Introduction to Biogeography 1https://www.coursehero.com/sg/introduction-to-biology/biogeography-and-its-connection-to-biodiversity/ Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of organisms in the past and today. It attempts to understand and describe the spatial pattern of the diverse living organisms and the variations or differences of those patterns. Some biogeographers explain such patterns by focusing on the ancestors of organisms and the changes that happens in the environment. This approach is called historical approach. Ecological approach is used by others which focuses on the adaptations that are observed in organisms and their interaction to the environment. Nowadays, since abundance and distribution of biodiversity is also highly affected by human activities, biogeography has also become an important role in conservation (Department of Geography and Geographic Information Sciences, n.d.) Ernst Haeckel – a German biologist who first coined the term ecology, defined ecology as the “total relations of the animal both to its inorganic and organic environment” Today ecology is defined as the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Ecology also includes: o Study of abundance of organisms in space and time o Processes in biological communities In the 20th century ecology emerged from natural history and wildlife management Early on, ecology became popular but was not well understood Because ecologists and biogeographers are both interested in the patterns of distribution of organisms in space and time and the process that determine those patterns, ecology and biogeography obviously have a close link. Ecology Biogeography Interactions between organisms and their environment, patterns and processes in ecosystems, as well as with the distribution and abundance Distribution of organisms and the factors and processes causing those distributions Studying distribution could be a part of a study of abundance Factors affecting distribution also affects abundance In biogeography, theories (sets of ideas that try to explain something) are used in trying to understand a process (ex. process that determine the abundance of a species in a forest); and Models are theories that are tested and used to predict the effects of impacts in the natural world Because human population densities are increasing and resources are diminishing, biogeography has a crucial application in sustainability and conservation of biodiversity Good decisions in conservation cannot be made without knowing what is there? where is it? How many are there? and son on Wildlife conservation are done though just partly by establishing protected areas, where biogeography plays an important role Climate changes affect the distribution of organisms A change in biogeography happens because a poleward shift in species distribution that is triggered by climate change (Frainer, et al., 2017) Fishes for example are highly affected by changes in temperature making their community become reorganized which also causes changes in the marine ecosystem Possible environmental impacts on the new development in land use are assessed by biogeographers Environmental impact assessment should be done first before constructing a dam or a flood control for example. Research on the process on how a protected area is established. Create a graphic organizer that will show the process to the reader in a simpler manner and it should be followed by an explanation (last part of explanation should also tell the application of ecology and biogeography in the process). The following questions should be answered as well: 1. 2. 3. 4. Where should protected area be established and why? How large should it be? How should it be managed? Should it be closed from plans arising from land development and use activities around? 1. Describe biogeography and its relationship to ecology. Prove your answer on the relationship between biogeography and ecology by giving example. 2. Explain how biogeography is related to conservation. Give an example. 3. Explain how biogeography is related to climate change. Give an example.