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Anatomical positionTo stand erect with arms at the sides and palms of the hands turned forward
sagittal planedivides body into left and right
midsagittal planedivides the body into equal right and left sides
frontal (coronal) planedivides body into front(anterior) and back (posterior)
transverse plane (horizontal plane)divides the body into upper(superior) and lower portions(inferior)
Anteriorfront of the body
Posteriortoward the back
Medialtoward the midline
Lateralaway from the midline
PromixalCloser to the point of attachment
Distalaway from the point of attachment
superficialnear the surface
deepfurther into the body
Cytologystudy of cells
CellThe basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs
Major parts of a cellplasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, organelles
Nucleus containsDNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
What is DNA?deoxyribonucleic acid, genetic material that codes for protein.
Proteins arepolymers of amino acids
What do ribosomes do?synthesize proteins
Rough Endoplasmic ReticulumHas ribosomes on it to synthesize proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulumsynthesizes lipids and carbohydrates
Golgi apparatusPackages proteins for transport out of the cell
MitochondriaPowerhouse of the cell; site of cellular respiration and synthesizes ATP
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)main energy source that cells use for most of their work
LysosomesAn organelle containing digestive enzymes
CentriolesOrganize and move chromosomes during cell division
CiliaHairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
MitosisNecessary for growth and repair. In the process of cell division, the DNA is duplicated and distributed evenly to two identical daughter cells.
MeiosisSpecial cell division that takes place in the gonads (ovaries and testes - chromosome number reduced from 46 to 23, so that when the egg and sperm unite in fertilization, the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes
Histologystudy of tissues
TissueA group of similar cells that perform the same function.
Four types of tissueepithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
epithelial tissueCovers, lines, and protects the body and it's internal organs.
connective tissueForms the framework of the body, providing support and structure for the organs. Types include fibrous, bone, cartilage, and blood
nervous tissueComposed of neurons, which initiate and conduct merger impulses, and connective tissue cells called neuroglia
muscle tissueA body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move.
types of muscle tissue(Voluntary) skeletal (Involuntary) cardiac, smooth
What are the two layers of the skin?1. Epidermis- the outermost protective layer made of dead, keratinized epithelial cells.
2. Dermis- the underlying layer of connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and the associated skin structure.
Where does the DERMIS rest?The subcutaneous tissue that connects the skin to the superficial muscles
Layers of the epidermis (superficial to deep)stratum corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, germinativum (basale)
What does keratin do?waterproofs the skin
Melanocytescells that produce melanin
MelaninA pigment that gives the skin its color
Two types of sweat glandseccrine and apocrine
eccrine glandsThese glands produce sweat.
appocrine glandsrespond to emotional stress and begin to function at puberty
sebaceous glandsRelease oily recreation called sebum through hair follicles; it lubricates the skin and prevents it from drying
As the epidermal cells move from the deepest layer to superficial layers?They move away from their blood and nutrient supply; subsequently, they dehydrate and die
skeletal systemThe body's framework, composed of bones and joints and protection of internal organs
Hemopoiesisblood cell formation
Two types of bone tissuecompact (dense) and spongy (cancellous)
compact boneForms the outer layer of all bones
spongy boneContains a latticework of plates of bones with spaces in between; this lattice work is called trabeculae
red bone marrowfound in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis
OsteoblastsBone building cells
OsteoclastsBone-destroying cells
Types of boneslong, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid
long bonesbones that are longer than they are wide
short bonesbones of the wrist and ankles
flat bonesthin, flattened, and usually curved
irregular bonesbones of the vertebrae and face
sesmoid bonesspecial types of short bones formed in tendons, ex: patellas
EpiphysisEnd of a long bone
disphysisshaft of a long bone
medullary cavitycentral, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone; filled with yellow bone marrow
axial skeletonthe part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
vertebral column sectionscervical- (C1-C7)
thoracic- (T1-T12)
lumbar- (L1-L5)
sacrum- (S1-S5) all fused together to form the sacrum
coccyx- (4) fused coccygeal vertebrae that make the tailbone
appendicular skeletonShoulders, hip girdles, and extremities
Muscular SystemMuscles produce movement by contracting in response to nervous stimulation.
Sacromerecontractile unit of a muscle fiber
Myofibrilsprotein structures that make up muscle fibers
Actinthin filaments of protein
Myosinthick filament of protein
sliding filament modelThe theory explaining how muscle contracts, based on change within a sarcomere, the basic unit of muscle organization, stating that thin (actin) filaments slide across thick (myosin) filaments, shortening the sarcomere; the shortening of all sarcomeres in a myofibril shortens the entire myofibril
agonist or prime movercauses action or movement
AntagonistProduces the opposite movement as the agonist
SynergistMuscle that assists a prime mover
FlexorsReduce the angle at the joint
Extensorsincrease angle of joint
AbductorsDraw a limb away from the midline
AdductorsReturn the limb back toward the body
The nervous systembrain, spinal cord, nerves
central nervous systembrain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous systemComposed of all other nerves in the body
somatic nervous systemthe division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous systemPart of the PNS that controls digestion, heart rate, blood pressure, and urination.
