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parasite list #1

Chp. 22 Pathogenic Fungi
Systemic Mycoses – Pathogenic Fungi
Histoplasma capsulatum
Disease: Chronic Pulmonary histoplasmosis
Symptoms / Text book notes: severe coughing, blood-tinged sputum, night sweats, loss of
appetite, weight loss.
Blastomyces dermatitidis
Disease: Cutaneous blastomycosis
Symptoms/textbook notes: Painless lesions on face and body. Lesions can be raised, or
craterlike if tissue death occurs.
Disease: Coccidioides immitis
Symptoms/textbook notes: Fever, cough, chest pain, SOB, hemoptysis, headache, night
sweats, weight loss, pneumonia, some people develop a rash on trunk.
Disease: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Symptoms/textbook notes: chronic cough, fever, night sweats, malaise, weight loss. Fungus
can spread and create lesions on face and neck.
Systemic Mycoses – Opportunistic Fungi
Disease: Pneumocystis jirovecii (yeast)
Symptoms/textbook notes: Cough, fever, rapid breathing, SOB. Infx. Can be asymptomatic,
clearing of the fungus can happen followed by lasting immunity. Some individuals can remain
Disease: Candida albicans (yeast) (See pages 660-661)(Table 22.2 p. 658: Candidiasis)
Symptoms/textbook notes: Candidiasis typically manifests as white plaques on affected tissue
Disease: Aspergillus fumigatus
Symptoms/textbook notes: Term for several diseases resulting from inhaling spores of the
fungi in genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus found in soil, food, compost, air vents of homes and
offices. Health problems can arise due to Aspergillus, allergic reactions, lung infx., etc.
Disease: Cryptococcus neoformans
Symptoms/textbook notes: People exposed to this disease rarely get sick from it. Most cases
occur in people with weakened immune systems. Cough, SOB, chest pain, fever.
“Opportunistic fungal infx. Caused by various genera of fungi classified in the division
Zygomycota. Common in soil, decaying organic matter, or as contaminents cause food
spoilage. Commonly seen in pt with uncontrolled DM, ppl who inject illegal drugs, some CA pt,
some pt receiving microbial agents.
Disease: Mucor
Symptoms/textbook notes: Affects people who have many health problems or whom take
immunosuppressants. One-sided facial swelling, HA, nasal/sinus congestion, black lesions on
nasal bridge or upper inside of mouth, fever, cough, SOB, abd pain, N+V, GI bleeding.
Disease: Rhizopus
Symptoms/textbook notes: Typically called “Bread mold”
Disease: Absidia
Symptoms/textbook notes: Found in soil, food. Causes food spoilage.
Superficial Mycoses (Table 22.3 p.665: Common Dermatophytoses)
“Most common fungal infx. Confined to outer, dead layers of the skin, nails, or hair, all are
composed of dead cells filled with protein Keratin.”
Disease: Tinea pedis (“athletes foot”)
Causing Agent: Trichophyton sp., Epidermaphyton sp.,
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Red, raised lesions on and around toes, soles of the feet; webbing
between toes heavily infx.”
Disease: Tinea Corporis
Causing Agent: Microsporum sp.
Symptoms/textbook notes: Red, raised ringlike lesions occurring on various skin surfaces (tinea
corporis (trunk), tinea capitis (scalp), and tinea barbae (beard)).
(What is Tinea?)
Tinea is the name of the group of diseases. You can get these types of infx: ringworm, athlete’s
foot, and jock itch etc. by contact. Symptoms depend on the affected area of the body
Malassezia furfur
“Dimorphic basidiomycete that is normal member of the microbiome of the skin in humans. It
feeds on skin’s oil and causes common, chronic superficial infx.”
Cutaneous and Sub-Cutaneous Mycoses
“Fungi involved in cutaneous/subcutaneous mycoses are common soil saprobes (organisms
that live on dead organisms). Infx. Rarely becomes systemic.”
Disease: Chromoblastomycosis
Causing agents: Fonsecaea, Phialophora, Cladophialophora
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Small, scaly, itchy, but painless lesions. Over the course of years
lesions worsen, becoming large, flat to thick, tough, and wart-like. If not treated they can
become tumorlike. Inflammation, fibrosis, and abscess formation occur in surrounding
Disease: Phaeohyphomycosis
Causing agents: Alternaria, Exophiala, Wangiella, Cladophialophora
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Spread from skin to colonize nasal passages and allergy sufferers
and AID pt. or the brains of AIDS pt. Brain infx. Is the rarest.”
