as you please. You don't do a srrokc of wor.k here. A don't expect you co.'
'All these years a been working with no reward,' said Joshua, his voice rising. 'No
reward!' he repeated, but he could not bring himself to mention the land at the bottom
side of the hill.
'No reward!' shouted George. He was on his feet. 'You have made a good wage.Your
children were schooled by us. \Xlho lent Adele the money to set up the shop?' He stopped,
out of breath. He had not meant co mention the children.
Joshua's eyes shone white with rage in h is black face. ' Days of slavery done! You
think I am a slave? 1 am a man. You don't own me.'
'What the heUare you saying, man?' replied George swifU)'. 'Days of slavcry!\Vhy, you
ungrateful. ..' and he swpped himself, his face red and blotched. Never had he spoken to
Joshua like that; never had he thought he could. He turned and walked into the house.
Now read the next part of tre story below ard then answer the questions.
13 Miss Miriam sa:d tnat her husband was
12 Find evidence to suggest ti-at George:
stubborn bu. could not do vvithcut Joshua.
Do you agree with I-er assessment of his
craracter? Give at east three reasons to
sJopon your answer.
• regrets what i--as happened
• feels he cannot now change what has
• is upset
• Is lonely.
George lay io the bed he had shared with JVliriam. He had wanted to give the land to
Joshua - it was his due. But even if he could take back the things he had said he could
not g ive him the land now. Joshua would feel that he was do ing so o nly because he was
forced to as a result of their quarr.el. ivl oreover , he could not believe that Joshua had felt 40
such bittemcss for him all these years when he, George, had looked upon Joshua with
such affection.
George Long et1mcd his face to the wall and c ried. Not only had Nl iriam left him, but
so had Joshua.
. ..
-..... , . \ ...
, . ., . '
--- - -· -
Now read tre final part of tre story oelow and then answer the
14 Think aboJt the first sentence.~Vhat does It reveal about Joshua's
attitude to where he Iives? How does It link with George's earlier
thoughts abo..it giving tre land to Joshua?
15 V'/hat do you learn about Adele from the way she speaks to her
16 What do you learn abou-t Joshua's feelings from the way he
responds 10 his wife's questions?
Re-read the final paragraph.
17 VVnat dces it show you aboJt Joshua's thoughts and feelir.gs?
18 VVhere else has reference been made to making plans for the land
,n the purple evening?
Vo/ny de yoJ thin~ the wriier chose to end tre story In this way?
Josh ua en tered Adele's father's house.
Adele was baking. He could smell the
rich strong ginger. She did nor look up
as Joshua sat o n the stool by the kitchen
' \Xlhat happen, man?' she asked . 'You
get the la nd?'
'A tell /vlr. George Long that a leaving
the work.'
'Good!' said Adele. 'So what him say?
You gee the land>'
'Land!' g runted Joshua. 'Land! I am a
man. A don't need his land. A leave the job.'
' How you mean you leave the job?' she
snapped, swinging rou nd o n h im, hands
on her wide hips. ' \~That a tell you to say?
What you tell hi m?'
' \Xloman,' he said loud!)' as if she were
in another room, 'a tell him just what a
tell you.'
T here was someth ing in h is face
that Adele had never seen before. \Vithour another word she turned back to the
kitchen table.
After a while she said briskly, 'Well, char is fine, 1:hcn. A really glad, you know,
because now you don't have to hassle up yourself t0 go up che house any more .You
can come and work with me in the shop. A jus' feel that chile a have in there thiefing
me. A will jus' fire her.'
Joshua did not answer. He gazed through the back door past the scratching
chickens, the banana trees a nd the dry ca ne in !he yard. ln his mind's eye he could see
the rolling hillsides of rhe property where he had worked all his life. I-le and George
L ong walked through the orange groves in the crisp morning just as the mists lifted
ahead of the streams of su nlight. I·Ie and George Long sat and smoked o n the front
sr.eps and made plans for their land in !he purple evening.
o:ane Browne,'Land of the Purple Evenlr.g'
Personal response
Just as with music. literarure speaks to each of us in different ways.Our
response to a literary text may depend on where and when we read it.
things that have happened to us in tne past and things thar are currently
r appenlng in our lives. The way we each Individually respond to a text is
called our perso1al respo1se.Tne·e Is 10 'correct' or 'incorrect' response.
Your respo1se is valid as long as you can:
• say what you think and feel
• explain wny you think and fee! this
• refer to the text to support your response.
It is wo·th remembering, however, tra1it is unlikely any charaeter is ali
good or all bad. Characters are like peop'e.They have their good points
and treir bad po•nts. Even when we do not agree with what they say or
do, we can often Jnderstand them.
20 Think abou, the three ma:n characters in the story: Joshua. George and Adele. Comolete the table below,
•Jslng note form to record your ideas and rhe reasons for them. Al low yourself plenty of space.
The character
What I think about this Why I think this
Supporting evidence
from the text
Use your thoughts about 1he characte's and your evidence to relp you answer the fol owing questions.
21 What do you think Is t~e rea cause of tne argument between George a1d Joshua?
22 To w"iat extent do you think Adele Is to blame for what happens?
23 'This is a story In wh ch no 01e wins:Do you agree with this opinion? G1ve your reasons.
Character revealed through description
V\lrlters sometimes describe t'1eir cnaraaers for the reader. By doing
so, they give a clear message about now they want a character to be
perceived and understood. Read tre follow;ng extract to discover how
the 19th-century Brit'sh writer Charles Dickens first desc·ibed his famous
fiaio'1al cr aracter Scrooge.
The anrctaro-is show you some of the main features of the descrlptior.
metaphor Oh! But he was a tigt'>r-fisted hard at the grindstore. Scrooge! a
list of ad'eciives squeezlrg, wrenching, graspirg, scraplrg, clutch! g, covetous Id
simlle sinner! ttard and share as fllnt. from which no steel had ever struck
out generous fire: secret, and self-contained. and sohtil"y as -a,· oyster.
The cold wltnin him froze his old features. nipped his pointed nose, S
srr,velled h,s cneek, stiffened hisgait; made his eyes red. his thin lips
b ue: and spoke out s'1rewd1y in h:s grating vo·ce. f'.. frost rime was
on his head. and on his eyebrows, and his wiry chin. He car•ied hs
own low temperature always about with him; he iced his office In
the summer-days, and didn't thaw it ore degree at Christmas.
Exterral heat and cold had little influence on Scrooge. No war11tr
cot,;.d warm, no wintsy weather chill him. Now 1d tha: blew
v,as b tte·e· tnan he, no fa irg snow was mo·e Jpte□t ~pen l:s
e~•pose. nc ee tine ralr less ~ r to en ·ea:y.
Charles Dickens, A Cnr:stmasc,rol
24 vvt'>at Is suggested oy t'1e metaphor a, the start of the extract?
25 v\tr,at different things dces tne ,ist of adjectives suggest about
26 Why do you think D'ckens decided to list the adjectives In
this way?
27 Think about the simile'rard and sharp as fi'nr'. Using your own
words. explain what this s1.1ggests about Scrooge.
28 T'iink about tre simile ·so'itary as ar oyster'. Using yoJr own
words. explain what this suggests about Scrooge.
29 Dickens uses a lisr and repet tion in the second paragraph.
a \.Yrat word is repeated five t''lles in th·s lisr?
b vVhy do you think D'ckens chose this l'st and this repetition?
30 D ckens uses several Images of coldness In this extract.
a List the wo-ds and ph-ases fn rhe extract trat link to coldress.
b What do these add to your impression of Scrooge?
3 1 Vvhar do you think Dickens wanted h's readers to tnlnk about
sc,ooge? V•kte a paragraph In which you answer this question,
using evidence from the extract to support the points you make.
32 You are now going to create your own characte· and wr'te a
paragrap>i rn which you descr'be him or her.
a Start by picturing your character ir your mind.
b Then make a note of as many adjectives as possib e that woJld
help to describe him or '1er.
c Think of whar your character rs i'ke and wr'te two s·mites that
would get this across to your •eader.
d Cons der how you could use repetition to empt-aslse a
particular point about your character.
e fl.ow write yoJr paragraph.
f Annotate the features of your wr'ting.
Creating characte r through contrast
Of co·Jrse c'laracters do not usJally appear in isolation. They are part
of a story. One way of making a story more interesting is to have a
clear com-ast in the cha-acters in it. Read this exrrao fro-n OfMice and ,'vlen,
,n which we meer me two main characters, George and Lennie, for the lirs1
time.The annotations show ycu how the parag•ap\i is structured.
setting, I.e.
place where
the characters
similarities in
of th e fir, t man {
appearance of
the second man
For a momen; rhe place was lifeless, ard then two
men emerged from the path and came into the
open ng by tne green pool. They had walked n
s:ngle fie dow'l the path, and ever h the open
ore stayed behind the other. Both were dressed
)n denl11 trousers ard r det'lrr, coa,s ·Ni;h orass
butto,s. Both ·Nore black, shape ess hats a1d
bori' carsied Tigrt bla-,~et -olls s urg eve· Their
s10J ders. 1he first mar was small ar,d qu ck.
dar~ of face, with rest,ess eyes and S'la•p. strong
featJres. Every part of him was defined: smal ,
strorig hands, slender arms, a rhln and bony nose.
Bertnd i'iR'.l ""'• kec;I ht, opposi'e, • rvge mor
s~apeless c- face, wi,h a·ge, oale eyes, ard wloe,
s opi1g sr.ol}lders: and he wal~ed heavil~ draggtng IS
i'-ls feet a I t~e. rhe way a be0r drags ht,:oaws. His
a·ms (Ji:;! rot sw rg a· 1 ~ sides. b\Jt r~rg oosajy,
John Steinoeck. OfM,'ce ond Men
33 You are going to write a paragraph in which you contrast tre
appearance of two characters. You are going to strJcture your
paragrapn in the same way as Steinbeck structured his.
• Look at the different peop'e In these photographs and choose
any ,wo of them.
• Dec·de where trese two people are going tc be. I.e. tre selling.
\11/(te your first t•..vo sentences in which yoJr characters make
their first appearance.
• Think about the similarities in t11e,r appearance. VVrite two
ser.tences describing trese. Start each senterce with tre word
• Now think about the ways In whicn they are d'fferent.\ol/rite two
ser.rences describing tre first character.
• \Ii/rite tvvo sentences describing the second craracter in such a
way as 10 highlight the differences.
Creating characte r through speech
As you have seen In the sho"l story 'Land of the Purple Evening: we learn
abol/1 ct,aracters through how they speak and how they relate to each
otre·. The following passage appears sriortly after the aopearance of
George and Lennie in OfMice cmdMen.
'Lennie!' he said sharply. 'Lennie, for God's sakes
don't d rink so much.'
Lennie continued to snort in to the pool. T he small
man leaned over and shook him by the shoulder.
'Lennie. You gonna be sick like you was last night.'
Lennie dipped his whole head under, hat and all, and
then he sat up on the bank and his hat d ripped down
on his blue coat and ran down his back. 'That's good(
he said. 'You d rink some, George. You take a good big
drink.' f-aic smiled happily.
Geo rge unslung his bundle and dropped it gently
on the bank. 'I ain't sure it's good water,' he said.
'Looks kinda scummy.'
Lennie dabbled his big paw in the water and
wiggled his fingers so the water arose in little splashes; IS
rings widened across the pool to the othe r side and
came back again. Lennie watched them go. 'Look,
George. Look what I done.'
George knelt beside the pool a nd drank from his
hand with qu ick scoops.
'Tastes all righ t,' he admitted. ' Don't really seem
to be running, though. You never oughra drink water
when it ain't running, L ennie,' he said hopelessly.
John Steinbeck, OfMice ondMen
34 Vvhat do yo.i learn abol/1 George from the way he speaks?
35 Vvhat de you learn abol/1 Le,nle from the way he spea~s?
36 What do yoJ learn abol/1 ,he relationship between George and
Lennie from their conversation ?
37 vou are go:ng to write between' Oard 15 lines in which you show
rhe relatio~s-, ip between your two characters from Activity 33
throJgh the way they speak to each other.Turn cc page i 2 and
remind yourself of the rules of ~ow to write direct speecn.
38 Think abo-.11 how each of your characters would speak. Hew
might you show the contrast oetween them through tne way
they speak?
39 Decide what they are going to be talking about and write
rhe conversation. Remember that your characters can talk In nonstandard English, but that tre rest of your writing must be In CSE.
Writing to describe
This Ul'it will help yoJ to:
Vvnen yoJ write a description, your main aim should be to share the
picture in your head with your reader. To do this well, you need to:
• structure your description
• include Interesting detail
• recogriise the -neans Jsed by
a writer to present effect've
descr ption
• use vocabu ary and Imagery effectively,
• visualise the setting or situat'on
portrayed n a ,ext
Structuring descriptions
• use language to create
particu ar effects In description.
In th s unit yoJ will:
• exolo•e diffe•err ways in wr·ch
descr ptlon can be provided Ir
• foct,Js on ,t-e s.nJaure of
descr ptlve writing
• understard some o' the lltera•y
features of descr ptive writing
• write your own descr, otions.
There are severa different ways of structuring a description,
You could use the'zoo-ning in'method. Imagine you are filming a
scene. You start by describing the w·der picture, then reduce the
focus and, final y, hone in on one particvlar person or detail.
You could use the 'panoramic' method. In this. you describe what
you see moving from rig"lt to left or left to right.
You could use contrast to organ;se your description. For example:
1::::1 morning and night.
Other possible co~irasts are quiet and busy or sunny and dul .
~ You could use yoJr senses to organ:se your description. For
Think aboJt the following tasks ard the possible ways In which you could structure your answer. For each one.
croose o~e of ,re methods on page 101 or, 1f yoJ like, a mixture of metnods. Copy 1~e task and next to 't write
the suucture you have cl-ioseri and a sentence in which you explain why you think your choice is a good ore.
1 'The children wandered reluctant y from the dark cave Into the daylight. They gasped at the sight which lay
before them'. Describe what they savv.
2 Descrbe either the place you like mosr or the place you like least
3 Describe the view fro'll your bedroo'll window.
4 Descr' be a Ca·lbbean market for SO'lleone vvho has never been to ore before.
Describe a bus or ca' Jourrey that you have taken in recent months.
Good descriptions are deta'led and developed.
T"lere were -na~y sapodillas
on the tree and some had
fallen to the grourd
9ead the following examples closely. Notice how the writers have ,aken an
Idea and deve,oped ·t, giving detail to re,p the reader visualise the scene.
The tree was so laden with sapodillas that the branches bowed
down under the weight. The fru its were large and brown and
tempting. And with linle imagination you could see the rich
syrup just settling there under the skin. Some of the fruit was
bat-bitten, and rh e juice there had turned to sugar, wi th the
black currant-like seeds sticking out. And it hurc the heart to
watch the over-ripe sapodillas that had fallen under the tree.
v, coael Anthony, TheSopod:IIO Tree
T"lere had Oeef' no ra-n ard
It was not ard dry.
Somewhere in the field a cow
oe 'llournfu sniffirg around for a
bit of areer, in the cracked eart'\. he field was a
I ti n f
~rougE~.Tre trees were naked and barks peeled off truni<s as 'f
they were diseased. Vl'hen the wind blew. It was reavy and
unrelievif'g. as if tbe ~ea, had ta~en al the spirit out of It.
Samuel Sel-.•on,AOro'nkofWater
Tre 9arden was full of
plarts and butterOies.
The rain had washed the caves clean of d ead leaves, and che
oranges, a bur nished g.Jilit, pulled !he branches to the eaves.
The pea-pods had ripped open and che dry pods curled
upwards away Ii-om che ripe seeds. Blood-red 'tomatoes
g/isrened on the green vine beyond which yellow p eppers filled 5
out between che leaves of che pepper r:rce. Swarms of tiny
yellow and blue bucterfiies convergeq on che creetop s and
drifrcd low across che yards like sprays of coloured d ust,
darting between our feet and flitting by our faces.
Nova Gordon, The horse Ooc,or
6 For each of tre follow'ng, list five details that you could include in a
relevan, description.
a The classroom was crowded and no,S)'.
b The wir,d b ew through the coconut palms.
c The street was quiet ard empty.
d twas a stormy evening.
Vocabulary and imagery
You nave already seen how tre writers above use detail co develoo a
P'CTure. However, trey do much more than 1h1s. Tney chcose words
care~Jlly to paint their p ctures ard create ,rnages for the reader.
Effective use of adjectives, verbs, adverbs, metaphors. similes and the use
of co'our all p,ay a oart.
the "e d was a deso;at:01 of droug'lt
Sim le:
like sprays of colou•ed dust
Ad)ect ves:
~ and
o•owr and ,empting: c@c:<ed earth: heavy
a1d unrelievlng
branches bowed: tornatoes gliSJered: butterflies
conve•ged: barks peeled: darrog: Oltting
mooed :ncurnfu ly
7 Choose one of the lists of details you made In the previous aCTiv ty.
Think about how you could use words to create images for your
readers. Experiment with the different devices showr above.
8 Now put your lde«s together to write a short paragraph on your
chosen subject. Your aim is to use language effectively In order to
create an effeCTive description.
Putting it all together
Good descr'ptions como·~e all the elements you have ccns·dered In
this unit. Read the description below closely before doing me activit1es
that follow.
\X'hen I woke up the next morning the ship's engines had
stopped. [ jumped out of my bunk and peered tbrough the
pore-hole. This was my first glimpse of Dar cs Salaam and
I have never forgocren it. \Xie were anchored oul in the
m iddle of a vast rippling blue-black lagoon and all arou nd
the rim of the lagoon there were pale-yellow sand)' beaches,
almost white, and breakers were running up on the sand, and
coco11ut palms with their lin lc green leafy hats were growing
on the beaches, and mere were casuarina trees, immensely
tall and breathtakingly beautiful with their delicate grey-green 10
foliage. And then beh ind the casuarinas was what seemed
to me like a jungle, a great tangle of tremendous dark-green
trees that were full o f shadows and almost certainly teeming,
so I told m1·sc)f, with rhinos and Lions and all manner of
vicious bcastS. Over to one side lay the tiny wwn o f Dar cs
Salaam, the houses whire and yellow and pink, and among
the houses I could sec a narrow church steeple and a domed
mosque and along the waterfront there was a line of acacia
trees splashed with scarlet flowers. A fleet of canoes was
rowing out to cake us ashore and the black-skinned rowers
were chanting weird songs in time with their rowing.
The whole of that amazing tropical scene through the
port-hole has been photographed on my mind ever since.
To me ic was all wonderful, beautiful a11d exciting.
Roald Oahl, C--o.'11g Solo
The order in which Dahl reveals what he sees isImportant.
Match the deialls listed below to the order In which they apoear
in the extract. YoJ could record the order on as mple table
r~e this:
a archored In lagoon
b tiny town cf Dar es Salaam
c rowers approaching the shio
d waterfront
e sandy oeacres
f Jungle ard what he lmag'nes it contains
g nmo' agoon
h cocor.u, palms ard casuarlna trees
10 How does this sequence rielp to re-create tr.e Impression of
Dahl's •first glimpse' of Dar es Salaam through the port-hole?
11 Dahl refers to the tiny town cf Dar es Salaam. vVrar details does
he give about this town to help the reader picture 1t?
Vocabulary and imagery
12 Comment on tre way tre writer uses language for effect in each
cf the following:
• coconut palms with their l' ttle green leafy hats
• casuarina trees. lmmense'y tall and breathtaking y beautiful
• a great tang e of tremendous dark-green trees
• a I re of acacia trees splashed with scarlet flowers.
13 ldenffy and I st every examo e of the use of co our In the extract.
Vvhat Is the evera! effect of this?
14 Dahl says that the scene through the port-role was
'pliotograpred' or, h's mind. How successful do yo.1 think he
is In revealing trat 'protograph' to his readers?
Enhandng your desafptlve skills
One of the best ways to Improve your own writing of descriptions
Is to read descriptions written by well-known authors and study
their technique. The following description was written by Michael
Anthony, an eminent (aribbean author.
The description Is careful1 y structured 10 enable the reaoer ,o
exl)er ence tne alley through the eyes of a cnild.The annotat,ons
show you how 1h1s effect has been created. Read the description
and tne annotations closely. In the act•vity tt>a1follovvs, yo·J will
explore the writer's techniques in mere de1all.
Leaving for school early on mornings, I walked slowly
through the busy parts of the to\vn. TI1e business places
would all be opening then and smells of strange fragrance
would fill the High Street. Inside the openJn g doors I would
see clerks dusting, arranging, hanging things up, getti ng
ready for the clay's business. They looked cheerful and eager
and they opened the doors very wide, So,netimes I stood
up co watch then,.
Sets the general scene
In places between the stores several little alleys ran off
the High Street. Some were busy and some were nor and
there was one that was long and narrow and dark ancl
very strange. B ere, too, the shops would be opening as 1
pa~sed and there would be bearded Indians in loin-cloths
spreading rugs on the pavement. There would be Indian
women also, with veils th,:own over their shoulders , setting
up their stalls and chatting in a sn·ange sweet tongue. Often
T stood, too, watching them, and taking in the fragrance
of rugs and spices and onions and sweetmeats. Anet
s,ometimes, suddenly remembering, I would hurry away for
fca,· the school-bell had gone.
Moves focus to one alley
ln class, long after I settled down, the thoughts of this
alley would r etw·n to me. r would recall certain stalls and
certain beards and ceJ·tain flashing eyes, and even some of
the rugs that had been rolled out. The Indian women, too,
~1•ith bracelets ru·ound t11eir ankles and around their sunrowned arms flashed to my mind. I thought of them. I saw
them again looking shyly at me fron1 under the shadow of
he stores, their ,•eils half hiding their faces. In my mind I
could almost picttu·e them laughing rogethe1· and talking
in that strange sweet tongue. And mostly the day would be
quite old before the spell ofrhe alley wore offn1y n1ind.
Reflections 1:>ulld up reader expectation
One n1orning I was much too early for school. 1 passed streetsweepers at work 011
1-farris' Promenade and when I came to the High Str eet only one or t\VO shop doors
were open. I walked slowly, looking at the quietness and noticing some of the alleys that
ran away ro the backs of fences and walls and distant streets. I looked at the names of
t hese al leys. Some were ver y funny. And I walked on a11xiously so I could took a little
longer ar the chu·k, fun11y sn·eer.
Resumes focus on alley
As I walked iL struck me that I did not know the 11ame of that street. I la,Lghed at
myself. Always I had stood there looking along it a11d I did 11ot k11ow the name of iL.
As I drew near I kept my eyes on the wall of the corner shop. There was no sign on the
wall . On getting there I looked at the other wall. There ,vas a sign-plate upon it bnt the
dust had gathered thickly there and whate,•er the sign said was hidden behind the dust.
Reflections Increase sense of mystery
I was disappointed. I looked along the alley which was only now beginning to get alive,
and as the shop doors opened the enchantment of spice and onio11s and sweetmeats
en1erged. I looked at the wall again but then:: was nothing there to say what the street
was called, Straining my eyes at the sign-plate I could make our a 'C' and an 'A' but
further along the dnsr had made one smoother surface of the plate and the wall.
