MEM 104 ALGEBRA AND PLANE TRIGONOMETRY LINDY LOU C. PASCO Presenter TOPIC Solutions of Right Triangles Solutions of Right Triangles The process of finding the missing measurements is known as solving the triangle If the triangle is a right triangle, then one of the angles is 90°. Therefore, you can solve the right triangle if you are given the measures of two of the three sides or if you are given the measure of one side and one of the other two angles . If the triangle is a right triangle, you can use simple trigonometric ratios to find the missing parts. A. Solving a right triangle given the measure of the two parts; the length of the hypotenuse and the length of one leg Example: Triangle BCA is right-angled at C. If π = 23 and π = 17 , find ∠ π΄, ∠π΅ and π . Express your answer into two decimal places. Solution: a. Side b is the adjacent side of ∠π΄; c is the hypotenuse of right triangle BCA. Use CAH, that is ππππππππ‘ cos π = βπ¦πππ‘πππ’π π Sketch the figure π cos π΄ = π 17 cos π΄ = 23 cos π΄ = 0.7391 π΄ ≈ 42.3400 We use scientific calculator to find an angle whose cosine value is 0.7391 b. Since in part (a), it was already found that ∠π΄ ≈ 42.34π then, ∠π΅ = 90π − 42.34π ∠π΅ ≈ 47.66π c. Find a by using the Pythagorean Theorem π2 + π 2 = π 2 π2 + (17)2 = (23)2 π2 = 529 − 289 π2 = 240 π = 240 π ≈ 15.49 The complete set of solutions of the given triangle are: ∠π΅ ≈ 47.66π ∠π΄ ≈ 42.34π ∠πΆ = 900 π ≈ 15.49 π = 17 π = 23 B. Solving a right triangle given the length of the hypotenuse and the measure of one acute angle Example: Triangle BCA is right-angled at C, if π = 27 and ∠ π΄ = 58π , find ∠ π΅, b, and a. Solution: a. To find B, since B and A are complementary angles, then ∠π΅ + ∠π΄ = 90π ∠π΅ = 90π − 58π ∠π΅ = 32π b. To find b, since b is the adjacent side of ∠π΄ and c is the hypotenuse of right βπ΅πΆπ΄ , then use CAH ππππππππ‘ cos π = π = 27 cos 58π βπ¦πππ‘πππ’π π π cos π΄ = π cos 58π = π 27 π = 27(0.5299) π ≈ 14.31 c. To find a, since a is the opposite side of ∠π΄ and c is the hypotenuse of right βπ΅πΆπ΄ , then use SOH πππππ ππ‘π sin π = βπ¦πππ‘πππ’π π π sin π΄ = π π sin 58 = 27 π π = 27 sin 58π The complete set of solutions of the given triangle are: ∠π΅ = 320 ∠π΄ = 580 ∠πΆ = 900 π = 27(0.8480) π ≈ 22.9 π ≈ 22.9 π ≈ 14.31 π = 27 C. Solving a right triangle given the length of one leg and the measure of one acute angle Example: Solution: Triangle ACB is right-angled at C. If ∠ π΄ = 63π and a= 11 cm, find ∠ π΅, b, and c. a. To find ∠B, take note that ∠ B and ∠ A are complementary angles. Then, ∠ B + ∠ A= 90π ∠ B = 90π − 63π ∠ B = 27π b. To find b, since b is the adjacent side and a is the opposite side of ∠π΄, then use TOA πππππ ππ‘π 11 π tan π = tan 63 = ππππππππ‘ π π tan π΄ = π tan 63π = 11 π tan 63π 11 = π π(1.9626) = 11 11 π= 1.9625 π ≈ 5.60 ππ c. To find c, since c is the hypotenuse and a is the opposite side of ∠π΄, then use SOH πππππ ππ‘π sin π = βπ¦πππ‘πππ’π π The complete set of solutions of the given triangle are: ∠π΅ = 270 ∠π΄ = 630 ∠πΆ = 900 π sin π΄ = π sin 63π = 11 π π = 11 π ≈ 5.60 ππ π ≈ 12.35 ππ π sin 63π = 11 π(0.8910) = 11 11 π= 0.8910 π ≈ 12.35 ππ D. Solving a right triangle given the length of the two legs Example: Triangle ACB is right-angled at C. If a =18.5 cm and b= 14.2 cm, find c, ∠ π΄ πππ ∠ π΅. Solution: a. To find c, use Pythagorean Theorem π 2 = π2 + π2 π 2 = (18.5)2 +(14.2)2 b. To find ∠π΄ , since a and b are opposite and adjacent side of ∠π΄ respectively, then use TOA π 2 = 342.25 + 201.64 π2 = 543.89 π = 543.89 π ≈23.32 cm πππππ ππ‘π tan π = ππππππππ‘ π tan π΄ = π tan π΄ = 18.5 14.5 tan π΄ = 1.3028 π΄ ≈ 52π We can use our scientific calculator to find an angle whose tangent is 1.3028 c. Based on the fact that ∠ A and ∠ B are complementary, the measure of angle ∠ B is 90π − 52π = 38π The complete set of solutions of the given triangle are: ∠π΅ = 380 ∠π΄ ≈ 52π ∠πΆ = 900 π = 18.5 ππ π = 14.2 ππ π ≈23.32 cm Law of Sines Learning Objectives 1. Use the Law of Sines to solve oblique triangles. 