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Unit 7B Policy Evaluation(3)

▪ Public Policy Evaluation▪ Is the systematic assessment of the policy design (plan)
implementation processes (operations), and the end product and
changes (results) of the policy against the intended goals of the
policy, programme or project, and against the explicit or implicit
values or standards that informed this intend.
▪ The evaluation can focus on the content of what should/needs to be
done (to inform the design of the policy/and or implementation
plan), on the implementation processes (how it is undertaken to
inform changes or predict possible success) or retrospectively
assess the end outcomes of the policy for past accountability and
future decision making purposes.
** Despite of positioning after policy implementation, The Policy evaluation process must be
applied throughout the policy development, and implementation process pursuing different
▪ 1. During the initial policy design phase- evaluation fulfills a formative
purpose. ( referred to as exante, appraisal or feasibility studies) are
undertaken to improve a programme so that it may perform better.determines the program readiness for implementation- testing feasibility
of envisaged outputs, outcomes and impacts, thereby enabling the
selection of policy options or programmes that have a better chance of
succeeding.- Also may assist in compiling an implementation project
plan for the policy.
▪ 2. During the implementation phase - Formative evaluation assist staff to
identify weaknesses and strengths in the implementation process and to
make necessary changes.- a formative mind set is required- to build
learning into future implementation plans, to enhance policy
3. Summative (retrospective or ex post)
These evaluations determine whether the stated expectations of the programme
have been met, and render a summary judgment after completion of the
programme on the total performance ( output, outcome, impact)- reports on the
-summative evaluation is relevant for public accountability, Why?
- 1.to assess- effective implementation of the policy, -that the design,
implementation and service delivery met expectations.2. that the intended beneficiaries were reached;
3.that the policy performed adequately in terms of service delivery, efficiency,
effectiveness, impact outcomes and relevance, and
4. that it is sustainable in relation to the stated objectives.
Purpose of evaluation
To determine progress on selected social, economic, sectoral, and national
development objectives.
Need to monitor the implementation process, - to keep track of the time frame,
spending programme, the progress towards objectives, and the quality and
quantity of outputs.--monitoring –provides early warming of deviation from the
initially desired course.
.Purpose of Monitoring
• Provide an ongoing picture of progress; -maintain high standards; ensure
effective use of resources; ensure resources are used effectively; plan workflow
to stay on schedule (with logistics, time and resources).Identify problems and
solutions proactively; identify opportunities; Establish and maintain a record of
events; Motivate staff by illustrating the purpose of their work; Establish a
Evaluation offer lessons that can inform future policy review, redesign or
implementation strategies.
▪ Evaluation studies are undertaken to make informed decisions about the
allocation of funds or other resources.
▪ Evaluation serves as a final control function –to provide political, or financial
accountability to various stakeholders on the end effectiveness ( The ration
between outputs and outcomes/impacts of the policy).
▪ Evaluation- for public relations purpose-The aim may be to show the taxpayer
and business community whether the programme is a cost-effective use of
public funds.
-enhance efficient cost-effective service delivery and the reduction of waste.
-To impress funders or decision makers; to terminate a programme or to fire an
Continued-supported with voice over.
▪ Impressionistic or intuitive evaluation
✓ This is often based on anecdotal or fragmentary evidence, and strongly
influenced by ideological, partisan, or idiosyncratic valuational criteria.
▪ Evaluation of administration of policy or programme.
This answers the questions,
✓ What are its financial costs?
✓ Who receives benefits (payments or services) and in what amounts?
✓ Are legislatively prescribed standards and procedures being followed?
✓ Is the programme honestly administered?
✓ It tells us whether there is honesty or efficiency in the conduct of a
❖ The above two forms of evaluation yield little or nothing regarding
information on the effects (outcomes) of the program on society,
❖ They however assist in improving the administration of programmes
▪ Systematic evaluation of programmes.
✓ Seeks information on the impact of a policy or programme on the public
problem at which it is directed.
✓ Evaluation researchers use a variety of evaluation research designs:
• Experimental design –
- Two comparative groups – an experimental, or treatment, group and a
control group are randomly selected from the target population.
- The experimental group receives treatment through a policy or
programme; the control group does not.
- Pretests and post-tests of the two groups are used to determine whether
changes have occurred in the two groups.
- If the performance of the experimental group is significantly better than
that of the control group, the programme is held to be effective.
- Use of the experimental design may not be possible because of costs,
time, and ethical or other considerations.
▪ The quasi-experiment
- This design involves comparing the treatment group with another group
that is similar in many respects.
▪ The before-and-after study
- This compares the results of a program after a period of implementation
with the conditions existing prior to its inception.
- Before and after studies often have low costs and take less time to
- A major draw back however is that the changes that occur are open to
rival explanations.
❖ Systematic evaluation findings can be used to modify current policies and
programmes and to help design others for the future.