Uses a range of sentence structures to enhance feelings and description
'Stnpes! ' I said in clisgnst. I heard mild laughter, and as I look~d before me I saw the
man rolling out his rugs. There wer e two women beside him and they were talking
together and they wer e laughing and I could see the women were pretending not ro look 50
at n1e. They were setting up a stall of sweetmeats and the man put d<>wn his rugs and
took out something from a tray and pu t it in to his mouth, looking back at me. Then they
talked again in the strange tongue and laughed.
Tur ns focus onto people in a lley
l stood there awhile. I knew they were talking about me. 1 was not afraid. I wanted to
show them that I was nor t imid and that I would not run away. I moved a step or nNo
nearer the wall. The smells r ose up stronger now and they seemed to give the feelings
of things splendo,u·ed and far away. I pr etended I was looking at the wall bnt I stole
glances at the n1erchants from the corners of ,ny eyes. I watched the men in their loineloths and the garments of the women were fnll and many-coloured and ver y excit ing.
The women stole glances at me and smiled to each other and ate of the sweetmeats
t hey sold. The rng merchant spread our his rugs wide on the pavement and he looked at
the beauty of their colonrs and seemed very p roud. He, too, looked slyly at me.
Establishes relationship between narrator and people in a lley
I drew a litde nearer because I was not afraid of them. There were many more stalls
now nnder d1e stor es. Son1e of the people turned off the H igh Su:eet and came into this
little alley and they bought things from the mer chants. The merchants held up the bales
of cloth and matched them on to the people's clothes and l could see they wel·e saying it
looked ver y nice. I smiled at this and the man ,vith the rugs saw me and smiled.
That made me brave. I thought of the word I knew in the strange tongne and when T
remembered it I drew near er.
'Salaam,' l said.
Contact is made! 70
1V1ichae! J..ntnony, Er.chanted Af!ey
Salaam: 'peace' in Al'abic
15 The description is written in tre first person.
17 In the above example tre writer,
This enables the reader to share the child's
experience of the alley and his feelings towards
it. ~Vhich cf the fellowing feelings does rhe chi d
experience? For eact- one you choose, lind
evidence in the text to support your choice.
Michael A'lthony, uses a list of adjectives 10
help bwlld a picture for the reader. He also uses
lists of:
• "' 1,,
curiosity fearlessness
• verbs: 'I woJld see clerks dusting, arrarglng,
hanging things up, getting ready for the day's
Find and write down other examples of Iists
Michael Anthony uses to help build a picture for
tbe reader.
• nouns:'... and tak1ng n the fragrance o' rugs
and spices and onions ard sweetmeats'
16 The alley's first mentioned in the sentence:
'Some were ousy and some were nor ard rhere
was one tnat was Ieng and narrow and dark and
very strange'.
The writer. Mlchae Anthony, makes the special
alley stand cut oy first referring to 'some' and
then focusirg on ·one'. He then fellows th.s with
a list of adjectives which capture the appearance
and tne atmosphere of the alley. Think of an alley
that you know which Is very different from tne
one described In the extract.
18 The writer builds pictures for the reader
through tne use of detail. cir,d and write down
five details relating to rhe appearance of rhe
women in the al ey.
19 The writer a:so creates a sense of mystery
Create a different type of alley by using different
adjectives to complete this sentence:
through me way he describes the scene, fo'
·1saw them again looking shyly at me from
under tre shadow of the stores. their veils half
hiding their faces:
Explain how ire writer creates a sense of
mystery In the fifth paragraph of the extract.
'Some were bJsy and some were not and there
was ore mat was .. .'
Your description
You are going to write your own description in response to the
fol cwirg task:
The first step ·s 10 choose your place. Here are some suggestions:
• a church
• yo.Jr home
• a street in your village or town
• a particular room, sucn as your grandmother's kitchen or your
• a place you have visited on ho''day
• a sports ground.
You do not have to choose one of the above. Your p.ace could be a secre,
p'ace, known only to you. Tre important thing is that you cnoose a place
you can describe in detail.
01ce you have made your choice. spend a couple of minutes
picturing your place in your mind. As you do, make a note of its
features and specific details aboJt it. You could record crese details
in a 1, st or as a sp,de'gram.
Once you have gathered ideas you need to decide on the structure
of your writing.
There are several d'fferent ways of structuring a descript;on. You coJld:
• zoom In
• present a panoramic p:c.ure
• use contrast of time, mood or wea,rer
• use senses to organise your description.
Dec'de which struc.ure would make the most interesting description.
You are r.ow ready to p,an your paragraphs. In an examination you
are gJlded to write between 400 and 450 words, so 1t is a good
idea to plan for five developed paragraphs. Give each paragraph a
heading. Each paragraph headi1g ca1 now be used as a 'hock' on which to
hang your details and features:
Para 1: _________
Para2: _ __
You are almost ready to write your description. Before you do.
remird yourself of t"le qualit'es of good descriptive writing by
lookirg back at the extrac. from Enchanted Alley on pages 106-107.
Remember chat your aim is always to use words effectively t0 help your
reader see the picture trat is 1n yoJr mind.
Stare to write your description. After each paragrapr, read through
what you have written. Make sure that you are keeping to your
planned structure and t'>ave not started to ,e I a story. Alm to link
your paragraphs through ,re ideas contained within tnem.
donel You rave now written your description. However, you
are rot qu'te finished. There are tnree things you stil need to do:
• Read through your description and see if you can improve it in any way
by adding effective adjectives, adverbs, similes or metaprors. Only add
these if they help to create a clearer picture.
• Correct any errors you notice you have made in spelling o· punctuation.
• Do a rcugn word count to ensure you have hit the target of 400-450
Narrative writing
This •Jnit will he!p you to:
• recogn'se and respond to tre
language af'd structural dev ces
used by a writer ,n telling a story.
11 rhls Jnic you will:
• read a story to gain al"
u1derstandlng of Its anguage
and strJctute
• pla1 and write a story.
Read a story
One of the best ways to improve your own writing of stories is to read
those written by successful writers. The following short story, 'A Morning
Swim; won the Commonwea th Broadcasting Association's Short Story
Competit:on in 2003. It was written by MadhJlika Liddle, an Indian writer.
$he wrote this story after read ing about a young ooy who dives Into the
Yamuna Rver ,, northern rd'a to -nake a ,.ving from the co I'S tnrowf' lrto
t by wcrsl· ppers.
The story Is carefully structvred and d~~oped, It Includes descrip1,ve
details cf character and serong. and dialog Je. Read tne story clo.sely before
complet 19 the activities that fo, •ow.
The fog hung, forbidding as a pall, over the Yamuna. The
water wot,ld be icy today, thought Rashid as he huddled
beside Imam 1\-liyan's rickety tea-stall, chewing a stale rusk.
There were few people about at this hour of the morning;
just the rickshaw-pullers, the cool ies and the beggars. It ,vas
so cold, ther e'd probably be nobody at the river either.
Tmam 1\1-iyan's hefty fist cloured Rashid half-affectionately.
'Eat up, you swine! Do you wan t robe late? Better get there
before the fog lifts and people start arriving.'
Rashid nodded. his thin shoulder hu1·ting w·ith the blow. Not
that he would e,•er proresr; Imam iV!iyan was the only adult
who was even 1·emotely kin.cl to hill'); and when you were just
eight year s old and an orphan, kindness rnat1.ered a hell of
a lot. Rashid summoned up a watery smile, bu t kept quiet.
As far back as he could remember, he had been having
breakfast - a c1·1unbly rusk and a cup of tea - at lmam
Miyan's stall. Vvhether his par ents had been friends of Imam
Miyan's he neither knew nor cared; all thar matter ed was
that In1am Miyan was good - so·m etimes.
Rashid finished the rusk and dug out a coin to pay, but he
was lucl-.-y today - Imam i\lliyan refused the rupee.
Bihari, three year s older than Rashid, was waiting at the
corner, his scabby knees knocking together with the cold.
They walked together co the riverside, and Bihari n1uttcred,
' Do you want to go in today? It'll be Hke ice!
Rashid nodded vigor ous!)•, trying 10 push away the thought
of the chill water, the itching r ash on his body and the stench
that awafred him. They had reached the stone steps leading
down to the water, and he stripped hurriedly, handing his
clothes over to Bihari. The river was a swirling mass of
sewage, carrying with it plastic bags, wilted marigolds and
garbage. A sacred river, they called it - sacred enough for
the ashes of the dead, from the cremation ground upriver, 10
be ceremonially immersed in it. Ashes, with bits of charred
bone sometimes, wrapped in red cloth ... all of it whirling
downriver, somewhere to an unseen nirvana.
Rashid dived.
It was cold. Cold and opaque, wrapping its fou.1, grasping
fingers about his thin Httle body, numbing his senses with irs
rotting presence, encasing him in an insidious envelope of
slime. Rashid plunged, deep and swift, down to the riverbed.
It was mtu-ky and horrible, but he swam around, in widening
circles, till his lungs felt as if they would burst, and then he
rose, gasping, 10 the surface.
A few gulps of cold air, and then he was diving clown again,
into the depths of the Yamuna. Six dives it rook before he
hau.led himself out, shivering and retching. Bihari was sitting
on his haunches, sifting hurried.ly through a pile of slime, but
he rose 10 help Rashid up the steps, di-ipping and el!hausted.
Rashid shrugged on his ragged clothes, watching Bihad
through a putrid, shivering daze. After a moment, he said,
'Come along. People have starred coming; it wouldn't do 10
get caught.'
Bihari stood up, and with their sodden, stinking burden,
the rwo boys began walking back ro the slums, Rashid still
wer. l-Ie glanced back once over his shou lder, and saw men,
wrapped in wh ite, already beginning to go clown the seeps to
the river. Chanting , breathing prayers, bringing with them
tlowcrs and fruit, incense and coins - all robe thrown inro
this sacred, smelly river. New coins, bright and shining offerings ro the Yamuna and Rash id's daily earnings.
V,adhul ka L do e.'A Morning Swil"l'
pall: a cover for a coffin or tomb
1 Think about tre simile Liddle uses in the cpe1ing senterce:'Tne fog hung, forb'dding as a pall, overrhe Yamuna:
What mood does Liddle establish throvgh ,re use of this simile?
2 Now look aga:n a, the wr:ier's descrlptio1 of the water:'It was cold. Cold and opaque. wrapoing Its foul, grasping
fingers about his tnin little oody, numbing his sense wi:n its rotting p•esence, encasing him in an insid;ous
envelope of slime'Choose and list three words or phrases that you think worKwell in this oescript' on. Exp ain why
yo•J have chosen them.
3 We are told that ,mam Miyan says to Rashid: 'Eat up, you 9 N r,e'. Do you want to be late? Better get there before
the fog lifts and people start arriving: If we were to Judge him slmp yon tnese words. we would think he was
a cruel and uncaring man. However, we reed to read tnem in context. Re•read lines 7- 19. \,Vhat do you lea·n
about mam Mlyan, both frorn what he says ard the extra details you are given?
4 vVrat do you learn about the relationship between Rashid ard Bihari from the story? Think about:
• i re things i re writer tells you directly
• tre things you wo·k out fo, yourse f from their actions, words and thoug1ts.
Tne story Is told in chro1ological order, with the writer ski fully buildirg sympat,iy for Rashid ard Bihari. \,Vhat
point does sre seem to be ma~ing In her last two sernences?
Write a story
You are go·ng to write your own story in response to the fo' lowing task:
The artworks on ,t-ese two pages are nere for nspiration or you could use
complete y different characters.
There are severa stepsyou need to take befo·e you are ready to wr'te your
story. Follow them closely.
The ftrst step is to dee de what is golrg to happe1 in yo.Jr story. Ask
yourself the following questions. Make a note of any ideas that
come toyov.
w~at ~ap.,,tv.s
tt{,r!, .i.urtill.£
a,4 after t~e
Now th1r.~ about the stranger and the person with whom the
meeting takes place. These are your two cenira' characters.
Build up some details aboJt them by thinking about the
following questions:
A?';;( vilev~v-t
t:!~j!ct~ve.s,, vtrb.s,
,::i,.leris,, .stv,dtes
Now think about where they meeL Th's is your sett'ng. Build up
details by thinkirg about the following questions:
nv,.,~ :;f ?'.?.tj?
As you develop your ideas, your story should be developing In your
m'nd. YoJ now 'leed to take decis'ons about how you will structJre
it. You could use:
• chronological order - t'le order in wnich the events occur
• non-chronological order - where you choose to start in the middle or
at tne end of your story and use nasnbacks to show wnat 'las happened
You cou,d also have a twist in the tale, where you lead the reader to expect
one ending and surprise tnem witn the urexpected.
Tne next rhirg you need to decide 's rre rarrarive perspective the point of view from which you tell your story. Remember that:
• first person, as indicated by the use of'' (first perso"l singular) and 'we'
(first person plural), a lows the reader to see and experier,ce events
through the writer's senses and feelings
• second person, as lnd·cated by the use of'you; p:aces the reader directly
in the story, with tre eve'lts happening to him or her
• third person, as Indicated by the use of're' cr'she· (third person singular)
O' 'they' (third person plural), allows the narrator to stand outside the
sto'y. As the narrator is not a character, he or she Is ab'e to have an
overview of eve·ything tnat occurs and is said, thoJght and felt.
Tne fi ral thing you need to think about is row you wil start and
end your story.
Your openirg sentence Is important. It acts as a 'rook' for your reader,
something ro make them want to read on. You could start with:
• A rhetorical qvest en:
Have !::IDt.< eve..- WL-Sllei:l,j t.<st fo..- !l "'-O""e""t, t llat 1::1ou C.Ot.<L~ be
someol'\-e else?
• Ore or two s'lort seNences:
My feet were rooted to the ground. 1 stared in horror.
• Description:
The mirt rore 9e"tly over the d;rta"t hillr or the mor"i"9 rvo
9ave 1,,1armth o"d li9htto the earth belo1,,1.
One useful tecnnlque is to link your closing sentence with your opening one:
'lllot.<gli W!ls btl:;jO""~ ""l::J
c.ome tn<e.
t""a0"""""'-0, mi:, wtsl-l l,a~
He tumed and walked away. My fears vanished with him.
A"d, or tJ.,e red rvn ret over thore dirto "t J.,;llr, I k"e"" my li fe
1,,/ovld "ever be t/.,e rame a9ait\.
You are al most ready to write your story. Before you do. remember
that an interest'ng story usual!)' includes:
• plot - the events or action that taKe place in the story
• description - of cnaracters and places
• dialogue - where readers find out important information aoout
characters throug1 what tney say.
Now write your story. Afier each paragraph, read through what yoJ have
\Ve! do1e! You have now written your story. However, you are not
quite finished. There are three things you stil reed to do:
• Read tr·ough your story and see if you can Improve it ,n any way by
adding effective adjectives, verbs, adverbs, similes or metaphors. Only
add these f they re,p to create a clearer picture.
• Correct any errors you rotlce you have made In spelling or purctuat,on.
• Do a roug'l word count to ensure you have hit the target of 400-450 words.
6 ~Vrite a sho't story based on the following photo, If you need guidance, you can refer back to what ycu learned
on pages 112-· 14.
~Vhen you are finished with your story, scan the checkiisc below and make sure that you incorporated the
relevan, sty e and structure Into your writing:
I Jsed tne p cture stlmul-.1s pro'✓ided.
I Incorporated dialogue that ass·s1ed the plot development or explored craracter feelings.
I rcorporated an interesting selling.
I developed tre main ct-aracter/s.
I used an appropr'ate r>arrative point of view.
I logically ordered the events of tne plot.
I have an original plot.
I used language that is appropriate to my audience and con,ent.
I used appropriate grammar, senience structure, paragraphing, vocabulary, spelling and
SorT'e,imes a story is ;old from two diffe·ent ooims of view w,1h 1vvo o.f'erem narrators. This can bring var° e;y
10 writing because dif'erem narrators have dlffere'lt ·voices' a'ld have a o,Fferent view of eve ms. Using two
na·rators cari help you to s:ructure a sto•y in an interest "9 way: you can move froM one narrator to tne other
and back. or you can 1e· the story In :wo o,stinct ha•ves.
t Is often helpfu 10 structure tne s;ory around some point of conflict, w'1h the characters re~ecting back on
what has hapoened. Think aoo1.;1 the following characters and s·11,,ations and e·1rer choose o:,e to develop
'urther or create your own s :uatlo'1.
Situation 1
An old ma'1 is tormented by a group of yoJths wro destroy the garden re loves.
One of t'le yoJths regrets wha; tney did ard would Ike 10 Dl.lt tnings right.
Situation 2
A teacre, regrets los ng rils temper with a student because his homework was not dore.
The studer,t was not able to do his homework beca•Jse re t--ad to look afte, the yoJnger children at home.
Situation 3
A mother nas grounded her' 5-year·old daug'l,er because she stayed too late at a party.
The daughter thinks her mother has been unfair and does not •Jnderstard ner.
~o ow t'lese steps:
T11e point of confct has already taken place. Develop tre details ofwhai has happe.,ed: Vvhere?
vV'len? Who?Vo/har?Why? How? Make notes on )'our ideas.
Think abol.lt your two narrators: \•/hat are mey like? 1Nt>at things are ,mportant to them? What
memories do trey have? How are trey ll~ely to speak? How can you make treir characters c ear
throug>i the way they tell their side of the story?
Decide how you are goirg to structure your story. Are you goirg to move from ore rarrator to
another and back, or are you going ,o tell fre story In two d'st'rict halves? Decide who is goirg to be
the lirst r,arrator a-id who Is gqing to be the last r,arrator.
Avoid ,oo much repetitlo1. Your two r,arrators were involved In tne sa11e ccnfliet. bl.lt they are like y
to give very different accourts of what happened.
~Vrite the lirst draft of your s,o,y and creek that you have:
• given different versior,s of the same event
• helped your reader to see what happered through the eyes of each narrator
• crea1ed two distlrct voices In your story.
Ask someore you know to read your story and comment o~ it. Make any changes you thfriK are
re,ofJI oefore writirg your linal draft.
Copy a'ld como ete tre follovl'lg tab e to assess where yo-.i thlr~ your strengths a'ld weaknesses lie in this area
of your wo'k.
I can recognise the difference between
derotatlve and connotative langvage.
I can urderstand meanlrg corveyed through
word choice.
I can apprec·ate the appropriateness of
differeflt uses of tone, mood and register.
I can use anguage, and particular y tcne,
mood and regiS1er, aoprop·iate io ::iart'cular
sltuaticns and cof1texts.
I can recognise and respond to tne means
used by an autho• to acnieve a particular
I can choose a viewpoint or voice for writing
which s appropriate to create an effect on
the reader.
I can recognise and respord to the means
used by a vvrlter io nfiuence o· bring new
insights to a reader.
I can respond 10 literature and 10 how writers
create and sustain fee irgs, descriptions or
I can urderstand and use tre methods
employed by writers to achieve tne lnterded
effect In presenting a'ld developing a
I can vlsua se tre setting or situation
portrayed In a text.
I can use anguage 10 create part cular effects
ir description.
I can recognise and respond to the anguage
and structural devices used by a wr'ter in
telling a story.
I am confident that
I can do this.
I think I can do this This is one of my
but need a bit more weaker areas, so I
need more practice.
This 'Jnit will he!p you to:
• detect b:as in the use of words
and In the presentation of ideas.
In Unit 3 you learned that:
• a dictionary defines the main mea'ling of a word with which everyone
wculd agree (denotatio1)
• we associate part,cular ideas vlth some wo-ds, e.g.·~ome'(connotaticn)
• w·iters so'netimes use words to Influence ,he way we feel (emotive use
of language)
• when writing is not distorted by emotion O' perso,al bias. we say it is
lri this unit you will·
• when writirg is Influenced by personal feelings, we say it ·s subjective.
• learn to detect olas
• learn about ste'eoryoes
• use anguage devices, ·nc udlrg
bias, 10 irfiuerce a reader.
Bias through selection
There are rimes when writers select specific facts, and lgrore others. in
order to Influence the avdience by giving a particu ar lmpressio1. Look at
these facts about Ackeem.
Name: Ackeem
Age: 17 years old
• Lives with motrer
• Stays with girlfriend's f.;1mily every weekend
• Visits elderly graindfather every day
• Left school with no qualifications
• Usually spends afternoons on t he be.ich
• Sleeps between 7 a.m.and 1 p.m.
• Goes to church every Sunday
• V✓orks as a hospital porter on night -shifts
• Arrestea on sue;picion of possession of drugs when
.iged 15 - released without charge
These facts could be used to creaie:
@ A negative impression of Ackeem
A positive impression of Ackeem
Lives with mother
Spends every morning in bed
Visits elderly grandfather every day
Arres:ed on suspicion of possession of drugs
INorks as a hospital po·ter on night-sh.fts
Left schoo' wirh no qualifications
Goes to church every Su'lday
Usually spends afternoons o~ ,ne beach
Visits girlfi'iend's family everywee~end
Regularly found at his girlfriend's
1 Read the following facts about Monique.
• Select three facts that create a posirve lmpressi,;in of Monique.
• Select three facts that c·eate a negative 11press'on of Monique.
Name: Monique
Age: 16 years old
• Ha,:; a 1-year·old a,,ughter
• Stole a magazine from a ,:;hop when she was 15
• Pa,:;sed her eye te,:;t 2 months ago
• Works from home
• Spends all spare money on daughter
• Ha,:; 6 CSEC p~sse,:; at Grade 1
• Lives with boyfriead
• WIii not speak to her f;ather
2 Now think abo.it )'ourseJ,
• List tnree facts that would create a positive impression of you.
• List tnree facts that would create a negative lmpressio'1 of you.
Bias through stereotypes
V\lhen ,,.~iters use facts to create a particula• impression
and Influence the audience, we say they are being
b:ased. This means that they are only presenting part
of the picture in order to influence their reader. They
may re y heavily on stereotypes. A stereotype Is a shared
image wit'lin a society of a particular ~ype'of perso'l.The
stereotype may have positive O' negative con,otations.
Teenagers are one of the most
heav' y stereotyped groups. If you
were to believe the newspapers,
you mign1 tnink that all teenagers:
• are rebellious
• wear p•ovocative clothing
• are sulky
• stay in bed all day
• smoke
• drink
• are rude to old people
• do not care about schoo'
• swear.
In fact, tbe real' ty is very different.
3 Think about t he following stereotypes. Choose
5 Even people who consider themselves
three mat are familiar to you. 'Nhat different
things do you associate with each of them with
regard to gende•, appearance, age, lifestyle and
to be free of prejudice can be influe"lced
by stereotypes. T1i nk about the following
sentences and answer the questions that follow
r.i&tllfarl,n professor j ud£,t yal,(th 6anf<pr
a A group of sing le mothers get together every
week for a night out.
4 In order to understand tne strength of
stereotypes, consider each of the following
pa·rs of sentences and decide whether the
Jnderlined words have positive or negative
The accused entered the building with their
The accused entered the building with the persoo
who claimed to be on their s de.