2. Find the area of an oblique triangle using the sine function. 3. Solve applied problems using the Law of Sines. Using the Law of Sines to Solve Oblique Triangles Any triangle that is not a right triangle is an oblique triangle. Solving an oblique triangle means finding the measurements of all three angles and all three sides. To do so, we need to start with at least three of these values, including at least one of the sides. We will investigate three possible oblique triangle problem situations: 1. ASA (angle-side-angle) We know the measurements of two angles and the included side. 2. AAS (angle-angle-side) We know the measurements of two angles and a side that is not between the known angles. 3. SSA (side-side-angle) We know the measurements of two sides and an angle that is not between the known sides. Knowing how to approach each of these situations enables us to solve oblique triangles without having to drop a perpendicular to form two right triangles. Instead, we can use the fact that the ratio of the measurement of one of the angles to the length of its opposite side will be equal to the other two ratios of angle measure to opposite side. Let’s see how this statement is derived by considering the triangle shown in Figure 10.6. β π β π Using the right triangle relationships, we know that sin α = and sin β = . Solving both equations for β gives two different expressions for β. β= π sin πΌ and β = π sin π½ We then set the expressions equal to each other. Similarly, we can compare the other ratios. Collectively, these relationships are called the Law of Sines Law of Sines Given a triangle with angles and opposite sides labeled as in Figure 10.7, the ratio of the measurement of an angle to the length of its opposite side will be equal to the other two ratios of angle measure to opposite side. All proportions will be equal. The Law of Sines is based on proportions and is presented symbolically two ways. To solve an oblique triangle, use any pair of applicable ratios. Solving for Two Unknown Sides and Angle of an AAS Triangle Solve the triangle shown in Figure 10.8 Solution The three angles must add up to 180 degrees. From this, we can determine that π½ = 180° − 50° − 30° = 100° To find an unknown side, we need to know the corresponding angle and a known ratio. We know that angle πΌ = 50° and its corresponding side π= 10. We can use the following proportion from the Law of Sines to find the length of π. π ππ 500 sin 300 = sin πΌ sin πΎ 10 π = π π π sin 50π = 10 sin 300 π = 10 sin 300 π ππ 500 π ≈ 6.5 Similarly, to solve for π, we set up another proportion. sin πΌ sin π½ = π π sin 500 π ππ 1000 = 10 π π sin 500 = 10 sin 1000 10 sin 1000 π= sin 500 π ≈ ππ. π Therefore, the complete set of angles and sides is Example 10.2 Solve the given triangle using the Law of Sines. Round lengths to the nearest tenth and angle measurements to the nearest degree. Find side b Since we are given angle A and side a we will use these in our ratio setup to find side b. π π = sin π΄ sin π΅ 12 π = sin 70π sin 55π A = 70°, B = 55°, and a = 12 Solution: Find angle C The sum of the angles of a triangle must equal 180° so C would be the difference between 180° and