Disease: Mycetomas
Causing Agents: Pseudallescheria, Exophiala (Cases that occur in US usually caused by those)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Infx. Is most prevalent in countries near the equator but some
seen in US. These infx. Caused by twigs, thorns, or leaves contaminated with fungi. Small, hard
nodules slowly worsen or spread as time passes. Local swelling, and ulcerated lesions begin to
produce pus. Fungi can spread to more tissues, destroying the bone causing permanent
Disease: Sporotrichosis
Causing agent: Sporothrix schenkii
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Resides in the soil. Commonly introduced by thorn pricks or
wood splinters. Initially appears as painless, nodular lesions. With time these lesions produce a
puss-filled discharge, but they remain localized and do not spread.
Fungal Intoxications and Allergies
“Fungal toxins called mycotoxins can harm humans and animals that ingest them, causing
toxicosis (poisoning). Mycotoxicosis is caused by eating mycotoxins; the fungus itself is not
present. Mycetismus is mushroom poisoning resulting from eating mycotoxins still inside the
fungus. Fungal allergens are usually proteins or glycoproteins that elicit hypersensitivity
reactions in sensitive ppl who contact them.”
Aspergillus (aflatoxins) Mycotoxicoses
“Fatal to many vertebrates and are carcinogenic at low levels when consumed continually.
Alfatoxins cause liver damage and liver cancer throughout the world.”
Claviceps pupurea Ergotism
“Ergometrine used to stimulate labor contractions used to constrict the mother’s blood vessles
after birth (when she is at risk for breathing heavily. Ergotamine used to treat migraine HA.”
Mycetismus (Mushroom poisoning)
Poisonous mushrooms typically called toadstools
Amanita muscaria
Symptoms/textbook notes: “ This mushroom produces two hallucinogenic toxins- ibotenic acid
and muscimol. May cause convulsions in children”
Amanita phalloides
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Typically will not experience symptoms for 6-24 hrs. Abd cramps,
vomiting, dehydrated, and diarrhea.”
Gyromitra esculenta
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Bloody diarrhea, convulsions, and death can occur after 2 days of
Cortinarius gentilis
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Excessive thirst, nausea, and kidney failure between 3 days and 3
weeks after ingestion.”
Psilocybe cubensis
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Called shrooms or magic mushrooms. Can cause visual
hallucinations, euphoria, anxiety, agitation, tachycardia, HTN, and flushing. Symptoms occur
within 20-60 min of ingestion and typically resolve within 4-6 hrs.”
Chp. 23 Parasitic Protozoa, Helminths and Arthropod Vectors
Parasitic Protozoa (Table 23.1 p.692)
Disease: Acanthamoeba keratitiditis
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Serious eye infx. Can result in permanent visual impairment or
blindness. Eye pain, eye redness, blurred vision, photosensitivity, excess tearing, sensation of
something in eye.”
Disease: Amebiasis
Organism: Entamoeba histolytica
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Loose stool, abd cramping, and stomach pain.”
Organism: Naegleria fowleri
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Causes the primary amebic meningocephalitis (PAM), a brain infx.
Leads to destruction of brain tissue. Initial symptoms HA, fever, n+v. Later symptoms stiff
neck, confusion, seizures, loss of balance, and hallucinations. Death occurs within 5 days.”
Paramecium sp.
Symptoms/textbook notes:
Disease: Balantidium coli
Symptoms/textbook notes: “These parasites can be transmitted thorough the fecal-oral route
by contaminated food and water. Symptoms: diarrhea, Abd. pain, sometimes perforated
Disease: Trichomonas vaginalis (Strawberry cervix)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “People get symptoms 5-28 days later after being infx. Men
symptoms: itching or irritation inside penis, burning after urination or ejaculation, discharge
from penis. Women Sympotms: “Strawberry cervix”, itching, burning, redness around genitals,
green, yellow, or white discharge with fish smell.”
Disease: Giardia intestinalis (or G. lamblia)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Symptoms can last 1-2 weeks or longer. Diarrhea, gas, greasy
stools that float, abd cramps, n+v, dehydration.”
Species: Leshmania s.
Disease: Leishmaniasis
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Variety of forms of Leishmaniasis. cutaneous leishmaniasis
(causes skin sores), visceral leishmaniasis (fever, weight loss, swelling of the spleen and liver,
and low rbc, wbc, platelet) Mucosal leishmaniasis (sores in the mucous membranes of the nose
(most common location), mouth, or throat.)”
Species: Trypanosoma cruzi
Disease: American Trypanosomiasis “Chagas”
Symptoms/textbook notes: “fever or swelling around the site of inoculation (where the
parasite entered into the skin or mucous membrane). Rarely, acute infection may result in
severe inflammation of the heart muscle or the brain and lining around the brain.”
