PUBLIC POLICY EVALUATION ▪ Public Policy Evaluation▪ Is the systematic assessment of the policy design (plan) implementation processes (operations), and the end product and changes (results) of the policy against the intended goals of the policy, programme or project, and against the explicit or implicit values or standards that informed this intend. Continued ▪ The evaluation can focus on the content of what should/needs to be done (to inform the design of the policy/and or implementation plan), on the implementation processes (how it is undertaken to inform changes or predict possible success) or retrospectively assess the end outcomes of the policy for past accountability and future decision making purposes. Continued ▪ ** Despite of positioning after policy implementation, The Policy evaluation process must be applied throughout the policy development, and implementation process pursuing different process. Continued ▪ 1. During the initial policy design phase- evaluation fulfills a formative purpose. ( referred to as exante, appraisal or feasibility studies) are undertaken to improve a programme so that it may perform better.determines the program readiness for implementation- testing feasibility of envisaged outputs, outcomes and impacts, thereby enabling the selection of policy options or programmes that have a better chance of succeeding.- Also may assist in compiling an implementation project plan for the policy. ▪ 2. During the implementation phase - Formative evaluation assist staff to identify weaknesses and strengths in the implementation process and to make necessary changes.- a formative mind set is required- to build learning into future implementation plans, to enhance policy performance. Continued 3. Summative (retrospective or ex post) These evaluations determine whether the stated expectations of the programme have been met, and render a summary judgment after completion of the programme on the total performance ( output, outcome, impact)- reports on the programme. -summative evaluation is relevant for public accountability, Why? - 1.to assess- effective implementation of the policy, -that the design, implementation and service delivery met expectations.2. that the intended beneficiaries were reached; 3.that the policy performed adequately in terms of service delivery, efficiency, effectiveness, impact outcomes and relevance, and 4. that it is sustainable in relation to the stated objectives. Purpose of evaluation ▪ To determine progress on selected social, economic, sectoral, and national development objectives. Need to monitor the implementation process, - to keep track of the time frame, spending programme, the progress towards objectives, and the quality and quantity of outputs.--monitoring –provides early warming of deviation from the initially desired course. .Purpose of Monitoring • Provide an ongoing picture of progress; -maintain high standards; ensure effective use of resources; ensure resources are used effectively; plan workflow to stay on schedule (with logistics, time and resources).Identify problems and solutions proactively; identify opportunities; Establish and maintain a record of events; Motivate staff by illustrating the purpose of their work; Establish a baseline. Continued. ▪ Evaluation offer lessons that can inform future policy review, redesign or implementation strategies. ▪ Evaluation studies are undertaken to make informed decisions about the allocation of funds or other resources. ▪ Evaluation serves as a final control function –to provide political, or financial accountability to various stakeholders on the end effectiveness ( The ration between outputs and outcomes/impacts of the policy). ▪ Evaluation- for public relations purpose-The aim may be to show the taxpayer and business community whether the programme is a cost-effective use of public funds. -enhance efficient cost-effective service delivery and the reduction of waste. -To impress funders or decision makers; to terminate a programme or to fire an administrator. Continued-supported with voice over. ▪ Impressionistic or intuitive evaluation ✓ This is often based on anecdotal or fragmentary evidence, and strongly influenced by ideological, partisan, or idiosyncratic valuational criteria. ▪ Evaluation of administration of policy or programme. This answers the questions, ✓ What are its financial costs? ✓ Who receives benefits (payments or services) and in what amounts? ✓ Are legislatively prescribed standards and procedures being followed? ✓ Is the programme honestly administered? ✓ It tells us whether there is honesty or efficiency in the conduct of a programme. ❖ The above two forms of evaluation yield little or nothing regarding information on the effects (outcomes) of the program on society, ❖ They however assist in improving the administration of programmes ▪ Systematic evaluation of programmes. ✓ Seeks information on the impact of a policy or programme on the public problem at which it is directed. ✓ Evaluation researchers use a variety of evaluation research designs: • Experimental design – - Two comparative groups – an experimental, or treatment, group and a control group are randomly selected from the target population. - The experimental group receives treatment through a policy or programme; the control group does not. - Pretests and post-tests of the two groups are used to determine whether changes have occurred in the two groups. - If the performance of the experimental group is significantly better than that of the control group, the programme is held to be effective. - Use of the experimental design may not be possible because of costs, time, and ethical or other considerations. ▪ The quasi-experiment - This design involves comparing the treatment group with another group that is similar in many respects. ▪ The before-and-after study - This compares the results of a program after a period of implementation with the conditions existing prior to its inception. - Before and after studies often have low costs and take less time to conduct. - A major draw back however is that the changes that occur are open to rival explanations. ❖ Systematic evaluation findings can be used to modify current policies and programmes and to help design others for the future.