Uploaded by Jaderic Buising


SY: 2022 – 2023
(Movement Competency Training)
SY: 2022 – 2023
GEC 18
NOTE # 1 : August 24, 2022
By the time of graduation, students of the program shot have the following
 To produce graduates with sufficient knowledge in different areas of Civil
Engineering and possess the necessary skills for work in the Industry
 To produce graduates who are sensitive and responsible in the social, cultural,
and the environmental context.
 To produce graduates for work in advanced design and innovation at
international level.
 To become effective communicators in professional and non-profesional
environments and be able to function as a team member.
 To purpose continued professional development, including professional
registration if desired.
 To successfully pursued engineering graduate studies and research if desired.
 To design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data.
 To design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within
realistic constraints, in accordance with standards.
 To function in multidisciplinary and multicultural teams.
 To communicate effectively Civil Engineering activities with the engineering
community and with society at large.
 To understand the impact of Civil Engineering solutions in a global economic,
environmental, and societal context. To use techniques, skills, and modern
engineering tools necessary for Civil Engineering practice.
 To know and understand engineering and management principles as a
member and leader of a team, and to manage projects in a multidisciplinary
“BUILDING” the World
Definition of terms:
 Engineering - is the creative application of scientific principle to design or
develop structures, machines, apparatus or manufacturing processes, or
works using them singly or in combination; to construct or operate the same
with full cognizance of design forecast behavior under specific operating
conditions all as respect an Intended function, economics of operation and
safety to life and property.
Civil Engineering- is a Professional engineering discipline that deals with the
design construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built
environment, including works Eke roads, bridges, canal, dams and buildings.
Civil engineers design major transportation projects Civil engineers conceive,
design, build, supervise, operate, construct and maintain infrastructure
projects and systems in the public and private sector, including roads,
buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and systems for water supply and
sewage treatment.
Civil engineers play an extremely important role in the society. They are
responsible for maintaining the overall safety of society in a number of ways
including rural engineering.
Civil Engineering is considered as the oldest branch or discipline of
engineering next to military engineering. All Engineering works other than military
purposes were grouped to civil engineering, it deals with the analysis, design,
construction and maintenance of infrastructure facilities such as buildings, bridges,
dams and roads.
Civil Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human
existence. The earliest practices of Civil engineering have commenced between 4000
and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia (Ancient Iraq) when humans started
to abandon a nomadic existence, causing a need for the construction of shelter.
During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the
development of the wheel and sailing. Until modem times there was no clear
distinction between civil engineering and architecture, and the term engineer and
architect were mainly geographical variations referring to the same person, often
used interchangeably. The construction of Pyramids in Egypt (circa 2700-2500 BC)
might be considered the first instances of large structure constructions.
John Smeaton FRS (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was a British civil engineer
responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. He
was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton
was the first self-proclaimed "civil engineer", and is often regarded as the
"father of civil engineering".
Born: 8 June 1724 (Austhorpe, Leeds, England)
Died: 28 October 1792 (aged 68) Austhorpe, Leeds, England
Spouse: Ann Jenkinson (m. 1756–1784)
Education: Leeds Grammar School
Structures: Eddystone Lighthouse, Coldstream Bridge, Banff bridge,
Lower North Water Bridge, summit bridge.
John Smeaton was a prolific figure of towering intellect who become known
as "The Father of Civil Engineering." As a youth, he joined the family law firm before
deciding his talents to elsewhere and becoming a maker of mathematical tools. He
did pioneering work on the mechanics of windmills and watermills, being lauded by
the day's leamed Societies.
He was also responsible for over a dozen major civil engineering projects.
Including harbors, canals, mills, and bridges. Civil engineering students across Europe
studied his contributions for decades folowing his death.
Squire Whipple - Born 1804 in Hardwick. Massachusetts. Squire Whipple
quickly distinguished himsell as a student. He graduated from the private
Union College in Schenectady, New York after just one year of study.
In his professional life. he quickly became known as an expert bridge-builder,
and was even caled "the father of iron bridge building" in his native United
States. He is particularly well known for the bowstring arch truss design he
patented in 1841. Several examples of his work persist to the present and
some are even still in use, including a sleek example in Albany.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Born 1806 in Portsmouth, England. Isambard
Kingdom Brunel was one of the leading civil and mechanical engineers of the
Industrial Revolution. Today, he is best known for working on the Great
Westem Railway, which connected London with the Midlands and much of
Wales. Launched in 1833, it was completed by 1838. In no small part due to
Brunel's innovative designs. Brunel's bridges and funnels dotted Great Britain,
and he was also responsible for numerous steamships. He also contributed to
the Thames Tunnel, though in a less active role.
