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midterm PREP

Lesitte O. Lesigues
Meng198 Methods of Research for Mechanical Engineering
1. What are the difference between:
a. Applied Research vs Fundamental Research
Applied research is a type of research in which the central goal is to find a conclusion or
a solution for some pressing practical problem such as problems related to social,
business, marketing and even political-related problems. Fundamental research, also
known as basic research, is a type of research in which its central goal is just to find
information to add to an already existing organized body of scientific knowledge for
generalization or theory formulation. This is basically a research done to gather
knowledge for knowledge’s sake. An example for this type of research would be a study
related to natural phenomena or human behavior.
b. Qualitative vs Quantitative Research
Quantitative research, as its name implies, is based the collection and analysis of
numerical data. Numerical, or quantitative, data are types of data which can be
quantified, counted, and measured. Qualitative research uses numbers, statistics, and
graphs to report the data and to show quantitatively the result of the study. Examples of
methods used for quantitative research is close-ended question surveys and life science
Meanwhile, qualitative research focuses on the qualitative phenomenon, exploring ideas,
and formulating theories. One of the main purposes of this research is to investigate and
discover underlying and motives of human behavior. Unlike quantitative research,
qualitative research is descriptive, which means it uses words rather than numbers to
present the result of the study. Some methods used for this research is an open-ended
question survey and interviews.
c. Conceptual Research vs Empirical Research
Conceptual research is usually done by philosophers and thinkers to study abstract ideas,
concepts, or theories to reinterpret them and make connections to previous and current
phenomena. This does not involve any practical experiments. Empirical research, on the
other hand, is a data-based research. Also known as experimental research, empirical
research has dependent and independent variables in which their relationship is
investigated to prove or disapprove the hypotheses.
2. Briefly discuss the types of quantitative approach
a. Inferential Approach
Inferential approach is done to make an inference or a conclusion for the study. The
experiment or method usually is done on small sample population and the data are used
as the basis for the conclusion on a larger scope.
b. Experimental Approach
Experimental approach is used to determine the relationship of the variables. The
independent variables are controlled and manipulated to see its effects on the dependent
c. Simulation Approach
Simulation approach is done to demonstrate the study by using an artificial environment
through simulation software. By using this approach, researchers can visualize the effects
of the parameters involved to his project