Species: Trypanosoma brucei
Disease: African sleeping sickness
Symptoms/textbook notes: “First-stage symptoms headache, malaise, weakness, fatigue,
pruritis, and arthralgia. T b. rhodesiense infection progresses to the second stage after an
estimated 21–60 days. The sleep/wake cycle becomes reversed nocturnal insomnia, and
sudden urges to sleep. The patient also experiences mental (hallucinations, delirium, anxiety,
emotional lability, attention deficit, apathy, aggression, mania, confusion), motor (motor
weakness, abnormal tone, gait disturbance, ataxia, tremor, speech disturbances), sensory
(paraesthesia, hyperaesthesia, anaesthesia, pruritis, visual problems), and neurologic
(abnormal reflexes, seizures, coma).
Apicomplexans (Slime molds)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Alveolate protozoa characterized by a complex of organelles at
their apical ends, they are nonmotile, sporelike shapes.”
Plasmodium malariae (P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. ovale)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “fever, chills, diarrhea, HA, occasional pulmonary or cardiac
Cryptosporidium parvum
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Most common symptom is diarrhea. Other symptoms: abd.
Cramps, dehydration, n+v, fever, weight loss.”
Species: Toxoplasma gondii
Disease: Toxoplasmosis
Symptoms/textbook notes: “body aches, swollen lymph nodes, HA, fever, fatigue. In people.
With weakened immune systems: HA, contusion, seizures, lung problems, blurred vision. In
babies: seizures, enlarged liver spleen, jaundice, eye infx.”
Cyclospora cayetanensis
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Watery diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, cramping, bloating,
n+v, fatigue, vomiting, low grade fever.”
Babesia microti (Tick vector)
Disease: Babesiosis
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Some people do not have symptoms. Some have flu-like
symptoms: fever, chills, HA, body aches, loss of appetite, nausea, or fatigue. Can destroy RBC.
Can cause hemolytic anemia leading to jaundice.”
Parasitic Helminths (Table 23.2 p. 703)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “parasite lives in internal organs or tissues of its host.”
Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “these include the trematodes (flukes) and cestodes (tapeworms).”
Trematodes (Class Trematoda)(Flukes)(Cercariae, intermediate vs definitive host)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “vertebrate primary host, in which sexual reproduction of
the parasite occurs, and an intermediate host, typically an aquatic snail, in which
the parasite reproduces asexually.”
Schistosoma japonicum(Swimmer’s itch, Schistosomiasis, Snail Fever)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “ Occurs in China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Japan (rare).”
Schistosoma mansoni
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Common to Carribbean, Venezuela, Brazil, Arabia, large aread of
Africa. Host moves eggs to lumen of intestines through muscle contractions. Calcify liver leads
to tissue damage.”
Schistosoma haematobium
Symptoms/textbook notes: “movement of eggs into the bladder and ureters results in blood in
urine, blockage due to fibrosis and calcification, and fatal bladder CA.”
Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Both of these flukes infest sheep/cattle worldwide. Fasciola can
infect humans as well. Symptoms: Tissue death, abd pain, fever, n+v, and diarrhea
accompanies from migration of parasite to liver.
Clonorchis sinensis
Symptoms/textbook notes: “liver fluke humans can get by eating raw, or undercooked fish,
crabs, or cray fish. Found across asia. Can infx. The liver, gallbladder, and bile duct in humans.
Most people have no symptoms. Infx. Can last no longer than 25-30 yrs.”
Cestodes (Class Cestoda)(Tapeworms)(Scolex, proglottids, strobila)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “tapeworms. Flat, segmented, intestinal parasites lack digestive
systems. scolex is a small attachment organ that possesses hooks used to attach the warm to
host issues. Proglottids girl from the neck continuously as long as a warm remains attached to
his host they mature producing both male and female reproductive organs. A chain of
proglottids is called strobila.”
Taenia saginata
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Humans can become infected with these tapeworms by eating
raw or undercooked beef”
Taenia solium (neurocysticercosis)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “humans can become infected with these tapeworms by eating
raw or undercooked pork. can lead to cysticercosis which is a disease that can cause seizures so
it's important to seek treatment.”
Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid disease)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Humans can obtain this by consuming contaminated food or
water. But eggs release larvae into the intestine then they invade the circulatory system where
they form HYDATID cyst and can cause hydatid disease. Hydatid cysts can occur anywhere but
primarily in the liver.”
Dipylidium caninum (dog tapeworm transmitted by fleas)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Common tapeworm in dogs and cats what is occasionally found
in humans common names are “flea tapeworm” or “cucumber tapeworm”. Some symptoms
are abdominal pain , restlessness, an agitation. The most notable sign is the presence of worms
in the stool or perineum”
Roundworms (Phylum Aschelminthes)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Roundworms have a tough covering of cuticle on the surface of
their body. It prevents their body from expanding. This allows the buildup of fluid pressure in
the pseudocoelom. As a result, roundworms have a hydrostatic skeleton. This provides a
counterforce for the contraction of muscles lining the pseudocoelom. This allows the worms to
move efficiently along solid surfaces.”