The young men waited on the side of the street.
The youths waited on the side of the street.
The !llil.b. gathered outside the police Station.
The crowd gathered outs.de the police station.
According to the stereotype, how wil! tney dress?
vVhat kind of a n'g'H out will tney have?
b A group of mothers get together every week
for a night out.
According to t~e stereotype, how will t~ey
vVl',at kind of a n ght out will they have?
6 Stereotypes can be reinforced by the seieetion of
other words:
The you,hs loitered on the s'de of1he street.
How does rhe underlined word add to the
stereotype of'youth,'?
Bias through language
Wnat writers think or feel abovt a pa,ticular subject can often be detected
,n the lar,guage mey use ,o oresent it to their readers. In Unit 2.2 (page 49)
yo·J read tre passage 'Protectlrg the consu'l1er'. Look again at tre first two
paragraphs of that text. Tl7e annotations of the hlgnllghted phrases sliow
you how the writer has used language to 111fiuence the reader. Tnls is the
language of bias. It Is so'l1etimes referred to as 'loaded' language, as the
writer is deliberately' oading' his or her point of view.
Consumer protection is a pressing i~suc in the Caribbean,
especially as standards of living arc on the rise and people have
more disposable income to spend. Naturally, i;his has resulted in
an increasing number of products and services available on the
local markeL However, there still remain a number of service
providers and businesses who simply rip off consumers who have
little or no avenue for redress as consumer protection laws and
systems have not evolved adequately co eradicate these problems.
For instance, in the transport seccor, minibus operators have a
sometimes warranted reputation for poor service - for example iii
overloading passengers, inappropriate language and behaviour,
and loud music, etc.
7 Copy the fol owing sentences. For each one, highlight rhe words
that srcw bias ard annotate ,hem to explain how tre writer has
used larguage to infiuence tlie reader.
The stroppy tee11agers were raving none of it.
Property tycoon cashes in o~ recession misery.
Students locked OJt of opportunity to -nprove.
Tax dodgers create smo~escreen of legality.
a Read the following 11st of details:
three 16-year-olds
the others help him up
t~l¾e 1 p.l¾.
one trips and falls over
standing talking
to each other
two boys and a girl
Write about this scene with a negative bias.
Highlight ,re words yo\.l have used that demonstrate 11-e
negative bias.
creates a sense a
urgency and pain
sugi:ests an unfair uansaction In
which there has been a degree of
chea,ing or swindling
both adjectives have unpleasant
connotations: the first suggests
a lack of manners and the second
~omethlng unpleasan\
Persuasive devices
This 'Jnit will he!p you to:
• recognise a range of persuasive
devices Jsed In differeN types
of text
• evaluate the effect veness of
devices Jsed to persuade.
In t~is ur r you w.II:
• ex,olore me Jse o' persua,ive
devces in differennypes of :ext.
A few persuasive devices
If you look up the word ·persuade' in a thesaurus you will find synonyms such as:
u13e, cnnv1nc1
win over
V\lriters have a wide range of tools at thefr disposal. These tco!s are words, and
the ways they can be used to influence and persuade their readers.You have
already studied some of these devices in previoJs units. Here are some more.
Groups of three and lists
V\lr'ters often group ideas n threes. Eacn idea adds 10 the previoJs one. and
together they have extra impact, for examp e:
These problems could be overcome if only vve would observe
closely, t hink seriously and act decisively.
Alternative y, a writer may list things for specific effect for example:
He gazed long ingly at t he dazzling oranges, t he tempting
mangoes, the shaded avocados, the bristling kiwis and the
begu iling starfru it , all frustratingly beyond his reach.
Rhetorical questions
These are questions that a writer as~s to make the reader th:nk about
so,nething, for examp!e:
So, why do flowers g row t owards th e light?
Repetition of a single word or phrase is a technique frequently used to
d·aw attention to a part'cular point and g've It emphasis. for exa-nple:
For t he most relaxing ho lidays, st art w ith th e most relaxi ng
Directives are sentences that instruct someone to do someth'ng, fo· examp'e:
Take a walk th roug h ... ;
See the beaut y of...
Short sentences
Occas·onal ve,y short sentences can ~,ave a stro~g impact on the reader,
for example:
It was not t o be.
He listened and he wait ed.
Personal pronouns
A writer may use the second person pronoJn 'you' in order to address the
reader directly and make tre writing seem more personalised. The first
person plural proroun 'we' may be used to place tre reader on the same
side as the writer, for example:
Walk down any st reet and you wil l see t he litt er and t he
debris but , if we work together, ou r streets w ill be clean again.
Smart people
own smart phones
Stay cor oected ,•,i:h 1.,e he:jt i'1 :&:;'1n;;!o;;'y
Competitive pricos
Persuasion in advertisements
Keep s you smil!ng all day
Advertisements are often Intended to persuade. The writer may want to
persuade the reader to:
Promotion ends December 31, 2018
·' ''tA Cl,/l't, ,,, "II t;llo/_l ;:i.;n ·.':,:i•;e
buy a particular produa
educate and lnfl uence actlo~s
think in a certain way
visit a particu ar pace or event
supporr a particular appeal or
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1 Look at and read the advertisements A-Fon
page 123. Fo· each ore:
• identify its purpose
• identify the different devices used by the writer.
You could reco,d your find rgs In a table like the
one below:
2 Using some of tre techniques you have studied,
w( te 1re text for an advertisement for a charity
of your choice.Your purpose is to persuade yo..ir
readers to donate money to support tnis charity.
Aim to use between 50 and 100 words.
3 Annotate the dev'ces yoJ have used In your
w( ting.
As you have seen, ski led writers regularly use a range of devices wren
writing to pe·suade.To be a good reader, you need to be aware of how tre
wr°ter is trying to influence your decisions.
4 Read the extract below. taken from a web page
advertising St Lucia. Tren copy and complete the
table by ider,tifying as many different examples of
the devices, l'sted in rhe first column, as you can.
Saint Lucia
.!et: p;::.:or
;ifter romarlle, rejUvenauon
ad,-enture M unspailed, Mtl.lf'al
lmlnneed beaches, swat
ol untou"ched ra1'1forest .and the
;' c Piton Mountains, are
re 10 ,ndvlge
w'""" t.on Natural waterfi!Us,
d1-r--' '
t,rea1h-ra~ing views,
locals and v1bf',ll1t, venral~
cul11Jre enthuse we!L-travel
5 landscape
Device s
Op:nions siaied as fact
Personal pronouns
Groups of three
It is not simply me devices the writer uses that fY'ake this an effective
piece of persuasive writing. The writer chooses his or her words careful y to
crea,e a particular impress·on. Take, for examp'e, the first paragraph. with its
extensive use of noun phrases, as hlgnlighted oelow.
Saint Lucia is the perfect
destinat on,
after romance, rejuvenation or
adventure. An unspofled, nacural
palm-fringeo beaches, swathes
of untouched rainforest and the
majestic Piton Mountains, are
disposition. Natural waterfalls,
breath-taking views, friendly
locals and vibrant, veritable
culture enthuse well-travelled
holiday-makers and provide a
holiday of enduring memories.
s Copy the secord paragraph
of the extract as given below:
The purity of this idyll shoulo
conditions, welcoming loogings
ard unanticipatec aoventures
await all visitors to St Lucia's
shores. Romance can be founo
among the luxury of up-market
resorts and exclusive inns. Laze
together In the heat of the
Caribbean sun. sail Into a
panoramic sunset, ano take
mionight strolls under vast,
starry skies. Discover new
romance and reinvigorate ola
love over a candlelit dinner on a
secluded beach.
To understand how language is being used here ·n orde· to persuade.
thin~ about the phrase ·m· es of unspoiled rainforest'. The reference to
'm'ies' implies a huge area.The word 'unspoiled' suggests that nothing has
'1appened to It to deuaa from its intrinsic beaut)'. Together t<1ey create a
p·aure of a vast and beautiful rainforest still n ,ts ratural state. which t-as
not been damaged by people.
6 Highlight the noun phrases
Now think about the phrase: 'the majestic Piton Mountains: The wo·d
'majestic'has many connotations: grard. lofty, powerful. digr'ned,
authoritative, imposing, regal, mig'ity, dignified. Many people who go
on holiday are hoping to experience somerhing new and exciting. These
connoratio1s relp to create a sense of splendour a1d awe about the
'TIOUrtains wr'ch might appeal directly to th·s desire in the reader.
8 Highlight the verbs in the
Verbs also play their part in creating a particular imp·ess·cn. Take,
for example, the verb 'indulge'. This has connotatlo1s of i uxury and
pampering. Aga n, people often go en hoi iday as an escape from their
everyday lives.The word 'Indulge' would appeal to those who are hoping
for special ueatment on their ho''day.
11 \'l'rite the text for a holiday brochure persuading your readers
10 visit a place of your choice. It could be yovr own area or
so-newhere e se you know about. Aim to:
• use a rarge of devices
• use noun phrases and verbs to enha1ce your wrltirg.
Aim to ·Nrlte between 150 and 200 words.
12 Annotate the features yo•J have used in your writing In order to
persuade your reader.
In the paragraph.
7 Choose one of these and
explain how language
Is used in It to create a
particular impression.
9 Choose one of these and
explain how it 1-elps to create
a pa•t'cular impression.
10 Some peop e dream about
tne pe•fect roma!'tic roliday.
How would this paragraph
appeal 10 them?
Writing and speaking
to persuade
This Ul'it will help yoJ to:
• comm Jnicate an opinion clearly
and effect ively In lar,g\Jage that
Persuasion in speeches
Persuasive features are also often found In tre wrtten text for speeches.
One of the most famous speeches of tne last century was tnat made by
Martin Luther King, a prominent leader in the African Americar civil rights
movement and winner of the NooeI Peace Prize in 1964.
9ead the opening of his fa-nous 'I have a dream'speech In wh ch he
repeatedly creates pictures Jsirg words. The a"notations will he,p you to
understand row words are being used to create pictures.
In rr s unit you ·NIii:
• demonstrate ,r.e abl · ty to use
language persuasively In both
speecn and writing.
refers to Abraham Llrcoln and !sis
work for the emarclpallon of saves
suggests trls was far-reaching. as a
beacor shines stroogly arc can be
seen fro,n afar
suggests great pair and the brarcirg to
,,... ,...,i, ma1Y slaves were subjected
contrastsday ano r ight to suggest th~
hope arc light of a new begirning
ses Images of slave•y to
hasise tre lack of freeoo
~~§gest!rlf¢la1o(' aric emp ysis~s th~
l'>Sgws pooe,~ whe"' C:O@P1~l! 1" ·h
(_l,"e wealth ~•Q Pel
uggests tratt~e egro s ro
lloweo to stan:l In the centre er
r,merlcgr sodeLj
I am happy to join \Vith you today in \vhat \Vil.I go
do\v n in history as the greatest demonstration for
freedo1n in the history of our nation.
F ive score years ago, a great A1neri can, in vvhose
syinbolic shado,v ,ve stand today, signed the
Emancipation Proclan1ation.' [his momentous decree
ca1n e as a great beacon light of hope to rnillions of
Negro slaves \Vho had been seared in the fla1nes of
\Vithcring injusti ce. It ca1n e as a joyo us daybreal,
to end the long nigh~ of their captivity.
But o ne hundred years later, the Negro still is
not free. One hu ndred years later, th e life of the
Negro is still sadly n lcooy e manac cs oij
se regation ancl c c ains ofaiscrimtnation, One
hundred yeai:s later, the Negro lives on a lonely
island ol;J.)O\<crty in the n1ias1 of a vasr ocean of
1naterral prospei'hy. One hundred years later, th e
Negro is stiJI languished in t 1c corners of A1nerican
soc1ct) and finds himself an exile in his o,v n la nd.
1 In the following extract from his speech, Martn LIJlher King uses an extended me,aphor. He starts and ends
with an 'mage of cas'ling a check (cheque). Read the extract closely before copying ard completing the
senter.ces below using the word bank to help you.
In a sense \ve've co1ne to oLu· nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects
of our republic \Vrote the magn ificent \Vords of the Constitution and the
Declaration of Independence, they \Vere sign ing a promissory note to ,vh.ich every
Ainerican \Vas to faUheir. T his note \Vas a promise that all 1nen, yes, black men as
\veil as \vh ite men, \VOtlid be guaranteed the ' unaJienable Rights' of 'Life, L iberty 5
and the pursuit of Happiness.' It is obvious today that America has defawted on
this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color ru:e concerned. Instead of
honori ng this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check,
a check ,vhich has co1ne back 1n arked 'insufficient funds.'
But \Ve refuse to believe that tl1e bank of justice is bankrupt. \'v'e refuse to believe
that there arc insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation.
And so, 1\1e've come to cash this check, a check that \v iii give us upon demand
the riches of freedom and the security of justice.
promissory nore: a document containirg a signed pro'll·se
defaulted: failed to act
a The words of the ConstitJtio'l and the Declarat on of
ndependence a'e compared to ...
b America's fail ure to granttre'unalienabie rights'to Negroes
Is compared to ...
c The Negroes r ave been given .. .
d However. they refuse to be eve that ...
e They bel eve there are sufficient funds in .. .
f The creek trey have come to cas>i will give ...
I freedom and just ce
Ii a bad check
Iii defaulting on a promissory note
Iv the vaults of opportJnity
v the bank of justice Is bankrupt
vi a promisso,y note
The following extract is taken from a later stage in Martin Lt.rrrer Kirg's
speec~. In It, ~e uses several devices that you have already exoiored and
a few that you have not. Read rhe speech closely before examinirg the
tecnniques in 'Tlore detail.
And so even though \Ve face the cLifficulties of today and tomorro,v, I
still have a dream.
It is a drea1n deeply rooted in the American d reain.
I have a dreain that one day this nation 1viJJ rise up and live out the
true meai1ing of its creed : '\1(/e hold these truths to be self-evident, rhat
all men are created equal.'
I have a d ream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of
foriner slaves and tJ1e sons offoriner slave O\vners \Viii be ab le ro sit
do\vn together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dreain that one day even the state of 1\tlississippi, a state
s,veltering ,vith tJ1e heat of injustice, s\veltering \Vith the heat of
oppression, \viii be rransfor111ed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a drea.in that n1y four little children 1vill one day live in a nation
\vhere they \vill not be judged by the color of their skin but by the
content of tl1eir character.
I have a drea.in today!
I have a drea.in tl1at one day, do1v11 in AJaban1a, 1vitl1 its ,.;cious
racist~ \Vith its governor having his lips dripping 1vith the 1vords of
' interposition' and 'nullification' - one day right there in Alaba1na
little black boys and black girls \viii be able to join hands \virh little
1vhite boys and ,vhite g irls as sisters and brothers.
I have a drea.in today!
I have a drea.in tl1at one day every valley shall be exalted, and every
hill and rnountain shall be made lo\1', th e rough places ,viii be 1n ade
p lain, and the crooked p laces ,vill be 1nade straight; 'a.i,d d1e glory
of d1e Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.'This
is OLtr hope, and d1is is the faith that I go back to the South \V ith.
2 T'1e annotations below match the numbered features in the
text. but are not in the correct order. Dec de which annotation
matches which feature and comple,e the tab,e whlcn follows the
A Perso1alises argument
B Short exc'amatlon for effect
C Quotation to develop point
D Phrase repeated ,hroughou1
E Phrase is balanced to emphasise equality
F Connotative language Is used for effect
G Image is used to create 'picture' of equality
3 Now read tre next paragraph of Martin Luther King's speech ard
answer the questions that follow It.
With this faith, ,ve ,viii be able to he\v out of the
1nountain of despair a stone of hope. \'v'ith this
faith, \Ve \viii be able to transfonn the jangling
discords of our nation into a beau tiful sym phony
of brotherhood. With this faith, ,ve ,viii be able to
,vork together, to pray together, to struggle together,
to go co jail together, to stand up for freedotn
together, kno\vi ng that \Ve \Viii be free one day.
a V./hich eight words are repeated at the stan of each sentence?
1,1,/hat is the effect ofth's reperit on?
b Hew many times s tre pronoun 'we' repeated? V./hy do you
think the word ·we·Is used so often?
c V-ihat different p'ctures are created by the words'janglirg
discords' and 'beautiful symphony'?
d Think about the final senterce. vVhich word Is reoeated at
the end of five consecutive phrases? vVhat is the effect of this
repetit on ?
• Choose a subject about which you feel strongly. \.Yrite the
opening paragraph of a speech i1 whicn you attempt to
persuade your llsterers to fee, as you do. Nm to use some of
tre devices •Jsed by Martin Luther King.
Persuasive writing
A very good example of persuasive writing at Its most professional Is the
leaflet asking for donatiol"'s ro a cl'-arity. The writer usually has very few
words to convince the reader to pa11 with her or his mo"ley, so every
word counts.
8elow s ire text only from a leaflet for ,he charity \.VaterAid:
4 vi/rite a oaragraph in which you explain how the writer has
made readers want to dorate to \/\laterAid. P'ck out at least rhree
persuasive devices and re'llembe· to give examples from the text
to support yoJr points.
5 Think of a weil -known natlona charity, or a local one 11'-at you know
of. \II/rite the text of a eaflet persuading people to donate money or
goods to help tre work of tre charity. Use tre persuasive devices
you have learned about In this unit.
The most obvious type of persuasive wr'ting Is the commercial
advertisement. Today's advertisements incorpo-ate both uadltional and
moderri techniques with a visual and ot1er sensory appeal. \.Vhatever the
technique used, the goal is tre same. AdvertisemeNs encourage you to
make a choice, with the use of bias and passionate points of view. The
result is that the consumer or audience is persvaded to endorse a product
or serv·ce.
Examine some examples of pers•Jasive techr, ques fro-n the advert'sing
1 Use of emotive language:'Hew many of you can rest peacefully
knowirg that millions are starving .. .'
2 Use of personal appeal and perso1al pronouns: 'Do you want tnat
car O' home of your dreams?'
3 Bandwagon: 'Don't be left out of the Millennial crcwd. invest in a
Hor'zon phone today:'
4 Use of sources of authoriry:'The Caribbean Law Association
reports mat only 31% of murder cases are given a time y trial'.
Comparison and contrast: '1/•/hile your car can go fast, the new
Bullet SUV can go faster:
6 Hyperboles and exaggera1io1s:'Moun1ain cocoa is a thousand
times richer and tastier than the leadirg b.-a1ds.'
7 Rretorical questions:'Do you want to look smart every day?
Then visit the 'Trendsetter website'.'
8 Similes: 'You can shine like a diamond when you wear jewellery
from Fine Stcnes lnterr'at' cnal'.
9 Alliterations and assorances:'Stansky's shrimp, scallop and
squid pub'.
The place where the famous lime and crime:
1 O Adjeetives:'Cynt'lia's corn cakes are sweet. savoury and mouthwatering:
11 Testimonials: 'I have been using MarvelloJs Hair Dye for twenty
years now and I love it:
12 Status appeal:'If you want tc belong to the real world, then
dress like a real man - wear Bravo:
13 Visual and sensory aids - p'ctures, colours, bold wr'ting and
lettering. graphics and animations, music and stimulating sounds.
Come on-lets have a'COKE!
l"'J'l.otlCOfd.11.0- lltdA"'•ia.Otllll ~
111«11 dit fMw,\I)', ;c-of•.,-. tf,t
,l,... 1_,
f'i.rc- • - - • ~ .
dttlric'-" .-d rtlrt,,h"'f!. ('"~4111 k oll\cc
~ edlC'1' drin-l: i.1k-...tN, h)tl)'"<"ott'
•~•J"Ollr«tt,tt••iw.,· •IWtttu,_
to •<it\C0t~>••cll'rf.U) H ( ~ •
c~~Of~ ffff
,._ - -
,.V :...F'r
>. ,' '
Call it 'C.Oke or Coca-Cola-its ihe same delicious drink
6 Look at 1be advertisement above and lden,ify wh ch persuas ve
techniques from page · 31 rave been used.
Read thfs advertisement and answer the questions below:
'Identify che bullies, avoid them, repon them and scand up to them'
You arc smart, skilful and special. You do not have to be a victim of bullies in the home, workplace
or school environment. Learn how to react! Don't let the bullies bring you down.You deserve co
shine every day.
iVlillions of people have joined the ANGEL S elf-defence Club and have learnt to be resourceful
and to scand up for !hemsclvcs. Learn the skills and techniques to identify bullies and avoid them.
Also learn how to boost your self-confidence and develop defensive strategics.
Classes at me ANGEL Self-defence Club arc des igned specifically to suit your needs.
Interactions arc interesting, appealing and satisfying.
Contact us at 772 -B!)l.,LY today for a free brochure or registration material. You can also find us
ar www.angclagainstbullies.com. Enrol today and get a I 0% discount.
You arc special. Be bold and fearless, unleash the tiger in you!
a 1Nho is the intended audier,ce of this advertisement?
b Do you fird the image and tit e of the advertisement effective?
c dentlfy tre persuasive cechniq•Jes used in ire advertisement and say how tr1ey are effective.
Choose from tne following scenarios and create an adverfsement for t~e print media using some of the
techn·ques we explored in this un,t.
a Imagine that you are the head prefect of your school and that you are plann'ng a fund·a·ser for your
graduatlo~ dance. Deslgr a poster for the event.
b You received two copies of the same video game for Christmas and you have decided to sell one copy.
Create an advertisement for a social network site 10 sel you· game.
c Your sc~ool 1s hosting a bazaar and you are In charge of the 'Horror House'. Design an advertisement for the
atest school magazine to advertise your projea.
Discursive writing
This Ul'it will help yoJ to:
• understard and present a
logical argumert using tre
,echniques ard devices of oral
or wr"tten debate.
In ;r·s unit yoJ will:
• exp o-e tre devices used in
discursive writi,g
• corslder tre ways discursive
w 0 tlrg s structured
• plar and write a discursive text,
Inc udirg a-gume~t and counterargument.
·o·scursive wr'ting'is the technical term for writing that d'. scusses odeba1es a tcplc. or puts forward a'l argument In favour of or against a'l
,dea er situation. Of course. it is also possible to argJe boir sides of a iop,c
to provide a balarced argument.
Devices used in argument
Writers generally use a mixn1re o'facr and opinion in argument, as well as
many of the devices you have already studied. Read the foilowlng article.
The facts have oeen hignlighred for you.
Wild thoughts - Mark: CarwardiJ.1e
The ex istence of shark nets perpetuates t he 1nyth that
swiin1ning fro m a n unprotected beach is likely to result in
an attack.
T he KwaZulu-Nata l Sharks Board is caught in a Li mewarp.
It still seems Lo be under the archaic iinpression that all sharks
are dangerous and the world would be a better place wiLhout
them. It maintains shark nets along 23km of lhe eastern coast
o r South Africa (supposed ly Lo protect bathers) and these have
been killing more than 1.000 sharks every year. \low local
conservatio n groups are cam1)aigni11g to have them removed.
