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BIOL 416 Lecture Slides #1

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BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function
Time:
Location:
Instructor:
Office:
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday; 9:00-9:50am
3140 Wescoe Hall
Yoshiaki Azuma, Ph.D.
3037 Haworth Hall, 864-7540 (office)
azumay@ku.edu
Instructor: Dyan Morgan, Ph.D.
Office:
2040 Haworth Hall, 864-5735 (office)
dyan.morgan@ku.edu
Office Hours: Immediately after class;
or please call or email to arrange appointment
GTA:
Ms. Meagan Kurland
Office:
5004 Haworth Hall,
Office Hours: Thursdays 11am-12pm and by appointment
set via emai
meagankurland@ku.edu
Chapter 1
Cells: The Fundamental Units
of Life
Essential Cell Biology, Fifth Edition Copyright © 2019 W. W. Norton &
Company
BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function
Course objectives:
• Understanding the basic concepts of
molecular biology with respect to cellular
functions.
• Understanding how we obtain knowledge
of molecular basis of cellular functions
• Provide foundation of cell biology to
upper level biology course.
BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function
Prerequisites:
Students must have successfully completed
BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 350 or BIOL
360 and CHEM 130 or CHEM 190 or CHEM
170 or CHEM 184 or CHEM 185 and CHEM
135 or CHEM 195 or CHEM 175 or CHEM 188
or CHEM 189 to enroll in this course.
Or consent to instructor for permission.
BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and
Function
Exams:
There will be four midterm exams and a comprehensive final exam; the
dates for all of these exams are listed in the course schedule below. You will
be tested on material covered in class, but reading the textbook is expected
and will help you best understand this material. The exams consist of
multiple choice, matching, fill-in the blank, and essay questions. Your
numerical grade on each exam, including the final exam, will count as 20%
of your grade. On the other hand, if it works to your advantage, you may
drop the lowest midterm score and count the final as 40%. If you are sick,
or for any other reason cannot make it to one of the exams, that will be the
exam that will be dropped. If you need to miss more than one exam
(emergency situations only), you must have documentation from a third
party (such as a hospital or KU Student Affairs) to certify that you need to
be excused and your final grade will be computed based on adjusted total
overall points (hour exams + 2X final exam score/4). Bonus: Any student
earning an A on EACH OF THE FOUR midterm exams is not required to take
the Cumulative Final Exam. We will not have any make-up exams.
BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function
Grading:
The final grading scale will be: A: 90-100; B: 80-89; C:
70-79; D: 60-69; F: below 60. We may curve individual
exams, depending on the class performance. We will
not raise the scale, no matter how well the class
performs. In other words, it is possible for everyone
in the course to earn A’s, and we hope that happens.
All exams except the final exam will be designed to be
completed in fifty minutes.
Final grades will not be rounded up: 89.96% is a B
Lecture schedule
W Jan 22 Introduction to Course/Cells: The
Fundamental Units of Life
F Jan 24 Cells: The Fundamental Units of
Life/ Method
M Jan 27 Chemical Components of Cells
W Jan 29 Chemical Components of Cells
F Jan 31 Energy, Catalysis, and Biosynthesis
M Feb 3 Energy, Catalysis, and Biosynthesis
W Feb 5 Protein Structure and Function
F Feb 7 Protein Structure and Function
M Feb 10 DNA and Chromosomes
W Feb 12 EXAM 1 (Chapters 1-5, 10)
F Feb 14 DNA Replication and Repair
M Feb 17 From DNA to Protein: How Cells Read
the Genome
W Feb 19 Chapter 7(Cont.)/Control of Gene
Expression
F Feb 21 Control of Gene Expression
M Feb 24 How Genes and Genomes Evolve
W Feb 26 How Genes and Genomes Evolve /
Membrane Structure
F Feb 28 Membrane Structure
M Mar 2 Transport Across Cell Membrane
W Mar 4 Transport Across Cell Membrane
F Mar 6
EXAM 2 (Chapters 6-9, 11-12)
M Mar 16 How Cells Obtain Energy From Food
W Mar 18 Chapter 13 (Cont.)/ Energy Gen. in
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
F Mar 20 Energy Generation in Mitochondria and
Chloroplasts
M Mar 23 Intracellular Compartments and Protein
Transport
W Mar 25 Intracellular Compartments and Protein
Transport
F Mar 27 Intracellular Compartments and Protein
Transport / Cell Signaling
M Mar 30 Cell Signaling
W Apr 1 Cell Signaling
F Apr 3
EXAM 3 (Chapters 13-16)
M Apr 6 Cytoskeleton
W Apr 8
Cytoskeleton
F Apr 10 Cytoskeleton
M Apr 13 The Cell-Division Cycle
W Apr 15 The Cell-Division Cycle
F Apr 17 The Cell-Division Cycle
M Apr 20 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics
W Apr 22 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics
F Apr 24 Cell Communities: Tissues, Stem Cells,
and Cancer
M Apr 27 Cell Communities: Tissues, Stem Cells,
and Cancer
W Apr 29 Cell Communities: Tissues, Stem Cells,
and Cancer
F May 1
EXAM 4 (Chapters 17-20)
M May 4
Emerging Topics in Cell Biology
W May 6
Emerging Topics in Cell Biology
Tuesday, May 12
Final Exam 7:30am-10:00am (Chapters 1-20 and Emerging Topics)
BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function
Grading:
The final grading scale will be: A: 90-100; B: 80-89; C:
70-79; D: 60-69; F: below 60. We may curve individual
exams, depending on the class performance. We will
not raise the scale, no matter how well the class
performs. In other words, it is possible for everyone
in the course to earn A’s, and we hope that happens.
All exams except the final exam will be designed to be
completed in fifty minutes.
Final grades will not be rounded up: 89.96% is a B
BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function
Concealed handgun carry policy:
Individuals who choose to carry concealed handguns are solely responsible
to do so in a safe and secure manner in strict conformity with state and
federal laws and KU weapons policy. Safety measures outlined in the KU
weapons policy specify that a concealed handgun:
• Must be under the constant control of the carrier.
• Must be out of view, concealed either on the body of the carrier, or
backpack, purse, or bag that remains under the carrier’s custody and
control.
• Must be in a holster that covers the trigger area and secures any external
hammer in an un-cocked position
• Must have the safety on, and have no round in the chamber.
Individuals who violate the KU weapons policy may be asked to leave
campus with the weapon and may face disciplinary action under the
appropriate university code of conduct.
BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function
REEF iClicker Questions:
We use the REEF iClicker system for several reasons:
1) To create a more engaging learning environment.
2) To gauge your understanding of concepts during
class.
3) To provide you with a preview of the types of
questions we might ask on an exam.
4) To provide you with an opportunity to earn points to
supplement your exam scores.
Students who submit answers for at least two-thirds of
iClicker questions over the course of the semester will
receive extra credit points at the end of the semester.
BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function
Any questions?
Why we study Cell biology?
• Cell is the fundamental unit of life, which
proliferate, differentiate, communicate, respond
to environments.
• Cells can arise only by division from a
preexisting cells.
• Understanding of function of single cell will
reveal the mechanism of more complex life form,
such as human.
• Knowing normal function of cell will help to
understand the mechanism of diseases that are
caused by malfunctioning of cellular functions.
Cell is diverged in its shape and
function
Neuron
Paramecium
Saccharomyces Helicobacter
pylori
Chlamydomonas cerevisiae
Genome: Containing all information
requires cellular functions
• Can define difference among organisms.
• In multi cell organism, such as human, each
cell contains identical genome. (All cells
derived from single fertilized egg.)
Difference in cellular function in multi cell organism
depends on what kind of gene(s) is (are) expressed
in particular Cells.
Variation in Gene expression will change protein
components of the cells and that will change other
biomolecules in cells and will affect cell’s structure
and function.
Genome size is not seem correlated to
complexity or size of organisms
All cells follow central dogma: DNA to
protein
Key issue:
How is expression of
each gene regulated to
perform specific
cellular functions?
What is (are) the
determination factor(s)
for gene expression?
Two types of Cell
• Prokaryotic Cells
Simple intracellular structure.
No Nucleus
• Eukaryotic Cells
Complex intracellular structure.
Nucleus
Yet, both type has common features.
1. Using DNA as Genetic material and identical genetic code
2. Composed by similar Biological molecules
3. ATP is a major energy source
Plant Cells
Two types of Cell
• Prokaryotic Cells
Smaller in total cell volume.
All essential components to satisfy central dogma are there.
• Eukaryotic Cells
Much larger in total cell volume.
Many vesicle structures (membrane-enclosed structures)
inside of cell.
Acquisition of Mitochondria
Acquisition of Chloroplast
Parasite hypothesis :
Mitochondrion & Chloroplast are
parasite of ancient eukaryotic cells.
Supportive evidence
• Contains own DNA
• Has own ribosome that is closer to prokaryote than to
eukaryote
• Difference in genetic code compared to eukaryotic
code
• Distinct composition of lipids between Outer and inner
membrane
• Has membrane integrated protein whose structure (´üóbarrel) is conserved to bacterial outer membrane
protein.
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