Nematodes (Class Nematoda)(Roundworms)
Ascaris lumbricoides
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Causative agent of ascariasis it's the most common infestation of
humans were drives. The library invade intestinal wall to enter the circulatory or lymphatic
system. From there they reach the lungs. Some symptoms are abd pain, n+v, intestinal
obstruction, Dry cough, SOB, and bloody sputum.”
Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus
Symptoms/textbook notes: “These are two hookworms infest humans. Ancylostoma duodenale
Is distributed throughout Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Middle East, North Africa, and
southern Europe. Necator americanus Pre dominates in the Americas and the Australia but can
be found in Asia and Africa as well. the library borrow in the human skin and are carried to the
heart and the lungs. Some symptoms are chronic anemia, Iron deficiency, Protein deficiency,
itching, rash, and inflammation at the site of skin penetration.
Enterobius vermicularis
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Most common pinworm in the US. Humans are the only host.
After meeting in the colon, female pinworms mother at night to the anus, where they deposit
eggs. Scratching the slaughters adds onto the clothes or bedding, where they become
aerosolizes and go into water or food.”
Anasakis simplex
Symptoms/textbook notes: “A parasite of marine animals, but humans can become after the
little host by eating infested raw or undercooked fish. Typically patients are asymptomatic but
can experience Abd pain, N + v, fever, and sometimes intestinal hemorrhaging.”
Filarial Nematodes (Family Filiaroidea)(Threadlike
worms)(Mosquito vectors)
Wuchereria bancrofti (filariasis or elephantiasis)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “A filarial nematode. Infests lymphatic system. Filariasis remains
asymptomatic , but as the disease progresses SUBQ tissue swells because blocked lymphatic
vessels cannot drain properly ending in elephantiasis.”
Dirofilaria immitis (Dog Heartworm)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Often follows pulmonary disease in the human host. Dead ones
produce infarcts. Following embolization patients can come with malaise, fever, chills, and
respiratory distress.”
Arthropod Vectors (Phylum Arthropoda)(jointed legs)
“parasites that live on the external surface of hosts, for example fleas and lice of various
terrestrial vertebrates, and Monogenea and Copepoda of freshwater and marine fishes.”
Class Arachnida (8 legs)
Dermacentor (tick)(Vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever bacteria: Rickettsia
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Bacterial disease spread through the bite of an infected tick. Most
people have fever , headache, and rash.”
Ixodes (tick) (Vector of Lyme disease bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Most common vector borne disease in the US. Symptoms include
fever, headache, fatigue, skin rash called a erythema migrans.”
Sarcoptes scabeii (mites that cause scabies and mange)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Often called the human itch mite. Mites burrow until upper layer
of the skin but never below the stratum corny am. Burrows appear as tiny raised Serpentine
lines that are grayish or skin colored and can be a centimeter or more in length.”
Class Insecta (6 legs)
Pediculus humanis (Human head lice)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Head lice infestation is asymptomatic. When symptoms are noted
they can include tickling feeling of something moving in the hair, itching, caused by an allergic
reaction to loose saliva, and irritability.”
Pthirus pubis (pubic lice or “crabs”)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “Only hoes can be humans . They require human blood to survive.
Pubic lice are transmitted from person to person most commonly via sexual contact although
through bedding and clothing can occur”
Ctenocephalides (dog flea, vector of tapeworms Dipylidium caninum)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “These type of waves may also feed on humans.
Xenosylla (rat flea) (vector of Bubonic Plague bacteria: Yersinia pestis)
Symptoms/textbook notes: This vector can cause bubonic plague sometimes our fever, HA,
chills, and weakness, swollen or painful lymph nodes. Septicemic plague can also occur fever,
chills, extreme weakness, Abd Pain, shock, Bleeding into the skin and other organs. Tissues
may turn black and die. Pneumonic plague can occur as well patients develop fever, a comma
weakness, and rapidly developing pneumonia with SOV, chest pain, cough, and sometimes
bloody or watery mucus.
Anopheles (mosquito)(vector of Malaria protozoa, Plasmodium)(In Malaria, the mosquito is the
definitive host!)
Symptoms/textbook notes: “In humans the parasites grow and multiply first in the liver cells
than the red cells of the blood. In the blood the parasites grow inside the red cells and destroy
them releasing daughter parasites “merozoites”. Malaria symptoms include flu like illnesses
shaking chills, HA, muscle aches, n+v, diarrhea and it can also cause anemia or jaundice bc the
loss of RBC.
Culex, Aedes (and various genera of mosquitos transmit different diseases)
Symptoms/textbook notes: