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A&P Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide
Anatomy Physiology 1 (Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania)
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Final Exam Study Guide 1
Final Exam Study Guide
Anatomy and Physiology 1
Dr. Surmacz
Date of Exam: December 11, 2017
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
 Anatomy
o The study of body structure
 Physiology
o The study of body function
 A&P is important to understand because…
o Foundation for healthcare
o Understand your own body
o Understand diseases
 Levels of organization
o Chemical/Molecular (More in Chapter 2)
 The atom is the smallest stable unit of matter
o Cellular (More in Chapter 3)
 The cell is the smallest
living unit
o Tissues (More in Chapter 4)
 Groups of cells working
together and surrounding
 4 Types
 Epithelial
 Connective
 Muscle
 Nervous
o Organ
 Structure of 2 or more
tissues that perform a
particular function
o Organ System
 2 or more organs that work
together for a specific
o Organism
 Individual living things
 11 Organ Systems
o Integumentary
 Protects against hazards
 Regulates body temperature
 Sends sensory information
o Skeletal
 Support and protection
 Stores calcium
 Forms blood cells
o Muscular
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Final Exam Study Guide 2
 Movement
 Protection and support for tissues
 Generates hear that maintains body temperature
o Nervous
 Immediate responses to stimuli
 Coordinates activities of other systems
 Interprets sensory information
o Endocrine
 Directs long-term changes
 Adjusts metabolic activity
 Controls changes during development
o Cardiovascular
 Distributes blood, water, etc.
 Assists to control body temperature
o Lymphatic
 Defends against disease
 Returns tissue fluids to blood
o Respiratory
 Delivers air to alveoli
 Delivers oxygen to the blood
 Removes carbon dioxide from
the body
 Produces sounds needed for
o Digestive
 Digests food
 Absorbs and conserves water
 Absorbs nutrients
 Stores energy
o Urinary
 Excretes waste
 Controls water balance
 Stores urine
 Regulates blood ion concentration and pH
o Reproductive
 Male
 Produces sex cells
 Sexual intercourse
 Female
 Produces sex cells
 Supports embryo from conception to delivery
 Provides milk to newborns
 Sexual intercourse
Directional Terms
o Superior
 Toward the head
o Inferior
 Away from the head
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Final Exam Study Guide 3
 Toward the front of the body
o Posterior
 Toward the back of the body
o Medial
 Toward the midline of the body
o Lateral
 Away from the midline of the body
o Proximal
 Close to the attachment of an extremity to the trunk
o Distal
 Far from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk
o Superficial
 Toward the surface of the body
o Deep
 Away from the surface of the body
Planes and Sections
o Midsagittal
 Vertical plane through the midline of the body which
divides the body or organ
into equal left and right
o Sagittal
 Vertical plane through the
body which divides the body
into unequal left and right
o Frontal (coronal)
 Vertical plane which divides
the body into anterior and
posterior portions
o Horizontal (transverse)
 Horizontal plane running
parallel to the ground which divides the body into superior
and inferior portions
o Covering of an organ
o Outer wall of body cavity
Body Regions
o Abdominal
 Abdomen
o Antebrachial
 Forearm
o Antecubital
 Space on the anterior surface of the arm in front of the
o Axillary
 Armpit
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Final Exam Study Guide 4
 Arm
o Buccal
 Cheek
o Cephalic
 Head
o Cervical
 Neck
o Costal
 Area on the back
overlying the ribs
o Dorsal
 Entire back of the
o Frontal
 Forehead
o Gluteal
 Buttocks
o Hallux
 Big toe
o Inguinal
 Groin
o Lumbar
 Lower back between the ribs and hips
o Mammary
 Breast
o Occipital
 Back of head
o Ophthalmic/Ocular
 Eyes
o Palmar
 Palm
o Pectoral/Thoracic
 Chest
o Pelvic
 Pelvis
o Perineum
 Region between the anus and the external reproductive
o Plantar
 Sole of foot
o Pollex
 Thumb
o Popliteal
 Shallow depression behind knee
o Umbilical
 Navel
Abdominopelvic Regions
o Umbilical
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Final Exam Study Guide 5
 Center of abdomen
 Contains umbilicus
o Epigastric
 Directly above umbilical region
 Contains most of the
o Hypogastric
 Directly below the
umbilical region in pubic
 Contains urinary bladder
and rectum
o Right Iliac
 Lateral to hypogastric
region on right side
 Contains inferior portions
of hip bone on right
o Left Iliac
 Lateral to hypogastric region on left side
 Contains inferior portions of hip bone on left
o Right Lumbar
 Lateral to umbilical region on right side
 Contains superior flaring portions of hip bones on right
o Left Lumbar
 Lateral to umbilical region on left side
 Contains superior flaring portions of hip bones on left
o Right Hypochondriac
 Lateral to epigastric region on right
 Contains lower ribs on right
o Left Hypochondriac
 Lateral to epigastric region on right
 Contains lower ribs on left
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
o Right Upper
 Contains liver and gall bladder
o Right Lower
 Contains appendix and ascending
o Left Upper
 Contains stomach and spleen
o Left Lower
 Contains descending colon and
Body Cavities
o Thoracic
 Contains the pleural and pericardial cavities
o Left pleural
 Contains the left lung
o Right pleural
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Final Exam Study Guide 6
 Contains the right lung
 Contains the heart
 Contains the abdominal and pelvic cavities
 Inferior to the thoracic cavity and superior to the pelvic
 Directly inferior to the abdominal cavity
 Contains the cranial and vertebral cavities
 Cavity within the skull that contains the brain
 Canal formed by the vertebrae of the spine that contains
the spinal cord
 Contains the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
o Maintenance of a stable internal environment
o Theme of A&P
o Difficult to keep parameters in appropriate ranges because our
bodies are subjected to stress
 Change in internal or
external environments
o Parameters include…
 Temperature, pH, blood
pressure, fatty acids,
sodium, oxygen, carbon
dioxide, glucose, lipids,
o Negative feedback
 Initial stress and
response are in opposite
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Final Exam Study Guide 7
Positive feedback
 Initial stress and response are in the same direction
 Leads to disease
Receptors detect stress
Nerves take the stimuli impulse to the control center i.e.
medulla in the brain
A different nerve sends a signal to an effector, which produces a
response to combat the stress
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Final Exam Study Guide 8
Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization
 Chemistry
o Science that studies matter
 Matter
o Anything that has mass and takes up space
 Smallest unit of matter is an atom
 3 Parts of an Atom
o Proton
 Located in the nucleus
 Positive charge
 Number of protons = atomic number
 Never changes
o Neutron
 Located in nucleus
 Neutral charge
 # of neutrons + # of protons
= atomic mass
 Number can change within the
same type of atom to create
an isotope
o Electron
 Orbits the nucleus in rings
 Electron cloud
 Negative charge
 No weight whatsoever
 Number can change to create an ion
 Cation
o Paw-sitively charged ion
 Anion
o Negatively charged ion
 4 Elements Comprise 96.5% of the Human Body
o Carbon
o Hydrogen
o Oxygen
o Nitrogen
 2 Elements Comprise 2.8% of the Human Body
o Phosphorus
o Calcium
 .7-.9% of the human body is made up of trace elements
o Molybdenum
o Silicon
o Cadmium
o Fluorine
o Chromium
o Copper
o Tin
o Manganese
o Aluminum
o Zinc
o Boron
o Selenium
o Vanadium
o Cobalt
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Final Exam Study Guide 9
All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number but can
differ in atomic mass
2 Types of Isotopes
o Stable
o Unstable
 Split apart; decays to form a more stable structure
 Can release radiation, which is potentially dangerous
2 Types of Chemical Bonds
o Ionic
 Bond created by electrical attraction between cations and
o Covalent
 Bond where one or more electrons are shared between atoms
o Result in the formation of molecules and compounds
o Any chemical structure held together by covalent bonds
o A chemical substance made of atoms of 2 or more elements
regardless of the type of bond joining them
2 Major Classes of Chemical Compounds
o Organic
 Has carbon and hydrogen
 Larger
 Insoluble in water
 Covalent bonds
o Inorganic
 Lacks carbon
 Smaller
 Water soluble
 Ionic bonds
Important Inorganic Compounds in Body
o Oxygen
o Carbon dioxide
o Water
Water and the Human Body
o 2 hydrogens covalently bonded to 1 oxygen
o Electrons are NOT shared equally
 Makes water POLAR
o 4 Unusual Properties
 Universal solvent
 Solvent of body because its polar
 High heat capacity
 Takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature of 1g
of water by 1 degree C
 Keeps a stable body temperature
 Water carries heat away from the skin during
evaporation of sweat
 Lubrication
 Decreases friction
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Final Exam Study Guide 10
 Participates in chemical reactions
Important Inorganic Compounds in Body (continued)
o Acid
 Compound that dissociates in water and releases hydrogen
 Strong acids
 Dissociate completely
 Weak acids
 Do NOT dissociate completely
o Base
 Compound that dissociates in water and releases hydroxide
 Remove hydrogen ions from solution
o Salt
 Compound that dissociates in water into cations and anions,
neither of which is hydrogen or hydroxide ions
Equation for pH
o pH = -log[H+]
o pH < 7, acidic
o pH > 7, basic
o pH = 7, neutral
o Compounds that help to maintain pH body fluids by removing or
replacing hydrogen ions
4 Major Classes of Organic Compounds
o Carbohydrates
 Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
 2:1 ratio of H:O
 Monosaccharides
 Simple sugars
 i.e. glucose
 Disaccharides
 2 sugars
 Joined by dehydration
o A covalent bond is
formed with the
release of a water
 Broken apart by hydrolysis
o The breaking of a covalent bond with the
addition of water
 i.e. sucrose
 Polysaccharides
 Many sugars linked together
 Main storage: glycogen
 Provide fuel for the body
 Excess sugars are converted to fat
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Final Exam Study Guide 11
Artificial sweeteners are not absorbed or broken down in
the body
 Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
 No 2:1 ratio
 Insoluble in water
 5 classes
 Fatty Acids
o Long chain of carbons with hydrogen attached
and at one end there is a carboxyl group
o 2 types
 Saturated
 Full with the max amount of
 Linear in shape
 Unsaturated
 Not full with hydrogen
 Some hydrogen is replaced with one
or more double bonds
 Bent/kink shape
o Saturated fats are closer together due to shape
than the unsaturated fats are, making them more
likely to cause heart disease
 Eicosanoids
o Lipids derived from fatty acids
o Functions
 Released by cells and effects neighboring
 Stimulates nerves
 “local hormone,” “paracrine”
 Increases contractivity of uterine muscle
 i.e. child birth, PMS cramps, etc.
 Triglyceride
o AKA triacylglycerol or fat
o 3 fatty acids bonded to one 3-carbon molecule
called glycerol by dehydration synthesis
o Functions
 Protection
 Dense energy storage
 Insulation
 Phospholipids and Glycolipids
o Both form the cell membrane
o Phospholipids are made of
glycerol, 2 fatty acids
and a phosphate group
o Glycolipids are made of
glycerol, 2 fatty acids,
and a sugar
 Steroids
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Final Exam Study Guide 12
4 ring structure
Found in membranes/stiffens membranes
Forms steroid hormones
 Testosterone
 Estrogen
 Adrenal hormones
Forms bile salts
 Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and (sometimes) sulfur
 Building blocks are amino acids
 R group; differs depending on
amino acid
 Amino group
 Carboxyl group
 Hydrogen
 Around a central carbon
 Amino acids bonded by dehydration synthesis
 Primary structure
 Order and sequences of amino
 Secondary structure
 Fold chain into coils
stabilized by hydrogen bonds
formed between amino acids
 i.e. alpha helix
 Tertiary structure
 Further folding of the protein
due to hydrophobic and
hydrophilic amino acids
 Globular shape
 Hydrophobic amino acids move to
the center to avoid water
 Hydrophilic amino acids on
outside near water
 Quaternary structure
 Present when we have more than
1 protein chain
 i.e. hemoglobin
 Many diseases are due to problems
with protein shape
 Functions
 Enzymes
 Structure/repair
 Transport
 Energy storage
 Movement
 Protection
 Coordination/control/regulatory
 Buffers
 Enzymes
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Final Exam Study Guide 13
Biological catalysts; cause reaction rates to
 Substrates bond to enzyme; both change shape; enzyme
bonds substrates together; enzyme releases a product
and returns to original shape
Nucleic Acids
 Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus
 Store and process genetic information
 Made up of nucleotides
 3 parts
 Nitrogenous base
 Sugar
 Phosphate group
 2 types
o Pyrimidines – thymine and cytosine
o Purines – adenine and guanine
o Deoxyribose sugar
 Second carbon atom is missing an oxygen
o Phosphate group
o Double helix structure
o Adenine pairs with thymine; guanine pairs with
 Complementary base pairing
o Adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil
o Ribose sugar
o Phosphate group
o Single stranded
 Adenine
 Ribose
 3 phosphate groups
Adenosine triphosphate
ATP hydrolysis
 Breaking a bond by adding water to release energy and
adenosine diphosphate
ATP provides energy for transport, movement, and synthesis
reactions in the cell
ATP is produced in the mitochondria
Chapter 3: The Cellular Level of Organization
 Cytology
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Final Exam Study Guide 14
o The study of cell structure
2 types of cells
o Somatic
 Typical body cells
o Sex
 Sperm and eggs (gametes)
Cells surrounding by a plasma membrane
o Between nucleus and cell membrane
o 2 subdivisions
 Cytosol
 Aqueous fluid
 Organelles
 Small structures suspended in cytosol
 Perform a specific task
Cell Theory
o We are made of cells
Cell Growth and Production
o Purpose: growth and replace worn out cells (genetically
o Nucleus
 Nuclear envelope
 Double membrane
 Contains nuclear pores
 Allow large substances
to pass through
 Nucleolus
 Darkly stained region
 Where “ribosomal
subunits” are assembled
 Ribosomes
o Site of protein
 Nucleoplasm
 Fluid interior
 Gel-like
 Packaged in chromatin until mitosis begins
Stages of the Cell Life Cycle
o Mitotic Phase
 Parent cell into 2 daughter cells
 Division of the nucleus
 Division of the cytoplasm
o Interphase
 Period of time between cell divisions
 GAP 1 (G1)
 Immediately after mitotic phase
 Period of growth
 New cytoplasmic organelles
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Final Exam Study Guide 15
Synthesis (S)
 DNA is duplicated so that each daughter cell has the
same amount as the parent
 GAP 2 (G2)
 Prepares to divide
 G0
 Cell does not divide
 i.e. neurons, muscle, etc.
