Primer on Labor Standards What are labor standards? Labor standards refer to conditions of employment that employers must give to their employees such as normal hours of work, daily rest period, weekly rest period, holidays, leaves, and wages. Who are entitled these labor standards? ALL employees in private establishments except managerial employees, field personnel, members of the family of the employer who are dependent on him for support, domestic helpers, persons in the personal service of another, and workers who are paid by results. What are the Normal hours of work In general, the normal hours of work of any employee shall not exceed eight (8) hours a day. When does an employee become entitled to compensation? An employee is entitled to compensation during (a) all time during which an employee is required to be on duty or to be at a prescribed workplace; and (b) all time during which an employee is suffered or permitted to work. Is an employee entitled to a meal/break period? Yes, every employer to give his employees not less than sixty (60) minutes timeoff for their regular meals. This is not compensable Are rest/meal periods compensable? Rest/meal periods of short duration (less than one hour) during working hours shall be counted as hours worked and therefore compensable. This includes bathroom breaks, coffee breaks, etc. When is rest/meal period NOT compensable? Rest/meal periods of short duration (less than one hour) during working hours shall be counted as hours worked. This includes bathroom breaks, coffee breaks, etc. Can an employee be legally required to render work beyond the eight (8) hours (overtime work)? Yes, provided that an additional compensation (overtime pay) equivalent to his regular wage plus at least twenty-five percent (25%) is paid to the employee. Overtime work rendered during a holiday or rest day shall be paid an additional compensation equivalent to the rate of the first eight hours on a holiday or rest day plus at least thirty percent (30%) What is Night shift differential premium? This refers to additional compensation for work performed between ten o’clock in the evening and six o’clock in the morning. Every employee shall be paid a night shift differential of not less than ten percent (10%) of his regular wage for each hour. How many rest days is an employee entitled to ? An employer is required to give an employee a rest day of not less than 24 consecutive hours or 1 day for every 6 days of work which should be scheduled by the employer upon consultation with the employees. How much is an employee entitled to if he is required to work on a rest day? He is entitled to an additional compensation of at least thirty percent (30%) of his regular wage. Who controls the employee’s schedule, place of assignment, method of work, processes, transfers, discipline, dismissal, recall etc.? It is the employer who has the power regulate all aspects of employment, including work assignment, working methods, processes to be followed, working regulations, transfer of employees, work supervision, lay-off of workers and the discipline, dismissal and recall of workers. What are the regular, and special non-working holidays in the Philippines? Regular Holidays New Year’s Day – January Maundy Thursday – April 1, Good Friday – April 2 Araw ng Kagitingan – April 9 Labor Day – May 1 Eid’l Adha – Eid’l Fitr – Independence Day – June 12 National Heroes’ Day – August 30 Bonifacio Day – November 30 Christmas Day – December 25 Rizal Day – December 30 Special Holidays Chinese New Year February 12 EDSA People Power Revolution February 25 Black Saturday April 3 Ninoy Aquino Day August 21 All Saints' Day November 1 Feast of the Immaculate Conception of Mary December 8 How much compensation is an employee entitled to during a regular holiday? a. If it is an employee’s regular workday If unworked, employee shall be paid 100% of his/her daily rate – (Daily Rate x 100%) If worked, employee shall be paid 200% of his/her daily rate for the 8 hours – (Daily Rate x 200%) Excess of 8 hours – plus 30% of hourly rate on said day b. If it is an employee rest day If unworked – 100% If worked – 1st 8 hours – plus 30% of 200% Excess of 8 hours – plus 30% of hourly rate on said day How much compensation is an employee entitled to during a special nonworking holiday? Work performed on any special holiday shall be paid an additional compensation of at least thirty percent (30%) of the regular wage of the employee. Where such holiday work falls on the employee’s scheduled rest day, he shall be entitled to an additional compensation of at least fifty per cent (50%) of his regular wage. Who determines the minimum wage? The Regional Tripartite Wages and Productivity Boards. What is the present minimum wage in Region III? PhP420.00 per Wage Order No. RBIII-22, effective January 1, 2020 Are there exemptions to the minimum wage 1) Distressed establishments; 2) New business enterprises (NBEs); 3) Retail/Service establishments employing not more than ten (10) workers; 4) Establishments adversely affected by natural calamities 5) Barangay Micro Business Enterprises 6) Kasambahay (automatic exemption) Is the exemption automatic? No, the owner of the establishment must file an application for exemption, together with supporting documents, with the appropriate Regional Board which will review the application and determine whether the grant of exemption is warranted. Forms of payment of wages Generally in legal tender (Philippine Peso). Time of payment Wages shall be paid at least once every two (2) weeks or twice a month at intervals not exceeding sixteen (16) days. If on account of force majeure or circumstances beyond the employer’s control, payment of wages on or within the time herein provided cannot be made, the employer shall pay the wages immediately after such force majeure or circumstances have ceased. No employer shall make payment with less frequency than once a month. Place of payment Payment of wages shall be made at or near the place of undertaking, except as otherwise provided by such regulations as the Secretary of Labor and Employment may prescribe under conditions to ensure greater protection of wages Is payment by bank allowed? Yes, in fact it is encouraged (LA 26-2020), and as long as the employee consents.