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Philippine Politics and Governance
Politics- in general, it means organizing human activities.
 Politics is all around.
 Politics happens because of the need to make
decisions in the complex world we live in.
 According to Aristotle, “Man by nature is a political
animal”. If it is true, then politics is not only
common in our lives – it is unavoidable.
Elements of Politics:
 Power
 Rule
 Authority
 Influence
Demo – people / Kratos – power
Governance- it refers to the way in which something is
governed to meet objectives such as protecting its people,
and acting in the country’s best interest.
State is a group of people living in a definite territory,
having a government of their own and enjoying their own
Elements of State
1.People – a mass of population or community of people living within the territorial jurisdiction of state.
2. Territory- The space within which the government exercise its supreme authority.
3. Government- agency through which the will of the state are formulated, expressed carried out.
4. Sovereignty– the supreme power of the state to enforce its will upon its citizen through laws. It also means independence from the
control of other states.
It has two aspects:
a. internal sovereignty- w/c means complete authority to rule over the people inside the state
b. external sovereignty (often referred as independence) – which means independence from outside or foreign control.
Nation - any large group of people who are united by common bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, or religion.
State vs Nation
State is a political concept while nation is an ethnic concept.
Modes of Acquiring a Territory
1. Discovery and Occupation- a state may acquire a territory by discovering a continent, an island or land with no inhabitants or
occupied by uncivilized
inhabitants and thereafter, occupying it, by placing it under its political administration.
2. Prescription- it is a mode of acquiring territory
through continuous and undisputed exercise of sovereignty over it during such period as it is necessary to create under the general
conviction that the present condition of things is in conformity with international order.
3. Cession – it is the assignment, transfer or yielding
up of territory by one state or government to
another. It may be in a form of sale or donation.4. Subjugation and annexation- it is a mode of acquiring territory belonging to a state in
course of war and by annexation at the end of the war.
5. Accretion- mode of acquiring territory by addition of portions of soil, either artificial or by gradual disposition through the operation of
natural causes.
1. Monarchy (ruled by one person)
- where one person exercises sovereignty. It
is the form of government in which the
supreme and final authority is in the hands
of a single person.
2. Aristocracy- ( ruled by a few persons)
- where political power is exercised by a
privilege class known as the elite or
3. Democracy ( ruled by many)
- is one in which supreme power is vested to the people . It is classified into two:
a. direct democracy ( pure democracy)- is where people directly govern themselves
b. indirect democracy (representative democracy)
– is where people elect representatives to act in their behalf.
Political Science- is a branch of social science that studies
politics and state.
Subfields of Political Science
1. National Politics - deals with the study of the structure of the government, its branches, the
political system of the state, public opinon and elections.
2. Comparative Politics – studies the politics and government of other countries
3. International Relations – political cooperation among states, diplomatic relationships, international organizations and laws.
4. Political Theory – defines what is good and what is bad government.
Example: Machiavelli
5. Constitutional Law – studies the balance between the powers of the government and the rights of the people.
6. Public Policy – focuses on the programs of the state to benefit the economy and the state as a whole.
Political Science is a social science.
Social science is the study of society and the manner in which people behave and influence the world around us.
The following are the Major branches of Social Science:
Psychology studies emotional and cognitive impacts of environments and relationships, and the reactions of human systems to
emotional and cognitive changes.
Sociology – how we become members of groups, move between groups, and how being in different groups affects individuals and
the groups in which they participate.
Political Science – how we identify ourselves as citizens of a particular nation, how we participate in our political structure, how it
affects us, what motivates us to affiliate ourselves with certain points of view or parties.
Anthropology deals with of what it means to be human, through the understanding of modern cultures across the globe, the cultures
of the past, languages, the human body,
and our evolutionary history.
History – the interpretation of the past, how it affects our views of the present, understanding trends or the lack
thereof in the past.
Economics – refers to the scientific study of human action, particularly as it relates to human choice and the utilization
of scarce resources.
Political Phenomenon- any occurrence, events, or facts relating to politics.
Ideology - refers to a system of beliefs about how society should function, behave, and operate
Political Ideology is a set of related beliefs about political theory and policy held by an individual, group of individuals or a particular
social class.
Major Political Ideologies
1. Anarchism - The belief that the best government is absolutely no government. This ideology argues that everything about
governments is repressive and therefore must be abolished entirely.
2. Absolutism - The belief that a single ruler should have control over every aspect of the government and of the people’s lives.
3. Liberalism - A set of political beliefs emphasizing individual rights and liberties
4. Conservatism - A set of political beliefs based on preservation of customs and traditions that define the character of a society 5.
Socialism - A set of political beliefs emphasizing community and social equality
Political Power is:
 The ability to shape and control the political
behavior of others and to lead and guide their
behavior in the direction desired by the person, group, or institution exercising the political power.
 The capacity to influence, condition, mold, and control human behavior for the accomplishment of political objectives.
Major Forms of Political Power
1. Political Authority - is governmental power. It is the legally established power of the government to make rules and issue commands
and to compel obedience to them,
making use of physical force and coercion when deemed necessary. Political authority in short, is the legal right--the legally established
power--to govern society.
