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Study Sheet 20s & Great Depression

20s & Great Depression STUDY SHEET
Test is on Tuesday Nov. 9th
Scopes Monkey Trial: Evolution VS Religion
John Scopes was a high school teacher who found guilty
for teaching the theory of evolution in the classroom.
The trial showed how religious views were clashing with
scientific theories in America.
18th Amendment: No selling, consuming, or production of any intoxicating liquors
(Remember: you CANT drink at 18)
Prohibition led to the rise of organized crime and the mafia (Al Capone)
Eventually, the govt was forced to allow it again by passing the 21st amendment:
21st Amendment: Overturned the 18th amendment, alcohol becomes legal again.
(Remember: you CAN drink at 21)
FLAPPER WOMEN: Breaking Social Norms of Society
Women in the 20s shattered traditional attitudes & norms of society. They started
becoming more independent, working outside the home more, dressing more
openly, showing skin, smoking in public, waiting to have children and get married
later in life and becoming more sexually active.
“Golden Age” of African American arts.
resulted from the Great Migration of African Americans
leaving the South for factory jobs & trying to escape the
increased racism of the South.
African Americans celebrated their heritage and freedom
through the creation of arts and music.
2 effects: Jazz Music & Tin Pan Alley music
fear of communists REDS or “radicals” taking over & infiltrating
The Red Scare was hysteria over the perceived threat posed by Communists who
had infiltrated the U.S. (Communists were often referred to as “Reds” for their
allegiance to the red Soviet flag.)
Palmer Raids: Attorney General Palmer
raided hundreds of immigrants and political
activist homes (without warrant or just cause)
& deported immigrants trying to stop the
spread of “radical” communist ideas by
Sacco & Vanzetti: Two Italian immigrants
who were put to death due to RED Scare
paranoia & anti-immigrant Nativists attitudes
in America
PRESIDENT HARDING & “Return to Normalcy”
& Teapot Dome Scandal:
President Harding got elected by saying he would
“RETURN TO NORMALCY” and concentrate on
domestic economic issues
Teapot Dome & Corrupt Cabinet Members:
The oil rich land was in Teapot Dome, Wyoming. The
Harding administration and his corrupt cabinet
members (advisors) took over the land and sold it off
in exchange for bribes.
Result: Americans saw their government was corrupt
for the first time.
Henry Ford started using the Assembly Line to mass produce cars.
As a result, cars were MORE AFFORDABLE.
Over Speculation in the Stock Market: buying too
many stocks & making reckless investments - banks also
did this with people’s money.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff: tax on foreign goods (so people
would buy American made products) but it led to a
decrease in international trade and hurt the economy
Business Failures: people could not buy products so that
led to businesses failing and then laying off workers &
causing unemployment & homelessness (foreclosures).
Stock Market Crash of 1929: Stock market crashed & Americans lost everything
Bank Failures & Bank Runs: banks going out of business & Americans losing their
life savings
Unemployment & homelessness caused by business failures
Children “riding the rods” and jumping on
trainings & leaving home
Men leaving their families & becoming
Hoovervilles (areas of town where
homeless lived) were created due to so
many people losing homes in foreclosures
President Hoover VS President Roosevelt:
Hoover didnt do enough to help the
economy - believed in Laissez Faire
govt & thought economy would fix
itself. Govt does NOT need to
FDR wanted the government to take
on a larger role & intervene to fix the
economy & looking after the welfare
of its citizens
Hoover’s Accomplishments:
Standardization of Parts: Increased production by making everything standard
sizes (canned goods, loaf of bread, etc) so its easier and faster to produce & sell
Reconstruction Finance Corporation RFC: gave loans to bug businesses like
banks railroad companies, etc in hopes that the economy would get better
(it didnt work - too little too late & was not direct relief to struggling Americans)
President Roosevelt (FDR) Accomplishments:
Believed govt should take care of its citizens & intervene in order to fix economy
Created NEW DEAL - which promised to help Americans get back on their feet.
*New Deal increased the size and role of the federal govt.
*Govt now is responsible for protecting & stabilizing the the economy
*First time government made a direct impact in the everyday lives of
Americans (by providing money or jobs & taking care of their welfare
New Deal Agencies:
Public Works Administration: created
federal jobs by building public projects, such
as public schools and roads
Works Progress Administration: created
jobs by hiring artists, writers, and musicians.
Civilian Conservation Corps: Created jobs
by hiring men to plant trees
*all three of these (PWA, WPA, & CCC)
gave jobs to people & reduced
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation FDIC: Agency which guarantees your
bank deposits (deposit insurance) so you don’t lose your money if a bank fails
Federal Housing Administration: Agency which made it easier for Americans to
get mortgage loans to buy a house from the bank
Tennessee Valley Authority: govt owned power plant which gave jobs
Americans & improved their quality of life by providing electricity to 7 states
Social Security Administration: provides benefits to seniors over the age of 62
People Against New Deal Programs:
Critics argued that the New Deal programs gave the federal government & the
executive branch (President) too much power (like a king or dictator)
Supreme Court declared some programs unconstitutional because they felt that
his programs infringed on (stepped on or violated) rights that belong to the
In the court-packing plan,
Pres. Franklin Roosevelt
tried to tip the Supreme
Court in his favor by adding
more Supreme Court
justices (judges) to the
bench that he would select
& they would rule in favor of
his programs.
*The court packing plan was denied because it would give the executive
branch - the President - too much power*
dust storms in the Great Plains area of United States caused by:
1. Poor farming practices
2. Drought
3. High winds
“Migrant Mother”
Photo taken by Dorothea Lange
Photo showed the suffering experienced by
Americans during Great Depression
Eleanor Roosevelt: First Lady
Wife of President Roosevelt (FDR)
- she was loved by all Americans & the world because she was a political activist
who spoke out strongly for the poor, women’s rights, and peace.