Gustave Eiffel - Frenchman Alexander Gustave Eiffel, born 1832 in Dijon, is
now best known for the 986-foot tower that bears his name. The lower, which
was intended to be temporary, is just one of Eiffel's achievements. During his
career, he was better known for innovative ironwork bridges, railway stations,
and cast iron, which he researched in great depth. His career included projects
in locales as distant as Egypt and Chile, where he designed an all-metal
prefabricated church for on-site assembly. His biggest project before "le tour"
was the observatory at Nice, completed 1886, he growth of the railway
network had an immense effect on people's lives, but although the enormous
number of bridges and other work undertaken by Eiffel were an important
part of this, the two works that did most to make him famous are the Statue
of Liberty and the Eiffel Tower, both projects of immense symbolic
importance and today internationally recognized landmarks.
Karl Von Terzaghi – An Austrian born in 1883, was the "father of soil
mechanics and, for much of his career, the patron of Arthur Casagrande. It
was Terzaghi whose research agenda was supported by Casagrande at MIT,
and the two collaborated much over the years. Though Casagrande brought
soil mechanics to the US and its millary. Von Terzaghi is also credited with
advancing other fields, such as railway and highway engineering. His energetic
desire to push the boundaries of geology left him well-placed to work on the
first hydroelectric plants in Vienna. Von Terzaghi spent much of 1912 and
1913 in the United States, touring major dams under construction. During
World War I, he managed up to 1.000 engineers. Later in the war, he
established a pioneering soil engineering lab while working for Istanbul
Technical University. Following the war, in 1924, he published his
revolutionary work Soil Mechanics and soon brought his knowledge of the
burgeoning field to the US as an MIT professor.
John A. Roebling - John August Roebling, born 1806 in Prussia, learned French
and drafting at an early age before attending the Royal Building Academy In
Berlin. As a student in architecture and engineering, he was drawn to the
challenges of the suspension bridge. During three years of public service, his
requests to build them were continuously declined, contributing to a decision
to immigrate with his brother. John relocated, becoming an American citizen
in 1837. He was among the founders of the small village of Saxonburg,
Pennsylvania. He began his new career with the Pennsylvania Canal System,
and was placed In charge of surveying a railroad route over the Allegheny
Mountains. On this job, he installed a wire rope that served as the basis of his
new successful business. In 1844, he built a suspension bridge in Pittsburgh,
launching an illustrious career as America's foremost expert on suspension
PYRAMIDS - Around 2550 BC, Imhotep, the first documented engineer, built
a famous stepped pyramid for King Djoser located at Saqqara Necropolis.
With simple tools and mathematics he created a monument that stands to
this day. His greatest contribution to engineering was his discovery of the art
of building with shaped stones. Those who followed him carried engineering
to remarkable heights using skill and imagination.
THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA by General Meng T’ien under orders from Ch'in
Emperor Shih Huang Ti (e. 220 BC) - The Great Wall of China was originally
conceived by Emperor Qin Shi Huang in the third century BC, as a means
of preventing incursions from barbarian nomads. Made mostly of earth and
stone, the wall stretched from the China Sea port of Shanhaiguan over 3,000
miles west Into Gansu province. From a base of 15 to 50 feet, the Great Wall
rose some 15-30 feet high and was topped by ramparts 12 feet or higher
guard towers were distributed at intervals along it.
ROMAN AQUEDUCT - The Roman aqueduct was a channel used to transport
fresh water to highly populated oreas. Aqueducts were amazing feats of
engineering given the time period. Though earler civilizations in Egypt and
India also built aqueducts, the Romans improved on the structure and built
an extensive and complex network across their teritories. Evidence of
aqueducts remain in parts of modem-day France, Spain, Greece, North Africa,
and Turkey. As water flowed into the cites, it was used for drinking, irrigation,
and to supply hundreds of public fountains and baths.
EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE - lighthouse, celebrated in folk ballads and
seamen's lore, standing on the Eddystone Rocks. 14 miles off Plymouth,
England, in the English Channel. The first lighthouse (1696-99), built of timber,
was swept away with its designer. Hervy Winstanley, by the great storm of
1703. The second, of oak and iron, designed by John Rudyerd (1708), was
destroyed by fire in 1755. John Smeaton built (1756-59) the third Eddystone.