2. Political Influence - is the ability of private individuals and groups to impact on the government's making and implementation of
official policy decisions. It is a form of
political power exercised by those who do not possess the formal-legal authority, but have and utilize the ability to condition, modify,
and control the official decision-making
behavior of those in government office who do possess the authority to make and implement the decisions.
 heart of the nation
 foundation of the government
 blueprint of the government
 fundamental law of the land
 highest law of the land
 basic law of the land
Constitution is a written instrument enacted by direct action of the people by which the fundamental powers of the government are
established, limited and defined, and by which those powers are distributed among the several departments for their safe and useful
exercise for the benefit of the body politic.
The Republic of the Philippines is using the 1987 Philippine
Constitution also known as the Freedom Constitution.
Preamble – introduction to the constitution
“We, the sovereign Filipino, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a government
that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and
develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy, under the rule of law,
and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and
promulgate this Constitution.”
Articles of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
Article I National Territory
Article II Declaration of Principles and State Policies
Article III Bill of Rights
Article IV Citizenship
Article V Suffrage
Article VI Legislative Department
Article VII Executive Department
Article VIII Judicial Department
Article IX Constitutional Commissions
Article X Local Government
Article XI Accountability of Public Officers
Article XII National Economy and Patrimony
Article XIII Social Justice and Human Rights
Article XIV Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports
Article XV The Family
Article XVI General Provisions
Article XVII Amendments or Revisions
Article XVIII Transitory Provisions
Article I: National Territory
Section 1. The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other
territories over which the Philippines
has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the
subsoil, the insular shelves, and other
submarine areas. The waters around, between and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breath and
dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.
Article II: Declarations of Principles and State Policies
Basic Principles of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican
state. Sovereignty and government authority
belong to the people. ART II SEC 1
2. The Philippines renounces war as an element of
national policy ART II SEC 2
3. Civilian authority is all times supreme over the
military. ART II SEC 3
4. The prime duty of the government is to serve and
protect the people. ART II SEC 4
5. The separation of church and state shall be at all
times be upheld. ART II SEC 6
6. The government shall provide social justice. ART II
SEC 10
Article III: Bill of Rights
Basic rights that are recognized and protected by the
1. Right to due process of law (Art III Sec 1)
2. Right against unreasonable search and seizure (Art
III Sec 2)
3. Right to privacy of communication and
correspondence (Art III Sec 3)
4. Right to travel and Liberty of abode (Art III Sec 6)
5. Right to Assembly and Petition/ Right to form association (Art III Sec
Article IV: Citizenship
It encapsulates the provisions that will answer the question:
Who are the citizens of the Philippines?
Article V: Suffrage
Right to vote/Election
Article VI: Legislative Department
Philippine Congress is bicameral legislature which consists of :
Upper house: Senate
Lower house: House of Representatives
Article VII: Executive Department
President of the Philippines (qualifications, manner of
voting, term of office, powers and limitations)
Article VIII: Judicial Department
1. The Supreme Court
2. Intermediate Appellate Court (Court of Appeals)
3. Regional Trial Court (RTC)
4. Municipal Trial Court (MTC), Municipal Circuit Trial
In addition to these regular courts, there are two special
courts, namely:
1. Court of Tax Appeals
2. Sandiganbayan
The Constitution also provides for two special legal bodies,
1. Judicial and Bar Council
2. Ombudsman (Tanodbayan)
Article IX: Constitutional Commissions
1. Commission on Elections
2. Commission on Audit
3. Civil Service Commission
Article X: Local Government
Political Subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines:
1. Provinces
2. Cities
3. Municipalities
4. Barangays
*** Autonomous Regions: ARMM and CAR
Article XI: Accountability of Public Officers
 Impeachment
 Sandiganbayan – anti-graft court
 Ombudsman/Tanodbayan – investigates on its own
any act or omission of any public official, employee,
office or agency.
Article XII: National Economy and Patrimony
 Distribution of income, wealth and opportunities
 Economy of the nation
 Sustainable development
 Industrialization and full employment
 Agricultural Development
 Agrarian Reform
 Natural Resources
Article XIII: Social Justice and Human Rights
 Human dignity
 Reduce social, economic, and political inequalities
 Remove cultural inequities
 Social Justice – commitment to create economic
opportunities based on freedom of initiative and
Article XIV: Education, Science and Technology, Arts,
Culture and Sports
 Quality education
 System of education
 The study of constitution shall be part of the
curricula of all educational institutions
 Language: Filipino is the official language
 Research and Development
 Invention
 Innovation
 Preservation of arts and culture
 Physical education
 Sports Program
 League competitions
 Amateur sports
 Regular sports activities in all educational
Article XV: The Family
 Family is the foundation of the nation
 Marriage
 Family Rights and Duties
Article XVI: General Provision
 Flag
 Name of the country
 National anthem
 National seal
 Armed Forces of the Philippines
 The State may not be sued without its consent
 Ownership of mass media is limited to citizens of
the Philippines
Article XVII: Amendments or Revisions
-Changing the constitution.
Article XVIII: Transitory Provisions:
- Provision about the first election of Philippine congress/
first local election
-Provisions about the revolutionary powers, legislative power of President (Cory Aquino)