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The Effectiveness of Fish Waste and Aqueous Solution of MSG
(Monosodium Glutamate) as Fertilizers in the Growth Rate of
Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea)
Related Literature and Studies
Classification of Fertilizers (Bello)
We all now that fertilizers are substances that helps to improve the growth and
productiveness of plants. It can be also a chemical or natural substance added to soil or land to
increase its fertility. Fertilizers can be also classified as a synthetic/artificial fertilizer or a natural
Artificial or synthetic fertilizers on the other hand are fertilizers contain a relatively high
quantity of nutrients so smaller volumes of them are needed. Artificial fertilizers are
manufactured from petrol or natural gas, where they can contain a wide variety of nutrients
including nitrates, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium. Fertilizer that contain such: nitrogen,
phosphorous and potassium are called NPK fertilizers.
An article from (Walliser, 2021) stated that natural fertilizer relies on plant, mineral, and
animal sources for its nutrients. The author also include in the article on how beneficial using
natural fertilizer than synthetic fertilizer since, there are some nutrients can be found at natural
fertilizer that are not found in synthetic fertilizers that contain only nitrogen, phosphorous, and
Spinach its Nutrients and Factors Affecting its Growth (Bello)
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a leafy green vegetable that originated in Persia. It also
belongs to the amaranth family and is related to beets and quinoa. An article by (Gunnars, 2019)
stated that spinach can boasts many plant compounds that can improve health, such as lutein,
kaempferol, nitrates, quercetin, and zeaxanthin, spinach is also a good source of many vitamins
and minerals such as: Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin K1, Folic Acid, Iron and Calcium. The
article also states that eating spinach may benefit eye health, reduce oxidative stress, help prevent
cancer, and reduce blood pressure levels.
Plant growth and geographic distribution are greatly affected by the environment. If any
environmental factor is less than ideal, it limits a plant's growth and/or distribution
(VanDerZanden, 2008); environmental factors such as light, temperature, water, humidity, soil
and nutrients affect the plant growth. The article also states that other cases like environmental
stress can weaken the plant and makes it more susceptible to disease or insect attack.
Fish Waste as Alternative Fertilizer (Bello)
Fish wastes are the leftover from a fish which may include the fish head, gills, scales, fish
entrails and bones. These fish wastes can degrade quickly in warm temperatures and if
not appropriately stored or managed, fish wastes can create aesthetic problems and strong odors
as a result of bacterial decomposition. And according to the previous study of (Ghaly et al.,
2013) fish wastes are in fact rich in nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and trace minerals.
Fish wastes/parts we’re used to create an alternative bio-fertilizer called Fish Amino Acids
(FAA) or Fish Hydrolysate. An article from (Globalcal, 2019) stated that Fish Amino Acid
(FAA) is a liquid made from fish waste. The article also states that Fish Amino Acid is of great
value to plants and microorganisms in their growth hence it contains abundance of nutrients, any
fish can be used including blue back fishes such as Mackerel, Spanish Mackerel, Horse
Mackerel, Saury, Garfish, Herring, Yellowtail, Sardine, Salmon, Tuna, Anchovy, and etc.
An evaluation study by (Radziemska et al., 2018) has results from the evaluation study they
conduct enabling them to conclude that the compost from fish waste is non-phytotoxic, mature,
stable, and suitable for use in agriculture. Another study done by (Vives et al., 2017) which
assess the use of a compost consisting of seaweed and fish waste as an organic fertilizer for
organic potato crops where the findings also shows that using fish waste as a material of compost
is useful as fertilizer.
Aqueous Solution of Monosodium Glutamate Fertilizer (Althea)
MSG (Monosodium Glutamate) is made up of nutritionally indispensable amino acids
and commonly used as a flavor enhancer for many dishes (Kazmi, 2017); its natural form
(glutamic acid form) is found in some foods including tomatoes and cheeses. It is believed to be
associated to several health problems, but on the other hand, it may be good for use not for
human consumption, but for plants. MSG contains high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and
potassium, and some considered it as good as a plant fertilizer. In an article posted on Real
Living, MSG is used as a cheap method of enhancing growth.
An article by (Mazlan, 2021) stated that gardening hobbyist and even some farmers in
Asia are successfully using MSG as plant fertilizer, and they also include it in their pesticide
mix. Another study by (Awang et al., 2020) has findings that also stated that MSG is as good as
regular fertilizers. An experimental study by (Singh, 2009) also confirmed that MSG really aids
in plant growth. Because it contains several nutrients (e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus, ammonia,
potassium) and it also includes amino acids that are necessary for plant growth, it is considered
by some gardening enthusiasts and some farmers who are on a really tight budget as a cheap and
easy alternative for the commercial fertilizers.