the sum of the other two angles. A + B + C = 180° 70° + 55° + C = 180° C = 180° – 125° C = 55° 12 sin 55π =π sin 70π π ≈ 10.5 Find side c Even though we just found side b you will still want to use the measurement that were given to us in the problem. The length of side b is an approximated value and will not produce as good of an answer as the known values for side a and angle A. π π = sin π΄ sin πΆ 12 π = sin 70π sin 55π 12 sin 55π =π sin 70π Since angles B and C are the same the lengths of sides b and c will also be the same. π ≈ 10.5 Using The Law of Sines to Solve SSA Triangles We can use the Law of Sines to solve any oblique triangle, but some solutions may not be straightforward. In some cases, more than one triangle may satisfy the given criteria, which we describe as an ambiguous case. Triangles classified as SSA, those in which we know the lengths of two sides and the measurement of the angle opposite one of the given sides, may result in one or two solutions, or even no solution. Possible Outcomes for SSA Triangles Oblique triangles in the category SSA may have four different outcomes. Figure 10.10 illustrates the solutions with the known sides a and b and known angle α. Solving an Oblique SSA Triangle Solve the triangle in Figure 10.11 for the missing side and find the missing angle measures to the nearest tenth. Solution Use the Law of Sines to find angle β and angle γ, and then side c. Solving for β, we have the proportion However, in the diagram, angle β appears to be an obtuse angle and may be greater than 90°. How did we get an acute angle, and how do we find the measurement of β ? Let’s investigate further. Dropping a perpendicular from γ and viewing the triangle from a right angle perspective, we have Figure 10.12. It appears that there may be a second triangle that will fit the given criteria. The angle supplementary to β is approximately equal to 49.9°, which means that β = 180° − 49.9° = 130.1°. (Remember that the sine function is positive in both the first and second quadrants.) Solving for γ, we have γ = 180° − 35° − 130.1° ≈ 14.9° We can then use these measurements to solve the other triangle. Since γ′ is supplementary to γ, we have γ′ = 180° − 35° − 49.9° ≈ 95.1° Now we need to find c and c′. We have Finally, To summarize, there are two triangles with an angle of 35°, an adjacent side of 8, and an opposite side of 6, as shown in Figure 10.13. However, we were looking for the values for the triangle with an obtuse angle β. We can see them in the first triangle (a) in Figure 10.13. Solving for the Unknown Sides and Angles of a SSA Triangle In the triangle shown in Figure 10.14, solve for the unknown side and angles. Round your answers to the nearest tenth. sin πΎ sin π½ = π π sin 85π sin π½ = 12 9 12 π πππ½ =9 sin 85π πΎ Solution In choosing the pair of ratios from the Law of Sines to use, look at the information given. In this case, we know the angle γ = 85°, and its corresponding side c = 12, and we know side b = 9. We will use this proportion to solve for β. 9 sin 85π sin π½ = 12 sin π½ = 0.7471 π ππ−1 0.7471 π½ ≈ 48.3π To find angle πΌ , apply the angle sum theorem πΌ + π½ + πΎ = 180π πΌ + 48.3π + 85π = 180π πΌ = 180π − 48.3π − 85π πΌ ≈ 46.7π Now, only side a is needed. Use the Law of Sines to solve for a by one of the proportions. sin πΎ π πππΌ = π π sin 85π π ππ 46.7π = 12 π π sin 85π =12 π ππ 46.7π The complete set of solutions for the given triangle is 12 π ππ 46.7π π= sin 85π π ≈ 8.8 Finding the Triangles That Meet the Given Criteria Find all possible triangles if one side has length 4 opposite an