T here are three problems with shark nets: they don't work.
they·re not needed and tbey are bigh.ly destructive. T here is
a popular misconception thal the nets provide a ha rmless
physical barrier, like a gia nt undenvater mosg LLito net. But
there are so ma ny gaps that sharks can. and do. swiin right up
to the ,:Protected' beaches In actua l fact. the nets are desi rned
specifica lly lo reduce Lhe nu111ber of sharks in the vicinity - by
killing them.
The irony is that sha rk nets aren't even necessary. Thave a
friend in Cape Town who runs great white shark trips every
morning and then surfs half a mile away every afternoon. He
ki1ows that the risk of being harmed by a shark is minuscule.
The Sharks Board should k now that, too.
A nother problem is that the nets are set mainly fo r grea t
wh iles (outn1geous in itself because they are supposed to be
protected), tiger sharks and bull shark~. But these accoun t for
a tiny fraction of all the sharks, dolp hi ns. tu rtles and other
wi ld life drowned in Lhe111 'by mistake'. Adm iuedly, 1,000
sharks is a drop in the ocean compa red lo the 100 to 150
1nillion sharks killed every ye,u-, mainly for the ir fins. But
the very existence of shark nets to make tou rists feel safe
perpetuates the myth th at swimming from an unprotected
beach could resu lt in a n attack.
Iron ically, lhe shark-net campaig11 comes in the same
month the I UCN's Shark Specialist G roi1_g re11orts that a
third of all open-ocea n shark species are threatened with
exti nction. No wonder. ff the KwaZtLlu-Natal Sha rks Boa.rd
isn't shark tolerant, how can we expect anyone else to be1
The writer uses a rarge of devices to oersuade his reader. Find
and 11st:
• two examples of opinion being stated as fael
• two examples of stat sties
• ore example of a group of three
• one example of a short sentence used for effect
• one example of a rhetorica question.
The writer uses tnree other devices mat are commonly found In a wr tten
• Brackets: Awriter will often p ace separate detail in brackets. This draws
attention to the co11ment O' informa1io1 contained therein without
disruprirg the fiow cf t~e sentence. In this sentence the writer uses
brackets to s'iow h s contempt for t'ie use of shark nets:
Tt maintains shark nets along 23km of the eastern coast of South
Africa (supposedly to protect bathers) and these have been killing
more tbao l,000 sharks every year.
• Inverted commas: These are
normally used to Indicate speech or a
quotation. Here, however, the writer uses them to draw the reader's
attention to a particular word, for example:
But there are so many gaps that sharks can, and do, swim right up
to the 'protected' beaches.
The 'Jse of the inverted commas around the word 'protected' suggests
that the beaches are not protected at all.The inverted commas are used
to suggest t~e very oppcs:te ofwnat is being stated. Rather than use
inverted co11mas. wdters will someiimes place words in italics. virh a
similar effect.
2 Fnd another example of tre
use of brackets in the article,
Explain why the writer has
used them.
3 Find another example of the
use of inverted commas in the
article. Explain what is being
sJggested by their usage.
4 Th.nk of an arecdote you
could use to support rre vie"'.,
tnat many adults do rot trea1
teenagers fairly. \•/rite your
• Anecdote:This Is a short account of so'Tlething. usually persoral and
somet' mes humo•ous. In the following example the writer uses the
anecdote as evidence supportirg his point of view:
T he irony is that shark nets aren't even necessary. r have a friend
in Cape Town who runs great wh ite sha rk trips every mo rning
a nd then su rfs hair a mile away every afte rnoo n. He knows thac
the risk of being ha nned by a sha rk is minuscule. The Sharks
Board should know tha t, coo.
Structuring and developing an argument
In ordeno argue convi rcingly, you need to make a ser'es of clear,
conrected and sJpported points.
In the ed 1toriai on the next page the writer builds a strong argument w th
the points leading to a logical corclusion.
Read the ed'torial c osely. The following points a- f sum-narise the
main points made by tre writer. Place them in the logical order In
which they appear In the argument. You could record yoJr answer
in a table like this:
a Pr'son lr1ended to stop inmates from reoffend1f\g, but many
do retum.
b Reasons why rehabilitation programmes are important.
c Pr' son could be tre place for a new start.
d Prison noi no·ma1y associated w,th good things.
• Just abandoning prisoners does nobody any good.
f Rerablliratlon programmes are Important.
One significant feature of this ed'torial is the use of c0Jnter-argume11t.
CoJnter-argume"lt occurs when a writer presents a'l alternative view to his
or rer own. Counter-argument allows a writer to h'ghlight the weakresses
in an alterra1ive point of view. for example:
h . h Id b { People ike to maKe jokes about ,he Pointe 81anche House of
c~~::r•:~"1;~: :: ~0 ; : •;. :,it;,
Deternion being more like a hotel. with C'imir,als coming out
better fed than tl>ey wef'\t in, buj tbe reality is rhat having ore's
writer'sown oint of view { freedom taken away for a lengt'l of time cannot possibly oe
considered a pleasant expe-lence for anyone.
FRIDAY, 17 DECEMBER 20 1022:49
riso11 is not 1101T11ally associated with good 1hi'.11gs. After all,
only purple who 1,reak the law are it, pri11cipk locked 11p there
as their p,mishment.
Yet for some who end up o n the wrong path, the penitentiary
could acrually be the place for a new start. People like to make
jokes about the Pointe )31anche House of Detention being more
like a hotel, with criminals coming out better fed rhan they
went in, b ut the reality is that having one's freedom taken away
for a length o f time cannot possibly be considered a pleasant
experience for anyone.
Of course, whatever hardship inmates go th rough is also
intended to help them realise this is where crime has gocren
them and that they should refra in fron1 committing such in
the fururc if they don't wan t to go back once they arc out of
jail. T hat maO)' still find themselves in the so-called 'revolving
door' of justice in and out of prison may have to do with
their character or lack thereof, but o ften also with ind ividual
circumsrances and the environment the)' are in.
T his is why rehabilitatio11 i11itiativcs such as the GED
examination p rogramme in St /vlaartcn's prison are so
important. By earning that certificate a group o f youn g
inmates is now in a m uch better position to fi nd jobs and/
o r further their education when they become members of
regular society again. Those involved in the programme an d
similar projects to help re-socialise convicts deserve ro be
commended for doing the entire community a g reat service.
\'ilhik there are some who believe prisoners should not be
g iven so much consideration after having been found guilty,
chey fail to recognise that such an attirude will only prove
counterproductive when it comes to reducing crime.
Law enforcement and repression are undoubtedly highly
necessary, certainly on an island with a sensitive one-pillar
tourism economy, but prevention th rough guidance and
education, including so-called second chance p rogrammes,
makes all the sense in the world. In addition to rehabilitating
prisoners, cackling social issues like school dropou rs, youth
delinquency a nd teenage pregnancy is basic for a long-term,
sustainable approach.
In the end, people do make mistakes and th rowing them by
Lhe wayside usually docs nobody any good.
wv,w.thedailyhe,alc.com/ed to1ial
6 Read the following se,terce closely. Identify the counter-argument
and tre writer's own point of view.
\Vhile che,e arc some who believe p risone rs should not be
given so much co nsideration after having been Found gu ilty,
they fa il to recogn ise that such an artitude will only prove
cou,nerproductive when it comes to red uciog crime.
7 liVrat phrase does rhe w•iter use to cast doubt on the counter·
argument and Introduce his or her own pofnt of v;ew?
8 Counter-argu'llent is also used in the 'Wild thoughts' art:cle on
page 134. Find a, example oflt in the second parag•aph. Copy t
a<1d highlight and annotate the counter•argJment and the wrrter's
own point of v'ew.
Discourse markers
In deve,cping tre argument, tre writer uses a range of words and phrases
to link ideas within and between senterces. As you have seen, In tne first
example of counter-argument the writer uses 1he word 'bJt'to set his
point of view against t'lat held by other people. n the second example
the phrase 'they fail to recognise that' ach:eves a similar end.\•lords and
phrases used in this way within an argument are often referred 10 as
discourse markers. Good control of a rarge of discourse mar~ers will
heio you structure your argument.
9 The following discourse markers are all used in the editoria above.
Identify where and how each ore is used.
By . ..
A~. r 111
But ..
Of course ...
In the end . . .
,,1w,1.,. 1o ...
Yet .. ,
1o Look again at ire 'liV d thoughts' arrlcle. Identify a'ld list rhe
discourse ma•kers used i'l ·t.
11 In Unit 2.2 you mode a list cf discourse markers to use in your own
writing. Add to your list any nevv ores you have found.
Writing an argument
Arguments are , early always written In the present tense, alrhoJgh they
may refer to things that have happened in the past. You are now going to
write an argument.
Choose a subject about which you fee' strongly. YoJ cou'd choose
one of i~e following:
Cruelty to animals
Voluntary work
Freedom of speech
The importance of sport in school
The way teenagers are treated
List t~e differef"\t points you could make in s•Jpport of your
Make notes on new you could deve op yoJr main points through
the use cf:
• fact and opinion
• arecdote
• counter-argument.
Number your points in a logical order.
Think about how yoJ will open ar,d close yoJr argument ir an
effec,lve way. You cou d. for example, open with a simp'e
statement, as in t'ie Mark Cawardine and editorial articles ti"at you
have analysed in this section. Alternatively, yo J coJld Jse an
exclamation or a rhetorical questio1.
Start to write your argument. Remember to:
• write ir the present tense
• use a range of persuas:ve devices
• use discourse markers to r nk ideas w;thin and between
sentences and paragraphs.
Read through what you have written at the end of each paragraph. Research
shows that rh's relps to keep ideas tightly linked ard coherent. It also g ves
you the opportunity to make changes while the ideas are still in your mird.
vV~en you have finished writing your argument, check it for errors
In punctJation, spelling and grammar.
1 1'1e following parag·aphs are all part o' an editor al entitled 'Shade is cool'. Howeve·, they are rot
placed in the correct order. Read each parag•aoh careful.yard. using CJes In tne content and discoJrse
markers, place them In ire correct order. The first one has been done fo• you:
A Thm they faU on ct,c same day is somewhat fining, as 1tees obviously need water to grow and
survive. while at the same time they filter the air and indirectly contribute to more, cleaner rainfall
and thus, ultimately, water. Jt is also clear by now 1ha1if rhe destruction of' forests and pollution of
fresh water resources goes on unabated. mankind "i ll end up paying a high price in the long run.
O:mscquemly, trees and the shade they provide may be a bigger commodity than many realise, and lheir
significance will only /!,J'O"' as rhe prooess of global warming and ics effecl on che ozone layer continues.
People need to understand chat protection from ultravioleL(UV) rays is becoming essential to prevent skin
cancer, so chopping down trees without a pressing rea~on is simply not a good idea for health reasons eilher.
There arc a few projectS char have tried to preserve some of the crees on Ille property involved, while
olhers create nurseries and/or plant new trees as part of their landscaping. IVhal should be done more
ofren. however, is to completely integrate the existing native trees in the design and building process.
seeing them as an added value rather chan an obstacle to Ille developlllent plans.
Today is National Tree Day, when people all over reflect on the importance of trees for the
environment. It's also \Vorld \Va1er Day which, considering che lack of suitable drinking waccr in
various parts of the globe. is of growing illlporrance as well.
The plaming of local trees loday and later this week ro celebrate the occasion is in any case a
worthwhile initiative. For 100 long, 'clean ing ' a piece of land on the islands has been likened to
removing all vegetation on it, wiLhou1 li 11.r determining whether such is really necessary.
One only needs LOlook around a1, for example, people cacch.ing a bus during the daytime 10 realise
1ha1 many go lO great lengths 10 fi nd some shelter from the sun or even bring something with them
io cover at leasr their heads. There can be liLlle doubt shade is increasingly recognised as a good
thing, and ·The Friendly Island' could cerrninly use more of it.
The latter also makes sense frolll a business point of view. After all, St Maar1en is not sometimes
referred 10 as 'Sunsh ine City' for nothing and it can gCL pretty hot in this tropical paradise.
2 \.Vhy does the writer think t fitting that National Tree Day ard \.Yorld VVater Day fal o~ the same day?
3 vVhat does the writer sugges, w
be the consequerce if notning Is do1e to end the destrvction of forests
ard rhe pollution of fresh water?
4 \.Vhat does the W'iter believe shou d happen as part of des· gn and bu ldlr.g p·ocesses?
s Why does the writer believe t'lat trees w, become increasing,y important as global warmi'lg continues?
6 \.Vhat example does the writer use to support his view that people wart shade?
Copy ard complete the tel owlrg table to assess where you think your strengtns ard weaKnesses !ie in this area
cf your work.
I am confident that I think I can do
I can do this.
this but need a bit
more practice.
This Is on• of my
weaker areas,
so lnaed more
I can detect bias 111 the use of words and In
t'le o'esentation of ideas.
I can recognise a rarge o' persuasive devices
used In different types cf ,ext.
I can evah.1ate the effectiveness of devices
used to persuade.
I can communicate an opinion clearly a'ld
effective y In langJage tnat persuades.
I can understar.d and present a logical
a,gument using t'le techniques and dev ces
of ora o· written deba;e.
This Ul'it will help yoJ to:
• explore the anguage, structure
and style of poetry.
lri this unit you will·
• read pcems to galr an
understandlr.g o' :be elements
• respond to questions or the
various e e-ne11ts of poe!'y
Responding to questions about poetry can often be a challenge. It takes
rime and concentration to decl phe' wnat a poet is trying to say to you.
Nevertbe,ess, when you become fully engaged in the reading. you have
a greater urderstanding and deeper appreciat;on for poetry.V•l ith so'lle
effort and concentration, you can truly conquer the essence of a poem. It
Is generally accepted that the goal of reading poetry is to figurative1y·ge1
into the poe,'s head'. In this way you can better understand the message
beir.g conveyed. One way of doir.g this Is 10 develop your skills in poetry
analys·s by becoming conscioJs of the elements of poetry writing.
When you ta~e the time to do this, you can explore a poem in its totality
by looking at rhe way the lal'guage, structure and sty'e lrfluence the
meaning of poetry.
Elements of a poem
• theme
• rhyme
• literal meaning
• ligurative meaning
• rhythm
• structure
• tcne ard mood
• att'tude of the poet to the subjeet.
• imagery
Look at the following poem ard see how rhe different elements are
The Brewing Night
reflective mood
)ma_ge of sclituat;l
'a iterat CIJ.
ite a c
It was a memo'ab e n:g;,, when I heard Ii,
Yes. I heard it all.
That nigrt sleep cfese•,ed me,
11/.ocked at me a'1d 1a1:al'zea me;
So I lay awake, sharp in all my senses.
It was long past 'll·dnight:
Time dragged on. tre cockwouldr't cnlr1e;
wouldr't 6ar~, nor r e a ,y cryj
t v.-as 2. r1ocnless ard •,,vindless night;
The whole universe seemed to stagrate
,1 dar<. ·ear~, 9.i~~lu11::, ·.
V•/hat was amiss? I knew not.
[fie.learui)tetness a:ict;so;tudel
Seemed to be eternal, - but
\lvaves cfbabbllng a'ld 'TlUtter 'lQ.
cha_nge 1
~mbols o' wal,
t eme or str;,1gg e
perscnificat en
tfieme of fear
l!eg~ to trickle through tre street/
Ad'stant roar ng of heavy trucks fi lied tne air;
Hurried footsteps echoed through tne street.
vVhat was amiss. I knew nor.
I pulled my curtain to see,
A'1d there I saw it all Heavy boors, tnick ,inifo-ms and solid helmets,
D,my discernible ,mder thepalutreruamo.
[fl·e a:l)lQii,here stoo st"- an scli wit1
Brawry-faced and clerched-teeth deiermination.
Tllus the cau dron had boiled that sleepless nignt.
The wheel changed hands and Mp a'ls were filed.
The morni1g saw tre country strange y dressed,
A1d everyone atte1ded tre rally
To rear the eloquence from a strarge face,
Fr,a everyore gu etl~ roaaea ano safd;"'Ves'."
Yusuf 0 . Kassam,'The Brewing Night'
In this five-stanza poem that uses internal rhymes for empnasis, the poet
Is describing the urpleasani experience of a sleep ess night. I-le tells of a
cha'lge ,n his country's leadership, a new political regime taking over. At
first he is not aware of what is happe'ling, OJt the solitude of'a moonless
and wind ess night' is soon broken by the'vVaves of babb1i ng and
mutter,ng' and the curious sound of'heavy tr Jc~s· and 'Hurr'ed footsteps'.
Notice what literary devices are used 10 create Impactful impressions and
capture ,he tones ofbotn peace and uproar in tne poem.The tre11es of
reflection, war and change are also highlighted in several notable l,nes in
the poem. Tre writer's impression of the experience Is also expressed in
the last two lines of the poem:
'To hear the eloquence from a strange face,
And everyone quietly nodded and said, 'Yes:'
Now read tre poem below ard answer the quest;ons that fo' low co
explore tre various elements:
There is a Mystic Splendour
There is a mystic splendour tnat one feels
INal king tnis shore in the half-Iight of dawn,
Placing o,e·s footprints on the sands where keels
Of anc'ent vessels must have beached and dawn.
Fo• there are tales that speak of glorious days
Vvnen martial shouting rang within cur Say.
And cannons thundered. and black battle haze
Clovded this sickle Isle with dark affray.
Those were the times when privateers fied
The predatory 8ret'1ren of tre coast:
Pirates and buccaneers - all these are dead,
And all their lo•d y sway seems but a ghost.
But ever now the surf's loud thunder o•ings
Sound strangely clear - like battle cries of old;
And pa 11 trees murmur of deep-sunken things, IS
Of bJried treasJre chests... a,d Morgan's go'd ...
Faymond l!ilrrow, 'There Is a Mystic Splendoar'
1 ldenrfy the theme of the poem. Indicate whicn
lines of the poem helped you find the theme.
2 \.Vhy does the poet use tne words ·ancient' and
'o d'lf" his descr'ptions?
7 Identify three d•fferent literary devices from
the poem and say how they set the mood of
8 Which two lines of the poem suggest the
Why were the p,rates described as having a
'lordly sway'?
4 \.Vhat is the rhyme scheme of tne pcem? How
does it maKe tre poem more interesting?
5 \.Yhat Is the dominant image in the poem? How
is It used to reinfo·ce tre meaning of the poem?
6 \.I/hat sensory impressions are engaged in tre
poem? \.Vhat is the effect of tneir use?
interm'ngling of the past and present?
9 ::ompare the use of rhe word 'dawn' in tre
second and fourth lines of the first stanza.
1o How ,s the title of the poem appropriate?
11 What Is the poet's attitude to the islard's history?
12 \.I/hat is the domirant atmosphere of the poem
a,d how does it make you feel by the erd of
the poem?
Exploring word choice and meaning in poetry
Vvhen reading a poem, one often looks for Its li teral meaning. However.
the meaning cf a poem may not always be literal, but may be hidden
or symbolic. r this case. the poem may reqvire a closer reading to find
the associations between the words and ,he meaning. So when reading
a poem. it is important to look for bot'l the litera and the figurative
meaning, and to explore the technlqJes that the writer uses to convey tre
meaning. It is al so important to understand the feelings of the writer as
he conveys his ideas Ir poetr)'.Vi/hen you read strategically for the writer's
thoughts and fee!ings, tbe meaning of the poem will beco'lle clearer.
Even Such Is Time
Even such •s time, which takes in irust
Ovr yolJih, our joys, and all we have,
And pays us but witn age and dJst.
vVho in the dark and silent grave
1Nren we have wandered all cur ways
Shuts up the story of our days,
And from which earth. ard grave, and dust
The Lord will ra·se me up, I tr-Jst.
Sir Walter Raleigh, 'Even 51.,ch 1, Time'
13 \/,/hat do you t1ink rhe poem Is about?
14 Vo/hat are the themes of the poem?What words
enhance the themes of tre poem?
15 '✓</hat is tne effect of repea,irg the pronoun 'our'
In the second l'ne of the poem?
16 \/,/hat images capture ,re poet's sense of
hopelessness a'ld gloom In tne poem?
17 How is rime person,fied In the fi•st three Ines of
tre poem? Does the personlficatlo'l emphasise
the atrtude of the poet to time?
18 Vi/hat does tre word 'oJt' sJggest aboJt tne
poet's Inner co1filct?
19 How does tre comma alter the meaning of the
last line?
Exploring the structure of a poem
In your examlr,ations, you can be as~ed questio1s about the structure and
style of a poem. It is important to look at the form and ihe way in which a
poet lays out the lines and stanzas of a poem in order to convey meaning.
Read this sho•t poem and look at rhe questio1s to the right that address
the sry e and structure.
20 vVhat is the poem about?
21 VVhat mood or feelings are
conveyed by the use of the
short lines and queSlions?
22 Is the pace of the poem quick,
slow or vared? How does it
affect what the poet is wr ting
Harlem (2)
vVrat happens to a dream deferred?
Does it dry up
Like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore And then run ?
Does ·t stink liKe rotten meat?
O• crust and sugar over like a syrupy sweet?
Maybe it juSl sags
like a heavy load.
23 Does the lengtri of tre
stanzas vary? vVnat do you
think is the p,.1rpose of this?
24 Does tre poem have a distinct
rhyme screme or is It vaned?
2s Are i re stanzas ogically
Or does ir explode?
Lasgstcn Hughes. 'Harlem (21'
arranged? Does t help reinforce
the meaning of tre poem?
26 Wnat is tne poet's attitude to
the the"ne he exploits in tre
Analysing the tone, mood and atmosphere in poetry
The to1e of a poem is captured by the poet's attitude towards a subject.
VVne1 yoJ read a poem closely, yoJ can actually pick up the poet's voice.
A poet's tone can be sarcastic, serious, hostile or humoroJs. The mood
and atmosphere in a pcem Is tne feeling or feelings that are evo'<ed from
reading a poem. Tne wr ter creates the mood and atmospnere with the
use of the stylistic language, theme and selling of t'1e poem.
~ook at the following poem and d' scuss the questions wit,1 yoJr peers.
I wandered lonely as a cloud
I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o'er vales and hills,
1Nhen all at 01ce I saw a crowd.
A host. of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and danclrg In the breeze.
ContinuoJs as the stars that shine
And tw,nkle on the milky way,
They streiched in never-ending line
Along the margin of a bay:
Ter thousand saw I at a glance.
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.
27 \•Vhat Is the poem aboJ,?
28 vVhat is the tone and mood of
the poem?vvnat Iines of the
poem helped you Identify the
tone and mocd?
Tne waves beside them danced; bu, they
O~t-dld the spar<ling waves in glee:
A pcet could not out be gay,
In such a jocu1d company:
I gazed - and gazed - but little thought
vVhai wealth the sriow to me had b·oJght:
For oft, when on my couch I lie
In vacant o· in pens ve mood,
Tney flash upo>1 that Inward eye
Which is the bl'ss of solitude;
And the1 my heart with pleasure fills,
And dances with the daffodils.