o Cancer results from faulty regulation of cell division
DNA Replication
o DNA unwinds and separates with the help of helicase
o Both strands act as templates
 New bases come in and pair with the help of DNA polymerase
o 2 identical DNA molecules
o Considered semi-conservative because each DNA molecule has one
old and one new strand
Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
o Prophase
 DNA/chromosomes condense and
 Nuclear envelope and nucleolus
 Centrioles move to opposite poles
of cell
 Form spindle fibers (microtubules)
 Sister chromatids are joined at
the center by a kinetochore
o Metaphase
 Chromosomes line up on equator by spindle fibers
o Anaphase
 Centromere splits
 Spindle fibers shorten and pull sister chromatids to each
end of cell
o Telophase
 Reforms nuclear membrane and nucleolus
 Chromosomes begin to decondense
 Cleavage furrow forms from a protein called actin
The Plasma Membrane
o Components and their Functions
 Lipids
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Final Exam Study Guide 16
42% of membrane
Phospholipid bilayer
Serves as a barrier
Cholesterol stiffens membrane and is interspersed
between phospholipids
 Proteins
 55% of membrane
 2 types
o Integral
 Embedded in bilayer and most span
membrane; “transmembrane”
o Peripheral
 Loosely associated with both inner and
outer surfaces
 Carbohydrates
 3% of membrane
 ONLY on outer surface
 Can be attached to proteins, lipids or just floating
by themselves
Fluid mosaic model
Selectively permeable membrane
 Allows certain things through and not others
Membrane transport
 Diffusion
 Movement of a substance from an area of high
concentration to an area of low concentration
 “Down” a concentration gradient
 Driving force is kinetic energy; constantly moving
 3 types
o Simple
 Movement of a substance directly through
the phospholipid bilayer
 i.e. oxygen, carbon dioxide, gas, fatty
acids, steroids, lipid soluble drugs
o Channel-Mediated
 The movement of a substance through a
passageway that is inside integral
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Final Exam Study Guide 17
 i.e. ions, water, etc.
 Movement of water through a membrane from
an area of high water to an area of low
 Movement of a substance through a membrane due to a
pressure gradient
 High pressure to low pressure
 In the body, this is blood pressure
o Hydrostatic pressure
Carrier Mediated Transport
 Requires an integral protein that changes shape
called carriers
 2 types
o Facilitated diffusion
 Movement of a substance through a
membrane down a concentration gradient;
requires a carrier
 Substance binds to carrier
 Carrier changes shape; new shape releases
substance inside cell
o Active transport
 Movement of a substance through a
membrane from an area of low
concentration to an area of high
 Requires ATP
 Against concentration gradient
 Requires integral protein
 i.e. sodium potassium exchange pump
Vesicular or Bulk Transport
 Moving large substances in or out of the cell by
means of vesicles
o Membrane bound sphere
 Endocytosis
o Packaging of extracellular material into a
vesicle for transport into a cell
o Phagocytosis
 “cell eating”
 Uptake of large particles
 Cytoplasmic extensions that surround
particle and enclose it to form a vesicle
 Pseudopods
o Pinocytosis
 “cell drinking”
 Uptake of fluid and dissolved particles
 Membrane pinches in to capture fluids and
solutes in a vesicle
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Final Exam Study Guide 18
 Invagination
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
 Uptake of specific target molecules
 Ligands
 Exocytosis
o Packaging of intercellular substances into
vesicles for fusion with the plasma membrane to
release substances from the cell
o Discharge of contents of vesicle from the cell
o i.e. hormones, saliva, digestive enzymes, etc.
Osmosis: Applications and Problems
o Tonicity
 Relative solute concentration of 2 solutions
o Hypotonic
 Water enters the cell due to high solutes on the inside
o Hypertonic
 Water exits the cell due to high solutes on the outside
o Isotonic
 Water moves freely between outside and inside of cell due
to concentration of solutes being equal
The Cytoplasm Organelles
o Non-membranous Organelles
 Cytoskeleton
 Support
 Structure
 Movement
 Microfilaments
o Forms cleavage furrow
o Anchor membrane proteins to cytoskeleton
o Muscle contraction
o Consistency of cytoplasm
 Intermediate Filament
o Structural support
o Stable
 Microtubule
o Form tracks for vesicles to move along
o Form cilia and flagella
o Form spindle fibers
 Centrioles
 2 bundles of microtubules at right angles
 Form spindle fibers that move chromosomes in cell
 Cilia and Flagella
 Movement; extensions from cell
 Cross-sections are identical
 Cilia are…
o Numerous
o Short
o Move fluid along surface
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Final Exam Study Guide 19
i.e. move mucus in respiratory system, eggs
through fallopian tubes
 Flagella are…
o Loners/single
o Long
o Wave-like action
o Moves entire cell
o i.e. sperm
 Ribosomes
 Made of ribosomal RNA and protein
 2 types
o Free – in cytoplasm
o Fixed – bound to RER
 Sites of protein synthesis
Membranous Organelles
 Mitochondria
 Surrounded by a double membrane
 Folds inside called cristae
 Space inside called matrix
 Powerhouse of the cell
 Converts glucose and oxygen to carbon dioxide, water,
and energy
 Where the “machinery” for ATP production is
 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Has ribosomes
 Produces proteins
 Network of membrane-bound tubes and hollow sacs
 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Lacks ribosomes
 Synthesizes all kinds of lipids
 Detoxifies drugs, alcohol, and poisons
 Stores glycogen and calcium
 Golgi Apparatus
 Composed of flattened, hollow sacs called cisternae
 Receives small transport vesicles from RER and sends
out larger secretory vesicles towards the plasma
 Process…
o RER makes proteins
o Shipped in vesicles to Golgi
o Golgi modifies, sorts and packages proteins
o Sends them out in secretory vesicles
o Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane
o Exocytosis occurs
 Lysosome
 Membrane-bound sphere
 Contains a host of digestive enzymes called acid
 Performs hydrolysis
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Final Exam Study Guide 20
 Results in digestion
 All types of biological molecules
 Peroxisome
 Membrane-bound sphere
 Breakdown of fatty acids
 Creates hydrogen peroxide
 Enzyme catalase digests hydrogen peroxide
The Central Dogma
o Important because of protein synthesis
o Proteins differ from each other due to the amino acid sequence
o Key Principles
 The instructions (genetic information) for making a protein
are found in the DNA
 RNA will play an important role in the process of
synthesizing a protein. There are 3 kinds of RNA…
 Messenger RNA – mRNA
 Ribosomal RNA – rRNA
 Transfer RNA – tRNA
o Transcription
 Information in DNA is copied to make mRNA
 DNA is the recipe for making each protein
 mRNA becomes the copy of the recipe
 1 strand of DNA is a template
 Forms a complementary strand of mRNA
 Uracil replaces thymine
o Translation
 Info in mRNA is used to assemble amino acids in correct
order in the recipe
 Ribosomes are the factories to make proteins
 rRNA and protein makes up ribosome
 Amino acids are delivered by tRNA
 Links amino acids with peptide bonds
 Uses information in mRNA to assemble amino acids in correct
The Flow of Genetic Information in the Cell
o The order of amino acids in 20,000 different proteins is stored
in DNA strands
o Stored in sections called genes
o Each group of 3 bases is called a triplet
o Each triplet corresponds to 1 of 20 amino acids
o The production of mRNA from a DNA template
o DNA unwinds and separates
 1 strand acts as a template
o RNA polymerase reads template and inserts complementary RNA bases
o mRNA exits at the end of the gene and the 2 strands of DNA
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Final Exam Study Guide 21
Using the information in mRNA to assemble amino acids in the
correct order to make a particular protein
Binding of tRNA carrying amino acid to ribosome due to matching
of tRNA anti-codon and mRNA codon
Peptide bond formation between the amino acids
Moving the ribosome along mRNA
Exit of empty tRNA
Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization
 Histology
o The study of tissues
 4 types
o Muscle
o Nervous
o Connective
o Epithelial
 Epithelial
o Functions
 Protection
 Covers and lines body surfaces
 Secretion
 Forms glands
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 Cellularity
 Abundant cells; closely packed
 Little extracellular material
 Avascularity
 Lacks blood vessels
 Regeneration
 Rapidly reproduces through mitosis
 Polarity
 One free surface (i.e. air or body cavity); apical
 Other attached surface; basal surface
o Embedded in basement membrane
o Extracellular
o BM contains fibers and carbohydrates
Integrity of Epithelia: Cell Attachments
 Cell junctions
 Hold epithelial cells together
 Tight junctions
o Help to make the spaces between cells
o Fused together
o i.e. digestive tract, brain
 Desmosomes
o Increase the resistance of the tissue to
mechanical stress
o Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
o Strong
o i.e. skin (comes off in sheets, not dust)
 Gap junctions
o Allow small substances to move from one cell to
o Channels in membrane allow ions to pass between
o i.e. heart
Classification of Epithelia
 Cell shape
 Squamous
 Cuboidal
 Columnar
 Number of layers
 Simple
 Stratified
 Pseudostratified
o Each cell touches the BM, so it’s technically
ONE layer even though it looks as if it’s many
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Cells vary in height so the nuclei are at
different heights and gives the appearance of
many layers
Simple squamous
 One layer
 Flat cells
 Thin for diffusion
 i.e. lines blood vessels (endothelium), alveoli in lungs,
lines body cavities (mesothelium)
Stratified squamous
 Many layers
 Flat cells
 Top – flat cells for protection; bottom – cuboidal
 i.e. skin (keratinized and non-keratinized
Simple cuboidal
 One layer
 Square cells
 Secretion
 i.e. glands
Stratified cuboidal
Transitional epithelia
 Cells can change shape
 Cube-like when organ is relaxed
 Flat when organ is distended
 i.e. urinary bladder
Simple columnar
 One layer
 Tall, rectangular cells
 Absorption
 i.e. lines digestive tract
Pseudostratified columnar
 One layer
 Nuclei are at different levels
 Mucus secreted onto surface
 Cilia move mucus along cells
 i.e. respiratory tract
 Glands that release secretions into ducts that empty onto
epithelial surfaces
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Glands that lack ducts and release secretions called
hormones into the blood stream
o Merocrine
 Secretions are released from secretory vesicles by
o Apocrine
 Loss of cytoplasm and secretory vesicles
o Holocrine
 The entire cell fills with secretory products and bursts
o Serous glands
 Glands that produce a watery secretion that contain enzymes
o Mucous glands
 Glands that produce a viscous secretion composed of mucins
Connective Tissue
o Functions
 Bind parts of the body together
 Energy reserves
 Protection
 Transport
 Framework
o Characteristics
 Cells widely scattered with lots of extracellular material
 Highly vascular
 Regenerates slowly
o Structural Plan
 Specialized cells – far apart
 Extracellular material called a matrix made of…
 Collagen fibers
o Long, straight, thick, strong
o White in color
 Elastic fibers
o Stretchy, wavy, flexible
o Yellow in color
 Reticular fibers
o Fine, branched collagen fibers
o Forms the framework of organs (stroma)
 Extracellular fluid called ground substance
o Clear, colorless, viscous, protein and
o Impedes movement of bacteria
o Classification of Connective Tissue
 Connective Tissue Proper
 Loose
o Few fibers in matrix
 Dense
o Lots of fibers
 Viscous, syrupy ground substance
 Fluid Connective Tissue
 Blood
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 Lymph
 Matrix is water
 Supporting Connective Tissue
 Bones
o Extremely hard matrix
 Cartilage
o Firm gel like a grapefruit skin
Representative Connective Tissues
 Connective Tissue Proper
 Loose Connective Tissue
o Areolar (loose)
 Loose array of…
 Several kinds of cells
 Primarily elastic and collagen
 Semifluid matrix
o Viscous fluid
 Support and cushioning
 Most abundant
 i.e. under skin (superficial fascia)
o Adipose Tissue
 Fat cells have a “signet-ring” shape
 Little cytoplasm
 Large fat droplet
 Protection
 Insulation
 Energy storage
 Non-essential fat
 Subcutaneous
 Visceral fat (belly)
 Essential fat
 Hips, bone marrow, nervous system,
heart, kidneys, breasts, thighs,
o Reticular Tissue
 Irregular network of reticular fibers
 Framework for organs
 Liver, spleen, etc.
 Dense Connective Tissues
o Dense Regular
 Parallel bundles of collagen fibers
between rows of fibroblast
 Very strong
 Withstands much force
 i.e. tendons, ligaments, etc.
 Tendons – connects muscle to bone
 Ligaments – connects bone to bone
 Elastic tissue
 Enable stretch
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Artery walls, respiratory
o Dense Irregular
 Collagen fibers arranged irregularly in
bundles around fibroblasts
 No pattern to collagen fibers
 Strong
 Able to withstand force in many
 Skin, capsules of organs, etc.
 Specialized Cells
o Fibroblasts
 Produce the fibers and ground substance
and secrete it into matrix
o Macrophage
 Phagocytic cells; large; engulf other
o Mesenchymal Cell
 Stem cells, can develop into other kinds
of cells
o Adipocyte
 Fat cell; contains large lipid droplet
o Melanocyte
 Contain melanin (brown); protect from UV
o Mast Cell
 Secrete histamine (vasodilator) and
heparin (coagulant)
 Supporting Connective Tissue
 Bone
 Cartilage
o Hyaline cartilage
 Support
 i.e. ends of long bones, costal
cartilages attach ribs to sternum,
larynx, trachea, nasal cartilage, etc.
o Elastic cartilage
 Elasticity
 i.e. ears, epiglottis, etc.
o Fibrocartilage
 Very strong
 Resists compression
 Absorbs shock
 i.e. intervertebral discs, knee, pubic
symphysis, etc.
 3 kinds
 Superficial fascia
o AKA subcutaneous layer OR hypodermis
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o Beneath skin and underlying organs
o Areolar tissue and adipose tissue
 Deep fascia
o Forms a strong,
fibrous internal
o Dense connective
o Bound to capsules,
tendons, ligaments,
and muscles
 Sub-serous fascia
o Between serous
membranes and deep
o Areolar tissue
o Lines body cavities
What happens after a tissue injury?
 A defense response that is activated due to the
releases of histamine, heparin, and prostaglandins by
mast cells
 3 effects
o Increased blood flow to the area
o Increased permeability of blood vessels
o Stimulation of nerve endings
o Purpose?
 Increase delivery of oxygen and other
nutrients to the injured area and
increase removal of toxins and wastes
 4 symptoms
o Redness and warmth
 Due to increase of blood flow to the area
o Swelling
 Due to leakage of fluid from vessels
o Pain
 Due to stimulation of nerve endings
 Repair of damaged tissue by invading fibroblasts to
create scar tissue
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Chapter 5: The Integumentary System
 2 Major Parts
o The skin (cutaneous membrane)
o Accessory structures
 Hair, glands, nails, etc.
 The Skin
o 2 Distinct Layers
 Epidermis
 Upper; thinner
 Dermis
 Deep; thicker
 Hypodermis
 AKA subcutaneous layer
OR superficial fascia
 Not skin
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Made of adipose and areolar tissue
Anchors skin to underlying organs
The Epidermis
o Stratified squamous epithelium
o Made up of cells called keratinocytes that make keratin
o Thick vs. Thin
 Thick
 .5 mm thick
 5 layers
 Found on palms and soles
 Thin
 .08 mm thick
 4 layers
 Found everywhere else
o Stratum Corneum
 15-30 rows of dead flat cells that are interlocked by
 Keratinized or cornification occurs
 Water resistant, not waterproof
o Stratum Lucidum
 Found in thick skin only
 Clear, glassy layer
 Flat, densely packed keratinocytes filled with keratin
o Stratum Granulosum
 Cells start to die and dehydrate
 Darkly stained layer containing 3-5 rows of keratinocytes
that have stopped dividing, cells grow thicker and flatter
 Synthesis begins of KERATOHYALIN and KERATIN, the
waterproofing proteins
o Stratum Spinosum
 8-10 rows of spiny shaped keratinocytes held together by
 Langerhans (dendritic) cells: immune function, defend
against bacteria
 Stimulate against microorganisms that manage to
penetrate the superficial layers of the epidermis and
superficial skin cancers
 Look like miniature pincushions
 Contains cells that are involved in the immune response
o Stratum Germinativum or Basale
 Single layer of stem cells capable of cell division
 Attached to the
basement membrane (BM)
that separates
epidermis from dermis
 Forms epidermal ridges
that extend into
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Interlocks with the dermis
Forms epidermal ridges that are adjacent to dermal
projections called dermal papillae
 Has Merkel cells scattered among the basale cells
 Contains melanocytes that produce melanin
o Takes about 7-10 days to go from stratum basale to corneum
o Takes a couple weeks for corneum cells to jump off
o Roles of the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)
 Promoting the divisions of basal cells in the stratum
basale and stratum spinosum
 Accelerating the production of keratin in differentiating
 Stimulating epidermal development and epidermal repair
after injury
 Stimulating secretory product synthesis and secretion by
epithelial glands
o EGF can be used in tissue culture to stimulate the growth and
division of epidermal cells
The Dermis
o Made of connective tissue
o Contains networks of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve
o Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin that primarily involves
the papillary layer
o Papillary Layer
 Top, thinner
 Composed of areolar connective tissue
 Contains capillaries and sensory nerves
 Contains fingerlike projections called papillae
 Gives ridge like pattern to skin; fingerprints
o Reticular Layer
 Composed of dense irregular connective tissue (collagen and
elastic fibers)
 Contains sensory receptors (touch, temperature, pressure,
vibration, pain) and nerves
 Contains blood vessels
 Contains nerves
 Contains hair follicles and glands
 Fiber bundles responsible for lines of cleavage
o Collagen fibers are very strong and resist stretching, but they
are easily bent or twisted
o Elastic fibers permit stretching and then recoil to their
original length
 When elastic fibers are overstretched, stretch marks result
o Bundles of fibers can be known as tension lines
o The boundary between the hypodermis and the dermis is generally
indistinct because of the connective tissue fibers
o Very elastic
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Primarily adipose tissue, 80% of body fat
Blood reservoir
 Why doctors use hypodermic needles to inject drugs
Skin Color
o Due to interaction between: pigments in the epidermis and blood
flow in the dermis
o Melanin
 2 kinds
 Eumelanin
o Brown-black color
 Pheomelanin
o Red-yellow color
 The more melanocytes present, the darker the skin color
 Is used for UV protection from the sun
o Carotene
 Orange-yellow pigment that normally accumulates in
epidermal cells
 An overabundance of carotene can give someone’s skin an
orange color
o Cyanosis
 When the skin takes on a bluish color
o Disease-related changes in skin color
 Jaundice
 The liver is unable to excrete bile, so a yellowish
pigment accumulates in body fluids
 Some tumors affecting the pituitary gland resul tin the
secretion of large amounts of melanocyte-stimulating
hormones (MCH)
 Causes melanocytes to overproduced
 Addison’s disease
 The pituitary gland secretes large quantities of
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which gives a
similar result as MCH
 Vitiligo
 Individuals lose melanocytes, causing white patches
on otherwise normal skin
 Occurs when antibodies attack healthy melanocytes
The Importance of Sunlight
o Skin absorbs UV radiation to produce vitamin D3, or
o The liver then converts cholecalciferol into calcitriol, which is
needed for healthy absorption of calcium and phosphate ions in
the small intestine
o Inadequate supply of calcitriol can cause impaired bone growth
and maintenance
 Called rickets
Accessory Structures
o Hair
 2.5 million hairs (75% on body, 25% on head)
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everywhere BUT…
Sides of fingers
and toes
 Parts of
 Types…
 Fetus: lanugo
 Adults: 2 Types
o Vellus hair
 “peach fuzz”
o Terminal hair
 Pigmented, course, thick
 Hair and Follicle Structure
 Cross Section of a Hair and Follicle
 3 Layers
o Medulla
 Soft, core of keratin
 Innermost
o Cortex
 Hard keratin
 Middle
o Cuticle
 Dead, keratinized cells
 Outermost
 Hair color
o Eumelanin
 Ranges from brown-red to black
o Pheomelanin
 Ranges from yellow brown to red
o Variations in ratios and amounts causes hair
color to differ between individuals
 Types
o Curly
 Flat shaft
o Straight
 Round shaft
o Wavy
 Oval
 Takes 2-5 years until the follicle becomes inactive
 Hair called CLUB HAIR is pushed off
 Lose 50-100 hairs a day
 Hair grows .3mm a day
 Hair is used for protection and insulation
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2 types
 Sebaceous
o Oil glands
o Empties into fair follicle and up to skin
o Secretes sebum
 Made of fat, cholesterol, salt and
 Purpose is to moisturize skin and keep it
moist; prevents from drying out
 Sudoriferous
o Sweat glands
o Merocrine or Eccrine
 Empties directly to skin surface and is
widely distributed
 Secretes watery sweat
 Evaporation produces cooling effect
o Apocrine
 Empties into hair follicle
 Secretes thick, gooey, cloudy, nutrients
 Bacteria grow
 Produces body odor
 Found in the axillary region, anus,
genitals, nipples, etc.
 Structure: hard keratinized epidermal cells
 Function: protection
Functions of the Integumentary System
o Protection
 From infection and water loss
o Excretion
 Sweat
o Sensation
 Touch, temperature, vibration, pressure, pain
o Storage
 Lipids in subcutaneous layer
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Vitamin D3 Synthesis
Temperature regulation
Chapter 6: Bones and Bone Structure
 Functions
o Protection
 Protects many delicate structures
o Support
 Offers structural support
o Storage
 Stores calcium, phosphorus, and lipids
o Red Blood Cell Production
 “Hematopoiesis”
 All called “myeloid tissue” or “red
bone marrow”
 Adults – found in long bones, hip
bone, sternum, vertebral column,
scapula, etc.
 Children – everywhere
o Movement
 Muscles attach to bones and pull them
 Classification by Shape
o Long
 Greater in length than width
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Final Exam Study Guide 35
i.e. femur, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula,
phalanges, etc.
 Cube-like
 i.e. carpels, tarsals
o Flat
 i.e. sternum, scapula, some skull bones
o Irregular
 None of the above
 i.e. pelvis, vertebra, some skull bones, ethmoid
o Sesamoid
 Shaped like a sesame seed
 i.e. patella
Total of 206 bones in the adult human body
Typical Structure of a Long Bone
o Articular cartilage
 Layer of hyaline cartilage that covers
each epiphysis
o Epiphysis
 Each end of the bone where it becomes a
little larger
 Contains spongy bone surrounded by a
layer of compact bone
 Contains red bone marrow
o Diaphysis
 Long shaft in between both epiphyses
 Hollow
 Contains marrow/medullary cavity and
yellow bone marrow
o Metaphysis
 Where the epiphysis meets the diaphysis
o Periosteum
 Covers the compact bone on the outer surface
 Functions
 Contains cells for bone repair and growth
 Protection
 Provides a route for blood vessels
 Perforating or Sharpey’s Fibers
 Collagen fibers that attach the periosteum to the
o Endosteum
 Lines the medullary cavity
 Promotes bone growth and repair
 Made of delicate connective tissue
Structure of Flat, Short, and Irregular Bones
o Made of compact and spongey bone
o Like a spongey bone sandwich
Bone Histology
o Compact Bone
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Basic functional unit are the Haversian Systems (osteon)
In the center of the Haversian System is a canal called a
Haversian Canal, or a central canal
 Contains blood vessels
 Each system has lamellae organized in concentric circles
 Osteocytes are in
lacunae and get
nutrients from
blood stream
through canaliculi
 Blood vessels run
vertically in
Haversian canals
and horizontally
in Volkmann’s
 Lamellae are rings
of matrix between
the osteocytes
Spongy Bone
 Porous to the naked eye
 Pieces or struts of bony plates
 Made of trabeculae, like a 3D lattice
 Functions
 Lightens bone
 Contains red bone marrow
 Can withstand stress due to “cross braces”
Composition of Bone
o 2% Cells
 Osteocyte
 “Bone cell”
 Mature bone cell that maintains the bone matrix
 Osteoblast
 “Bone builder”
 Immature bone cell that secretes organic components
of matrix
 Osteogenic
 Stem cell whose divisions produce osteoblasts
 Osteoclast
 “Bone destroyer”
 Multinucleate cell that secretes acids and enzymes to
dissolve bone matrix
 Breakdown of bone
o 98% Matrix
 Inorganic
 65%
 Calcium, phosphorus, calcium hydroxide
o Called hydroxyapatites
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 Very hard crystals
 35%
 Collagen protein fibers
 Give flexibility
 Can tolerate bending and twisting
Bone Formation
o Intramembranous Ossification
 Bones develop from a fibrous connective tissue membrane
 i.e. skull bones
 Steps
 Ossification center is formed in a fibrous membrane
o Mesenchymal cells cluster in the fibrous
membrane and differentiate into osteoblasts
 Formation of spicules
o Ossification continues and small pieces of hard
 Blood vessels are trapped as the spicules
 Spongy bone is formed
 Cone remodeling
 Starts around 8 weeks after fertilization
Endochondral Ossification
 Most bones form from cartilage
 Steps
 Cartilage model enlarges
 Blood vessels grow around edges
 Invasion of vessels and creates the primary
ossification center
o Fibroblasts differentiate to form osteoblasts
 Marrow cavity forms and hollows out
 Secondary ossification centers form in epiphyses
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Remaining cartilage surrounds epiphyses
Bone Growth
o In Width
 “Appositional growth”
 Osteoblasts in periosteum secrete bone matrix and add
layers of bone to outer surface
 Osteoclasts along inner surface remove bone enlarging
medullary cavity
o In Length
 Occurs at the epiphyseal plate
 On the epiphyses, cartilage grows outward
 On the diaphysis, cartilage cells die and are replaced by
o Bones stop growing around 18-21 years old
o When bone growth is greater than cartilage growth, the epiphyseal
plate closes
 Fills with bone and becomes the epiphyseal line
Dynamic Nature of Bone
o Bone components are recycled and reused throughout life
o Bones have to adjust to stress
o ~20% of the skeleton is replaced every year
o ~every 4-5 months you get a new femur
o Factors affecting growth and remodeling
 Nutrition
 Dietary calcium and phosphorus
 Vitamin D3 is needed to make calcitriol
 Vitamins: A, C, K, D12 which increase protein
synthesis and collagen from osteoblasts
 Hormones
 Chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands
 Growth and thyroid hormones increase osteoblasts and
bone growth
 Sex hormones promote growth
o Estrogen promotes closure of epiphyseal plate
 Calcitonin lowers blood calcium
 Parathyroid increases blood calcium
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 Bone stressed
 Mineral crystals release tiny electric currents
 Draws osteoblasts
 Increases bone formation
Chapter 7: The Axial Skeleton
 206 bones total in the adult human body
 2 major divisions of the skeletal system
o Axial skeleton
 80 bones
 Along the midline of the body
 Forms longitudinal axis
 Includes the skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs, hyoid,
auditory ossicles
o Appendicular skeleton
 Bones that form your limbs and girdles
 Bone Markings
o Functions
 Projections (processes)
 Attachments for muscles and ligaments
 Openings (foramen)
 Passageways for nerves, blood vessels, etc.
 Depressions
 Joints
o How are they useful?
 Can determine age, size, sex, and appearance of the person
 The Axial Skeleton
o The Skull (22 bones)
 Cranium (8 bones)
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o Forms forehead and upper
part of orbits
o Contains frontal sinusmucus lined cavity
o 2 bones
o Forms sides and roof of
o For by union of 2 bones at metopic suture
o Usually disappears by age 8 when bones fuse
o Forms lateral wall of cranium and part of
cranial floor
o Contains
 Zygomatic process
 Forms posterior part of the
zygomatic arch (cheekbone)
 Mastoid process
 Rounded projection behind ear
 Attachment site for neck muscles
 Styloid process
 Slender spike extending downward
 Ligaments that support the tongue
 External auditory canal
 Canal leading to middle ear
 Ear hole
 Mandibular fossa
 Depression on inferior surface
which forms socket for mandible
 Where mandible attaches
o Forms much of the posterior and inferior
surfaces of the cranium
o Occipital condyles
 Oval processes that articulate with the
first cervical vertebra
 Attaches to the atlas of the spinal
o Foramen magnum
 Large hole
 Connects the cranial cavity to the spinal
 Surrounds connection between brain and
spinal cord
o Irregularly shaped
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Forms inner surface of cranial floor, medial
walls of orbit, roof of nasal cavity and
superior part of nasal septum
o Cribriform plate
 Forms floor of cranium and roof of nasal
 Contains perforations
 Olfactory nerves
o Crista galli
 Upward projecting triangular process
 Anchors meninges
o Superior and Middle nasal conchae
 Forms lateral masses that form walls of
nasal cavity
 Lateral projections
o Perpendicular plate
 Slender process in midlines that forms
upper part of nasal septum
o Ethmoidal sinus
 Mucus lined cavities
 Ethmoid air cells
 Drains to nose
o Keystone of cranial floor
o Acts as a cross brace to strengthen skill by
extending from one side of cranium to the other
o Resembles bat with wings extended
o Forms side of skull, most of cranial floor and
part of orbit
o Body
 Central portion
o Sella turcica
 Saddle shaped depression on superior
 Seen on floor
 Holds pituitary gland
o Greater wings
 Lateral projections that form part of
orbit and lateral walls of skull anterior
to temporal bone
o Sphenoidal sinus
 Mucus lined cavities
 Drains to the nose
(14 bones)
o Forms bridge of nose
o 2 bones
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Forms upper jaw and parts of orbit, anterior
part of roof of mouth
o Hard palates
o 2 bones
o Maxillary sinus
 Mucus lined cavity
 Drains into nose
o Palatine process
 Horizontal projection that forms bony
room of mouth
o Forms part of zygomatic arch and part of outer
wall and floor of orbit
o 2 bones
o Lower jaw
o Body
 Main horizontal part
 Forms chin
o Alveolar processes
 Sockets for teeth
o Mandibular condyle
 Articulates with mandibular fossa of
temporal bone
 Only moveable joint in the skull
 Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
o Tiny bones that form medial walls of orbit
o Contains tear ducts
o 2 bones
o Forms posterior part of hard palate and small
part of orbit floor
o 2 bones
Inferior nasal conchae
o Forms lower part of lateral walls of nasal
o 2 bones
o Forms lower part of nasal septum
o 1 bone
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Final Exam Study Guide 43
Special Skull Features
 Nasal Complex
 Wormian (Sutural Bones)
 Small islands of bone lying in sutures
 Help sandwich the bones together
 Orbit
 Made up of 7 bones
o Ethmoid
o Frontal
o Zygomatic
o Sphenoid
o Maxillary
o Lacrimal
o Palatine
 Sutures
 Resemble stitches
 Dense fibrous connective tissue
 Immoveable joints
 Paranasal sinuses
 Air filled chambers lined by a mucous membrane that
connect to the nasal cavity
 Functions
o Lighten bones
o Produces mucous
 Drains to nose
 Traps dust
 Humidify air
 Soft spots
 Unossified remnants of
fibrous membranes
 2 anterolateral
 2 posterolateral
 Anterior (frontal)
 Posterior (occipital)
 Functions
o Allow the skull
bones to move during childbirth
o Allow brain growth
 All become ossified eventually
 Craniostenosis
o When the fontanelles close prematurely
o 1 in 2000 births
o Causes microcephalus
o Can be caused by the zika virus
 Horseshoe shaped bone in neck between
mandible and larynx
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Final Exam Study Guide 44
 Support tongue and serves as attachment for muscles
 Only bone that does not articulate with any other bone
 Typically broken in a strangulation death
Vertebral Column
 A flexible segmented rod that is shaped like an elongated
 Forms axis of body and encloses spinal cord
 Holds head up
 Maintain upright posture
 Bears weight
 Protects spinal cord
 26 bones
 ~28 inches long
 5 sections
 Cervical
o 7 bones
o In the neck
 Thoracic
o 12 bones
o Each can articulate with
up to 4 ribs
o In the middle of the back
 Lumbar
o 5 bones
o Bigger
o Supports more weight
o Lower back
 Sacrum
o 5 vertebrae that fused into 1 bone
 Coccyx
o Tailbone
o 3-5 bones fused together
 4 curves
 Determined concavity by looking anteriorly
 Cervical curve
o Convex
o Secondary
o Formed when a baby learns to lift its own head
o ~3 months old
 Thoracic curve
o Concave
o Primary
o Born with this curve
 Lumbar curve
o Convex
o Secondary
o Formed when baby learns to stand and walk
o ~1 year old
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Final Exam Study Guide 45
Sacral curve
o Concave
o Primary
o Born with this curve
 Baby is born with a fully concave spine
 Secondary curves can also be called “compensation
 Spinal column is curved for…
o Balance
o Shock-absorbing
o Strength
o Flexibility
Abnormal Spinal Curvatures
 Kyphosis
 “hunchback”
 Exaggerated thoracic
 Typically in old people
 Scoliosis
 Exaggerated thoracic
curve laterally
 Lordosis
 “swayback”
 Exaggerated lumbar curve
 Typically in pregnant or
over-weight people
Features of a Typical Vertebra
 Body
 Thick, disc-shaped
anterior part of
 Bears weight
 Vertebral arch
 Pedicles – 2 short thick
projections which extend
posteriorly from the
 Lamina – flat part that
joins to form the dorsal wall of the vertebral arch
 7 processes of vertebral arch
 Transverse processes
o 2, one on each side
o Lateral projections from laminae
 Spinous process
o 1, on the posterior side
o Sharp process projecting posterior and inferior
from the midline of lamina
 Superior articular process
o 2 of these
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Final Exam Study Guide 46
o Projects upward from the laminae
Inferior articular process
o 2 of these
o Projects downward from laminae
o Articulates with superior articular processes
of vertebrae below
 Vertebral foramen
 Hole in the center of a vertebra formed by the union
of the body, pedicles and lamina
 Vertebral articulation
 Separated by intervertebral discs
o Fibrocartilage pads
 Inferior articular processes of one vertebra join
with superior articular processes of the next
 Intervertebral foramina
o Gaps that separate pedicles of adjacent
 Alignment of vertebral foramina forms the vertebral
o Contains the spinal cord
Special Features of Regional Vertebrae
 Cervical
 Applies to C3-C7
o Small
o Spinous process is split (BIFID)
o Transverse foremen in transverse processes
 C1, the Atlas
o No body
o No spinous process
o Large round vertebral foramen
o Contains superior articular surfaces for
articulation with occipital condyles
o How did it get its name??
 In Greek
mythology, Atlas
held up the world
on his shoulders,
like C1 holds up
the skull
o This joint allows you
to nod
 C2, the Axis
o Has a body
o Contains a peg-like
projection called the
DENS that extends into atlas
o This joint allows you to shake your head no
 C7, the Vertebra Prominens
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Final Exam Study Guide 47
Long, non-bifid spinous process
Does have transverse foramina
 Larger than cervical vertebrae
 Spinous process is long,
pointed, and directed
 Long and heavy transverse
processes that have facets
for articulations with ribs
 Bodies have facets or
partial facets for
articulations with ribs
 Lumbar
 Largest and strongest
o Holds the most
 Thick, oval, flat bodies
 Spinous process is
square and projects
 Sacrum
 Anterior
o Transverse lines – points where vertebrae have
o Anterior sacral foramina
o Sacral canal –
inferior extension
of vertebral canal
 Superior
o Sacral promontory
– superior border
on anterior
 Lateral
o Auricular surface
 Coccyx
 Vestigial tail
 Bony cage formed by the sternum, costal
cartilages, ribs, and bodies of thoracic
 Sternum
 1 bone
 3 parts
o Manubrium
 Triangular superior portion
o Body
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Final Exam Study Guide 48
 Middle, tongue shaped, largest portion
Xiphoid process
 Inferior, smallest portion
24 bones – 12 pairs
General features
o Head
 Projection at
posterior end
of rib
o Tubercle
 Know-like
o Body/Shaft
 Flat, main part of rib
o Head of ribs fits into facets of bodies of 1 to
2 adjacent thoracic vertebrae
o Tubercle of rib fits into facet of transverse
process of vertebrae
Rib Numbers
True Ribs (1-7)
False Ribs (812)
g (11, 12)
cartilages of
Costal cartilage
of rib 7
NOT attached
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Final Exam Study Guide 49
Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton
 Bones of the extremities and shoulder and pelvic girdles
 Pectoral Girdle
o Attaches bones of upper extremities to the axial skeleton
o Clavicle
 “Collarbone”
 2 bones
 Slender, S-shaped bone
 Sternoclavicular joint
 Clavicle articulates
medially with the
manubrium of the
 Acromioclavicular joint
 Clavicle articulates
laterally with acromion process of scapula
 “Dislocated shoulder” is when this joint comes
 Most commonly broken bone
 Only bone of pectoral girdle that attaches arm to axial
 Receives force of outstretched arms in a fall
o Scapula
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Final Exam Study Guide 50
Shoulder blade
Flat triangular bone
in dorsal thorax
 Superior border
 Medial (vertebral)
 Side near the
 Lateral (axillary)
 Side near the armpit
 Spine
 Sharp diagonal ridge on posterior surface
 Acromion process
 Expanded process at lateral end of spine
 Coracoid process
 Hook-like process on lateral end of superior
 Glenoid cavity
 Depression below acromion
 Arm socket
 Acromioclavicular joint
 Acromion process of scapula articulates with
 Glenohumeral joint
 Shoulder joint
 Glenoid cavity of scapula articulates with head of
Upper Extremities
o Humerus
 2 bones
 Long bone of the upper
 Head
 Rounded enlargement
at proximal end
 Greater tubercle
 Lateral projection
distal to head
 Lesser tubercle
 Projection on
anterior surface
 Deltoid tuberosity
 Roughened area
along middle of
 Deltoid muscle
attaches here
 Medial and lateral epicondyles
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Final Exam Study Guide 51
 Rough projections on either side
 Rounded knob below lateral epicondyle on anterior
 Pulley-like process on anterior surface
Coronoid fossa
 Depression on anterior surface above trochlea
Olecranon fossa
 Depression on posterior surface above trochlea
Proximally articulates with the glenoid cavity of
Distally articulates capitulum with the head of the
radius and the trochlea with the ulna
2 bones
Medial bone of the forearm
Olecranon process
 Superior process that forms the point of the elbow
 Articulates with the olecranon fossa of the
 Coronoid process
 Anterior projection
 Articulates with the coronoid fossa of the humerus
 Radial notch
 Lateral depression
 Articulates with the
head of the radius
 Styloid process
 Short pointed process
 Proximal articulations
 Coronoid process and
olecranon process move
around the trochlea of
the humerus
 Radial notch of ulna
articulates with head
of radius
o Proximal radioulnar joint
 Distal articulations
 Distal radioulnar joint
 Ulna articulates with carpals
 2 bones
 Small lateral bone of forearm
 Thumb side
 Head
 Flat, disc shaped
 Styloid process
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 Pointed lateral projection
Proximal articulations
 Head of radius articulates with capitulum of
 Head of radius articulates with radial notch of
 Distal articulations
 Articulates with the ulna and the carpals
o Carpals
 16 bones
 2 rows of 4 bones each
 Wrist
 Carpals articulate with radius,
ulna, and metacarpals
o Metacarpals
 10 bones
 Long bones forming the palm
 Numbered with Roman numerals
with I being the thumb and V
being the pinky
 Articulate with carpals and proximal phalanges of
o Phalanges
 28 bones
 Bones of fingers
 3 per finger, 2 per thumb
 Articulates with metacarpals
Pelvic Girdle
o Pelvic bone
 2 bones
 Hip bones
 Fusion of 3 bones
around 11-15 years of
 Ilium
 Flat flaring
superior region
 Ischium
 Lower posterior
 Pubis
 Medial anterior portion
 Acetabulum
 Hip socket
 Depression where the ilium, ischium and pubis have
 Obturator foramen
 Large hole
 Covered by a fibrous membrane in body
 Articulations
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Final Exam Study Guide 53
Pubic symphysis
o Anterior joint between pubic bones
 Sacroiliac joint
o Ilia articulate posterior with the sacrum
 Hip joint
o Acetabulum articulates with the head of the
 Male pelvis
 Cone-like
 Higher reaching
 Pubic symphysis has
a more acute angle
 Female pelvis
 Cylindrical
 Wider in order to fit a baby’s head during child
 Pubic symphysis has a more obtuse angle
Lower Extremities
o Femur
 2 bones
 Thigh bone
 Head
 Rounded upper end
 Must be medial
 Fovea capitis
 Small pit in the
 A ligament attaches
here and to the
 Greater trochanter
 Large process medial
to the head
 Lesser trochanter
 Small process medial
to the head
 Linea aspera
 Sharp ridge on
posterior surface
 Medial and lateral condyles
 Expanded processes
 Articulations
 Head of femur articulates with the acetabulum of
the os coxae
 Medial and lateral condyles of femur articulate
with tibia
 Medial and lateral condyles articulate with
posterior surface of patella
o Patella
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Final Exam Study Guide 54
2 bones
Knee cap
Small triangular bone
Sesamoid bone
Embedded in tendons
Articulates with the medial and
lateral condyles of the femur
2 bones
Shin bone
Large medial bone of the leg
Medial and lateral condyles
 Large bulging processes at proximal end
 Tibial tuberosity
 Rough region between medial and lateral condyles
 Anterior crest
 Sharp regional ridge on anterior surface
 What you feel when you rub your shin
 Medial malleolus
 Sharp medial process
 The bump on the inside of your ankles
 Articulations
 Medial and lateral condyles of tibia articulate
with medial and lateral condyles of femur
 Tibia articulates with fibula proximally and
 Tibia articulates with tarsal bone
o Talus
 2 bones
 Thin lateral bone of
lower leg
 Contains a head and a
lateral malleolus
 Articulations
 Head of fibula
articulates with
lateral condyle
of tibia below
the knee
 Lateral malleolus
articulates with
 Fibula articulates with tibia
 14 bones
 Ankle bones
 Talus
 Superior bone
 Calcaneus
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 Heel bone
 Talus articulates
with tibia and
 Tarsals articulate
with metatarsals
 10 bones
 Instep
 Long bones of the foot
 Articulations
 Metatarsals
articulate with
tarsals and
phalanges of toes
 28 bones
 Toe bones
 2 per big toe, 3 per other toes
 Articulate with proximal metatarsals
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Chapter 9: Joints
 Joints are articulations
 2 Methods to Classify Articulations
o Function (Range of Motion)
 Synarthroses – immovable
 Amphiarthroses –
slightly movable
 Diarthroses – freely
o Structure (Anatomy)
 Bony fusion
 No joint cavity
 Fibrous joints
 Connective
tissue between
 No joint cavity
 Cartilaginous joints
 Cartilage
 No joint cavity
 Synovial
 Space between
 Has a joint cavity
 Synarthroses
o Suture
 Fibrous joint
 Articulating bones joined by a thin layer of dense
connective tissue
 i.e. sutures in skull
o Gomphosis
 Fibrous joint
 Cone shaped peg fits into socket
 i.e. alveolar process on mandible and maxillary bones
o Synostosis
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Final Exam Study Guide 57
Bony fusion
Created by fusion of two bones; boundary between them
 i.e. epiphyseal line, metopic suture of frontal
o Synchondroses
 Cartilaginous joints
 Connecting material to cartilage
 i.e. epiphyseal plate; between rib 1 and manubrium
o Syndesmosis
 Fibrous joint
 Articulating bones joined by ligaments
 i.e. distal articulation of tibia and fibula
o Symphysis
 Cartilaginous
 Articulating bones joined by fibrocartilage
 i.e. pubic symphysis
o Freely movable joints
o Contain a joint cavity
o 3 Common characteristics of synovial joints
 Joint cavity
 Space between joining bones
 Articular capsule
 Surrounds and encloses the joint cavity
 Outer fibrous articular capsule
o Ligaments
o Dense regular connective tissue
 Inner synovial membrane
 Secretes synovial fluid into joint cavity
o Made of proteoglycan – protein and
o Sticky like egg whites and molasses
o Contains water
o Only secretes about 3 mL
 Functions of synovial fluid
o Lubrication
o Decreases friction
o Shock absorbing
o Distributes nutrients to articular cartilage
 Articular cartilage
 Hyaline cartilage
o Accessories in synovial joints
 Cartilages inside joint cavity function to provide shock
absorption and to help condyles fit together
 Medial and lateral menisci
 Accessory ligaments
 Extracapsular – outside articular capsule, in joint
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Final Exam Study Guide 58
 Intracellular – inside articular capsule
 i.e. PCL and ACL
 Tendons
 Span joints to stabilize joints
 Connect muscle to bone
 i.e. rotator cuff in shoulder
 Bursae
 Fluid filled sacs located around synovial joints
where rubbing occurs
 Function?
o Cushioning
o Decrease friction
 Bursitis
o Inflammation of bursae
How joints move
 Gliding movement
 Moving the point
 Angular motion and circumduction
 Changing the shaft angle
 Circumduction is a combination of back and forth and
side to side motion
 Rotation
 Rotating the shaft
 Planes of motion
 Back and forth
 Side to side
 Rotation
 Describing planar motion
 Monoaxial
o Motion in one plane
 Biaxial
o Motion in two planes
 Triaxial
o Motion in three planes
 Nonaxial (multiaxial)
o Gliding joints
Types of Synovial Joints
 Gliding (Plane)
 Articulating surfaces re flat or slightly curved
 Nonaxial – slipping or
gliding motions
 i.e. acromioclavicular
joint, sternoclavicular
joint, intercarpal
joints, vertebrocostal
joint, sacroiliac joint
 Hinge
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Final Exam Study Guide 59
One bone swings about rounded surface of another bone
Monoaxial – angular movement in one plane like the
opening and closing of a door
i.e. knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal joints
 A ring of bone rotates about process of a bone
 Monoaxial – rotation
 i.e. atlas and axis; head of the radius and proximal
shaft of the ulna (permits supination and pronation)
 Ellipsoid or Condyloid
 An oval condyle of one bone fits into a depression on
another bone
 Biaxial – angular movement in two planes
(circumduction may occur but no rotation)
 i.e. radiocarpal joint, phalanges with metacarpals,
phalanges with metatarsals
 Saddle
 Resembles a saddle (concave in one direction, convex
in the other)
 Biaxial – angular movement in two planes
(circumduction may occur but not rotation)
 i.e. carpometacarpal joint at base of thumbs
 Ball and Socket
 Ball like head of one bone fits into a cup-shaped
socket of another
 Triaxial – all combinations of angular, rotational,
and circumduction movements
 i.e. shoulder and hip
Movement at Synovial Joints
 Flexion
 Decrease angle between articulating bones in the
anterior/posterior plane
 Extension
 Increase the angle between articulating bones in the
anterior/posterior plane
 Hyperextension
 Continuation of extension beyond anatomical position
 Abduction
 Movement away from the midline
 Adduction
 Movement toward the midline
 Circumduction
 Proximal ends remain stable and distal end moves in a
 Rotation
 Movement of a bone around a long axis
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Final Exam Study Guide 60
Special Movements
 Inversion/Eversion
 Moving sole of foot medially/laterally respectively
 Protraction/Retraction
 Moving mandible forward/backward respectively
 Supination/Pronation
 Moving forearm to turn palm anteriorly/posteriorly
 Elevation/Depression
 Superior/Inferior movement (jaw or shoulders)
 Opposition
 Moving thumb toward palm
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Final Exam Study Guide 61
Chapter 11: Muscular System
 Functions
o Movement
o Heat production by muscle contraction
o Support by protecting soft tissues and stabilizing joints
o Posture to maintain upright position
o Guard entrances and exits to the body (sphincters)
 Types of Muscle Tissue
o Cardiac
 Short, branched structure
 Has striations
 Involuntary contractions
 i.e. heart
o Skeletal
 Long, cylindrical
 Has striations
 Voluntary contractions
 i.e. attached to skeleton
o Smooth
 Spindle-shaped
 No striations
 Involuntary contractions
 i.e. hollow organs, blood vessels
 Muscle Organization
o Parallel
 Most common type
 Fascicles parallel to
long axis of muscle
o Convergent
 Fascicles unit at an
attachment site
o Circular
 Fascicles are arranged
in a circle around an
 Sphincters
o Pennate
 Fascicles are at an angle to the tendon
 How Muscles Produce Movement
o Muscles produce movement by pulling on bones
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Final Exam Study Guide 62
Muscles are attached to bones
Direct attachment
 Muscle arises directly from periosteum
 Relatively rare
o Indirect attachment
 Muscle is attached to the bone by connective tissue
 Cord/rope – tendon
 Flat sheets – aponeurosis
o Muscles attach in at least 2 places
 Origin
 Attachment to the stationary bone
 Insertion
 Attachment to the movable bone
o Muscles ALWAYS span joints!!
o When a muscle contracts, it pulls on bone at the tendon and moves
insertion towards the origin
The Operation of Most Muscles Involves the Use of Leverage
o Rigid rod that moves about a fixed point called a FULCRUM
 Lever system
o Fulcrum – joint
o Rigid rod – bone and whatever object
o Force/effort – muscle
Classes of Levers
o First-class lever
 The fulcrum lies between the applied force and the load
 Rare in the body
 Like a seesaw
o Second-class lever
 The load lies between the applied force and the fulcrum
 Rare in the body
 Like a wheelbarrow
o Third-class lever
 The applied force is between the load and the fulcrum
 Most common in the body
 Force is exerted where insertion tendon is attached
 Like a catapult
Muscles Work in Groups Rather than Individually
o Roles
 Agonist or Prime Mover
 Chiefly responsible for the movement
 Antagonist
 Muscle that opposes the action of agonist
 Synergist
 Helpers to agonist
 Help provide additional pull
 Help to stabilize origin of the agonist
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Final Exam Study Guide 63
Axial Musculature
Broad, flat
Mandible and
maxillary via
muscle fibers
surrounding lips
Skin of
Wrinkles forehead
and elevates
Temporal bone
Closes and presses
lips against
teeth; protrudes
lips during speech
and kissing
Muscle of
elevates mandible
Manubrium and
Temporal bone
Zygomatic arch
Pectoralis major
sternum, costal
Flexes, adducs and
rotates humerus
medially; hugging
Clavicle and
Abducts humerus;
antagonist to
pectoralis major
Orbicularis oris
Contraction of
both: flexes the
head at the neck.
Contraction of
one: tilts head
towards the
shoulder of the
contracting muscle
and rotates the
face to the
opposite side
Muscle of
elevates mandible
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Final Exam Study Guide 64
Inferior border
of upper rib
Superior border
of lower rib
Muscle of
elevates rib cage
in normal
Abduct humerus;
part of rotator
Rotate humerus
laterally; part of
rotator cuff
Teres minor
Humerus, lesser
Rotate humerus
laterally; part of
rotator cuff
Rotate humerus
medially; part of
rotator cuff
Latissimus dorsi
Midline of lower
fascia; spinous
processes of
lower thoracic
and lumbar
vertebrae; lower
Midline of neck
and back;
occipital bone,
nuchae, spinous
processes of
Extends, adducts
and rotates
humerus medially
Clavicle and
(acromion and
Lower ribs
Linea alba
Several nerves
supply different
parts of the
providing a
variety of
possible actions
depending on which
part is
extends head;
depresses and
rotates scapula;
elevates clavicle;
antagonist to
Contraction of
both: flexes
vertebral column.
Contraction of
External abdominal
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Rectus abdominus
Sternum and
cartilages of
some ribs
one: bends
vertebral column
to one side;
supports and
abdominal viscera
Flees vertebral
column; supports
and compresses
abdominal visera
Appendicular Muscles
Biceps brachii
Short head:
coracoid process
Long head:
Anterior humerus;
arises from
Flexes elbow and
supinates forearm
Flexes elbow
Humerus; lateral
Radius; near
styloid process
Flexes elbow
Triceps brachii
Lateral head:
lateral humerus
Medial head:
posterior humerus
Long head:
Anterior superior
iliac spine
Ulna; olecranon
Extends elbow;
antagonist to
anterior muscles
Medial tibia
Flexes both hip
and knee and
rotates thigh
Medial tibia
Adducts femur;
flexes knee
Adductor longus
Femur; linea
Adducts and
flexes thigh
Adductor magnus
Pubis and ischium
Femur; linea
Adduct and
extends thigh
Rectus femoris
Anterior inferior
iliac spine
Extends knee;
flexes hip
Vastus lateralis
Femur; greater
Vastus medialis
Femur; linea
All of the
femoris have a
common tendon
called the
patellar tendom
which inserts on
Extends knee
Extends knee
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Femur; anterior
and lateral
Tibialis anterior
Tibia; lateral
condyle and shaft
Gluteus maximus
Pelvis and
Ilium; lateral
Iliotibial tract
Fibula and tibia
Long head:
Short head: linea
Medial tibia
Flexes knee
Flexes knee
Femur; lateral
and medial
Fibula and tibia
Tibia; antagonist
is the quadriceps
Achilles tendon
to calcaneous
Gluteus medius
Biceps femoris
the patella and
continues to the
tibial tuberosity
as the patellar
Tarsal and
Femur; greater
Achilles tendon
to calcaneous
Extends knee
Dorsiflexes and
inverts foot
Extends and
rotates femur
Abducts and
medially rotates
Flexes knee;
extends thigh at
Plantar flexes
and inverts foot;
flexes knee
Plantar flexes
and inverts foot
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Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue
 Skeletal muscle is an organ
o It contains muscle tissue, connective tissues, blood vessels and
 Components of a Muscle Organ
o Epimysium
 Connective tissue covering around the entire organ
o Fascicle
 Bundle of muscle cells
o Perimysium
 Surrounds each fascicle
o Endomysium
 Surrounds each muscle cell
o Tendon
 Formed when all connective
tissue elements extend
beyond the muscle and fuse
o Connective Tissue
 Where all the blood vessels
and nerves are located
 Muscle Cells
o AKA myofibers AKA muscle fiber
o Long and skinny
o Cell membrane = sarcolemma
o Multinucleate
o Myofibrils
 Striped rods inside muscle cell
o T-Tubules
 Open to the outside of the cell
o Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
 Equivalent to endoplasmic reticulum
 Stores calcium
 Bulges near t-tubules are called terminal cisternae
o Triads
 1 t-tubule and 2 terminal cisternae
 Myofibrils
o Z line
 Bisects I band
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I band
 Light section of myofibril
 Contains only thin filaments
o H zone
 Light area in center of dark A band
 Contains only thick filaments
o A band
 Dark section of myofibril
o Sarcomere
 Region between Z lines
 “From Z to shining Z”
 Functional unit of contraction
o 2 kinds
 Thick
 Thin
o Thick
 Present in the A band and H zone
 Made of myosin
o Thin
 Present in the I band
 Made of actin, troponin, and tropomyosin
Stabilizing the Sarcomere
o M line
 Proteins that connect the center of each thick filament
 Creates a dark line in center of H zone
o Titin
 An elastic protein that anchors the thick filaments to Z
Components of the Sarcomere
o Thin Myofilament
 Actin
 2 strands of globular proteins wrapped around each
 Tropomyosin
 Ribbon-like protein
 Lies in groove of actin strands
 Troponin
 Globular protein
 Sits on tropomyosin and prevents it from moving
o Thick Filament
 Myosin
The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction
o Z lines are pulled to sarcomere center
o Thin filaments slide past the thick filaments
Principles Governing the Contraction of Skeletal Muscle Cells
o Muscle cells are contractile
 Ability to contract/shorten
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Muscle cell shortens – pull connective tissue elements –
pull exerted on tendon attached to bone
 Pull = tension
 If tension is greater than resistance of bone, bone moves
o Skeletal muscles contract ONLY if stimulated by a nerve – MOTOR
o Motor unit concept
 Motor unit refers to a motor neuron and all the muscle
cells it stimulates
Physiology of Muscle Contraction
o The Events at the Neuromuscular Junction
 Where motor neuron meets the muscle cells
 Process
 Electrical signal travels down axon
 This causes calcium in synaptic cleft to enter the
motor neuron
 Vesicles in motor neurons release chemicals into
synaptic cleft – exocytosis
 Acetylcholine diffuses across the cleft and binds to
protein receptors on motor endplate
 Initiates an electrical signal that is conducting
along the muscle sarcolemma
 Signal is conducted into a T-tubule and is carried
inside muscle cell
 Signal reaches the triad
 Causes sarcoplasmic reticulum to releases calcium
into sarcoplasm
 Calcium diffuses to the thin filaments of sarcomere
and binds to troponin
 Causes troponin to change shape to allow tropomyosin
to shift
 This exposes active sites on actin molecule
 Myosin heads are going to bind to active site forming
cross bridges
 Myosin heads will swivel and pull the thin filaments to
sarcomere center
o Detailed Mechanism: The Contraction Cycle
 Cross-bridge attachment
 Myosin head binds to the
active site on actin “cocked
 ADP and P bound to myosin head
 Cross-bridge rotation
 Swiveling
 ADP and P are released
 Cross-bridge detachment
 ATP binding
 Myosin reactivation
 “Re-cock” myosin head
 Requires ATP hydrolysis
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Muscle Relaxation
o Acetylcholine is degraded by acetylcholinesterase
o Calcium is pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
o Calcium comes off troponin
o Tropomyosin covers the active sites on actin
Response of Single Muscle Cells to Stimulation
o All or None Principle
 After stimulation by a nerve, an individual muscle cell
either contracts to its fullest OR not at all
Response of Entire Muscle to Stimulation
o Single Stimulus
 Twitch – response of a muscle to a single stimulus
o Summation – Adding Individual Twitches Together
 Multiple motor unit summation
 Increased force of contraction due caused by an
increase in stimulus strength
 Measured in voltage (volts)
 Temporal (Wave) Summation
 Increased force of contraction caused by an increase
in the frequency of stimulation
Assigned Topics in Muscle Physiology
o What is Treppe?