Lighthouse entirely of interlocking stone, on a plan that revolutionized the
construction of such towers. It stood until it was replaced in 1882 by the
present structure, which rises 133 feet (40) meters above the water and was
designed by Sir James N. Douglass.
GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE - With a lock of quick, reliable transportation, the city
stagnated and stopped growing. Although the ferry service was popular at the
time, many locals called for a bridge to be constructed so that people could
travel more easily and quickly.
Many engineers and architects believed it impossible to build a bridge
over such a long channel, with its strong tides, deep water and heavy
outbursts of wind and fog. It wasn't until 1916 that James Wilkins, a former
engineering student, created one of the first feasible proposal for a
complicated bridge costing around $100 million. Although many shrugged off
the idea, engineer and poet Joseph Strauss believed he could pull off the
impossible feat.
STRAW - is a very light weight material. It is used as construction materials in
middle ages. Straw building construction system is adopted for providing
natural appearance to the building. Though it provides sufficient insulation
but it is not durable. It is unable to resist natural and seismic forces. The
buildings made up of straw possess poor fire resistant properties. Due to this,
it is not considered as a suitable material for construction process.
WATTLE & DAUB - In ancient times, a composite material commonly known
as waffle and doub is used for making walls, In this, wattle (woven lattice of
wooden strips) is coated (daubed) with a sticky material generally prepared
by mixing wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw. It Used in ancient times
due to its economy. It does not require special skills; also it does not require
the use of expensive materials. Despite of having several advantages, it has
some drawbacks also. Wattle and daub walls require regular patching up. In
order to keep the walls made of wattle and daub in good condition, it should
be protected from damp and rain. This building material is not suitable for the
areas having wet climate. So, it is also not widely used as a building material.
Wattle and daub, in building construction, method of constructing
walls in which vertical wooden stakes, or wattles, are woven with horizontal
twigs and branches, and then daubed with clay or mud. This method is one of
the oldest known for making a weatherproof structure.
MUD - a mixture of earth and water, is economical, practical, functional and
attractive. A natural building material that is found in abundance, especially
where other bullding materials such as bricks, stone of wood are scarce due
to affordability and or avalabilly.
ADOBE - a natural building material made from sand, clay, water and some
kind of fibrous or organic material (sticks, straw and or manure). In hot
climates, compared with wooden buildings offer significant advantage due to
their greater thermal mass, but they are known to be particularly susceptible
to earthquake damage.
STONES - In ancient times, stone is used as a building material. Il possesses
good resistance against abrasion. It is quite strong and durable building
material. Buildings made up of stones does not need painting, the process of
cleaning the house made up of stone is very easy. Despite of having several
merits, it has some demerits also. The buildings constructed with stones are
not economical.
Stones are not available in all the places easily. Special skills are
required for the construction of stone buildings. Stone structures cannot be
repaired easily. Since, stones are available in irregular pattern; it requires
special tools and techniques for its carving into a desired shape and size.
In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all
things civilian as opposed to military engineering
The first engineering school, The National School of Bridges and Highways,
France, was opened in 1747.
The first sell-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton who constructed
the Eddystone Lighthouse. In 1771, Smeaton and some of his colleagues
formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the
profession who met informally over dinner.
In 1818, world's first engineering society, the Institution of Civil Engineers was
founded in London, and in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford
became its first president. The institution received a Royal Charter in 1828.
formally recognizing civil engineering as a profession.
The first private college to teach Civil Engineering in the United States was
Norwich University founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge. The first
degree In Civil Engineering in the United States was awarded by Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute.
A view of the pyramid at Giza from the
plateau to the south of the complex. From
left to right, the three largest are: the
Pyramid of Menkaure, the Pyramid of
Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu.
The three smaller pyramids in the
foreground are subsidiary structures
associated with Menkaure's pyramid.
The Watt steam engine, a major
driver in the industial evolution,
underscores the Importance of
engineering in modem history. This
model is on display at the main
building of the E.T.S.I.ME in Madrid,
Topic for Research Project
1. Infrastructure Development
2 Types of Infrastructure
3. The Role of Civil Engineers in Infrastructure Development
4. Effect of Infrastructure In Economic Development of a Country