Wi liam Vvo,osv,,orth, ·1 wande,ed lonely as a cloud'
Devices in poetry
As yoJ explore a poe'Yl, you may CO'Yle across several devices. So'Yle
devices, such as repetition. s·m; es, 'Yletaphcrs, imagery and symbol'sm,
are used to enhance the meaning of a poem. Others, such as
onomatopceias. personification and hyperbo1es, highlight the mood of a
poem. Alliterat'ons and asso1arce add interest to the poem.
A Red Flower
Your lips are like a southern lily red,
V./et with rhe soft rair-kisses of the night.
In wnich the brcwn bee buries deep its head,
~Vhen still the dawn's a si'ver sea of llghr.
Ycur lips betray the secret cf your soul,
The dark delicious essence that is you.
A mystery of life. the f aming goal
I seek throJgh mazy patrways strange ard new.
Your lips are the red symbol of a dream.
Vo/hat visions cf warm lilies they Impart,
That I ne the green bank of a fair b:ue stream,
Vo/itn bUiterflles and bees close to each hearr!
Brown bees that murmur sounds of music rare,
That softly fall upon the largourous breeze,
~Vafting trem gently on the quiet air
Among untended avenues of trees.
0 were hovering, a bee, to probe
Deep down within your scented heart. fair flower,
Enfolded by your soft vermilion robe,
Amorous of sweets, fer bUl one perfect hour!
Claude McKay. 'A Red F1ower'
In this poem, tne speaker •efe•s to a woman he is enthralled with. The
woman is described as an enchantress with great beauty and mystery:
'Your lips betray t'ie secret of your soul.
The dark delicious essence that is you'
With the use of imagery, among other dev·ces, you can actually feel the
emotions of the person in the poem.
Wnen you read a poem, be sure to consider the follow;ng checklist.
D Read the pcem carefully, word by word, .Ire by line to explore
the deeper meaning of it.
D As you read. ask yourself if you understand the poem.
D In an exam, read tne questions at least once to gain an
understanding of what responses are required. This also helps
you to read strategically.
D lfycu do not u1de,stand a question, try reviewirg the pcem. Be
co1sc.ous cf the ccnfusing ideas in your mind as you do so.
D Include details from the poem in your responses.
D Justify your respo1sesif required.
D Always ta~e the time to re-read your responses. Ensure It is the
idea that you really want to convey.
29 How does the imagery
capture rhe speake•'s use of
the serses?
30 Identify three poetic devices
that allow yoJ to get a new
perspective on the theme of
the ooem.
31 Describe tne feelings of the
speaker In the poem? Vo/hich
lines capture 1he emotions of
the speaker in the poem?
32 How de the rhyme scheme
and sovnd devices help to
enhance the mood of the
Doing well in Paper 1
Paper I 1ests understanding. All of
the ski s re ating to read·ng and
comprehens on in Units 1-4 w"
be required on tnls paper.
About the exam
This paper contains 60 compulsory multiple-choice questions.
Co:11pJlsory means that you have to do oil c,1e questions on the paper.
Multiple-choice questions are those that give you a range of possible
answers fro'TI which you have to select the correct one.
You are al owed 1 hoJr 30 minutes to complete al I questions.
You are required to enter your answe·s on a computer-generated form.
You should use a 2B or 3B pencil and fully blot in the circle fo· your answer.
Each question on this paper is wo·th one mark. You shou,d attempt to
answer oil 60 ques11ons.
In this Jnit you will:
The paper s organ sed into two sections.
• understand t'le comoonents of
Paper 1
• explore ,~e dlffe•ent types o'
m,iltiple-cnolce quest ens 01
the paper
• lea'<' 1--ow tc avoid mistakes.
Mistakes to avoid
Spelling and vocabulary
Sometime there are flaws in ,~e spelling or the cnoice of vocabulary in a
sentence. Let's look at cne following sernerce:
It is noticable that the envi.r onen t is slowly changing,
despite chc irrelivance given to ic by our politicians.
These words are commo1ly misspelled. The correct spelling is as follows:
noticeable, environment a1d irrelevance (see list of frequertly
misspelled words on page 33).
Some sentences also contain grammatical flaws. Let's observe tre
following senterce:
Neither the books nor the t-rophy go on the library shelf.
In this case the s,ngular verb 'go' is incorrect since the verb in an 'either/or'
er 'neither/nor' senter,ce agrees wit"l the noun er pronoun closest to it. In
this case the verb shou d be 'goes'.
1Nnlle clicres are popu!ar and enhance the meaning of words, they are
sometimes used incorfeoly. Let's loo~ at ,r· s example:
It gave Jenna piece of mind, to hear that her dog had
bee n rescued from the floods.
In this sentence, 'piece of mind' is inco•rect. 1Nhat the writer intended to
say is rather 'peace of mind'. which means that Jenna fe t calm when she
got the news that her dog was safe.
l et's loo~ at arotrer example:
'fhc teacher made a mountain o f a m ole hole when the
boy made a small e rror in the rest.
In tris semence. the writer means to say ·mountai1 cf a molehill' suggesting
tl',at tl',e issue was small and b•cwn ol.ll of proportion.
Misused metaphor
1/vhen two or more Jnrelated 'lletapriors are used tcgetrer. t'ley no lo1ger
make sense.The meaning 1ra1 the writer Intended to convey is lost and
the sentence soJnds ridiculous. Th,s is what we call misused metaphors.
Lock at this examp e:
T he trade union leader cold the members, 'Ifyou nip it
in the bud, the cat will be out of the bag'.
In this sentence, It is difficult to find a cornection between the twc metaphors.
One does not support tre other to el'lhance the meanlrg cf the sentence.
When the same Information is repeated In a sentence or paragraph it may
be intenticna'. fo• effect, or It may be an e·ror. as In th s example:
Sam angrily slam-ned the book on the table as he was
In this sentence, Sam's state of mind Is made obvious by the use of tne
adverb 'angr"y'. so 'as he was furious' is a red Jndancy and should be cut.
Questions 1-25
The first 25 mult:ple-choice questions are blocked in five groJps of rve.
They test yoJr skil Is in:
• vocabulary
• grammar
• finding equivalent meaning
• cliche ar.d m'sused metaphor
• redundancy or otrer fa Jlty word choice.
Section 1 (Questions 1-2S) has different types of question and you need to
be familiar with them.
Type 1
Directions: Each sentence in this section has one underlined word.
Choose from the four options, the word which is closest to opposite
in meaning to the underlined word.
This type of quest'on tests your vocabulary. Note tl'-at the requirement
mig'n not always be 10 find a word that Is opposite in meaning (an
antonym) but the Instruction will clearly State wl',at aspect of vocabulary
you need to provide. An example of this SO't of quesrion would be:
The wealth disp'ayed In the southern cities, compared to those In the
north. ind'cated the wide gap between rich and poor.
A misery
8 affluence
C poverty
D opulence
You are likely to krow what ·wealth' means, but what is the opposite? You
may srrugg e with the meanirg of'affiuence' and 'opulence: but since ore
of the options is 'poverty'- c,early an antony'TI o''wealtn' - this one can be
selected with confidence.
Now try t,'lese three sente'lces:
1 He was very unskilled In me field of engineering, but always willlrg
to earn.
A polite
B careless
C adept
D convincing
2 The servings in tre resiaurant were adequate.
A generous
C satisfactory
B minuscule
D insufficient
3 The medicine was efficacious in every way.
A vil e
B unsuccessful
C powerful
D active
Tne best way to Improve your vocabulary is through the widest possible
read! ng - but rem em be• to lcok up ar,y words you come across trat you
do not know the meaning cf.
Directions: Each sentence in this section is followed by four alternative sentences. Choose the one nearest in meaning to the original
sentence. Be sure to read all four options before you select your
This type of question tests your understanding of precise detail. Notice
how you are asked for tre one nearest in meaning. This suggests that
more than 01e is slm'lar In meaning but that there Is one 1ra1 Is most
suitable. Your task Is to identifywr'ch one. In order to do this. you need to
read close y, fo, example:
The ooys. raving returned early and unexpectedly from their fishing
trip, proceeded to boast about their great adventu•es and successes.
A After their tshlng trip, tre boys boasted about their great
adventures and successes.
B Having boas,ed about their great adventures and successes, i re
boys set out en tneir fishing Hip.
C The boys returned early from the;r fishing trip because of their
many adventJres and successes.
D The boys boasted abovi tneir g•ear adventures and st.recesses,
having terminated their fishing trip.
In this example, you can elimlr,ate Bimmediately as It suggests the boys
boasted before their fisning trip. This is clear y w,ong.
You can also eliminate C, as the origina , sentence does not suggest they
retJrred because of 1heir adventures and successes.
That leaves A and D. Both are similar in meaning to tre o·igir,al sertence.
However, D reflects the early and unexpected return through the word
'terminated'. Therefore.D is nearest in meaning.
Now rry 1h;s sentence:
After finishing schoo' In 1965. Cardinal Warde left Baroados and
became an internationall)' respected researcher and Inventor in
the lie,d of etecuical er,gineerirg.
A Cardinal vVarde became a recognised figure in electrical
engineering after leaving schoo1in Barbados.
B The international researcrer and inventor in electric.ii eng'neering,
Cardinal~Varde, left Barbados 1n 1965 after finishing scrool.
C The 8ajan electrical engineering researcher and inventor,
Cardinal vVarde, finished scrool In 1965.
D Because of his schooling in Barbados, Card:nal vVarde achieved
widespread fame in the field of elecrrica erg·neerirg.
Directions: Revise each of the following sentences according to the
directions that follow it. You may delete or include words but do
not change the meaning of the original sentence. Look at the
options A, 8, C and D for the word or phrase that must be included
in your revised sentence.
These qvest,ons (there are usually five of them) test your grammarcal
knowledge. Generally, they will ask you to charge a word or two in tne
g·ven senterce, or to begin it differently, whicn will alter ore o• mo·e of
the grammatical elements in the rest of the semence. Here ·s ar example:
In t11e ·ehearsal the darcers became~ exhausted after a while and
had 10 take ar, eiqended b•eak.
Change underlined word to: fil
A and consequent y tney
8 and they
C for they
D that they
·very' is an intensifying adverb trat can be fo' lowed by an adjective
('exhausted') but 'sd is a degree adverb and must be fellowed by
·it,ai - pronour·. Tne only suggestion that fi1s this construction is option D.
Now rry these two senterces:
1 He 1led to his grandfather io ccdec to avoid do:ng his chores.
Change underlined words to: in or,ler that
A re might avoid
8 heavo,ded
C re will avo·d
D he had to avo:d
2 lnterd·ng 10 9c home at ·,0 p.m .. the girl told rer friends to get
to the party ear y.
Begin the sentence witn: ·1intend to go home at l Op.m.', the
gir said to her frier,ds,
A 'so 1ra1 her fr,ends should get to the party early'.
'a1d 11y t-iends need to get to the party early:
C 'because they snould get to the party ea•ly:
0 'so you should get to the party early:
Directions: Some of the following sentences are unacceptable
because of inappropriate grammar, idiom or vocabulary. Some
sentences are acceptable as they stand. No sentence contains more
than one inappropriate element.
Choose the one underlined part of the sentence that you feel is
inappropriate by selecting the right letter A, B or C. If the sentence
is acceptable as it stands, choose D.
This type of question ,ests your kriowledge of grammar, idiom ar.d
vocabulary. Your task is to ldenrfywhether each semence rs acceptable. If
It is, then you should choose option D. If not, you choose tne letier
assigned to an Ir.correct word or phrase. Look at the fol owing example:
The choir boy~ as though~ life depended on ir. No error
The sentence is in ,re past tense and yet the verb'sing'ls ,re plural form of
the preserit tense. The correct word would be ·sang: Therefore, A is the
right ans·Ner.
Now read tre rext sentences and choose tre right letter:
1 Al Christmas, several Qf the child•en were Ill because they
i'ad had too much sweets. No error
2 They searcred rhe area and ctoose a fabu oJs venue for
forthcoming wedding. No error
3 Not one of tne losing team ventured forward to offer
congratulatio~s to the victors. No error
Directions: Select the option A, B, C, or O that best describes each of
the sentences below.
A The sentence is acceptable as it stands.
B The sentence contains cliches or misused metaphors.
C The sentence is incorrect grammatically or faulty in diction.
D The sentence is too wordy, that is, repetitive or contains
Clearly, in order to answer tnis type of quest°01 you need 10 be confident
that you ur.derstand tre technica terms involved:
• cl'che
• misused metaohor
• diction
• redundancy.
Each sentence will only rave 01e error from tne three crolces li sted (8, C
or D) or no er'ors at all. Ir is important that if you read tne sentence several
times and can see nothlrg wrong virh it, ycu should se1ec1 option A. Do
not waste ti-ne desperately loo~ing for errors that are not there. but move
on to the next question. As an example. cons'der this senter.ce:
In my oo nlon, think that the vVest Ind'es were once the best cricket
team in the world but have recently declined.
In ,his se1tence 'In my opin 01' and 'I think' mean the same th ng. so
there is no need for ooth.This is a redundancy error, so Dis tne right
1 Whe1 the ooy shouted at ris classmate
the teacrer told him 1odes·st sirce
tl°'at way friends1ips were ruined.
2 One of the finest. if not the finest,
paintings by Monet hangs in the
LoJvre in Paris.
3 He knew that when his grandfu,her
~icked the bJcket re would be very
4 The cotton wool cloJds drifted in
the leaden sky.
Questions 26- 60
The second nal f of tne paper tests understanding of who e texts. F ve
texts will be provided. with five multiple-choice questions on each
text. There v/11 be a m·xture of text types, but there wil I almost
certainly be a poem, one or more expository texts, a persuasive text
and a grapric text.
Once aga,n, wide read·ng of both fiction. poetry and non-fiction, inc uding
texts such as advertisements that rely heavily 0:1 graphics,· s the way to
ens•Jre success on this section of Paper 1,
In this section, you will be rested on yoJr skills ,n:
• comprehensior (yoJr understanding of the detail)
• inference (yoJr abili ty to workout things from the de,all)
• ana ys,s (your ability to examine detail s closely)
• evaluation (yo:.ir ability ro judge and assess 11e detai ).
You may tind It helpful to read the poem. then read through al I the
questions on it. and ther read the poem again. Sometimes the quest1ons
help to g·ve you a better understand'ng of the poem.
Directions: Read the following poem carefully and then answer
questions 1-7 on the basis of what is stated or implied.
,o roads diverged In a yellow wood.
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
Tc where it bent in the urdergrowth;
Then !Ook the other, as Just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim
Because twas grassy ard wanted wear,
Though as fer that tne passing there
Had worn them really about the same.
And both that mo,ning eqJally lay
1n leaves no step had trodden blac~.
Oh. I marked the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to v,ray
doubted if I should ever come bac~.
shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages ard ages herce:
Two roads diverged in a wood. ard I,
took tne one less trave ed by,
And that has made all ,re difference.
Robert Frost, 'The Road Not Take•·
This question 1s testing your
comprehension. Your
understanding of the poem in
general will help you to choose
the correa answer.
This question is testing your
comprehen~ion. Make sure you
focus on the lines indicated.
1 \/'/hen ,he poet says 'two roads diverged'(line 1) he means
the roads:
A were of eqJal length
B ran parallel to each oiber
C went in different directions
D had grass verges.
2 n lines 2- 3 tne poet w;shes he could:
A end his Journey
B travel both reads
rest on the grass
D see where eac~ road leads.
This question is testing your ability
to lnfe1 meaning based on the
detail given.
3 The poet implies:
A t,~ere was no good reason for his cnoice of road
B the 'Oad he chose had not been walked down
C the road he cbose was the fa,rest of the two
D he gave litt1e thought to wl-ich road he would take.
4 The road be chooses ,s a metaphor fo,,
This question is testing your abili1y
to infer meaning based on the
detail given.
lhis question is testing your ability
to evaluate.
A the Indecislon of the poet
B the path be bas taken In life
C the wear and tear of daily life
D tne prob,ems in his life.
The word that can BEST be used to describe the mood of the
poet is:
A sorrovvfur
B depressed
C confused
D Vlstful.
l his question 1s testing your abll11y
co infer mea111ng based on the
detail given.
6 The poet implies that choices In life:
A are best left to chance
B should be given a lot o' thought
C always lead to bad things
D are often made by chance but can decide the futvre.
7 The poet shifts from looking to tne past to looking to tne
This quest1on is cestmg your ilbility
co anal)'Se.
future 1n:
A line 4
B line 11
C line 16
D line 20.
Directions: Read the following extract carefully and then answer
questions 1-8 on the basis of what is stated or implied.
You May Rnd it helpful :o read rhe extraa, 1he'1 read rhrough all the
q1,estior.s o:i It, and then read the extract aga n. Soll'etiires the questio1s
help to g·ve you a bet,er unde·standing o'the extract.
How cell phones wreak havoc on teen sleep patterns: Just two hours a day of gossiping on the
phone 'dramatically affects young body clocks'
Cell phones are wreaking havoc on teeragers· sleep patterr,s, a new study warns.
Adolescents have never had such poor seep: they sleep less, wake up In the night more, and tend to be
more s eepy In the daytime than previous ~enerations.
Accordi11g to a new study by University of Mornrea, It is no
coincidence that th·s Is the most sociat med•a·dependent
gene·ation to date.
Researcrers found the more teens sooke on the phone.
texted a11d rraw ed social media before bed. the worse their
sleeping patterns were.
The worrying ~ndlrg has emerged Just a week after t!-ie
Amer"can Academy cf Pediatr"cs loosered its gl.:'delines on
screen time for kids, saying we have to b€ 'realistic' - despite
the health dar,gers.
Bute ectro1ic media are becoming a larger pan of teen·s lives
and are often used oefore bed, warned Jennifer O'Loughlin,
an autho• of the paper i~ the journa Sleep Heolrh and
researcher at tne University of Montreal.
To explore the l"nk between t me spent usirg elearonlcs like
video games.TVs and phores ard the amount of sleep tee11s are getting, tre study team aralyzed data
from a Montreal•based study of high school students.
More than 1,200 students 1"1 ro 16 years old comple,ed questionnaires between 2008 and 2009 reporting
on how often tr1ey used electronics, Including watching television, as well as row often they did other
sedentary activit'es like readirg. doing homework or talking on the pho1e.
Teens also answered quest ons about what time they usually went to sleep ard woke up on wee~days
and weekends.
Researchers found that l<ids who used computers and video games for more 1ran two hovrs per day slepr
17 and 11 minutes less, respectively, than youth who used screens for ess time.
One in three teens •Jsed computers for more than two hours per day and they were mo·e than twice as
like y as the others to sleep less than eight hours per night.
Teens who talked on t1e ohone for ar least two hours daily were also three times more like y rt-an tnose
w'1o didn't ro full short of eight hours of seep.
\-1/atchirg TV had the opposite effeet on sleep, and teens wro watched two hours or more per day were
ha f as likely to s1eep less than eight hours compared to others.
Youtn who used t'1e computer or talked on tne p'lone for mo·e than two hours per day also repo•ted
more s eeplr.ess dJr: rg the day tnan tnose who spent less t,me using dev ces.
Teens who engaged in other sedentary activities tnat did not involve screens such as reading did not report
getting less sleep tkan rhe'r peers.
'Kids reed sleeo to grow, perlod:sa1d Christina Calamaro, a research director who studies teens and s,eep
loss at Nemours Alfred I. DuPont Hospital for (hiidren in V✓ilmlngton, Delaware.
Calamaro added that miss'19 out of' sleep increases young people's rls< for oepression, p•oblems witn
thinking a11d attention, and weight gain.
Calamaro advised that parents should model healthy sleep behaviour ard not use elect•onics in the
bedroom. 'It Is lmpcrtant that they set tne standa·d for healtny sleep routines!' sre said In a" email.
O'Loughlin recorn'l1ended that parents keep an eye on tre·r chi'o'en's screen time mrougrout the day.
Sre added: 'Ta1kirg to your child about why It s Important to limit screen time If they are experiencirg sleep
prob•ems may also be important:
'How ce 'I ohoces 1ereak navoc on teens eep panerns. Jusl t•,-/o nours a day of gosslp:ng on the phone "oramatl<:4 ly
affects young bodyclocks".M•a Oe Graai
daiiyma.l.com, 28 October 2016
1 V•/hat is the intention of rhe write' in this article?
A To show tr-at teenagers have no discipline when it comes to
the use of e,ectronic media.
8 To emphas·se tr-at electronic '11edia does the most damage tc
teenagers when it is used at bedtime.
C To make you aware that t~ere is a direct relaticnship between
the use of electronic media and sleep patterns.
D To tell you that pa'ents are responsible for the use of cell
phones amcng teenagers in the home.
2 The writer's use of refe·erces in the passage serves mainly to:
A appeal to the reader's sense of logic
discuss rhe dive'se opinions of the researchers
show rhot he is well read
D support his po1nt of view.
3 The idiom ·wreaKing havoc· means:
A to cause damage
to trigger chaos
to contribute to ao·Jse
D tc elicit pain.
4 Voihich of1~e follcw,ng statements are rrue?
The University of Mcntreal found 1r-a1the p•esent teenage
populaton is very media-dependent.
Just two hcurs a day of talkif'g on the p~cne, texting or bei1g
on line, increases the r,sk of getting fewer than e,ght hovrs of sleep.
iii rvlodelled benavicur is not a cause of electronic media abuse
by teenagers.
Iv Tnere is a direct relatiorship between sleep ard growth rate in
A i, i j, iii
i, iii, iv
C i, ii, iv
D i, ii, iii, iv
5 What are t"le regat've effects of poor sleep patterns suggested in
the article?
It affects your alertness during the day.
ii It can contribute to depressio~.
iii It can trigger weight gai r.
iv It hampers one's abil'ty to read.
A i, ii, iii
i, iii, iv
D i, ii, iii, iv
6 Tre style of the passage is mainly:
A rarrative
D expository.
7 According to the writer, who can make a diffe·er.ce in teenagers·
use of electronic media?
A Role models
B Parents
C Researchers
D Dieticians
8 The writer uses the techniqJe cf co11parison In the extract to:
A t,·gnlight the sleep pattern differences between avid teenage
electronic med·a use·s and teenagers who engage in activities
that de not Involve media use
t,·gnlight the sleep pattern differences between tee1agers who
use electronic media fer entertainment and trose who used it
for productive purposes
C emphasise tl,at teenagers who use electronic devices durirg
the day are mere li~ely to fee sleepy than nig~t-1 me users
D empt,asise tl'-at tee1agers who use electronic devices for three
hours a day contract more health issues than those who use it
for only two hours a day.
Doing well in Paper 2
Paper 2 ,esrs expression, A of the
SKills related to writing In different
styies ard for d•fferent purpqses If'
un·ts 1-4 will be req_ilred en th,s
About the exam
Paper 2 is drvided into four sect'cns (A-D). You will have 2 hours 45
m·nutes 10 complete it.
Sectio1s A. Band D each i'ave one compulsory quest io1. Seetion C has
two questions, from which you must choose one.
The requirements cf each seC<io:1 are as follows (rc1e that the order In
which rhe writing types appear may chaf'ge from year to year).