angle of 50°, and a second side has length 10. Solution Using the given information, we can solve for the angle opposite the side of length 10. See Figure 10.15. We can stop here without finding the value of α. Because the range of the sine function is [−1, 1], it is impossible for the sine value to be 1.915. In fact, inputting sin−1 (1.915) in a graphing calculator generates an ERROR DOMAIN. Therefore, no triangles can be drawn with the provided dimensions. Solving Triangles for the Ambiguous Case (SSA) Example (No Triangles) Given A = 42π , a = 3, b = 8 Since A = 42π < 90π and a < b, we calculate the value of sin B using the Law of Sines: sin π΄ sin π΅ = π π sin 42π sin π΅ = 3 8 3 π πππ΅ 8 sin 42π = 3 3 8 sin 42π sin π΅ = 3 sin π΅ = 1.784 (recall that -1 < sin B < 1. Hence, there are no possible triangles and nothing to solve for. Finding the Area of an Oblique Triangle Using the Sine Function Now that we can solve a triangle for missing values, we can use some of those values and the sine function to find the area of an oblique triangle. Recall that the area formula for a 1 triangle is given as Area =2 b h, where b is base and h is height. For oblique triangles, we must find h before we can use the area formula. Observing the two triangles in Figure 10.16, one acute and one obtuse, we can drop a perpendicular to represent the height and then apply the trigonometric property sin α = opposite β hypotenuse to write an equation for area in oblique triangles. In the acute triangle, we have sin α = π Or c sin α = h. However, in the obtuse triangle, we drop the perpendicular outside the triangle and extend the base b to form a right triangle. The angle used in calculation is α′, or 180 − α. Thus, Similarly, Finding the Area of an Oblique Triangle Find the area of a triangle with sides a = 90, b = 52, and angle γ = 102°. Round the area to the nearest integer Solution Using the formula, we have Area= 1 2 Area= 1 2 ππ sin πΎ 90 52 π ππ 102π Area ≈ 2289 π ππ’πππ π’πππ‘π Find the area of the triangle given β = 42°, a = 7.2 ft, c = 3.4 ft. Round the area to the nearest tenth. Solution Using the formula, we have Area= 1 2 Area= 1 2 ππ sin π½ 7.2 ππ‘ 3.4ππ‘ π ππ 42π Area ≈ 8.19 ππ‘ 2 Solving Applied Problems Using the Law of Sines Finding an Altitude Find the altitude of the aircraft , shown in Figure 10.17. Round the altitude to the nearest tenth of a mile. Solution To find the elevation of the aircraft, we first find the distance from one station to the aircraft, such as the side a, and then use right triangle relationships to find the height of the aircraft, h. Because the angles in the triangle add up to 180 degrees, the unknown angle must be 180°−15°−35°=130°. This angle is opposite the side of length 20, allowing us to set up a Law of Sines relationship. sin 130π sin 35π = 20 π 20 sin 35π π= sin 130π π sin 130π = 20 sin 35π π ≈ 14.98 The distance from one station to the aircraft is about 14.98 miles. Now that we know a, we can use right triangle relationships to solve for h. sin πππππ ππ‘π = βπ¦πππ‘πππ’π π 15π sin 15π = π sin 15 β π β = 14.98 β = 14.98 sin 15π β ≈ 3.88 The aircraft is at an altitude of approximately 3.9 miles. Example Tamara leaves her apartment and drives west for 6.8 miles to meet her friend Gary. Leaving Gary's house, they take a road that forms a 132 degree angle with the road they were on to drive to get ice cream. From the ice cream shop, they can take another road that leads back to Tamara's house that forms a 28 degree angle with the road they were on. How far did they drive from Gary's to get ice cream and how