 “Staircase Effect”
 A muscle will contract more forcefully in response to the
same stimulus after several contractions
 Increased calcium availability in sarcoplasm and heat
increases muscle enzyme activity
o What is Muscle Tone and What Causes It?
 Muscles are in a slightly contracted state
 Occurs because some motor units are always active even if
the entire muscle is not contracting
 These contractions are not enough to cause movement, but
make muscles firm
 Purpose?
 Maintain posture
 Stabilize joints
 Keep muscles firm and healthy
o Distinguish Between Isotonic and Isometric Contraction
 Isotonic
 Muscle develops tension, overcomes resistance, and
object is moved
 Isometric
 Develops tension, cannot overcome resistance and
object is not moved
o What Are the Causes of Muscle Fatigue?
 Lack of oxygen
 Depletion of ATP
 Lactic acid build-up
 Ionic imbalances
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Psychological fatigue
 You only THINK you’re tired
 Used so you don’t overdo it when you exercise
 Helps you know your limits
 Muscular fatigue
 Physically can’t go anymore
 Body tries to avoid this
Distinguish Between Slow Twitch and Fast Twitch Fibers
 Slow
 “Dark Meat,” “Red,” “Type I”
 Highly aerobic
 Contains myoglobin that stores oxygen
 Lots of mitochondria
 Rich blood supply
 Fatigue resistant
 High endurance
 Postural muscles
 Fast
 “White Meat,” “Type IIB”
 Anaerobic
o Few mitochondria
 Fatigue easily
 Rapid intense movements for short periods
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Chapter 12: Neural Tissue: Part 1, Pages 389-400
 Nervous System Function
o Gains input from internal or external environment changes, sends
to be processed, and responds to that stimulus
 Nervous System Organization
o 2 Main Divisions
 Central Nervous System (CNS)
 Brain and spinal cord
 Integrating, processing and coordinating sensory data
and motor commands
 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
 Everything else
 Nerves extending from spinal cord and/or brain
 Sensory PNS
o Special
 Sight
 Hearing
 Balance
 Smell
 Taste
o Visceral
 Monitors internal organs
o Somatic
 Monitors muscles, joints, and skin
surface (touch)
 Motor PNS
o Somatic
 Skeletal muscles
 Voluntary
o Visceral
 “Autonomic”
 Heart, smooth muscles, glands, and
 Involuntary
 Sympathetic Motor PNS
 Parasympathetic Motor PNS
 Afferent Division
o Brings sensory information to the CNS fro
receptors in peripheral tissues and organs
 Efferent Division
o Carries motor commands from the CNS to muscles,
glands, and adipose tissue
o 2 Divisions
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Somatic NS
 Controls skeletal muscle
 Voluntary contractions are under
conscious control
 Involuntary contractions may be
simple, automatic response or
complex movements, but they are
controlled at the subconscious
level, outside your awareness
 Autonomic NS
 Regulates smooth muscle, cardiac
muscle, glandular secretions, and
adipose tissue subconsciously
Enteric Nervous System (ENS)
 An extensive network of neurons and nerve networks in
the walls of the digestive tract
Cell Types
o Neurons
 Cells specialized to conduct electrical signals
 Lack centrioles
o Neuroglia
 “Glia”
 Support cells
 Common site for tumors
 Function
 Protection
 Support/framework
 Regulate composition of extracellular fluid
o 6 Kinds of Neuroglia Cells
 Astrocytes
 Maintain blood brain barrier
 Provide structural support
 Regulate ion, nutrient,
and dissolved gas
 Absorb and recycle
 Form scar tissue after
 Ependymal Cells
 Line ventricles and
central canal
 Assist in producing,
circulating, and
monitoring cerebrospinal fluid
 Oligodendrocytes
 Myelinate CNS axons
 Provide structural framework
 Microglia
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Remove cell debris, wastes, and pathogens by
 Satellite Cells
 Surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia
 Regulate oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and
neurotransmitter levels around neurons in ganglia
 Schwann Cells
 Surround all axons in PNS
 Responsible for myelination of peripheral axons
 Participate in repair process after injury
General Features of a Neuron
o Properties
 Extreme longevity
 Can survive more than 100 years
 Amitotic
 Do NOT divide because they lose their centrioles
 High metabolic rate
 Use lots of oxygen
 Can go up to 4 minutes without oxygen before
permanent damage occurs
o Parts
 Soma
 Nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi
 RER = Nissl bodies
o Gives grey appearance
 Well-developed cytoskeleton called neurofilaments and
 Lacks centrioles so they don’t divide
 Perikaryon
o The cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus
 Dendrites
 Receive signals
 Slender and branched
 Axon
 Initiates electrical signals and conducts them away
from soma
 2 Types
o Myelinated
 Covered with the myelin sheath
o Non-myelinated
 Naked
 NO myelin sheath
 Axoplasm
o The cytoplasm of the axon
 Axolemma
o The plasma membrane of the axon
o Surrounds the axoplasm
 Axonal (axoplasmic) transport
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The movement of materials between the cell body
and the axon terminals
 Terminal branches at the ends of axons
 Boutons at ends
Formation of the Myelin Sheath
o PNS – Schwann cells
o CNS – oligodendrocytes
o Neuroglia cells wrap themselves around the axon
o Nodes of Ranvier
 Spaces in between neuroglia that is not covered by the
myelin sheath
o Function
 Increase the rate of electrical signal conduction
 Signal moves from node to node
 Saltatory conduction
 i.e. instead of hitting space, you hit TAB
Classification of Neurons
o Structural Classification
 Multipolar
 Have many dendrites off
 One axon
 Most common in the CNS
 i.e. Motor neurons
 Bipolar
 One dendrite, one axon
 Rare
 i.e. Special sensory
 Unipolar
 “Pseudounipolar neuron”
 Soma seems to be off to
the side
 Dendrites connect
directly to the axon
 i.e. Most sensory
 Anaxonic
 No axon
 Numerous dendrites
 Looks like a star
 Poorly understood
 i.e. Brain and special sense organs
o Functional Classification
 Sensory Neurons
 Afferent
 Conducts signal TO CNS
 Unipolar neurons
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Somatic sensory neurons
o Monitor the outside world and our position
within it
 Visceral sensory neurons
o Monitor internal conditions and the status of
other organ systems
 3 Groups
o Interoceptors
 Monitor the digestive, respiratory,
cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive
systems, and provide sensations of
distension, deep pressure, and pain
o Exteroceptors
 Provide information about the external
environment in the form of touch,
temperature, or pressure sensations and
the more complex sense of taste, smell,
sight, and hearing
o Proprioceptors
 Monitor the position and movement of
skeletal muscles and joints
Motor Neurons
 Efferent
 Conducts signals AWAY from CNS
 Somatic motor neurons
o Innervate skeletal muscle
 Visceral motor neurons
o Innervate all peripheral effectors other than
skeletal muscles
o i.e. Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, and
adipose tissue
 Association
 Conduct signal between sensory and motor
 “Middlemen”
 Most abundant in body
 Mostly found in brain and spinal cord
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Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves
 Major Regions
o Cerebrum
 2 Hemispheres
 Cerebral Cortex
 A collection of neurons that form a thin layer of
gray matter
 Gyri
 Rounded elevations
 Sulci
 Shallow grooves in between gyri
 Fissures
 Grooves that are deeper than sulci
o Diencephalon
 Thalamus
 Hypothalamus
 Infundibulum
 A narrow stalk that connects the hypothalamus to the
pituitary gland
o Brainstem
 Midbrain or Mesencephalon
 Process visual and auditory information and control
reflexes triggered by these stimuli
 Pons varolii
 Connects the brainstem to the cerebellum
 Somatic and visceral motor control
 Medulla oblongata
 Connects the brain to the spinal cord
 Relays sensory information to the thalamus and to
centers in other portions of the brainstem
 Regulates heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, etc.
o Cerebellum
 Second largest part of the brain
o Spinal cord
 Development of the CNS
 Nervous system forms from a hollow cylinder called the NEURAL TUBE
o The 3 primary brain vesicles form at the anterior end of the
neural tube
o 3 weeks (Superior to Inferior)
 Prosencephalon
 “Forebrain”
 Mesencephalon
 “Midbrain”
 Rhombencephalon
 “Hindbrain”
o 6 weeks (Superior to Inferior)
 Telencephalon
 Becomes the cerebrum
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o Bones
o Blood
 Becomes the thalamus and hypothalamus
 Stays the same
 Becomes the cerebellum and pons
 Becomes the medulla oblongata
of the Brain and Spinal Cord
Brain Barrier (BBB)
Special capillaries in the brain with limited permeability
Exchanges of oxygen and glucose occurs
Not “leaky” like a normal blood vessel
 Protection
 Limits permeability
o Problem: delivering medication is difficult
 Remains intact throughout CNS called circumventricular
organs. Exceptions include…
 Portions of the hypothalamus, where the capillary
endothelium is extremely permeable
 Capillaries in the posterior lobe of the pituitary
gland, which is continuous with the floor of the
 Capillaries in the pineal gland
 Capillaries at a choroid plexus
 Membranes that surround both brain and spinal cord
 3 Layers
 Dura Mater
o “Tough Mother”
o Fibrous connective
o Dural venous sinuses
 Collect veins
located within
the dural
 Arachnoid Mater
o “Spider Mother”
o Resembles a spider web
 Pia Mater
o “Gentle Mother”
o Delicate connective tissue
o Adheres to brain and spinal cord
 3 Spaces
 Epidural Space
o Above dura mater
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o Epidural injected here during labor
Subdural Space
o In between the dura mater and the arachnoid
 Subarachnoid Space
o Below arachnoid mater
o Contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
 Acts as a shock absorber and cushioning
 Cranial meninges
 3 variations
o No epidural space
o Space within dura mater at midline called
superior sagittal sinus
 Contains venous blood
 Arachnoid villi (granulations)
 Connect subarachnoid space to
superior sagittal sinus
 Escape route for CSF
o 3 Folds of dura mater
 Falx cerebri
 Fold between cerebral hemispheres
 Contains the superior and inferior
sagittal sinuses
 Falx cerebelli
 Between cerebellar hemispheres
 Tentorium cerebelli
 Between cerebrum and cerebellum
 Like a “tent”
o Cerebrospinal Fluid
 Clear, odorless, watery fluid
 Similar to plasma (liquid portion of blood)
 Functions
 Shock absorber
 Cushioning
 Circulates nutrients and wastes
 Made by a special capillary network called the choroid
The 4 Ventricles of the Brain
o Lateral Ventricles (I and II)
 Passageway to the third
o Third Ventricle (III)
 Passageway to the fourth
o Fourth Ventricle (IV)
 Lateral and median apertures
 Open into subarachnoid space
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Circulation of CSF
o Lateral ventricles
 Choroid plexus produces CSF
o Ventricle III
 Choroid plexus produces CSF
o Ventricle IV
 Choroid plexus produces CSF
o Subarachnoid Space
 Route 1
 CSF moves along posterior brain in subarachnoid space
 Arachnoid Villi
 Superior sagittal sinus (BLOOD)
 Route 2
 CSF moves down along posterior spinal cord
 Crosses to anterior spinal cord
 Moves up along anterior brain
 Arachnoid Villi
 Superior sagittal sinus (BLOOD)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain
o Cerebrum
 Largest
 7/8 of brain
 Surface Gray Matter
 “Cerebral Cortex”
 Lacks myelin
 Thin
 White Matter
 Myelinated axons
 Deep Gray Matter
 “Basal Nuclei”
 “Basal Ganglia”
 “Cerebral Nuclei”
The Cerebral Cortex
o Surface Features
 Deep groove
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 “Fissure”
Shallow groove
 “Sulcus (sing.)” or “sulci (plu.)”
 “Gyrus (sing.)” or “gyri (plu.)