Section A: Summary - 30 marks - recommended time 40 minutes
h this -.1nlt you will:
• understand trie comoonents of
Paper 2
• explore tbe dlffere1t t','pes o'
wr'ting required en tne oaper.
Section 8: Communicating factual information (expository
writing) - 30 marks - recommended time 35 minutes
Section C: Narrative writing (short story) - 25 marks- recommended
time 45 m' nutes
Section D: Argumentative and/or persuasive writing -
25 marks -
recommended time 45 minJtes
Section A: Writing a summary
this section, yoJ will be asKed to write a summary of approximately
120 words, based on an eXlraet (normally an article).
Your af'swer wil' be assessed on how well you:
• identify the main ideas in the extract
, identify the opiniof's In the extract
• organise and express the main Ideas and opinions in your own words
• write your answer :n continuous prose
• use appropriate grammar. sentence struct•Jres, vocabulary, spelling and
Putyourse'f In the position o'the examiner who:
• looks first tc see if the word limit has been exceeded and stops reading
at t~at point, d:sregardirg all else
• t'len locks to see whether the candidate has undersrood and can clearly
identify the main points in the passage
• then assesses whether the candidate has put those points together in a
clear and logical manner using his/her own words.
Be prepared
To summarise we'I. you need to use both yovr reading ano your writing skills.
The passage to be summarised is usJally taken from a rewspaper o·
magaz:ne that caters to the general p~blic. Aim to read a w 'de range oi
newspaper and magazine artic'es and editorials to help familiar.se yourself
with rhe larg'Jage used in them.
Make sure also that you know ~ow many words yoJ usually wr,te in a line
and t'1e '1umber of lines you reed to write to equal 120 words. This g;ves
yoJ a good gJide to how long your summa·y should be.
The best revision you can do Is to practise writ'ng summaries. Set a time
limit of 40 minutes and keep vithin It. Follow these steps 10 write a
sum-nary of the passage o-i the fol owirg page:
PREPARATION - 5 minutes
Read the full passage to gain an overview ard work out how the different
parts are conneaed.
ROUGH COPY - 10 minutes
dentify key words and use these to summarise key points In each paragraph.
• Make a list of tbe key points to be included In tbe summary.
• Insert conrectives to link yo·Jr key po·nts.
Cut your wo·d count by de,eting unnecessary repet'tion and detail.
Replace wo,ds and ph·ases witn your own words as far as poss' ble.
Write yoJr summary, organising ard lnKing your key points.
'Nrlte one or two paragrap"ls.
[n the past 30 years, consumer associations have
become increasingly popular.1'hc larger ones
publish their own magazine, which relics on the
subscriptions or members plus, in some countries,
a government grant. No advertisements are
accepted, so the magazine is entirely objective and
cannot be influenced by advertisers.
A major aint in a typical consumer magazine
is to reveal the 'best buys' in each category, e.g.
TV secs, digital radios, mobile phones,
dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, cars, etc. \'ilithin a
specific cacegory, each item is ccstcd and then
ranked as co ics reliability, quality, price, ere. If an
item is faulty - perhaps because it breaks down,
is too noisy or doesn't do what its maker claims ic
does - the fault is exposed and backed by careful
testing and research. /\1ost consumer associations
keep up-t0-da1e information on their web sic.c, so
it is easy for a buyer in che market for, say, a car
or a TV set, co check che consumer reports and
get full information before making a decision
about which item co bU)'.
In addition LO the extensive resting of new
items, the consumer association will give details
of items and companies 10 avoid. fl will wam
readers of dishonest plumbers and elcco-icians,
cowboy bu ildcrs who overcharge, financial
advisers who arc more interested in their own
profi t than that of their clients, insurance
policies chat look good but aren't, guarantees
that arc not worth the paper they arc printed on,
and a host of other n-icks in whac is loosely
called the 'business wodd'.
ln a consumer magazine we can also expecc
to see in teresting letters rrom readers, warning
the public of some new scam or seeking help
with !heir own problems. For example, a reader
may buy an air-conditioner or a suite of
furniture and then find that the goods arc noc as
advertised .The reader can write to the
consumer magazine and receive guidance as to
his or her legal righcs. ln addition, the magazine
will print regular articles on common legal
issues such as getting deposits refunded,
dealing with threatening lct1crs rrom suppliers,
and ocher problems about which many
consumers arc ignorant.
\Vhen a consumer association carries out its
tests andior research, it sends employees ouc to
buy or ccst equipment. They may use secret
cameras or recorders to make a reliable record
of each transaction, so that there can be no
legal action by manufacturers when their goods
arc listed as unsatisfactory or far from being a
'besc buy'.
Undoubtedly, consumers associations are a
powerful influence for good. Not only do the)'
help consumers in the ways described above,
but they keep manu facturcrs on their roes. No
manufacturer likes to sec their goods described
as 'dangerous for children' or 'having no value
as medicine' or 'twice as expensive and half as
good as the best buy'. Manufacturers know thac
consumer associations arc watching them and
that these associations arc backed by both the
public and the government..
Check your word co..int and the technical accuracy of your w,itten Erglish,
makirg any further helpful change;.
You purchased an electrical item from a well-known retailer. On arrival
home you noticed that tne wir,ng going into the plug looked faulty.
You attempted to return che item b J l you were told tnat it was on sale
ard the manager refused to give you a refund or replacemern.
\II/rite a letter to a consumer protection group or the editor of a
newspaoe· in which you complair about the quality of the product
ard rreatment which you received.
Section B: Expository writing
Ir this section you wil be asked to write a letter, report, email or article.
You will be grven a scenar'o followed by instructions about what 10 write.
Here is an example:
Your answer will be assessed on how wel I you:
• formatted your letter
• selected relevant and complete informatio1
• organised and exp·essed the information 1n your letter
• used appropriate grammar, sentence structure, vocabulary, spelling and
Your letter MUST be in continuous prose.
Ma~e sure to irclude all the details that would help in highligrting the
matter. Your letter should include details o' the complair.t, fer examp,e:
• date ard time of purchase
• ccst of tne tern
• specific condition of the item
• resoonse of staff.
You recently organised a large-scale sponsored activity. Most of the
students In tre scrool were involved and raised a considerable sum
of money for charity. The Principal is p·oud of your achievement ar,d
asks yoJ to write a report for the Board of Governors to help chem
understand tne process a'ld the result.
vVrite your report for the Board of Governors. In it, explain what the
sponsored activ ty was and how you went abou, o•ganising t.
As you can see, this question prov des a good deal of guidance as to wrat
you should write.Tnere is a frameworK g·ven to yov for what to Include in
the answer and also a list cf exactly wnat you will be assessed or.
Take time to read the scenario carefully and make sure rhat in yourwritirg
you follow the instruaio1s exactly.
Practise your skill s with th,s question:
Your answer will be assessed on how well you:
• structured your report
• selected relevant and comp' ete lnfo·mation
• expressed the informatio'l in yo·Jr report
• used appropriate grammar. semence structure, vocabulary. spell ing
ard pvnctuation.
Your report MUST be in continuous prose.
Make sure to Include all i re details that would exp'ain the process, the
outcome and what made the Prncipal proud. You should Include:
. f
hieh ·cu .\i!re rals =ig money
• details 0 , the orga1,sa11or er w
> •
• detai's o' the socnscred activity
e ·rho
• howycuwe,"t aboJ'•o·ganis ,., 9 arge 1ul"lbers o peoo ..
tcck part
. , · r, oa -,ed
• 11e outcome S, ~
from re'p,rg a geed cause.
ex&H"-•~rs offty s.o""-t ve'1:l ntlpf°',<L Advt.et c"' now i:,o..c.
eA"' •"'-l'YO\lt i:,01.<Y wYi.ti."'-0 of short stoYits 11-tei:, sai:,
i:,o..c. shoL<Ld:
• l'LA"' t,OL<Y '!>lot ei:tYef..c.Ui:, so that tve...ts £1Yt
•MtYtsti"'-0, Ytltva...t a~ efftehvtLt, s.tqL<t"-Ctd
• ..c.se rellva...t details. a~ dtsenptio"' to eYtatt s.etti."'-0,
at"'-ospntYt a~ enayaettY
..c.se S.ol¾t dialog"<t, b"'t l'\.Ot too "'-L<eh, to add vaYittt,
• eheeR. t,o"'r wYiti."'-0 eartf..tti:, .
Sxa"""'~rs als.o s.at, tnAt tht btst stones tt~ to fall
wi.thi"' oY "-Ct too fay O"<tsidt the woytj L,....,,t_Sto~ts
tkat s.treten •...to fo"<r; f.,ve oY l¾OYt j>i:tges. te~ to be
ya"'-bli."'-0, OL<t of eo...tYoL a~ weA~.
Section C: Narrative writing
t Write a story based on tne p,cture below.
this section you wil be given a croice of two quest,cns. Both will be a
stimulus to help you crea1e a short story.The instrucrions fo, this section
will read as follows:
2 wr;te a story tnat begins wirh these words:
It had been a long journey, but today, aftc_r so many
hardships, tl'lC)' had finally arrived home.
Your answer shoJld oe approximately 400 to 450 wo·ds in length.
You MUST write in Standard English. However, dialect may be 1,,sed in
1Nrite your answer on
me ru, ed pages prov ded. YoJ are expected to write
within tre word limi,. Tnere may be more space than you reed. There is a
b!ank space for any notes you may want to make.THIS 'NILL NOT BE
Ir your answer, you will be assessed on how we I you:
• used the stimulus provided
• developed and o·ganised the co·nent of your writirg
• used language aopropria1e to your audience. purpose and content
• used appropriate grammar. sentence structure, paragraphs, vocabulary,
spelling and pur.ctuat:on.
Be prepared
t>Xal¾ti'\,eys of{ey SOl¾l
ve't! 11eLJ>fut advice 0 ,,.,,
now !;:jOu ca.,, '"'-J>Yove
1::fOuy wviti"-0 to aygue
OYJ>eYsuade. 11>let:I sa1::1
tntit !;:jOu snouLd:
You developed your skill s in writing sho•t stories in Unit 3 and you may
fir,d ·1 helpful to revisit that urit befo•e continuing.
The tasks for writing a story may vary. YoJ shoJld think of the titles as
hooks o, which to 'hang'your story.
3 V✓•ite an
• Yttld tke questio.,,s
ctivefuLLt:1 ci.,,ci l¾ake
SUYt t:fO"- u.,_deYSt&l,,._,d
ti-le ket:1 wol'ds
• seLect t:fO"-Y J>oi""ts
cavefuLL1::f Clv.,d cl-loose
GXC!l¾pLes to SUJ>j>Ort
the""'• give t:fO"-Y ow.,, poi~
of view YatneY tl1ti""
'Ni1at t:fO« tl-itl'I.~ tl,ie
GXCI l¾i.,,e..- wi;i ~s 1::IOL<
to SCI l;:j
· ~eq w.e=e t:101.<v poi"'ts
Logical ovdey
• w.se Lti"'91.<age to
peYs«tide 11o«y Yt&1deY
• be co""Siste"'-C a.,,ci
'"" Cl
cLeciy '"' 1::IOL<Y
essay giving yoJr views on ,h·s statement:
,\<loney is essential for happiness.
Speaker A: Adults who smoke or drink have no right to teU us
how to live our lives.
Speaker B: He)•!They have other experiences th at we can and
shot1ld learn from.
'Nrite an essay supporting EITHER speaker A OR speaker B,
You may be given a picture or p~otograph and asked to write a story
based on t, fer example:
You may be given a few sentences and asked to wri,e a story whicn starts
with. ends with or contains tt,ese sentences, for example:
Section D: Writing to argue or persuade
In this section ycu will be given one question only. It will g've you a few
derail s of a situat on, followed bywnat text type you are supposed to write
(for example, the words for a speech or an argumentative essay).
The instructions are giver ike this:
You MUST answer this question. You, answer should be ap;:roximate,y 250
to 300 words in lengtn.
You MUST write in Standard English. vVrite your answer on 1he ruled pages
provided. You are expected to wr:te within the word limit. There may be
'Tlore space tran you need.There is a blank page for any notes you want
In your answer you will be assessed en:
• the clarity. crgar sation and development of your argument
• the correctness of grammar, sentences, paragraphs, vocabulary, spelling
and punctuation.
In each of these sentences a word or set of
words is missing. Choose the option A, B, C or
D that best completes each sentence.
1 The cng drawn out _ _ n Middle Easte•n
ccunrries riusi lead to global economic ___
Each of the following sentences has one
underlined word. Choose from the four
options, the word which is closest to opposite in
meaning to the underlined word.
6 The househo ds became e,emles. leading to
B debate ..... tesms
C negot at ens . . .. fa Jre
some disastrous results.
A catastrophic
B fortunate
D decision ...... disaster
C unlikely
A conf ct ..... hardship
2 Studer,ts experie1ce feelirgs of ___ and
_ __ when tney tnink their ieacrers are
mocking trem.
D disagreeable
7 The cu o·it confessed his crime, and because he
was co1;rl1e. he was pardoned.
A anger .. . . resentme,t
A apo,cgetlc
B cor,tempt ...... sympa1ry
C alarm ..... oss
B Jubilart
C regretfvl
D boredom ...... inadequacy
D Judicous
3 1Ne were surprised w,ien he spoKe so o•iefiy at
the meetlrg because he Is nocma y _ __
A p:ecise
B cor.cise
C oquaclous
D famboyarr
4 Wre, aw brea<s dow,. ___ and ___ are
B The graduating c ass wore doleful oo<S on trelr
faces even 1ncug~ trls s'ioJld be a haopy occasion.
A disbelieving
B dlsires,ed
D pen:uroed
9 Having taken 1ne luggage grudglng:y to the
rooms, the po•ter still wared expectanuy fer h·s tip.
A dlsronesty ... .. so,rltJality
A rapidly
B obliglngy
B dismay .... .. death
C anarchy ..... corrvpiio1
C unwillingly
D 'allure ..... punishment
D careess y
5 T'le ___ lawyer fi ed a su t aga nst :re
10 Tre tecrn'cian was recruited oy a la•ge firm
la1dlord fo• ur.Just eviction from his apar1mert.
A delendant's
specialising In refrigeratlor
A ua ned
B oaintf's
B appo'nted
c dlsm:ssed
D promoted
C o·osecutor's
D attorney's
Select the option A, 8, C, or D that best
describes each of the sentences below.
A The senterce Is repetitive or co~ialns
17 The outgo!r.g class pres'de1t planned tre
cerer1ol"y fer the lnsiallation of the new class
coJnc ,,
Begin with 'Since It was his duty'
The se1,erce con1ai1s cl'ches or m·sused
The se1,ence Is incorrec. grammar.ca' ly or
fau zy ir diciio'l.
D The se1terce Is acceotable as It siands.
11 Good soeake•s are ,rose wno rind cut
so'llethirg about rheir aud ence, and c1oose
tre r language and · 't.,strations to appea to tre
largest secilo1 oftrat audience.
12 In certalr ftood•oro1e areas where trere Is ro
proper d,a '1age sysrem flooding Is a proolem
wren r rains heavi,y fo• ever only a few short
13 I' you sit on your 'aurels and do nothing
opporrun·ty will knock only once a1d yov will
be eft at the starting post.
14 It is us not him, wno st-ould have the cha1ce
of anendin9 ;re confe•ence 111:s year, sirce he
wert twice befo,e.
15 To get an educaton and afterwards rind a
vl,ell-paylng job Is the goa of most young
people, bur ,bey do not apprec,ate t1e
need 10 think of self-employment as an
Revise each of the following sentences
according to the directions that follow it. You
may delete or include words but do not change
the meaning of the original sentence. Look at
the options A, B, C and D for the word or phrase
that must be included in your revised sentence.
B to plan
n oannlrg
D to be plarning
18 The cesemony started as soo1 as the last
teacher entered the schoo r-all.
Reolace vs soon as· wit'l 'no sooner'
A has
B rhan
D was
19 His pa rems gave him help and ercou,ageme1t,
but r-e was 10c prepared to work.
Begin With 'Although'
A being nelped
B oeen encouraged
C was encouraged
D ne was give'1
20 The high cost of liv,19 cavsed by the economic
crisis does rot prevert people from soe1dlng
8egi'1 with 'Tnee,onomic crisis·
A has the cost cf livlrg h gn
B has raised tne cost of ving
has a high cost of llvlrg
D has ving cost high
16 ~Vhen he had p•epared the beds, he planted
bctn okra and co•n.
Begin wi,h 'Alter'
A preparing
B having been prepared
has prepared
D be ng preoared
Furtr-er practice questions
and examples can be found
on the accompanying website.
In Items 21-25, one word Is underlined.
Choose from the four options the one which
is nearest in meaning to the underlined word.
21 The teache' complimented her stude1ts for
their cutstandirg work.
A praised
A slowly
B effortlessly
C 'ast
D ca•efully
24 The electrician cnanged the wiring In tre
ouildlng to ensu•e that all tre plugs worked.
A guara1tee
B thar<ed
C ercouraged
B rectify
C decide
D rewarded
22 The bus driver swerved to avo d ~itt,ng rt>e
St'ay a1 rnals.
D Jnderstar.d
25 The graduaron was an elabprare affair rrai was
e1joyed oy everyo1e.
A turned
B veered
A comp' icated
C shifted
B extravagant
D rotated
C SOPh'st cated
23 T'ie students walked brlsl<lv to tne ectu'e room
as soor as tney hea•d that tre class had started.
Read the following advertisement carefully and then answer questions 26-32 on the
basis of what is stated or implied.
The \Vay \Ve Think?
Every op porrunity is gold - ban k on it!
T he business world is dynamic - be flexible!
1\1ake 1echnology work fo r us - be quick!
E fficient
The Services \Ve Provide?
onUne or face ... to-face solutions for your fi"anci'al needs:
Corporate b an king
M erchant ban king
Private banking
Asset managemen t
We are an)'\\'here in the C a ribbean:
Cuba, Cayman Islan ds, Dominican Republic_, Barbados, Grenada, Guyana,
S, Lucia, 'Trinidad and Tobago
Look u s up o n the Web at lnnovati'veBa11hi11g. coni o r fi nd u s in t he yellow pages of your local p hone-guide.
26 What express en sJggests that t~e bank Is
takir.g a fresr app,oacn to Its business?
27 1Nl''ch ba~~ing service snot clearly offered 1'1
the I st of'innovative ba1~ing'?
A Our i'lew buzz phr<!se
A Loans ,o business
B The services we provide
C nncvatlve banki19
B Corpo•ate ba1~lng
C Online ban~ing
D ,1,1ake 1echno cgy work for JS
D Asset ma~agement
28 The Fst: Fas1, Efficient, Reliable refers to:
A All of rre bank's services
31 The ,ast two sePtences are besr descr'bed as
Intending to:
A anract bank managers
B The bus 1ess wo•ld
C Available ,echno;ogy
B attract business perso1s
D Online banking
C stlmu·ate competition
29 The exoressio1 Every opporn.m.it1 is gold ,s arexa'Tlp e of:
D promote travel.
32 Tne text may best be described as:
A oersonlficaf on
B hyperoole
A infor'Tlat,ve
C simile
D pur,.
B inrovatlve
30 The informa,ion g,ven in tne text is mostly:
A recommendation
B supposition
C fact
D good guess-work.
C comparative
D attract.ve.
Read the following poem carefully and then answer questions 33-37 on the
basis of what is stated or implied.
The Ice-Cream Man
The ice-cream van ;ir-~les dowr
tre aver ue at dusk, to the tune of'Home, home or the range~
although no deer or artelope play In ,h's nee< of rhe upscale
concrete woods. He must nave iost
his way, gliding like the gracefJI white
swar- oJt of a oygone dream time, wrere
chi·dren frol'ck'ng on Wl;!li-keor lawns
rus~ed oJ, ar tne sou'ld of his sweet approacr
Yo~ ca,i't even see ire lawns or gardens
now, only the high, ourglar-dauntlng
walls. Yet you hear cne van stop and wait
for a min•Jte or two, then t;nkle or
again, The Ice-cream ma'l has done
his market research well. His cllenrele?
The securizy guards at the gates o' rhe gated
communlt es w11ich give the avenue Its class.
The mora, o' rhe story? A sweet tooth is no respecter of persons.
Edwaro Baugh, 'The 1,e,c,eam V.an·
33 VV'lat feeling does rhe poet create by using
'tln<les' 1n the poem?
A Excite'Tlent
B Antlclpatior
C Anxiety
D Nervousness.
35 Wry does ,he poet mean by 'Yet' Ir line 11?
A People still bougrt ice-cream
B Children waited at tre;r gates
C No or-e bought Ice cream
D T'1e ice-cream man sold all his stock.
34 Wnat evidence Is there to suggest that things
have changed?
A ).Jo parks
B Children playing 01 •awns
C Security guards
D Yards wlthoutwal!s.
Further p:actice questions
and examples can be fourid
on the accompanying website.
36 Based en tne poem. what tl!'le cf tne day
37 1,Vhat does the writer mean by 'A sweet t-ooth Is
would you most <ely hear the Ice-cream van?
no resoecier of perso,,s: (last ,rie)?
A Early mornlr.g
A Everycne has a tooth p•oble-n
B Nlghttil"'le
B Everycne loves sweet food
C _ate afterr.oon
C Only children love ice·c·eam
D Mtdday
D Only children have a sweet 100th.
Read the following passage carefully and then answer questions 38-46 on the basis of what is stated
or implied.
01" the afterr.oon of6 September 20C4, the 'sland was put under a hurricane watch. If the sror!'l Stayed or.
Its current earn, it wou,d undoubtedly rt tre Island, so the people braced themse'ves. It strJck trie next day
w th force. At 1pm or the 7 September, tre National ~u•rlcane Ce1tre In Mla'Tli was recording sustained
w,1ds of· 20 miles per hou·. w'th gusts reaching 146 .,, •es pe• hour. ~Vel' afler tre worSt wirds had passed,
tornadoes fo1lowed, doing more damage.Tne slal"d was aid to waste by tre winds. Forturately, there was
little •aln, and 1'1 this land cf many rivers, that was a vita! factor in •educlrg the damage thai cculd have been
dore by ftoodlrg and land slippage.
Tre r,atJral envlr-ol'rnent was devasta:ed, resulting In severe hardship for ire people largely deoe'1dent 01 the
lard. and cor tre econo'Tiy rnrough loss of exoorr revenue. Ofli<;ial reports estima,ed that 91 per cent of
tne lslard's forests were stripped bare, so that the many forestry-related Industries providing a llvelinood for 10
tne copulation we•e gone. The nutmeg industry alone, whicn afforded a I velihood ro over 30,000 people,
and yielded ore-third of the wo•ld's nutmeg suoo y, lost more tran 80 per ce1t of Its trees. Remaining
vegetatior loo<ed bu·nt and brown.
A sorts of structures we·e damaged: the port, airport, gove·nment ard commercial office bu ldlrgs, from
cne frail and humb:e homes to tre large and strong ores. Some buildings lost t reir roofs, o,re·s were
flattened entirely. The damage was widespread and severe.
