BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function Time: Location: Instructor: Office: Monday, Wednesday, and Friday; 9:00-9:50am 3140 Wescoe Hall Yoshiaki Azuma, Ph.D. 3037 Haworth Hall, 864-7540 (office) firstname.lastname@example.org Instructor: Dyan Morgan, Ph.D. Office: 2040 Haworth Hall, 864-5735 (office) email@example.com Office Hours: Immediately after class; or please call or email to arrange appointment GTA: Ms. Meagan Kurland Office: 5004 Haworth Hall, Office Hours: Thursdays 11am-12pm and by appointment set via emai firstname.lastname@example.org Chapter 1 Cells: The Fundamental Units of Life Essential Cell Biology, Fifth Edition Copyright © 2019 W. W. Norton & Company BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function Course objectives: • Understanding the basic concepts of molecular biology with respect to cellular functions. • Understanding how we obtain knowledge of molecular basis of cellular functions • Provide foundation of cell biology to upper level biology course. BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function Prerequisites: Students must have successfully completed BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 350 or BIOL 360 and CHEM 130 or CHEM 190 or CHEM 170 or CHEM 184 or CHEM 185 and CHEM 135 or CHEM 195 or CHEM 175 or CHEM 188 or CHEM 189 to enroll in this course. Or consent to instructor for permission. BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function Exams: There will be four midterm exams and a comprehensive final exam; the dates for all of these exams are listed in the course schedule below. You will be tested on material covered in class, but reading the textbook is expected and will help you best understand this material. The exams consist of multiple choice, matching, fill-in the blank, and essay questions. Your numerical grade on each exam, including the final exam, will count as 20% of your grade. On the other hand, if it works to your advantage, you may drop the lowest midterm score and count the final as 40%. If you are sick, or for any other reason cannot make it to one of the exams, that will be the exam that will be dropped. If you need to miss more than one exam (emergency situations only), you must have documentation from a third party (such as a hospital or KU Student Affairs) to certify that you need to be excused and your final grade will be computed based on adjusted total overall points (hour exams + 2X final exam score/4). Bonus: Any student earning an A on EACH OF THE FOUR midterm exams is not required to take the Cumulative Final Exam. We will not have any make-up exams. BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function Grading: The final grading scale will be: A: 90-100; B: 80-89; C: 70-79; D: 60-69; F: below 60. We may curve individual exams, depending on the class performance. We will not raise the scale, no matter how well the class performs. In other words, it is possible for everyone in the course to earn A’s, and we hope that happens. All exams except the final exam will be designed to be completed in fifty minutes. Final grades will not be rounded up: 89.96% is a B Lecture schedule W Jan 22 Introduction to Course/Cells: The Fundamental Units of Life F Jan 24 Cells: The Fundamental Units of Life/ Method M Jan 27 Chemical Components of Cells W Jan 29 Chemical Components of Cells F Jan 31 Energy, Catalysis, and Biosynthesis M Feb 3 Energy, Catalysis, and Biosynthesis W Feb 5 Protein Structure and Function F Feb 7 Protein Structure and Function M Feb 10 DNA and Chromosomes W Feb 12 EXAM 1 (Chapters 1-5, 10) F Feb 14 DNA Replication and Repair M Feb 17 From DNA to Protein: How Cells Read the Genome W Feb 19 Chapter 7(Cont.)/Control of Gene Expression F Feb 21 Control of Gene Expression M Feb 24 How Genes and Genomes Evolve W Feb 26 How Genes and Genomes Evolve / Membrane Structure F Feb 28 Membrane Structure M Mar 2 Transport Across Cell Membrane W Mar 4 Transport Across Cell Membrane F Mar 6 EXAM 2 (Chapters 6-9, 11-12) M Mar 16 How Cells Obtain Energy From Food W Mar 18 Chapter 13 (Cont.)/ Energy Gen. in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts F Mar 20 Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts M Mar 23 Intracellular Compartments and Protein Transport W Mar 25 Intracellular Compartments and Protein Transport F Mar 27 Intracellular Compartments and Protein Transport / Cell Signaling M Mar 30 Cell Signaling W Apr 1 Cell Signaling F Apr 3 EXAM 3 (Chapters 13-16) M Apr 6 Cytoskeleton W Apr 8 Cytoskeleton F Apr 10 Cytoskeleton M Apr 13 The Cell-Division Cycle W Apr 15 The Cell-Division Cycle F Apr 17 The Cell-Division Cycle M Apr 20 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics W Apr 22 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics F Apr 24 Cell Communities: Tissues, Stem