far did they drive from the ice cream shop back to Tamara's? Round answers to two decimal places. Step 1: Draw a picture representing the situation in the word problem. Label all known sides and angles. We need to draw a triangle to represent the situation. We can fill in all three angles, since we know two of the angles and that the angles of a triangle must add up to 180 degrees. Step 2: Set up an equation using the law of sines to solve for the unknown value. The law of sines says sin π΄ sin π΅ sin πΆ = = π π π where A, B, C are the angles of a triangle and a, b, c are the sides opposite those angles, respectively. We have two unknown values, and so will need two equations. Both equations will use the 6.8 miles and the 28π angle, since we have all the information for that angle and the side opposite it. sin 28π π ππ20π = 6.8 π₯ sin 28π π ππ132π = 6.8 π¦ Step 3: Solve the equation from step 2 using cross-multiplication. You may need to use a calculator to finish solving and round to the specified number of decimal places if values in the problem are not on the unit circle. For the first equation, we can cross multiply and solve for x sin 28π π ππ20π = 6.8 π₯ sin 28π π₯ = 6.8 sin 20π For the second equation, we can cross multiply and solve for y sin 28π π ππ132π = 6.8 π¦ sin 28π π¦ = 6.8 sin 132π 6.8 sin 132π sin 28π 6.8 sin 20π π₯= sin 28π y= x≈4.95 miles y≈ 10.76 miles. They drove about 4.95 miles from Gary's to the ice cream shop and about 10.76 miles from the ice cream shop back to Tamara's. Law of Cosines Learning Objectives 1. Use the Law of Cosines to solve oblique triangles 2. Solve applied problems using the Law of Cosines Using the Law of Cosines to Solve Oblique Triangles The derivation begins with the Generalized Pythagorean Theorem, which is an extension of the Pythagorean Theorem to non-right triangles. Here is how it works: An arbitrary non-right triangle ABC is placed in the coordinate plane with vertex A at the origin, side c drawn along the x-axis, and vertex C located at some point (x, y) in the plane, as illustrated in Figure 10.38. Generally, triangles exist anywhere in the plane, but for this explanation we will place the triangle as noted. We can drop a perpendicular from C to the x-axis (this is the altitude or height). Recalling the basic trigonometric identities, we know that In terms of θ, x = b cos θ and y = b sin θ. The (x, y) point located at C has coordinates (b cos θ, b sin θ). Using the side (x − c) as one leg of a right triangle and y as the second leg, we can find the length of hypotenuse a using the Pythagorean Theorem. Thus, π2 = π₯ − π 2 + π¦2 = π πππ π − π 2 + π sin π 2 Substitute (b cos θ) for x and (b sin θ) for y. = π2 πππ 2 π − 2 ππ πππ π + π 2 + π2 π ππ2 π Expand the perfect square. = π2 πππ 2 π + π ππ2 π + π 2 − 2 ππ πππ π Group terms noting that πππ 2 θ + π ππ2 θ = 1. π2 = π2 + π 2 − 2ππ πππ π Factor out π2 Law of Cosines The Law of Cosines states that the square of any side of a triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides minus twice the product of the other two sides and the cosine of the included angle. For triangles labeled as in Figure 10.39, with angles α, β, and γ, and opposite corresponding sides a, b, and c, respectively, the Law of Cosines is given as three equations. When solving for an angle, the corresponding opposite side measure is needed. We can use another version of the Law of Cosines to solve for an angle. Finding the Unknown Side and Angles of a SAS Triangle Find the unknown side and angles of the triangle in Figure 10.40. Solution Find b SAS π2 = π2 + π 2 − 2accos β π2 = 102 + 122 − 2(10)(12) cos 30π π2 = 100 + 144− 240 3 2 π2 = 100 + 144− 120 3 π2 = 244 − 120 3 π ≈ 6.013 Find angle πΆ π ≈ 6.013 Use cos πΌ = π2 +π 2 −π2 2ππ 56.3π (6.013)2 + 12 2 − (10)2 cos πΌ = 2(6.013)(12) cos πΌ = cos πΌ = 36.156169 + 144 − 100 144.312 80.156169 144.312 cos πΌ = 0.5554366165 πππ −1 0.5554366165 πΌ ≈ 56.3π Find angle πΈ γ = 180° − 30° − 56.3° ≈ 93.7° The complete set of angles and sides is Solving for an Angle of a SSS Triangle Find the angle α for the given triangle if side a = 20, side b = 25, and side c = 18 Solution Find angle πΌ cos πΌ = π2 +π 2 −π2 2ππ cos πΌ = (25)2 +(18)2 −(20)2 2 25 (18) 625+324−400 cos πΌ = 900 549 cos πΌ = 900 cos πΌ = 0.61 πππ −1 0.61 πΌ ≈ 52.4° Find angle π½ cos β = π2 +π 2 −π2 2ππ cos β = (20)2 +(18)2 −(25)2 2 20 (18) cos β = 400+324−625 720 cos β = 99 720 cos β = 0.1375 πππ −1 0.1375 π½ ≈ 82.1° Find angle πΈ πΌ + π½ + πΎ = 1800 52.4π + 82.12 + πΎ = 1800 πΎ = 1800 − 134.5π πΎ ≈ 45.5π Solving Applied Problems Using the Law of Cosines Using the Law of Cosines to Solve a Communication Problem On many cell phones with GPS, an approximate location can be given before the GPS signal is received. This is accomplished through a process called triangulation, which works by using the distances from two known points. Suppose there are two cell phone towers within range of a cell phone. The two towers are located 6000 feet apart along a straight highway, running east to west, and the cell phone is north of the highway. Based on the signal delay, it can be determined that the signal is 5050 feet from the first tower and 2420 feet from the second tower. Determine the position of the cell phone north and east of the first tower, and determine how far it is from the highway. Solution Using the Law of Cosines, we can solve for the angle θ. Remember that the Law of Cosines uses the square of one side to find the cosine of the opposite angle. For this example, let a = 2420, b = 5050, and c = 6000. =a b= Thus, θ corresponds to the opposite side a = 2420. To find π π’π π π‘βπ πππ€ ππ πππ ππππ c= π2 = π2 + π 2 − 2ππ cos π π2 = π2 + π 2 − 2ππ cos π (2420ππ‘)2 = (5050ππ‘)2 + (6000ππ‘)2 − 2(5050ππ‘)(6000ππ‘) cos π 5856400ππ‘ 2 = 25502500ππ‘ 2 + 36000000ππ‘ 2 − 60600000ππ‘ 2 cos π 5856400ππ‘ 2 = 61502500ππ‘ 2 − 60600000 ππ‘ 2 cos π 5856400ππ‘ 2 - 61502500ππ‘ 2 = − 60600000ππ‘ 2 cos π - 55646100ππ‘ 2 = − 60600000ππ‘ 2 cos π −55646100ππ‘ 2 − 60600000ππ‘ 2 cos π = −60600000ππ‘ 2 −60600000ππ‘ 2 0.9182524752= cos π πππ −1 0.9182524752 π ≈ 23.3° To answer the questions about the phone’s position north and east of the tower, and the distance to the highway, drop a perpendicular from the position of the cell phone, as in Figure 10.43. This forms two right triangles, although we only need the right triangle that includes the first tower for this problem. Using the angle θ = 23.3° and the basic trigonometric identities, we can find the solutions. Thus The cell phone is approximately 4638 feet east and 1998 feet north of the first tower, and 1998 feet from the highway. Calculating Distance Traveled Using a SAS Triangle Suppose a boat leaves port, travels 10 miles, turns 20 degrees, and travels another 8 miles. How far from port is the boat? Solution The boat turned 20 degrees, so the obtuse angle of the non-right triangle is the supplemental angle, 180° − 20° = 160°. With this, we can utilize the Law of Cosines to find the missing side of the obtuse triangle—the distance of the boat to the port. The boat is about 17.7 miles from port. References: Algebra and trigonometry LRpdf https://study.com/