Two autonomic divisionssympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic nervous systemfight or flight
parasympathetic nervous systemrest and digest
Neuronsa nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Parts of a neuroncell body, dendrites, axon
dendrites and axons-transmit the impulse toward the cell body
-transmit the impulse away from the body
afferent neurons (sensory neurons)Neurons transmit nerve impulses towards the CNS
efferent neurons (motor neurons)Neurons transmit nerve impulses away from the CNS
Four major parts of the braincerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum, brain stem
CerebellumResponsible for muscular coordination
DiencephalonContains thalamus and hypothalamus
Thalamus- routes incoming sensory information to the appropriate part of the cerebrum.
Hypothalamus- monitors many of the conditions of the body, controls the autonomic nervous system and interacts with the endocrine system
CerebrumAssociated with sensory interpretation, movement, thinking and personality
BrainstemControls "vital" functions like respiratory and heart rate
spinal cordFound in the vertebral columns and is approx. 18 inches long. Extends from the brainstem to the first or second lumbar.
How many spinal nerves are there?31 pairs
What is a reflex?quick automatic response to a stimulus
Simple (spinal) reflexesThose in which nerve impulses travel through the spinal cord only and do not reach the brain
Where do the Endocrine System and the Nervous system meet?hypothalamus and pituitary gland
HormonesChemical messengers that control the growth, differentiation, and metabolism of specific target cells
Two major groups of hormonessteroid and nonsteroid hormones
steroid hormonesenter the target cells and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus
nonsteroid hormonesremain at the cell surface and act through a second messenger, usually a substance called adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
What hormones are released during stress?adrenaline and cortisol
How is the pituitary gland attached to the hypothalamus?by a stalk called infundibulum
The pituitary glad has two major portionsThe anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
The posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
Hormones released from the anterior pituitary glandSomatotropin hormones (STH) or growth hormones(GH) Adrenocorticotrophic hormone(ACTH) thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinzing hormone (LH)
somatotropic hormonegrowth hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)stimulates secretion from thyroid gland
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)Stimulates secretion of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen in females And stimulates sperm production in males
luteinizing hormone (LH)Causes ovulation in females And stimulates secretion of testosterone in males
Hormones released by posterior pituitaryoxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Oxytocin (OT)Stimulates uterine contraction during labor and stimulates milk production from the mammary glands
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)Stimulates retention of water by the kidneys
thyroid glandsecretes hormones that regulate growth and metabolism
parathyroid glandsSecrete parathyroid hormone, which increase blood calcium levels
PancreasRegulates the level of sugar in the blood
Gonadsovaries and testes (sex glands)
whole bloodConsisted of approx. 55% plasma (the liquid portion) and 45% formed elements (cells and cell fragments)
Erythrocytesred blood cells, contain hemoglobin, transport oxygen
Leokocyteswhite blood cells
Agranulocytesmonocytes and lymphocytes
-they are involved in phagocytosis, defense against parasites and inflammation.
Granulocytesneutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
They are involved in antibody production, cellular immune response, and phagocytosis.
veins vs arteriesVeins carry blood to the heart and the walls are thinner and less elastic then those of arteries and arteries carry blood away from the heart
SA node (sinoatrial node)pacemaker of the heart
cardiac cyclethe period between the start of one heartbeat and the beginning of the next
systole and diastolesystole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation)
vasoconstriction and vasodilationresult from contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the arterial walls
left vs right lungLeft has 2 lobes and the right has 3 lines
external respirationRefers to the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli.
internal respirationRefers to the exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells.
When exhaling the diaphragmrelaxes, reducing the space available for the lungs
When inhaling the diaphragmcontracts and moves down
The four layers of the GI tract, from deep to superficialmucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serous layer
accessory organs of the digestive systemsalivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
AmalayseEnzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in complex carbs
What acid is in the stomach?hydrochloric acid
PepsinEnzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach
Chymethe pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.
small intestine structureduodenum, jejunum, ileum
BileA substance produced by the liver that is stored in the gallbladder that breaks up fat particles.
villiFingerlike extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area for absorption
DisaccharideA double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
Monosaccharidesglucose, fructose, galactose
lactealsthe lymphatic vessels of the small intestine that absorb digested fats.
The large intestineAbsorbs water and forms feces
The large intestine portionsAscending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and the rectum
Kidneysfilter blood and produce urine
Ureterstransport urine from the kidneys to the bladder
urinary bladderstores urine
Urethratube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
Functional units of the kidneynephrons
The male and female sex organs produceGametes through meiosis
sex cellsgametes
When is a female most fertile?during ovulation
When is ovulation?14 days before menstruation starts