Cells, and Cancer M Apr 27 Cell Communities: Tissues, Stem Cells, and Cancer W Apr 29 Cell Communities: Tissues, Stem Cells, and Cancer F May 1 EXAM 4 (Chapters 17-20) M May 4 Emerging Topics in Cell Biology W May 6 Emerging Topics in Cell Biology Tuesday, May 12 Final Exam 7:30am-10:00am (Chapters 1-20 and Emerging Topics) BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function Grading: The final grading scale will be: A: 90-100; B: 80-89; C: 70-79; D: 60-69; F: below 60. We may curve individual exams, depending on the class performance. We will not raise the scale, no matter how well the class performs. In other words, it is possible for everyone in the course to earn A’s, and we hope that happens. All exams except the final exam will be designed to be completed in fifty minutes. Final grades will not be rounded up: 89.96% is a B BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function Concealed handgun carry policy: Individuals who choose to carry concealed handguns are solely responsible to do so in a safe and secure manner in strict conformity with state and federal laws and KU weapons policy. Safety measures outlined in the KU weapons policy specify that a concealed handgun: • Must be under the constant control of the carrier. • Must be out of view, concealed either on the body of the carrier, or backpack, purse, or bag that remains under the carrier’s custody and control. • Must be in a holster that covers the trigger area and secures any external hammer in an un-cocked position • Must have the safety on, and have no round in the chamber. Individuals who violate the KU weapons policy may be asked to leave campus with the weapon and may face disciplinary action under the appropriate university code of conduct. BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function REEF iClicker Questions: We use the REEF iClicker system for several reasons: 1) To create a more engaging learning environment. 2) To gauge your understanding of concepts during class. 3) To provide you with a preview of the types of questions we might ask on an exam. 4) To provide you with an opportunity to earn points to supplement your exam scores. Students who submit answers for at least two-thirds of iClicker questions over the course of the semester will receive extra credit points at the end of the semester. BIOL 416 : Cell Structure and Function Any questions? Why we study Cell biology? • Cell is the fundamental unit of life, which proliferate, differentiate, communicate, respond to environments. • Cells can arise only by division from a preexisting cells. • Understanding of function of single cell will reveal the mechanism of more complex life form, such as human. • Knowing normal function of cell will help to understand the mechanism of diseases that are caused by malfunctioning of cellular functions. Cell is diverged in its shape and function Neuron Paramecium Saccharomyces Helicobacter pylori Chlamydomonas cerevisiae Genome: Containing all information requires cellular functions • Can define difference among organisms. • In multi cell organism, such as human, each cell contains identical genome. (All cells derived from single fertilized egg.) Difference in cellular function in multi cell organism depends on what kind of gene(s) is (are) expressed in particular Cells. Variation in Gene expression will change protein components of the cells and that will change other biomolecules in cells and will affect cell’s structure and function. Genome size is not seem correlated to complexity or size of organisms All cells follow central dogma: DNA to protein Key issue: How is expression of each gene regulated to perform specific cellular functions? What is (are) the determination factor(s) for gene expression? Two types of Cell • Prokaryotic Cells Simple intracellular structure. No Nucleus • Eukaryotic Cells Complex intracellular structure. Nucleus Yet, both type has common features. 1. Using DNA as Genetic material and identical genetic code 2. Composed by similar Biological molecules 3. ATP is a major energy source Plant Cells Two types of Cell • Prokaryotic Cells Smaller in total cell volume. All essential components to satisfy central dogma are there. • Eukaryotic Cells Much larger in total cell volume. Many vesicle structures (membrane-enclosed structures) inside of cell. Acquisition of Mitochondria Acquisition of Chloroplast Parasite hypothesis : Mitochondrion & Chloroplast are parasite of ancient eukaryotic cells. Supportive evidence • Contains own DNA • Has own ribosome that is closer to prokaryote than to eukaryote • Difference in genetic code compared to eukaryotic code • Distinct composition of lipids between Outer and inner membrane • Has membrane integrated protein whose structure (barrel) is conserved to bacterial outer membrane protein.