 5 lobes per hemisphere
 Lobes correspond with skull bone
 Parietal, occipital, temporal, frontal, and insula lobes
Functional Areas
 Motor
 Control movement
 Includes…
o Primary Motor Area
 Precentral gyrus
 Controls movement of specific muscles
o Pre Motor Area
 “Somatomotor”
 Learned motor activities
o Broca’s Motor Speech Area
 Movements for speech
 Left hemisphere ONLY
 Sensory
 Interprets incoming signals
 Includes…
o Primary Sensory Area
 Postcentral gyrus
 Receives signals from:
 Touch, pain, pressure, temperature,
 Localizes them to specific body regions
o Visual Area
 Sight
 Occipital lobe
o Auditory Area
 Hearing
 Temporal lobe
o Gustatory Area
 Taste
 Insula lobe
o Olfactory Area
 Smell
 Medial temporal lobe
 Associations Areas
 Interpretation and integration areas
 Intelligence, reasoning, emotion, will, etc.
 Includes…
o Somatosensory Association Area
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Interprets, evaluates, and analyzes
Prefrontal Cortex
 Abstract intellectual processes
 Predict consequences
 Goal-oriented behavior
 Frustration and anxiety
Wernicke’s or General Interpretive Area
 Interprets what you see and hear, like
White Matter
o Bundles of axons inside CNS is called a TRACT
 White, myelinated
o Bundles of axons outside CNS is called a NERVE
 No nerves in the brain
o 3 Types of Tracts
 Association Tracts
 Conveys electrical signals between gyri of the same
 Commisural Tracts
 Conveys electrical signals from a gyrus of one
hemisphere to the corresponding gyrus of the other
 Projection Tracts
 Conveys electrical signals from the cerebrum to other
parts of the brain and spinal cord
Basal Nuclei
o “Cerebral nuclei,” “basal ganglia,” “deep gray matter”
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collection of neuron cell bodies inside the CNS is called a
 Gray spot
o Collection of neuron cell bodies
outside the CNS is called a
o Caudate Nucleus
 Just lateral to the
lateral ventricles
o Lentiform Nucleus
 Putamen
 Most lateral
 Globus Pallidus
 Medial to putamen
o Motor Functions
 Subconscious control of skeletal muscle
 Regulate pattern and rhythm of movement
o Damage to the midbrain – decreases dopamine – increased cerebral
nuclei activity
 Parkinson’s disease
o Cannot be seen externally
o Contains the pineal gland, which secretes melatonin that
regulates day-night cycles
o Thalamus
 Final relay point for sensory information ascending to the
cerebral cortex
 Functions of Thalamic Nuclei
 Anterior nuclei
o Part of the limbic system
 Medial nuclei
o Provide awareness of
emotional states
o Connects hypothalamus
to frontal lobes
 Ventral nuclei
o Relay information from
basal nuclei of
cerebrum and cerebellum
 Dorsal nuclei
o Lateral dorsal nucleus and pulvinar nuclei
 Expanded region overlying geniculate
 Lateral geniculate body
o Receives visual information from optic tract
o Output goes to occipital lobes
o Medial geniculate body relays auditory
information to cerebral cortex
 Structure
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2 masses of gray matter covered by white matter
Connected by interthalamic adhesion or intermediate
 Contains numerous nuclei – located on each side of
the third ventricle
 Functions
 Filters sensory information and relays it to the
 Extends superior to optic chiasm
 Structure
 Contains many nuclei – forms ventral floor of third
 Infundibulum
o Connects
hypothalamus to
pituitary gland
 Function
 Secretion of hormones
o Supra-optic
nucleus produces antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
 Restricts water loss through kidneys
o Paraventricular nucleus produces oxytocin
 Stimulates smooth muscle contractions
 Regulation of body temperature
o Pre-optic area
 Control of autonomic function
o Regulates heart rate, blood pressure,
respiration, and digestive functions
 Coordination between voluntary and autonomic
o Heart rate and respiratory rate go up and your
body prepares for an emergency
 Coordination of activities of the nervous and
endocrine systems
o Coordinates neural and endocrine activities
o Inhibits/stimulates endocrine cells in
pituitary gland
 Regulation of circadian rhythms
o Suprachiasmatic nucleus coordinates daily
cycles that are linked to 24-hour day-night
 Subconscious control of skeletal muscle contractions
o Directs somatic motor patterns associated with
pain, rage, pleasure and sexual arousal
 Production of emotions and behavioral drives
o Feeding center produces hunger
o Thirst center produces thirst
o Satiety center regulates food intake
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o Midbrain
 Extends from pons to lower diencephalon
 Aquaduct of Sylvius runs through it
 Ventral
 Cerebral peduncles
o Contain tracts that connect the spinal cord and
cerebellum to the cerebrum
 Dorsal
 Corpora quadrigemina
o Superior colliculus
 Mediate visual
 i.e. jerking
your head to
something in
your peripheral
o Inferior colliculus
 Mediate
 “Startle reflex”
 i.e. jerking to face a sound
 Tectum
 Roof of the midbrain
 Posterior to the cerebral aquaduct
 Contains corpora quadrigemina
 Superior Colliculus
 Receives visual inputs from thalamus
 Inferior Colliculus
 Receive auditory input from medulla and pons
 Tegmentum
 Anterior to cerebra aquaduct
 Contains red nucleus and substantia nigra
 Red nucleus
o Contains numerous blood vessels
o Receives information from the cerebrum and
o Issues subconscious motor commands that affect
upper limb position and background muscle tone
 Substantia nigra
o Largest midbrain nucleus
o Lies lateral to red nucleus
o Releases dopamine
 Cerebral peduncles
o The nerve fiber bundles on the ventrolateral
surfaces of the midbrain
o Descending fibers that go to the cerebellum by
way of the pons
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Descending fibers that carry voluntary motor
commands issued by the cerebral hemispheres
Reticular activating system (RAS)
 Specialized component of the reticular
 Makes you alert and attentive
 Damage produces unconsciousness
Pons varolii
 Superior to medulla and anterior to cerebellum
 Links parts of the brain together
 Lots of tracts
 4 Groups of Components
 Sensory and Motor Nuclei of Cranial Nerves
o Innervate the jaw muscles, the anterior surface
of the face, one of the extrinsic eye muscles
and the sense organs of the internal ear
 Nuclei Involved with the Control of Respiration
o Two pontine centers, the apneustic center
located in the middle or lower pons, and the
center located in
the rostral pons,
originating in
the respiratory
centers of the
 Nuclei and Tracts that
Process and Relay Information Sent to or from the
o Links the cerebellum with the brainstem,
cerebrum, and spinal cord
 Ascending, Descending, and Transverse Pontine Fibers
o Transverse pontine fibers
 Cross the anterior surface of the pons
Medulla oblongata
 Inferior brainstem
 Continuous with spinal cord
 Functions
Contains Sensory and
Motor Tracts:
Vital Reflex Centers
Nonvital Centers
Carries information up to the brain and
down the spinal cord (ascending and
descending tracts)
1. Control BP
2. Control pulse/heart rate
3. Controls respiratory rate
Sneezing, coughing, hiccupping,
vomiting, swallowing, etc.
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Reflex Centers: Autonomic and Reflex Activity
 The reticular formation is a closely intermingled
mass of gray and white matter that contains embedded
 The cardiovascular centers adjust the heart rate, the
strength of cardiac contractions, and the flow of
blood through
peripheral tissues
 The respiratory
rhythmicity centers
set the basic pace
for respiratory
Sensory and Motor Nuclei
of Cranial Nerves
Relay Stations along
Sensory and Motor Pathways
 The gracile nucleus
and the cuneate nucleus pass somatic sensory
information to the thalamus
 This crossing over is called a decussation and the
site is the decussation of pyramids
Solitary nuclei
 Visceral sensory nuclei that receive information from
the spinal and cranial nerves
Inferior olivary complex
 3 nuclei that collectively form the inferior olivary
o Second largest part of the brain
o 2 hemispheres connected by a vermis
o Structure
 Cortex
 Highly folded: FOLIA
 Surface gray matter
 Purkinje cell layer
o Contains a large layer of large, highly
branched neuron cell bodies
 White Matter
 Myelinated axons
 Form highly branched tracts: ARBOR VITAE
 Cerebellar nuclei
 Masses of gray matter
o Function
 Balance/coordination
 First place affected by alcohol
 Adjusting the postural muscles of the body
 Programming and fine-tuning movements controlled at the
conscious and subconscious levels
 Ataxia: disturbance of coordination
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Excessive drinking: causes damage to respiratory section of
medulla and you stop breathing
 Fold on the surface
 Less prominent than the folds of the cerebrum
 Separates the two hemispheres
Arbor vitae
 The internal white matter that forms a branching array that
resembles a tree in sectional view
 Superior cerebellar peduncles
 Link cerebellum with nuclei in the midbrain,
diencephalon, and cerebrum
 Middle cerebellar peduncles
 Connected to the transverse pontine fibers
 Inferior cerebellar peduncles
 Communicate between the cerebellum and nuclei in the
medulla and carry ascending and descending cerebellar
tracts from the spinal cord
Functional Brain Systems
o Parts of the brain work together
o Hemisphericity
 The left and right cerebral hemispheres have differing
 The right hemisphere controls movements on the left side of
the body and the left hemisphere controls movements on the
right side of the body
 Pathways are going to cross in the medulla (pyramids)
 Left hemisphere
 Speech
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 Language
 Math
 Logic
 Right hemisphere
 Musical/art ability
 Spatial visualization
 Imagination
 Analyzing emotional context of conversation
 One hemisphere usually dominates over the other
 This course attracts people who tend to be Left Brain
o Limbic System
 Where is it?
 In parts of cerebrum, diencephalon, and midbrain
 What does it do?
 Emotion
o Those necessary for survival
o i.e. fear, rage,
shock, pleasure
 Memory
o Always recalled
best when attached
an emotion
 Consciousness
o Links conscious,
functions of
cortex with
unconscious, autonomic functions of brainstem
 Limbic lobe
 Superficial folds and underlying structures adjacent
to the diencephalon
o Reticular Formation or Reticular Activating System (RAS)
 Where is it?
 Parts of medulla, pons, and midbrain
 What does it do?
 Sends electrical signals to activate cerebrum
o Awake, alert, aroused, etc.
Monitoring Brain Activity: The Electroencephalogram
o Can be measured through a PET scan or fMRI
o A printed recording of brain activity
o Alpha waves
 Occur in brains of healthy, awake adults who are resting
with their eyes closed
o Beta waves
 Present when attention is given to tasks
o Theta waves
 Appear transiently during sleep in normal adults
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Most often observed in children and intensely frustrated
o Delta waves
 Very large amplitude, low frequency waves
 Normally seen during deep sleep
o Seizures
 Temporary cerebral disorder accompanied by abnormal
movements, unusual sensations, inappropriate behavior, or
some combination
 Peripheral Nervous System: Cranial Nerves
o What are cranial nerves?
 Nerve attached to the
 Nerve: bundle of axons
outside CNS
 Emerge from brain
on ventral surface
and pass through
skull foramen to
supply head and
o How many are there?
 12 pair
 Roman numerals indicate the order in which the nerves arise
from the brain from anterior to posterior
 Names indicate function or distribution
Mnemonic Device
Primary Function
Special Sensory
Special Sensory
Special Sensory
How are cranial nerve functions classified?
 Special sensory
 Carry signals related to special sense
 Sensory
 Carry signals to brain
 Motor
 Carry signals AWAY from brain
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 Does both
 Carries signals to and from the brain
Cranial Nerves: Up Close
o I – Olfactory
 Special sensory
 Transmits special sensory impulses related to
 Smell from nose to olfactory bulb
 Test with smelling salts
o II – Optic
 Special sensory
 Transmit special sensory impulses
 Related to vision from retina
 Retina
 Photoreceptors for light
 Optic nerve
 II exits posterior eye
 Optic chiasm
 Optic nerves cross
 Optic tract
 Continues to visual area in occipital lobe
 Visual area
 Test with an eye chart
o III – Oculomotor
 Motor
 Conveys impulses that control eye movement, regulation of
pupil size, and accommodation of lens for near vision
o IV – Trochlear
 Motor
 Conveys impulses that control eye movement
o VI – Abducens
 Motor
 Conveys impulses that control eye movement
o V – Trigeminal
 Mixed
 Motor – Conveys impulses relating to sensations of head and
 Sensory – Conveys impulses that control chewing (mandibular
o VII – Facial
 Mixed
 Sensory – Conveys sensations related to taste from anterior
2/3 of tongue to the brain
 Motor – Conveys impulses that control facial expression
 Movement of the face
o VIII – Vestibulocochlear
 Special sensory
 2 branches
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o Conveys impulses associated with equilibrium
 Cochlear
o From inner ear to brain
o Conveys impulses associated with hearing from
cochlea to brain
o Balance and equilibrium
IX – Glossopharyngeal
 Mixed
 “tongue” “throat”
 Sensory – Conveys impulses related to taste from posterior
tongue and pharynx; conveys impulses related to blood
pressure from carotid arteries in neck to brain
 Motor – Conveys impulses that control swallowing and
salivary secretion
X – Vagus
 Mixed – Supplies structures in neck, thorax, and abdomen
 Sensory – Conveys sensations from larynx, viscera and ear
 Motor – Conveys impulses that control movement of muscles
of larynx, pharynx, thoracic and abdominal viscera
XI – Accessory
 Motor
 Conveys impulses that controls the movement of the
sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
XII – Hypoglossal
 Motor
 Conveys impulses that controls the movement of the tongue
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Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
 The Spinal Cord
o ½ inch wide; 16-18 inches long
o Ends at L1
o At age 4, the spinal cord filled the vertebral canal; vertebral
canal grows but not the spinal cord
 Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
o 4 Subdivisions
 Cervical
 Thoracic
 Lumbar
 Sacral
o 2 Enlargements
 Cervical
 C4-T1
 Lumbosacral
 T9-T12
 Purpose?
 Exits of
nerves for the
o Additional Features
 Conus Medullaris
 Tapering end of cord at L1
 Filum Terminale
 Fibrous extension of pia mater that extends and
attaches to coccyx
 Not a nerve, fibrous connective tissue
 Cauda Equina
 Collection of nerve fibers that extends into lower
vertebral canal
o Spinal (Lumbar) Puncture
 Needle in subarachnoid space
 Purpose?