For a while :he people were dazed, bu. soon tne passing of the hurricane with the toll of damage It caused was
being regarded '1 another llghc. Leaders, borh 'ocal and overseas. began to ex;Yess the ooinion tna, perhaps
it was an opportun·ty to assess building codes, ,o put better warning systerrs In place, and :o plan better
preparatio.1, It certain y was a:i oppor.unity for a the ;erri,or'es In che region to respond ro the needs of this
Island, and that respor.se, when ,t ca'Tie, can best oe described as: ·an outpouring'.
38 The subject of the passage Is most accurately
A why we exper er,ce hurr'cares
B the effects of a caregcry 3 hurricane
C making preparac:on for a hurricane
D how oeop e respond to a hurr:carie.
39 The damage ,o the coJntry as described ,n the
passage was caJsed mainly by:
A Wind
B fire
C fire arid wind
D w rid and wate•.
40 The 'natura: ervironmert' as Jsed In paragrap'1
. 2
refers to:
A the airport ard po't facilities
B the ho'Tles ard orrer buildings
C the nutmeg planratlons
D all cf tne country's vegetation.
41 'Forestry-re1a,ed Industries' (paragraph 2) Is beSt
explained as:
A 'Tlalntainirg banara plantations only
B rhe plarting and harveSting of trees
C nco'Tie-generatio.1 •elated to a var'ety
D the bulldirg ird•Jstry, which uses trees.
42 The attitude of leaders expressed In paragraph
may bes: be ur,derstood as:
A philosophical
B opilm,stc
C pessi'Tlistic
D despa,rlng,
43 Tne expressiol' 'an outpou•lng: as used in the
final paragraph, means:
A 100 much was dore
45 The first two paragraphs of tne passage rely
most on:
A stat'sfcs
B people gave ge1erously
B generalisations
C people were very demanding
C compar.son and co'luast
D people had f'Othirg ,eft TO g'Ve.
D ,nference.
44 The main purpose of the passage Is to:
46 The passage may best oe described as:
A serve as a hurrtca1e warning
B spread pol tical propaganda
B summary
C descrioe the Impact cf a parr,cular
C dlscussio1
advert sement
D argumerr.
D sol cir be,o from 1e1ghbouring territories.
Read the following passage carefully and then answer questions 47-50 on
the basis of what is stated or implied.
-le went bac~ co tre barn to cry to f,nd he c for coverng tne ricks that very nignr. All was sile"lt witnln, ard he
would have passeo on in tre beilefthat rre par;y hao broker up. liad not a di""I light streamed rhrougri a knoclio e Ir cne fo,ding ooors.
Gaer el looked Ir. An unusual sig~t met 11s eye.
The canoes suspenceo amo~g ,ne evergreens riad burl'! down to their soc~ecs, and Ir some cases 1he leaves
;ied abovt theM were scorched. Man}' o' the 1lgh,s nad oulre gone out, othe,s smoked and s,ank, grease d•lcplng
"ro""I them upon tne ~oor. He,e.1,,nder ,he table, and leal'ing against forms and cha ,sin every conceivaole
att:uoe excep: 1he perpend,cular, were crie wre:ched persons of all the wosk-folk, rre hair of their heads a!
such low leves celng s~ggestive o' mops ard b•ooms. In ,he midst of these shone rec and distinct 1he fg~re
of Sargeant Troy, leaning back II' a chail. Coggan was on his back, w ch h's ,,.,ou,h open, buzzing fo•th sro•es, as
were seve•al o,hers: ,he united breatriing of tre sleeping g1oup fo•med a subd~ed roar. Poo•grass was c1,;1led
up ·~ea nedgehog, part'Y "liding the insigni'icant body of S-nallbury. The glasses and cups still stoo:i on tne
:able, while a smal' stream nowed fro,,.-, an ovenvneo waier-jug, ~owe::l across rhe m ddle of the ,ab e to trickle
stead'ly. llke a s:alacti,e 'n a cave, down into ire reek o'cne unconscous Mr Clad<
Gaer el g,ancec hope ess'y at the group, which. with 01e or cwo exceptions, composeo al ihe able-boc ed me1
upor ,he farm. !-le saw at once trai If the ricks we•e to be saved, he must save 1hem win his owr hands.
mck: scack of hay or grass, "sually covered at the top to pro1ee1 agains1 rre weather
Thomas rlardy, Fer from rhe Madd•og Crowd
47 Tne sce1e desc•lbed suggests that t~e tigJres
irside were:
48 ',Vhlch expression Ind cates the reason fo.• tne
sce,e described?
A dead
B dr Jnk
A a small st•eam
B a subdued roar
C drugged
C ouzzing forth srores
D sleeping.
D the party had broken up.
Further practice questions
and examples can be found on
the accompanying website.
49 Wnat evidence convinced Gab•iel 1ha1 re would
get no help?
I the wretched persons of all the wor~-folk
a the able-bod ed 11e1 Jpon trie farm
iii red ard d st, net the ligure cf Sargeant Trey
iv the uni,ed breathing ohne sleep'ng growp.
A i on,y
so Tre scene described most like y occurred:
A near a zoo
B en a farm
In a pub
D In a military oarracks.
B iii or y
C i, Ii and iii only
D i, ii a1d iv only
Read the following passage carefully and then answer questions 51-60 on
the basis of what is stated or implied.
The Newsweek magazine of 7.6 Noverrber 2007 In.reduced wl°'at was described as ·-he fJ:ure of reading·. tl'e K;ndle
The Kindle Is a name giver to an electronic cevlce tha, allows books and o,herforms of publl::a'.ion 10 be'taken'and
read anywhere Its creation by Amazer started Ir 2004 ,.he name of tr e device shoulo evoke the Idea of'ignlting
knowledge'. It has been described as being ouiet. havlr.g the size of a paperback novel. and welgl'ing Just over
10 oJnces. It allows reaoing 1hrough a s,x-inch screen, using• b,ttery which stores up to 30 hours of power but
takes only ,wo hours :c recharge.
t-.aturally, the projeaed st,rt·up price o' ,he oevice Is high, At the :ir-e the magazine was dis:rlbuted, tr e Kindle
cost US S399. which is seen as being'or par'wlth the star.Ing prices asked for sir"'ilar electronic devices, bu: It was
projected :hatw11h Increased dls1ribuiion er e mechanism would see charges, inclvdlng, perhaps, better features
and a slgnlfcant reduction In price The hano-helc is, ho•.vever, seen as a s1irr1.,lant In ire bock lndus:ry, The report
comments on Amazon's e~orts to ge1 publishing houses 10 resporo 10 the need for digi-al versior.s, ano suggests
it,a: mere :har 88,0COsuch wori\s will be ava,lable at ihe launch of the Kindle, and this Is only a start.
Acouple of features seen as belr,g very valJable to the baby boomers (people born be,ween the late 1940s and
ir e mid die 1960s) are that ,here are built-In mechanisms for er larging the prim size so tho: the ageing reader can
remain comfortable; and :hat it can store 200 books, with, rt-rough memory cards, a capacity fer hundreos mere from
Amazon's stock. In fact. it is cl,imed tl'at through ire Kindle, readers should be able 10 get ary bock 1hat has ever
been in prir,1. rhese facilities are nor new, since mechanisms with these feat1..res r ave been developed before; b,,t
wl,h tr e Kindle wrat /s rew Is a form oF wireless connectivity that allows the device to be used arywhere,
"hougr ,he Kindle is entirely lndepenctert of a compu,er, Ii allows Internet access so users can take advan\ilge
of various onllne services, like VVlkipeoia (the online encyclopaedia) or Google. One service Is being able to buy
books onllne using the device. The Kindle user elecuorically searches Arrazor's stores for titles, reads any available
comments 'rem people who have bought and reao the book, arei makes a pJrchase,Orce the book is selec1eo
and bought, i<.lndie a1.,tcmaclcally uploads It to the owner's library. If one loves books, there Istre pleasure of lnstan:
ownership. and of always having reading material thot one wanis. Sceptics of the Kindle are reported as arguing
er a; actual physical books have• rraglcal q1.all,y of transporting the reader to al'other place aro 1ir"'e, and chat
iris element is ro1 possible with the elec:ron1c version. Those mere convinced of i:s success predia urhappily :hat
books1cres will become lonelier places
51 Amazon is most likely:
A the uoplcal rainforest
B a group of tough womer
C a book supply co11pany
D a computer des1gr. company.
52 The battery power for the K r,dle Is:
A 2 hours
B 30 hoJrs
C 30 minutes
D 2 ho,Jrs ard 30 mir,ures.
53 According ro the passage, 'baby boomers'
refers tc:
A a brand name for clothing
B a fo-m of e~ploslve
C a generation of peoole
D a product promoting bao es.
54 The promise that 11e r<lndle should give
access to ar,y booK eve• pri'11ed is desigred to
appeal to:
A the average old reader
B ;be average young ·eader
C people who want to read only o,d bocks
D people who love books 'egardless of tne'r
57 The fina statement in tre last paragrapr may
be true because:
A People do not erjoy going n;o bcokstores
B bookstores nave bee~ :01ely for some t,me
C bcokstores will need to do something to
attract customers
D people who love io •ead ric longer need to
go into ocokstores.
58 The development of the Klrd e Is kely t-0
result ,11:
A a fallirg-off In boo"< writing
B a re11ewed Interest ,n •eadlng
C a finarcla: crisis for pub •shirg rouses
D an increase In the sales of the Kinde.
55 The expression 'on par with' as used In
59 The concerns cf 'oaby bocmers' are meNioned
parag,aori 2 refers to:
A tre Kindle ltse.'
B ire design of the Kind e
C ;be starting orice o' tbe Kindle
D tre price of advertis·1g tbe Kl1dle.
most like:)' because:
A they are ignorant of how to deal wit!'
electronic devices
8 they are very comfortable using electronic
C they are ,he or.es wno will do f"lOst of the
D they nave more need to read than otber
56 To 'ta~e advantage of'. as used In
paragrao'1 2, mears ihat Kindle Jse·s:
A are able io able to use ,re lnterne, services
I Ke computer users
B are unab.e to use the same services as
comou,er users
C are able 10 say they have ben-er serv ce ,ran
comoJter users
D are able to treat otre·s who use computers
60 Ar- art:cle conta·n,ng tbe kind of lnfor>11at on
mento~ed here ·s mosi like yto be:
A as mp.e advertiseme1t fo, a1 experslve
8 an IN•odJa on and ara·ys·s ofa riew prodJct
C a survey in que;tio'1'1oire form
D a letter to theed tor.
Further proctice questions
and examples can be found
o~ the accompanying website.
This paper consists of FOUR sections: 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Section 1 consists of ONE question. You MUST answer
this question.
Section 2 consists of ONE question. You MUST answer
this question.
Section 3 consists of TWO questions. You MUST answer
ONE question from this section.
Section 4 consists of ONE question. You MUST answer
this question.
You are advised to take some time to read through the
paper and plan your answers.
Suggested time: 35 minutes
You MUST answer this question.
Read the following extract carefully and then write a
summary of it in YOUR OWN WORDS, as far as possible. Do not
write more than 120 words. If you exceed the limit, only the
first 120 words will be read and assessed. Your summary must
be in continuous prose and in paragraph form.
The thot.:ght of a good night's sleeo s sheer luxury for some, bu: for
others sieep is 1·Ke oxygen; ,hey Kno1:v ,heir life depends on it. S1eep
deprivation is on the increase and cavses many proolems, such as
tiredness, exhaustion and stress. Sleep is essential to our overall health
and well-being. Many peoole suffer with insomnia, rhe difficulty getting
to sleep or staying asleep, for nulT'erous reasons.
A popu ar definit"on of sleep is 'A sta,e of rest in whicn consciousness is
alrr.ost cefinitely suspenced'.Sleep, or the suspending of conscious1ess,
allows the body to self-regu'ate. This is the body's unique ability to
res1, repair and rebalance. Self-regula1io1 harmonises your booy and
optim·ses your e,iergy so you can pe·form at your best. AJ. you read this
article, your body is hard at work. Millions of cens die asyou work and
need 10 be repl,ced. Deterioration o' health occurs when more cells die
than tt>e body can rebul d. He~ce, sleep Is so imoonant In mainta:nlng
optimum health because ,nat is when your body ooes the healing work. I5
8Jt how much sleep do we need?There is no defir tive a,swer, as
it differs for us all at different times in cur lives and depends en the
actlv ty we exert during oJr waking hours. So-ne people get by on
very little sleep, while fo· others, an;-thing less than six hours each day
has disastrous consequences. If you have been ill and your bod)' has
repair wo•k to do, you will require more sleep. Children, whose bodies
are growing, -naintainirg, repairing ard learning, need lots of sleep to
fu1ction at their highest potential. Timeless wisdom al so sJggests that
it Is not 01ly the amount of sleep yoJ get tnat matters, but the quality
of sleep.
Our w,se ancient ancestors developed ways of optimising energy
whi e still awake. 1t is said in yoga psychology that 30 minutes' deep
relaxation, is as be1eficial to your system as a night's sleep. V\lhlle •t
is not a ways within our cortrol to get a good night's s1eep, most
of us could find 30 minutes twice a day to practise deep relaxation
exercises using s:mp,e yoga and meditation techniques 11"-at have been
practised for centuries. If something Is so useful, why cl--ange It? Deep
relaxation has a beneficial effect on the b•ain and nervous system,
which positively Impacts health. Research shows that relaxation is
beneficial for many stress-re'ated aliments and liealth complaints,
including insomnia.
Many of us know sleep is a necess·ry, nor a luxury, yet unforturate,y
this k1ow edge alone does not create sleep. If it cou d be bougnt, then
like many luxuries It would likely have a high price. Buts eep is free,
ard rhat Is what makes this vita ratural activity, which many of us take
fo· gran1ed, so wonderful.If you are rot getting enough s•eep, tnen it
is time to invest your 1ime, energy and money in things will reduce the
stress on your body, physically a,d mentally.
Adapted from S~ola Arewa. 'Sleep: Luxury or Ne~ess ry?' ,vextGenerotioo,
issce No. 4, Sommer 2011, o. 56
Suggested time: 35 minutes
You MUST answer this question. Write your answer on the ruled
pages provided, pages 8 and 9. There may be more space than you
need. There is a blank space for any notes you may want to make.
This WILL NOT be marked.
Study the situation presented below and then follow the
instructions that follow.
YoJ're ihe leader of a small groJp at scrcol called ·vve care for the
elderly in our com11unity'. YoJ have discove·ed that trere is a care
cemre within walking distance of your school and your group wishes
to vis;t It after school, to observe and possib:y to nelo o•ganise •egular
activ'ties with the residents,
Vi/rite a letter to the manager explaining your iNerest and requesting
perm' ssion fo: your group to visit the centre to discuss your project
and your needs,
Your answer will be assessed on how well you:
a formatted your lener
b selected :elevant and complete information
c o•ganised rhe informat'o1 in yoJr letter
d used aooroo·iate grammar, sente1ce structure, vocabulary,
spelling and pt.mctJation.
Your letter MUST be in continuous prose.
Make sure to include all the details that would help
in highlighting the matter. Your letter should include
details of the project, for example:
• suggested date and time for the visit
• purpose of the visit
• number of students Involved
• your contact info•mation,
Suggested time: 45 minutes
You MUST answer ONE question from this section.
Your answer should be approximately 400 to 450 words in length.
vVrite a story based 01 the picture be ow.
vVrlte a story whicn ncludes irese words:
He stopped alo~g the roadway. He looked back at the house and
decided that this was the best thing to do.
You MUST write in Standard English. However, dialect may be
used in conversation. In your answer, you will be assessed on
how well you:
a used the stimulus prov ded
b developed and organ:sed ire content ofyoJr wr'ting
c used language appropriate to your aud'ence, pJrpose and content
d used appropr ate grammar, sentence structJre, paragraphs,
vocab'Jlary, spelling and punctuation.
Suggested time: 45 minutes
l>lease 1'1.-0te t"1at lj DU
~11oulcl acquire s~,Us
'"' botl1 tl1e 'for/agai"'-5.t'
a_vccl tl1e 'express 1::fDuy
v,ews' struc-tures
bec-ause eitl1er forn,,, 1>1,1,al::J
be usecl ,.,, the paper:
You MUST answer this question,
All secondary school pupils should be p•ovided vith free books and
schoo meals. vVrite an essay givirg your v:ews o-i this statement.
Your answer should be approximately 250 to 300 words in length,
You MUST write in Standard English,
In your answer you will be assessed on the:
a clarity, organisation and development of your argumern
b correctness of grammar, sentences, paragraphs, vocabulary, spelling
and punctuat1on.
Connotation ·n contrast to denotatio<', tr.isIs the meaning
Active voice when the ve:b is act'v-e, the subject ;::erforms the
acton, for ex.mo'e;I (subject) placed (verb) the book on the
Adjective a word that tells you mc•e about the noun. ror
example, the tall building'.
Adverb a word that tells you more acout a ,,erb, for example,
'the man walked slowly'.
Anecdote a short a:court of something, usua ,ly pe•sonal and
sometimes humorous. used to :1:us1rate a point.
Apostrophe a punctuat'on mark() useo to indicate possession,
for example.'the girl'sba 1: or cmiss•on,(or examole.'I wouldn't
do that:
Audience the perso<' er pe•sons for w"om a text isintended.
an individual gives tea particularworo cased on thel• personal
Coordinating conjunction this Is a ,,,.ore trat Joins clauses
together such as 'ano: 'but' and 'or:
Counter-argument a view that opposes the centra la·gumen~
a lowing a •Nriter to h1gh 1igl'-t the v.-eaKnesses .n a certair ooinl
of vie\•V.
Creole the lirst language acqu'red by most people liVir,g 'n
the territories: usually combines d:fferent aspectsof different
lcnguages, for examp1e. Jamaican Creole featu·es 'argely Engl'.sh
words su;::erimposed on West African grammar.
Denotation th,sis the oictionary defin'tion of a word. 'ts l'teral
Bias when a w•iterchooses wnich factsto tel the reaoer and
wnich to Keep back we say that he or sne isbiased.
Dialogue a conversat,on be~Neen i:;,,o people, I: can be
\.Witten or s;;oken.
a reference book I nat contains an alohabetical '1st
Blog similar to a oiary, a blog gives day-to-day Cietails of a
of words and their meaning~
person's I fe.They are usually w•itten nan nformal sty!e, as f
talking directly to the reader.
Direct speech a way of reporting what s~eone says using
the spealcer's actual •.-.rords within 'nverteo commas (sceech
Caribbean Standard English (CSE) the accepted form of
spcken and wrluen Engl'sn across the territories.
a group of words toat express an evenr or situation.
usualy conta'nirg a subject and a verb.
Collective noun refers to a grouo, for example,'a fo:k or birds·.
Colon a punctuat'on mark(:) used 10 Introduce a list or
Comma a punctuation mar,t)used toseparatepartsofa
Complex sentence 'n this type of sentence there are mult'ple
clauses ou, they are not of equal importance. One c1ause. the
sucord nate ca use, isdeperdent on the other, the main clause,
for example.'He sa·d that I could leave (main clause) after the
students had arrlveo {subordinate clause);
Compound sentence this ismade up of two or mere mall"
clauses Inked by a coordinat'ng ccn,unctlon such as·and; or'but:
for eXilmple,'The dog oarked and tne girl Jumped'
Conjunction a word used tc l'nk clauses in a sentence. (See
'cocrdlnatlng conjunction·and ·s~bordinatlrg conJunalon~
Connective a wo,o or phrase tnat llrks clauses c· semences.
This ncludes t me cornect v-es such as 'later'.'during'and
'meanwhile'and process connectives such as'then·and ·next'.
Directive a command or ir.structlo<'.
Discourse markers a general term
ro, transil·~nal phrases,
linking woros and cornectives, for exarnple,'but: "n addition td,
Discursive writing a text that d:scusses or debates a topic,
er pu:s forward an argument In favour of or against an idea Cf
Emotive use of language the use of words to ln~uence the
emotions of a reader.
Exclamation sometning that ssa'd 10 express an emctlcn.
usu a,ly followed by an exclamation mark in writlrg.
Expository writing a text that Informs or expla'ns something.
Fact somethir,g that can be proved to be true.
Figurative language the ron-l'teral use of woros to create a
s;;ecific image, Impression or mood,
First person th!sis lr,oicated by the use of'l'and 'we: It allows
tne reader to see and experieoce events through tne eyes cf the
narrator O' vvriter.
Persona a rc,e or cl'>aracter adopted by an author or an actor.
Graphics a general term used to cover the many d'fferent ways
Plot the e\'ents or actioo tnat takes place in astory.
in which information can be o<esented visually. Photographs,
orawings, maps, graphs, diagrams, charts and tab'es can a'I be
grouced unde• the general term\lraphics'.
Pronoun a vJCrd that rep1a,ces .a noun or noun phrase to avoid
repetition, for example,'he'.'she,'it'.'they:
Proper noun the name cf a pe:scn, a place or an crgarisat'on
a commaro er 'nstruction.
Infer to oeduce or work out sometnlng based en evidence and
rea$0nlng, to see what is meart but rot exp icitly stated.
Key points the main points in a paragraph or texl
Punctuation marks used in vwiting to hep tbe reecer to
uroers,and the mearing, for example, a full stop to 'rdica,e the
end of a sentence.
Purpose the reason for which a text was produceo, for
example, to inform, to persuade, to argue.
Register thew~ )'OU choose to p•esen1)'Our sub;ect
depending on theaud;erce and purposeofyourwr.tirg.
Linking words paragrap~,sand ideas can be connected using
Reported speech also called 'Ir.direct speecn: tiis Is a way cf
I nking words or phases such as 'firstly: 'however;·rurtoermore'.
report•ng wnat someone says w,thcut us:ng their actual ·Nords.
Metaphor an image created by rererring to someMlng as
being sometsing else.
Rhetorical question when• wner asks a ouestion to make
1ne reaoer consider a specific po,nt
Script the method used re record tne spoken words er
Mood writers use words to create a part'cular atmosphere er
ch.aracters in a play.
evoke specific feelings in reade•s..
Semicolon a fo•m of punctuation O lhat can be used between
Narrative voice the way a writer chooses to speak to h1sor her
Narrator the person tell ng the story or speaking to the reader.
Th,scould be a lictional cha•acter or the wr ters addressir,g t~e
reader directly.
Noun a word that denOleS a person o· tning.
11r,o r 'auses that are closely linked ·r mean,ng, or to separa1e
'tems 'n a 11st
Sentence a group of ½'Ords that make complete sense,
'nclud ng a subject and a,-erb. Sentences can be ,:mple,
compound or comp'ex.
Signs marks or pictures that represent a particular thing.
Simile an image created by say·ng something Is like something
Simple sentence th'sconsists or or,e main dau,e ti-at makes
Object the person or th ng In a sentence affected by the act'on,
for examc,e,'I read the cook (coject}'.
Objective when writ,ng Is not d'.storted by emctlcn er per$0nal
bias we say tt-at It is object',-e
Opinion a pointofv:ew, ,t canrot be proved tobe true or
Paragraph a paragraph marks a new Idea er r.ew stage in a
piece cf writ ng,
Passive voice when t~e verb Is passive, the subject receives
the action, ror example,'The book (sub;ect) was placed (vero)
on the table.
serse on its r;,m, for examc e, Toe dog barked:
Stereotype a shared Image with'n a society or a pa•llcular type
of person. 1t may have positive er negative connotations
Subject the perscn er ob)ect tbat is the rocus of a sentence. fo•
example,'The boy (sub;eco walked past the school'.
Subjective when writing Is nfiuenced by personal feelings we
say that ,t ~ suc;ectl\r'e
Subordinating conjunction tl'>isis placeo at the start or a
suborolnate clause on a complex sentence, fc· example,'when'.
'af1er; 'before: 'because: 'although'.
Symbols d,awings used Instead of1r,ords. It is ofter poss,bleto
guess the meaning.
Synonyms wcrds that share a sm lar or related meaning. ror
example, encrmou~ ar,d 'huge'.
Tense a ,,ero form t~at indicates w~en something haopered,
for examole,'Tre g'rl is reaoing' (present tense) compared with
'Tre girl was reading' {past tense) ar,d 'The girl wi I be reading'
(future tense)
Thesaurus a bookcontairir,g list; of synonyms anc related
Third person this is ;ndlcated by tne useof'he:~h,t,'it'or
'they: Wr~ers use it tell to the story f,om the po rt or ,~ew cf ar.
Topic sentence the first sentence of a paragraph. tre topic
sentence o~en gives the re.der a clue as to what the paragraph
wi I beacout
Tone a quality, feeling o, attitvde expressed by the words a
vvriter uses. rcr example, formal, irJorma1,serious. com,c,. sarcast.c,.
sad er cheerful.
Verb a word that exoresses a~ aetlon, o,ocess or state, oilen
thought cf as a'doing' or'being'word. fer example, 'to help,'to go,
'to l'.e'.
activevo·ce 3
aojectlves S
aoverbs 5
aovert:sement~ 123-S
AI\GEL Self-deferce Club 133
charitable appeals 130-1
Ceca-Cola 132
anecdote 136
ANGEL Seif-defence Club 133
Anthony, Mthael
Enchonred Alley I06-8
The Sop:;dillo Tree 102
apostrophes 20
using apostrcphes for omission 21
using apostrcphes for possession 21-2
arguments 134, 16$-7
counter-argument 136-8
devices used in argument 134-6
discourse markers 138
Paper 2: Secticn D 165-7
structuring and deve 'op·rg an
argument 136-8
v,.iritirig an argument 139-4 1
assessing writing 6S-9
atmosphere 146
bar charts SS
Barrow. Raymond
'There Is a Mystic Splendour' 144
bias 11 8
bas through langvage 121
bas through selection 1I8-19
bas through stereotypes 120
brackets ,O
devices used In argumert 135
Brov.ine. Diane
I.and ofthe Pvrpie Evenir.g 86-7, 90-5
capital letters 16-17
Carwardine, Mark
Wild Thoughts 13•-6
cell phones Is7-9
c~aracter reveoled through
descriotlon 96-7
creating character through contrast
creating character through speech 99
creating characters 90-5
personal response 9S
charitable appeals 130-1
chrono logical order 113- 14
c'iches 149
Coca-Cola 132
collective nouns 8
commas to mark off extra 'nformation
commas to separate different parts of
a sentence 19-20
commas to separate items n a list
inverted commas22-3. t3S
complex sentences 6
compourd sentences 6
conclusions 48-9
conjurctlons 6
connectives 34-5
process connectives 35
time connectives 34
connotat on 70-2
emotive use of language 72-3
ob;ec1ive and subjecthre 1,vriting 74--5
words and their meaning 70
cooroinating conjurctions 6
counter-argumem t 36-8
Dahl, Roald
Going Solo 104-5
declararons 6
derotation 70-2
emotive use of language 72-3
ob;ective and subjective wrting 74-5
words and their meaning 70
description I08-9, 1t4
character revealed thrcugh
descriptior, 96-7
descriptive v•1riting 100
deta il 102-3
enhar-cing your descriptive skills
putting it all together 10•-5
structurirg descriptiors I00-2
vocabulary ard Imagery t03
youraescripton 108-9
dialogue 114
Dic<ens, Charles
I' Ch,;s,masCoroi96-7
active and passive voices 3
formal ard Informal <arguage 2-3
mak,09 pronouns match 9- 10
mak,09 tenses match t0-11
seNence structures 6-8
seNence structures and llnk'rg words
t3- tS
sJbject/verb agreement 8-9
us ,ng a oictionary 4
us ,ng a thesaurus4
us ,ng aw oe rargecf vocabulary 4-5
us ,ng words precisely 5
writing speech 11-13
dlctlcnaries 4
direct speech 12
directives 6
direct.ves as persuasive devices t22
discourse markers 138
discursive writ rg t 34
counter-argument 136-8
devices used in argument t 34-6
discourse markers t 38
!'aper 2: Section D t65-7
st,ucturing and oeve op•rg an
argument 136-8
writing an argumert t 39--41
e,notlve use of language 72-3
exams 148
irfo·mation te><ts In your exam 36
irfo·mation texts In your exam:
Text/\ 36
irfo·mation texts In your exam:
Text C 37-8
irfo·mation texts In your exam:
Text D 38-9
irfo·mation texts In your exam:
Text E40
irfo·mation texts In your exam:
Text F 41
0 aper t 148
0 aper t: cllche t 49
0 aper t: grammar 149
0 aper t: misused metaphor t49-50
0 aper t: pract'ce questions 168-75
0 aper t: Questions 1-25 148
0 aper t: Questior,s 26-60 15S-9
0 aper t: redundancy 150-4
0 aper t: spell'rg ar,o vocabulary 149
0 aper 2 160
0 aper 2: pract'ce questions 176-80
0 aper 2: Secticn A t60-2
0 aper 2: Secticn B 162-3
0 aper 2: Secticn C t64-5
0 aper 2: Secticn D t65-7
exclamation mar<s 18
exclamatlors 6
expository writing 64
after wr ting 65
assessing writing 65-9
before wrifr.g 64-S
durir.g writir.g 6S
'nformatlon texts 36-41
!'aper 2: Section B 162-3
expository texts 36-41
grap~ics 50- 1
graphs 55
lnterpre1rg Information ·n graphics 53
pie charts 55
summarising informa,ion in a table 54
using details from grap~ics to answer
questions 51-2
infcrmat,on texts In yovr exam 36
Text A 36
Text C 37-8
Text D 38-9
Text E40
Text F 4 I
inve•tec commas 22-3
dev:ces used :n argument 13S
conclusions based on facts and
opinions 48-9
difference between fact and
fact and opinion In news reports 45
nvestigatlng how facts are
selected 47-8
mixing fact with opinion 46
questlon 1ng facts 46-7
ligu•at've language 88-9
formal language 2-3
Frost, Robert
'The Road Net Taker' 15S-6
fu I steps 17
future tense 11
Gordor, Nova
The Horse Doc/or I02
grammar 149
graphics 50- 1
different k'nds of grapn cs 5S
nterpreting Information In grapn'cs 53
summarising information in a table 54
understanding s'grs ano symbo!s 51
us.ng details from graphics to answer
questions 51-2
graphs 5S
groups thee 122
Hosse ini. Khaled
The Ki,e Runner 84-S
Hugnes, Langston
'Harlem [2]' I 45
planning fo, paragraphs 28--9
sequercing ideas 30- 1
ldently:r ,g key points 59-60
Imagery 103
Imperatives 6
imperatives as persuasive devices 122
Indirect speech see repor,ed speech
lnference 42-3
Informal 'anguage 2-3
Information retr'eval
bar charts S5
Kassam. Yusuf O.
'T~e Brewing Night' 142-3
key points 59-60
K'rg. Martin Luther
'I !-'ave a Dream' 126--9
Liddle, Madhullka
'A Mo ming Swim' 110- 13
1:nking woros 29
sentence structures ano linking
words 13-15
lists 122
comrnas to separate Items In a
1st 18-19
literature 110- 13
character revealed through
descriotion 96-7
creating characrer through
contrast 97-8
creating characrer through speech 99
creating characrers 90-5
personai respor,se 95
writer ano narrator 84-5
writer ano speaker 85-7
Look, Say, Cover, Write, Check 32-3
McGregor, Jon
· f Nobody Speaks c f Remarkable
Tnirgs' 89
McKay. Claude
'A Red Flower' 147
denotative and corrotatlve
lar.guage 70-2
ennancing meaning 146
us'rg langu,ge to convey
meaning 85
·word -c:ho:Ce ard mean'ng in
poetry 144-5
words and their mean'rgs 70
·working cul mean ir,g 59
metaphors 88-9
exterded metaphors89
misused metapnor 149-50
mood 79
analysing tone, meed and
atmosphere 146
creating mood 81
highlighting meed 146
l\lchols, Grace 'Isla no Man· 79-80
narrative voice 82-3
writer and narrate' 84-S
writer and speaker 86-7
narrative writing 110-13
characters revea ed througn
description 96-7
chrorological ard nor-chronclog'cal
order 113-14
creating character through
contrast 97-8
creating character through
speech 99
description 114
dialogue 11•
hew charactersare crea,ed 90-5
Paper 2· Section C 164-5
personal response 95
plot 11 4
vvrite a story 112-1 7
see olso stories
news reports 45
'llicho,s. Grace
'Island Man· 79--80
nor-cnronolcgical order 113-14
nor,-literary texts
bias1 l8
bias through language 12 1
bias through selection 118- 19
bias through stereoiypes 120
counter-argument 136-8
devices used in argument 134-6
discourse markers 138
persuasion ·n aovert:sements 123-S
persuaslvedevices 122-3
structurirg and oeveloping an
argument 136-8
writing an argument 139-41
nouns 8
ob;ective writir.g 74-5
corclufons based on facts and
opinions 48-9
difference between fact and
fact and ooiniOI' in news reports 45
mix :r g fact with ooin'on 46
organis'r ,g texts
linking words 29
ordering ar•d linkirg par.grapbs 26-7
paragraphs 24
plarring for paragrapbs 28-9
sentence order 24-5
sequencing 'deas 30- l
paragraphs 24-S
linking words 29
order:rg and link ng paragraphs 26-7
p 1andng for paragraphs 28-9
sequencing ,deas 30- 1
passive voice 3
past perfect tense I 0
past tense 10
Perre'ra. Joseph 'Reds'
uv;ng My Oreoms 82-3
persona 82
personal pronouns 123
persuaslvedevices 122
groups of three and :lsts 122
imperatives and directives 122
personal pronouns 123
repetition 122
rhetor cal questions 122
sbort sentences 122
persuasive writing
charitable appeals 130-1
Pacer 2: Section D 165-7
persuas on in advertisements 123-5
persuas on in sceeches 126-9
persuasive devices 122-3
pie charts 55
plays 11
plot 114
poetry 142
analysing tone, mood and
atmospnere 146
devices ir ,poetry 146-7
elements c f a poem 142-4
exp 1oring the structure of a
poem 145
word choice ana meaning In
poetry 144-5
precision 5
present pe:fecttense 10
present tense 10
process conrect1ves 35
ma< rg pronouns
match 9-10
personal pronouns 123
punctuation 16
apostrophes 20-2
brackets 20, 135
capital letters 16-17
commas to mark off extra
information 19
commas to separate different parts of
a sentence 19-20
commas to separate items n a
list 18- 19
exclamation marks 18
full stoos 17
inverted commas 22-3. 135
ouestlon marks 18
semico lons 18
question marks 18
questions 6
questioning facts 46-7
rhetorical questions 122
using details from graphics to answer
Raleigb, Sir Walter
'Even Such Is1ime' 145
reading to summar,se 56-8
redundancy 150
1ype I I SO- I
Type 2 151
Type3 152
Type4 I 53-4
register 76
repetition 122
reported speech l 2-1 3
rhetorical questions l 22
Sachar, Louis
Holes 77-8
script 11
Sealy. Miranda
'I'm Net A Roe<!' 88
Selvcn, Samuel
A D11n< ofWorer 102
sem:colons 18
sentence furctlons
declarations 6
directives 6
exclamat,ons 6
imperatives 6
questions 6
statements 6
sentence structuies 6-8
agreement within senterces 8-11
'Inking words 13-15, 29
writing speech I I -1 3
sentence types 6-7
complex sentences 6
compourd sentences 6
short sentences t 22
simple sentences 6
topic sentences 24
sentences 6. 24. 122
commas to seoarate different parts of
a sentence 19-20
senterce order 24-5
sequencing oeas 30-1
short sentences 122
signs 51
similes 88-9
extended similes 89
simple sentences 6
speech 11
creatir ,g character through speech 99
dialogue 1t•
direct speech l 2
reccrted speech 12-13
script 11
King. Marfn Luther 'I Ha'✓e a Dream'
spel,ing 32, 149
commcnly misscelr words 33
l ook, Say, Cover, \/•/rite. Check 32-3
S,e'nbeck, John
OiMice and Men 97-8. 99
stereotypes 120
stories 110-13
characters revealed tn:ough
description 96-7
chronological and non-chronological
order 113-14
creatir ,g character through
creatir.g character through speech 99
descrictlon 114
dialogue 1t•
hew characters are created 90-5
!'aper 2: Section C 164-S
personal respcnse 95
plotl I<
setting 113
s~uations 11 6
write a story 112-17
seeotso narrat:ve writ :r g
structuring texts
linking words 29
ordering and linking
paragraphs 26-7
paragrapns 24
plann rg fo, pa•agraphs 28-9
senterce oroer 24-5
sequercing ideas 30- 1
subject/verb agreement 8-9
subjective writing 74-5
suboroinating conjunctions 6
summar,sing 56
ldenti~•ing <ey ports 59-60
!'aper 2: Section;.. 160-2
reading to summarise 56-8
working out meaning 59
writing your summary 51-3
symools 51
act:ve ard passive voices 3
formal and informal larguage 2-3
making pronouns match 9- 10
making lenses match 10-11
senterce structures 6-8
sentence structures ard linking
words 13-15
subject/verb agreement 8-9
using a dictior-ary 4
using a thesaurusd.
using a wide range of vocabulary 4-5
using words precisely 5
writing speech 11- 13
precis 'on S
usrrg a dictionary 4
usrrg a thesaurus 4
·word -c:ho-ce ard mean'ng in
poetry 144-5
words and their mean'rgs 70
Wordsworth, V•/illiam
'I Wandered Lonely As a Cloud' 146
tenses 10-1 1
third-person narrative 86-7
time connectives 34
tone 3, 76-7
analys'ng tone, mooo and
atmosphere 146
Sachar, Louis "!oles 77-8
topic sentences 2,
verb/suoject agreemeN 8-9
vccabu 'ary 4-5, 149
vocabulary and imagery 103
word choice
active and passive voices 3
formal and informal 2-3
creating c~aracters 90-5
·writer and narrator 84-S
writer and speaker 86-7
wrlt:ng a Story 112-1 S
progress c~eC< 117
situations 116
wrlt:ng an argument 139-4 1
wrlt:ng sequential ly
connectives 34-5
wrlt:ng speech 11
direct soeech 12
reported soeech 12- 13
script 11
wrlt:ng summar !es 61, 63
summarise in no more than
use your own \VOrds 3S far as
write in ,o~t'nuous prose 63
wrlt:ng to lnrorm and exolalr,
see exocsitory writing
The auchor and publisher are grateful for permission co
reprint extracts from d,e following cop)Tight material: p. 17
text about leeches from BBC \ Vildlifc Magazine, April 2006,
© BBC ~Vildlife Magazine/ Im mediate Media, reprinted by
permission. p. 23 text adapted from 'About Barbados' from
w·ww.barbaclos.org, reprinted by pem1ission. p. 36 1Llon, Red
Brigade in Flow Fina'l published in the Jamaica Observer
on Monday, .March 29, 2010. p. 37 text a bout Grenada was
written by Arlene Dw·arika for Oxford Universicy Press.pp.
38-39 'Laramania', by Philip Spooner, cop)Tight © 2006 by
Philip Spooner, is from Shoms from the Ourfield: The ArtsEtc
Cricket Anthology, edited by Linda :VI. Deane and Robert
Edison Sancliford (Bridgetown: AE Books, 2007). reprinted by
pe.m,ission of the amhor.p. 41 'The creation of video games'
was "Ticten for Oxford University press, April 2017, by ,>\rlene
Dwarika and l.iam Dwarika. pp. 42-43 'Caribbean Culinary:
·Mexican Cuisine - A Fusion of the Past' by S. Mar Carter,
published by Caribbean Propert)' and Lifest)•le :V1agazine,
W\l{'l,V.caribpro.com, 2010. Reprinted v.'lch pe.nnission of
che author p. 45 from article 'Anse La Raye Youth Try To
Stop The Violence', by Star Reporter, 12 February 20 11,
published by t he St Lucia Star, reprinted by pem,ission. p. 52
adapted table and information used in exerdsc from ,vw,\l.
onecaribbean.org, reprinted by pennission of Caribbean
Tourism Organization. p. 53 Caribbean councries compa1ison
rabJe from ww..11.caribbeanlandandproperty.com, © Caribbean
Land an d Property Led 2008, reprinted by pemlission. p. 57
adapted from ·c urrent Status of Catibbean Coral Reefs' by
\Villiam S. Alevizon, published by ,,,ww.coral-reef•info.com.
@ 2009-2010. Reprinted with the permission of the author.
p. 67~68 Dialogue bet\1yeen an invcsdgacing policen'lan,
Mr Stephen \¥arson. and t.he eye-witness ofan inc.idem
of theft, Mrs Kathy Rupert written for Oxford University
Press, March 2017. by Arlene Owaril<a. p. 79 "Island Man· by
Grace Nichols, frotn The Fat Black \>Voman·s Poems by Grace
Nichols, published by Virago, 1984, repiinted by permission
of Little Brown Book Group. p. 82 from u,;ng My Dreams
by Joseph "Reds' Perreira, published by AuthorHouse, 20 1J .
Reproduced with permission of rhc author. p. 84 extracc from
The Kite Ru nner' by Khaled Hosseini, © Khaled Hosseini
2003 / TKR Publications 1.1.C 2003, reprinted by permission of
Bloomsbury Publishing Pie, Riverhead, an imprint of Penguin
Publishing Group, a di,;sion of Penguin Random House U.C.,
and AnchorCanada/Ooubleclay Canada. a division of Penguin
Random House Canada Limited, all rights reserved. pp. 87, 91•
95 from 'TI1c Land in rhe Purple Evening' by Diane Browne,
from 22 Jamaican Sh 011. Stories: a selection of prizewinning
short stories (Jamaican Cultural Development Corn.n1issjon,
1987/ 2e, LMH Publishing, 1992), reprinted by petmission of
che author. p. 88 'I'm Not A Rockl' by :Vliranda Sealy, reprinted
by permission of Miranda Sealy. p. 89 extract from If Nobody
Speaks of Remarkable Th.io,gs by Jon McCregor, © 2002 bj• Jon
McGregor, reprinted by pennission of Bloomsbury Publishing
Pie., and Houghton Mifflin Harcomt Publishing Company, all
rights reserved. p. 102 extract from 'The Sapodilla Tree' by
Michael Anthony, taken from Crickec in the Road: Caribbean
Writers Series, published by Heinemann, 1973, reprinted by
pennission of Carlton Bool<s Ltd. p. 102 ·.~ Diink ofVl'ater'
bj• Sam uel Se Ivon, 1968, the Escate of Samuel SeIvon. p.
102 exrract from ·n,e Horse Doctor· by Nova Gordon-Bell.
reptinted by permission of che author. p. 104 exrracr from
Going Solo by Roald Dahl, published by Jonathan Cape Led
& Penguin Books Ltd. reprinced by pennission of David
Higham Associaces Ltd. p. 106•107 from 'Enchanted Alley'
by rvlichael Anthony. from Cricket in the Road: Cari~bean
\.Vriters Series, published by Heinemann, 19i3, repnnted b}'
permission of Carlton Bool<s Ltd . pp. 110•11 1 extract from
'A Moming s";m' by Madhulika Liddle, published online ac
http:Jimadhuli!<,iliddle.com, reprinted by petinission o( the
author. p. 123 leaflet reprinted by permission of National
HIV/AIDS Commission, Baroados. pp. 126· l29 extracts from 'I
Have A Dream' by Martin Luther King, Jr., Copyrtght 1963 Or.
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Copyright renewed 1991 Coretta Scott
King, reptinted by arrangernent \virh The Heirs to the Estate
of Martin Lttther King Jr .• c/o \Vtiters House as agent for che
Proprietor New Yorlc, NY. p. 130 text adapted from a leaflet
by \VaterAid. reprinted by permission of~VaterAid.org/uk. p.
133 ·stop Bulli;ng Nowl' written for Oxford University Press,
20 17, by Arlene Dwarika. pp. 134•135 from '\Vild Thoughts'
by Mark Carwardine published by '"'Vlw.marlccanvardinc.
com © rvtark Carwardine, reprinted by permission. pp. 137•
138 and 140 extracts from 'Editorial • Second Chance' (Friday
17 December 2010), a nd 'Edicorial • Shade is Cool' \Monday
21 March 2011 j by Paul De \Viodt from t he Daily Herald,
ww,\1.c.hedailyherald.com, reprinted by perrnission. p. 144
'There is a Myscic Splendour' by Raymond Ban-ow, from 'Four
Poems' by Raymond BatTOW, Caribbean Quarterly, Vol. 2,
No. 2 {1951/1952), pp. 32•34, published by Toylor & Francis,
Ltd .. reprinted by pennission o( che publisher (Taylor &
Francis I.td , htcp:/fwww.tandfonline.com). p. 145 'Harlem (2)'
fro m The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes by I.ao,gston
Hughes, edited by Arnold Rampersad ";th David Rocssel,
Associate Editor, copyright© 1994 by t he Estate ofl.angsron
Hughes, reprinted by pem1ission of David Higham Associates
Lim iced, and Alfred A. Knopf, a n imprint of the Knopf
Doubleday Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random
House I.LC., all rights reserved.p. 147 'A Red Flower' by □aud e
McKay© 1922 by Claude McKay, reprinted by pem>ission
of the Literary Estace for t he Worl<s of Claude .McKay. p. 155
'The Road Noc Tol<en' from the book The Poetry of Robert
Frosc edited by Edward Connery l.achem. copyright ® 1969
by Henry Holt and Company, reprinted by atTangement with
Henry Holt and Company, all righcs reserved. pp. 157•158
article 'How celJ phones wreak havoc on reen sleep patterns:
Jus t two hours a day of gossiping on the phone "dramatically
affects young body clocks" by Mia Oe Graaf, 28 October 2016,
rvlailOnline. www.daflymail.com, reprinted b}• perrn.isslon.
p. 170 Edward Baugh. Black Sand, Peepal Tree Press, Leeds.
2013 pp. 176• l 77 from 'Sleep: Luxury or Necessit)'I' by Shola
Arewa, published by Nexc. Generation, Issue 4. Summer 2011.
reprinted by permission of rhe author
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