 Diagnostic purposes
 Inject radiopaque dyes
 Cross-Section of Spinal Cord (Outside to the Inside)
o Posterior Median Sulcus
o Anterior Median Fissue
o White Matter
 Myelinated axons
o Gray Matter
 Unmyelinated axons
 Cell bodies
 Dendrites
 Neuroglia
o Gray Commissure
o Central Canal
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 Continues with ventricles
 Contains CSF
Functions of the Spinal Cord
o Conduct Sensory and Motor Information
 Tracts
 Group axons inside CNS
 Ascending Tracts
o Sensory axons that conduct impulses from
periphery to brain
o Tracts have names
o Each tract carries a different type of
 Descending Tracts
o Motor axons that conduct impulses from brain to
muscles and glands
o Different types of motor information
o Serve as a Reflex Center
 Reflex
 A quick, involuntary response to a stimulus that
passes along a reflex arc
 5 Components of a Reflex Arc
o Receptor
 Detects stimulus
o Sensory Neuron
 Carries signals to CNS
 Unipolar
o Processing/Integration Center
o Motor Neuron
 Carries signals away from CNS
o Effector
 Performs response
Classification of Reflexes
o Development
 Innate Reflexes
 Genetically determined
 Acquired Reflexes
 Learned
o Response
 Somatic Reflexes
 Control skeletal muscle contractions
 Include superficial and stretch reflexes
 Visceral (Autonomic) Reflexes
 Control actions of smooth and cardiac muscles,
glands, and adipose tissue
o Complexity of Circuit
 Monosynaptic
 One synapse
 Polysynaptic
 Multiple synapses
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Processing Site
 Spinal Reflexes
 Processing in the spinal cord
 Cranial Reflexes
 Processing in the brain
The Peripheral Nervous System: Spinal Nerves
o Nerve
 A bundle of axons OUTSIDE the CNS
o 2 points of attachment
 Posterior (dorsal) root
 Supply back muscles and skin on back
 Anterior (ventral) root
 G
 Go to anterior surface in thorax, body wall, and
o 31 pair
 8 Cervical
 12 Thoracic
 5 Lumbar
 5 Sacral
 1 Coccygeal
o Emerge through the intervertebral foramina
o Plexus
 Network of adjacent spinal nerves
 4 plexuses in PNS
 Cervical
 Brachial
 Lumbar
 Sacral
Major Branches of the Spinal Nerve Plexuses and their Distribution
o Cervical
 C1-C5
 Skin and muscles of neck and chest
 Thoracic cavity
 Phrenic nerve
o Brachial
 C5-T1
 Pectoral girdle and upper limb
 Axillary, musculocutaneous, median, radial, and ulnar
o Lumbar
 T12-L4
 Pelvic girdle and lower limbs
 Femoral nerve
o Sacral
 L4-S4
 Pelvic girdle and lower Limbs
 Sciatic and pudendal nerves
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Skin segment supplied by a spinal nerve
Used to locate spinal nerve dysfunction
Section of a Large Peripheral Nerve
Wrapped in connective tissue layers
 Epineurium
 Around a nerve
 Perineurium
 Around a fascicle
 Endoneurium
 Between individual axons in fascicle
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Chapter 12: Neural Tissue: Part 2, Pages 402-428
 How do neurons initiate and conduct impulses?
 The Resting Neuron
o Not conducting electrical signals
o Measure the difference in electrical charge across the cell
o -70 mV – ALWAYS at rest
o The sign refers to the charge INSIDE the cell
o Resting membrane potential
o 3 Mechanisms Responsible
 Sodium potassium pump
 Pumps 3 sodium out and 2 potassium in
 Active transport
 Consequence: pump OUT more positive charge than pump
in; makes the outside more positive
 Leak channels for potassium in the membrane are leaky to
 Potassium leaks out down concentration gradient
 Abundance of negative protein inside the cell
 Development of action potentials (nerve impulses)
o Definition: an abrupt change in the electrical potential
difference across the cell membrane that occurs after a stimulus
o Begins at axon hillock at the initial segment
o Will involve another set of channel proteins in the cell membrane
 Voltage gated sodium channels and voltage gated potassium
o Resting neuron
 Resting membrane potential: -70 mV
o Application of stimulus/threshold
 Stimulus
 Chemical
 Mechanical
 Electrical
 When threshold is reached, step 3 is triggered
 Membrane potential moves in a positive direction
o Depolarization
 Another type of sodium channel called a VOLTAGE GATED
SODIUM CHANNEL opens when threshold is rached
 Only enough to change the sign inside
 Sodium enters through channel
 Inside is positive and outside is negative
o Repolarization
 Voltage gated sodium channels close around +30 mV
 What happens to sodium permeability and sodium movement?
 It stops!
 Voltage gated potassium channels OPEN FULLY
 What happens to potassium permeability and movement?
 Potassium exits
 Active Ion Channels
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Chemically gated ion channels
 Open or close when a specific chemical binds to it
o Voltage gated ion channels
 Open or close in response to changes in the membrane
o Mechanically gated ion channels
 Open or close in response to physical distortion of the
membrane surface
Graded Potentials
o Changes in the membrane potential that cannot spread far from the
site of stimulation
o Any shift from the resting membrane potential toward a less
negative potential
o Closer to the threshold, but doesn’t fire an action potential
o The process of restoring the normal resting membrane potential
after depolarization
o An increase in the negativity of the resting membrane potential
o Further from the threshold
Generation of Action Potentials
o Depolarization to threshold
o Activation of voltage gated sodium ion channels and rapid
o Inactivation of voltage gated sodium ion channels and activation
of voltage gated potassium ion channels, beginning repolarization
o Closing of voltage gated potassium ion channels, producing a
brief hyperpolarization and then a return to the resting membrane
Propagation/Conduction/Transmission of an Action Potential
o Initiated at axon hillock
o Area A
 1st action potential
 Depolarized
 Remainder of axon is at rest
 Acts as a stimulus for adjacent Area B
o Area B
 Reaches threshold
 Becomes depolarized
 2nd action potential
 Area A repolarizes
 Area B acts as a stimulus for Area C
o Area C
 Becomes depolarized after reaching threshold
 Area B returns to rest, repolarizes
o Wave of depolarization followed by a wave of repolarization
o Continuous Propagation
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 Unmyelinated axon
 Action potential moves along axon
o Saltatory Propagation
 Myelinated axon
 Action potential jumps from node to node
 Factors that Affect the Speed of Action Potential Conduction
o Impulse conduction is faster in a large, myelinated axon
o Saltatory Conduction
 Voltage gated channels are only at the NODES OF RANVIER
Type of Axon
Speed of
Information Delivered
A; large,
268 mph
skeletal muscles
equilibrium, balance,
B; small,
40 mph
Smooth muscle, heart, glands,
pain, temperature, etc.
C; unmyelinated <2
2 mph
 The All-or-None Principle
o If a stimulus is strong enough to initiate an Action Potential,
then the action potential is conducted at a constant magnitude
and rate along the length of the axon
o How does the NS distinguish between a weak stimulus and a strong
 Frequency
 The number of action potentials in a given time
 Action potential frequency is a measure of stimulus
 Neuron Communication
o Synapse
 Location of communication between a neuron and a target
 Types of Synapses
 Neuromuscular Junction
 Neuronal
o One-way communication
o Neurotransmitter are released into synaptic
cleft by neuron #1
 What happens at a synapse?
 An arriving action potential depolarizes the axon
terminal membrane of a presynaptic neuron.
 Depolarization of the axon terminal membrane opens
voltage-gated calcium ion channels, and calcium ions
enter the cytosol of the axon terminal. This results
in Ach release from the synaptic vesicles by
 Ach diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to
receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. Cation
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channels open, producing a graded depolarization due
to Na+ inflow.
o Ach binds
o Opens gate
o Na+ enters
o Membrane potential more positive
o If threshold is reached at initial segment,
action potential is fired
Depolarization ends as Ach is broken down into
acetate ad choline by AChE. The axon terminal
reabsorbs choline from the synaptic cleft and uses it
to resynthesize Ach.
o Clean-up crew
o Ach is broken down
o More than 50 in the body
o Can be a biogenic amines, amino acids, neuropeptides, dissolved
gases, purines, or lipids
o Major Groups
 Excitatory
 Causes depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron
o Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
o Does not reach threshold
o Does not fire an action potential
o Effects are transient
 Examples
o Acetylcholine
o Norepinephrine
 Autonomic NS
o Serotonin
 Lack of can effect overall mood
 Lack of can lead to chronic depression
 Mood, emotion, attention
o Glutamate
 Learning, memory
o Dopamine
 Released in the brain
 Lack of can cause Parkinson’s disease
 Pleasure, rewards
 Inhibitory
 Cause a hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic neuron
o More negative
o Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
 Examples
o Glycine (amino acid)
o Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
 Reduces anxiety
 Neuropeptides
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Substances that alter the rate of neurotransmitter
release are called neuromodulators
o Have long term effects that are slow to appear
o Trigger responses that involve a number of
steps and intermediary compounds
o May affect the presynaptic or postsynaptic
membranes or both
o Can be released alone or with a
 3 Main Classes
o Enkephalins
o Endorphins
o Dynorphins
 Relieve pain
o 3 Groups by Neurotransmitter/Neuromodulator Effects
 Direct Effects
 Open or close chemically gated ion channels
 i.e. acetylcholine or glutamate
 Indirect Effects by Second Messengers
 G protein
o The link between the first messenger and the
second messenger
o Enzyme complex coupled to a membrane receptor
Cellular Information Processing
o A single postsynaptic neuron has more than 1 presynaptic neurons
most commonly
o Determines the rate of action potential generation in the initial
Postsynaptic Potentials
o Graded potentials that develop in the postsynaptic membrane in
response to a neurotransmitter
o An IPSP is a graded hyperpolarization
o Summation
 Integrates the effects of all the graded potentials that
affect one portion of the plasma membrane
o Temporal Summation
 The addition of stimuli occurring in rapid succession at a
single synapse that is active repeatedly
o Spatial Summation
 Occurs when simultaneous stimuli applied at different
locations have a cumulative effect on the membrane
 More than one synapse is active at the same time
Facilitation of Neurons
o Facilitated Neuron
 A neuron whose membrane potential shifts closer to the
Presynaptic Regulation
o Presynaptic Inhibition
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The release of GABA inhibits the opening of voltage gated
calcium ion channels in the axon terminal
o Presynaptic Facilitation
 Activity at the axoaxonic synapse increases the amount of
neurotransmitter released when an action potential arrives
at the axon terminal
The Rate of Action Potential Generation
o The degree of sensory stimulation or the strength of the motor
response is proportional to the frequency of action potentials
o The longer the initial segment remains above threshold, the more
action potentials it produces
o The absolute refractory period is shortest in large-diameter
Functional Organization of Neurons
o Neurons organize to form functional groups called NEURONAL POOLS
o Each pool may contain excitatory or inhibitory neurons
o The pattern of interaction fives clues to the function of the
o Common Types
 Diverging
 A circuit for spreading stimulation to multiple
neurons or neuronal pools in the CNS
 i.e. vision
 Converging
 A circuit for providing input to a single neuron from
multiple sources
 Many inputs and one output
 Serial
 A circuit in which neurons or pools work sequentially
 Parallel
 A circuit in which neurons or pools process the same
information simultaneously
 Many postsynaptics
 Process information simultaneously
 i.e stepping on a tack
 Reverberating
 A positive feedback circuit
 Regulating respiratory rate
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Chapter 16: Autonomic Nervous System
 Longer, deeper states of unconsciousness are not necessarily more
dangerous, as long as you get nourishment and other basic care
 General Features of the ANS
o Motor neurons
o Involuntary
o Effectors
 Heart
 Smooth muscles
 Glands
 Adipose tissue
 Two Major Branches
o Sympathetic
o Parasympathetic
 Sympathetic Division
o Location of cell bodies of
preganglionic neurons
 Thoracolumbar
 Thoracic and
lumber regions
o Location of preganglionic
 Anterior/ventral root
o Ganglia: 2 Types
 Sympathetic Chain
 Vertical row of
ganglia on
either side of
the spinal cord
 Collateral Ganglia
 3 ganglia in abdomen
o Celiac Ganglia
 Solar Plexus
o Superior Mesenteric Ganglia
o Inferior Mesenteric Ganglia
 What happens in ganglia?
 Release of acetylcholine from preganglionic neuron
 Preganglionic axon in the sympathetic branch is
o Postganglionic Axons
 Very long
 Supply effectors
o Effectors
 Release neurotransmitter by postganglionic neuron
 Norepinephrine
o “Noradrenaline”
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Final Exam Study Guide 104
Postganglionic axons in the sympathetic division are called
Parasympathetic Division
o Location of cell bodies of preganglionic neurons
 Craniosacral distribution
 Found in
brainstem and in
sacral spinal
o Preganglionic axons
 Very long
o Ganglia
 Nearly innervate the
 Preganglionic neuron is
also cholinergic
o Postganglionic axons
 Very short
 Postganglionic neuron
o Effectors
 Same effectors as the sympathetic division with few
ANS Receptors
o Sympathetic ANS
 Preganglionic neuron
 Cholinergic
 Acetylcholine
 Nicotinic receptor
 Where nicotine
 Postganglionic neuron
 Norepinephrine
 Tends to
stimulate alphas
more than betas
 Adrenergic receptor
 Alpha
 Beta
 Effector
 Adrenergic
o Parasympathetic ANS
 Preganglionic neuron
 Cholinergic
 Acetylcholine
 Nicotinic receptor
 Where nicotine binds
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Final Exam Study Guide 105
Postganglionic neuron
Muscarinic receptor
 Where muscarine binds
o Poison found in mushrooms
 Effector
 Muscarinic
ANS Functions
Increase heart
Decrease heart
Dilate bronchioles
Constrict bronchioles
-arrector pili
No dual innervation
-muscles of the iris
Blood vessels
-Skeletal muscles
No dual innervation
Urinary bladder
Digestive system
-Smooth muscles
Adrenal gland
-extreme circumstances
Decrease motility
Increase emptying
Increase motility
Increase sweat
Decrease secretions
Produces epinephrine
and norepinephrine
No dual innervation
Increase secretions
No dual innervation
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